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Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 587-591, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985531


Objective: To analyze the differences between adults and children in the epidemic characteristics and clinical manifestations of chickenpox and provide a reference for the prevention strategy adjustment of chickenpox. Methods: The incidence data of chickenpox surveillance in Shandong Province from January 2019 to December 2021 were collected. Descriptive epidemiological methods were used to analyze the distribution of cases, and the chi-square test was used to compare the differences in epidemiological characteristics and clinical manifestations of varicella cases between adults and children. Results: A total of 66 182 cases of chickenpox were reported from 2019 to 2021, including 24 085 cases of adults chickenpox, the male to female sex ratio was 1∶1 (12 032∶12 053), basically the same for men and women, and 42 097 cases of children chickenpox, with a gender ratio of 1.4∶1, the male to female ratio was 1.4∶1 (24 699∶17 398). Fever in chickenpox cases was mainly low and moderate, but the proportion of moderate fever with temperature between 38.1 and 39.0 ℃ in children cases (35.0%,14 744/42 097) was significantly higher than that in adults (32.0%,7 696/24 085). The number of herpes in chickenpox cases was mainly less than 50, but the proportion of severe cases with 100-200 herpes in children was higher than that in adults. The incidence rate of complications was 1.4% (333/24 085) in adults chickenpox, the incidence rate of complications was 1.7% (731/42 097) in children chickenpox. The incidence of encephalitis and pneumonia in children was higher than in adults, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The proportion of chickenpox cases was mainly outpatient, but the hospitalization rate of children cases was 14.4% (6 049/42 097), higher than that of adults, which was 10.7% (2 585/24 085). Conclusions: There were differences between adult chickenpox and child chickenpox in terms of epidemic and clinical manifestations; the symptoms of child chickenpox were more serious than adult chickenpox. However, the adult chickenpox population is generally susceptible and lacks immune strategy protection, which calls for more attention.

Child , Humans , Adult , Male , Female , Infant , Chickenpox/prevention & control , Hospitalization , Incidence , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Epidemics , Fever/epidemiology , Chickenpox Vaccine
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 65-72, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970046


BACKGROUND@#Post-operative pneumonia (POP) is a common complication of lung cancer surgery, and muscular tissue oxygenation is a root cause of post-operative complications. However, the association between muscular tissue desaturation and POP in patients receiving lung cancer surgery has not been specifically studied. This study aimed to investigate the potential use of intra-operative muscular tissue desaturation as a predictor of POP in patients undergoing lung cancer surgery.@*METHODS@#This cohort study enrolled patients (≥55 years) who had undergone lobectomy with one-lung ventilation. Muscular tissue oxygen saturation (SmtO 2 ) was monitored in the forearm (over the brachioradialis muscle) and upper thigh (over the quadriceps) using a tissue oximeter. The minimum SmtO 2 was the lowest intra-operative measurement at any time point. Muscular tissue desaturation was defined as a minimum baseline SmtO 2 of <80% for >15 s. The area under or above the threshold was the product of the magnitude and time of desaturation. The primary outcome was the association between intra-operative muscular tissue desaturation and POP within seven post-operative days using multivariable logistic regression. The secondary outcome was the correlation between SmtO 2 in the forearm and that in the thigh.@*RESULTS@#We enrolled 174 patients. The overall incidence of muscular desaturation (defined as SmtO 2 < 80% in the forearm at baseline) was approximately 47.1% (82/174). The patients with muscular desaturation had a higher incidence of pneumonia than those without desaturation (28.0% [23/82] vs. 12.0% [11/92]; P  = 0.008). The multivariable analysis revealed that muscular desaturation was associated with an increased risk of pneumonia (odds ratio: 2.995, 95% confidence interval: 1.080-8.310, P  = 0.035) after adjusting for age, American Society of Anesthesiologists status, Assess Respiratory Risk in Surgical Patients in Catalonia score, smoking, use of peripheral nerve block, propofol, and study center.@*CONCLUSION@#Muscular tissue desaturation, defined as a baseline SmtO 2 < 80% in the forearm, may be associated with an increased risk of POP.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#No. ChiCTR-ROC-17012627.

Humans , Cohort Studies , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Oxygen , Muscles , Lung Neoplasms/surgery
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 9(3): 1-14, sept. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1518667


La neumonía adquirida en la comunidad constituye una de las afecciones respiratorias que provoca más demanda de asistencia médica, y es responsable del mayor número de fallecidos por enfermedades infecciosas en Cuba. El objetivo del estudio ha sido determinar el comportamiento de características seleccionadas en pacientes hospitalizados por neumonía y precisar la existencia de asociaciones entre algunas de estas características.Se realizó un estudio observacional, con diseño descriptivo, que incluyó 1,809 pacientes hospitalizados por neumonía entre enero de 2012 y febrero de 2020. Fueron analizadas características relacionadas con las condiciones de base, clínico-radiológicas, y relativas al manejo y la evolución, mediante análisis bivariante y multivariante (regresión logística). La serie estuvo constituida fundamentalmente por pacientes ancianos (79%), mientras que el 20% presentaba la condición de encamamiento. Esta condición se asoció significativamente con el estado de demencia avanzada (OR 7,6[5,5;10,4]), y fue determinante en la presentación "solapada" del proceso (OR 1,5[1,09;2]). La presentación "solapada" de la neumonía estuvo significativamente asociada al ingreso tardío (OR 1,6[1,2;2,2]). Como conclusiones se ratifica el lugar que ocupan varios elementos en las características de la morbilidad por neumonía: edad avanzada, presencia de comorbilidades, y presentación no clásica del proceso. Fueron constatadas interrelaciones de importancia práctica entre la presencia de comorbilidades particulares, las formas clínicas de presentación, el momento del ingreso, y la utilización de antimicrobianos durante la atención prehospitalaria del paciente. Se destaca el papel del encamamiento en la extensión radiológica del proceso neumónico y en la presencia de derrame pleural de mediana o gran cuantía al momento del ingreso.

Community-acquired pneumonia is one of the respiratory conditions that causes the greatest demand for medical care, and is responsible for the largest number of deaths from infectious diseases in Cuba. The objective of the study was to determine the behavior of selected characteristics in patients hospitalized for pneumonia and to specify the existence of associations between some of these characteristics. An observational study, with a descriptive design, was carried out, which included 1,809 patients hospitalized for pneumonia between January 2012 and February 2020. Characteristics related to the basic, clinical-radiological conditions, and relative to management and evolution were analyzed, through analysis bivariate and multivariate (logistic regression). The series consisted mainly of elderly patients (79%), while 20% were bedridden. This condition was significantly associated with the state of advanced dementia (OR 7.6[5.5;10.4]) and was decisive in the "overlapping" presentation of the process (OR 1.5[1.09;2]). The "overlapping" presentation of pneumonia was significantly associated with late admission (OR 1.6[1.2;2.2]). As conclusions, the place occupied by several elements in the characteristics of pneumonia morbidity is ratified: advanced age, presence of comorbidities, and non-classical presentation of the process. Interrelationships of practical importance were found between the presence of comorbidities, the clinical forms of presentation, the time of admission, and the use of antimicrobials during the patient's prehospital care. The role of bed rest in the radiological extension of the pneumonic process and in the presence of medium or large pleural effusion at the time of admission is highlighted.

Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Patient Admission , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Pleural Effusion/epidemiology , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Time Factors , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Smoking/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Logistic Models , Analysis of Variance , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Dementia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Bedridden Persons , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 352-357, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928977


OBJECTIVES@#To provide reference basis for reducing the mortality for children under 5 years old and promote the healthy development, the mortality for children under 5 years old and the main causes for death in Liuyang City from 2013 to 2020 are analyzed.@*METHODS@#The data of 725 cases of death for children under 5 years old in Liuyang City from 2013 to 2020 were collected.The causes and difference of death among the children were analyzed retrospectively by descriptive statistic methods.@*RESULTS@#There were a total of 144 516 live births in Liuyang City from 2013 to 2020. The mortality for children under 5 years old was 5.01‰, for infants was 3.39‰, and for newborns was 1.63‰. The male child mortality was 5.28‰, and the female child mortality rate was 4.72‰, with significant difference (P>0.05). The mortality for children under 5 years old was seasonal fluctuation, without significant difference among seasons (P>0.05). For the past 5 years, the top 3 causes for death among children under 5 years old were preterm birth and low birth weight, congenital heart disease, and pneumonia. Before death, 341 cases (47.04%) were treated in provincial hospitals, 198 cases (27.31%) in county-level hospitals, 56 cases (7.72%) in village-level hospitals, and 130 cases (17.93%) were not treated.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The mortality for children under 5 years old in Liuyang City is gradually reduced in the past 5 years. The main causes for death are premature birth and low birth weight, congenital heart disease and pneumonia. We should develop healthy education, improve the rate of prenatal diagnosis, promote the construction of obstetrics and paediatrics, and fundamentally reduce the mortality for children under 5 years old.

Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pregnancy , Cause of Death , Child Mortality , Heart Defects, Congenital , Infant Mortality , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Premature Birth , Retrospective Studies
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408527


La Inteligencia Artificial ha ayudado a lidiar diferentes problemas relacionados con los datos masivos y a su vez con su tratamiento, diagnóstico y detección de enfermedades como la que actualmente nos preocupa, la Covid-19. El objetivo de esta investigación ha sido analizar y desarrollar la clasificación de imágenes de neumonía a causa de covid-19 para un diagnostico efectivo y óptimo. Se ha usado Transfer-Learning aplicando ResNet, DenseNet, Poling y Dense layer para la elaboración de los modelos de red propios Covid-UPeU y Covid-UPeU-TL, utilizando las plataformas Kaggle y Google colab, donde se realizaron 4 experimentos. El resultado con una mejor clasificación de imágenes se obtuvo en el experimento 4 prueba N°2 con el modelo Covid-UPeU-TL donde Acc.Train: 0.9664 y Acc.Test: 0.9851. Los modelos implementados han sido desarrollados con el propósito de tener una visión holística de los factores para la optimización en la clasificación de imágenes de neumonía a causa de COVID-19(AU)

Artificial Intelligence has helped to deal with different problems related to massive data in turn to the treatment, diagnosis and detection of diseases such as the one that currently has us in concern, Covid-19. The objective of this research has been to analyze and develop the classification of images of pneumonia due to covid-19 for an effective and optimal diagnosis. Transfer-Learning has been used applying ResNet, DenseNet, Poling and Dense layer for the elaboration of the own network models Covid-Upeu and Covid-UpeU-TL, using Kaggle and Google colab platforms, where 4 experiments have been carried out. The result with a better classification of images was obtained in experiment 4 test N ° 2 with the Covid-UPeU-TL model where Acc.Train: 0.9664 and Acc.Test: 0.9851. The implemented models have been developed with the purpose of having a holistic view of the factors for optimization in the classification of COVID-19 images(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Medical Informatics Applications , Artificial Intelligence/trends , Radiography/methods , COVID-19/complications
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 61(4): 650-686, dic. 2021. tab., ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1396108


La neumonía adquirida en la comunidad es una enfermedad infecciosa común que causa una morbilidad y mortalidad sustanciales. Las personas mayores son las más frecuentemente afectadas, y se deben considerar varios aspectos relacionados con el cuidado de esta condición en los ancianos. El patógeno más común en esta patología sigue siendo Streptococcus pneumoniae, seguido de Haemophilus influenzae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar las características clínicas de adultos mayores con esta patología en el hospital "Alfredo Noboa Montenegro". Para las variables cualitativas fue empleada la frecuencia absoluta y el por ciento. Para la asociación entre variables cualitativas se utilizó la prueba Jicuadrado de independencia. En caso de las tablas de contingencia 2x2 cuando tuvo alguna celda con frecuencia esperada menor que 5 se utilizó el test exacto de Fisher. Más del 54% de los pacientes estudiados fue clasificado como grado II; de ellos el mayor porcentaje (66,7%) correspondió a los hombres. Le siguió en orden de frecuencia el grado III con 25% y alrededor del 83% fue del sexo femenino. No se obtuvo asociación estadística entre el sexo y el grado de los pacientes estudiados por lo que se pude afirmar que ambas variables fueron independientes. En la mayoría de casos los pacientes resultan infra diagnosticados desde los niveles primarios de atención al confundirlos con otro tipo de patologías, lo que provoca un retraso en la identificación y tratamiento del paciente que en el futuro influye en un pronóstico negativo de este(AU)

Community-acquired pneumonia is a common infectious disease that causes substantial morbidity and mortality. Elderly people are frequently affected, and several issues related to care of this condition in the elderly have to be considered. The most common pathogen in this pathology is still Streptococcus pneumoniae, followed by other pathogens such as Haemophilus influenzae, Mycoplasma pneumonia. The objective of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics of older adults with this disease in hospital "Alfredo Noboa Montenegro". For the qualitative variables the absolute frequency and the percent were used. For the association between qualitative variables, the Chi-square independence test was used. In the case of the 2x2 contingency tables, when Fisher had an expected cell shorter than 5, Fisher's exact test was used. More than 54% of the patients studied were classified as grade II; of them, the highest percentage (66.7%) corresponded to men. Next in order of frequency was grade III with 25% and about 83% was female. There was no statistical association between sex and the degree of the patients studied, so we could say that both variables were independent. In the majority of cases, patients are diagnosed from the primary care levels when they are confused with other types of pathologies, which causes a delay in the identification and treatment of the patient that in the future influences a negative prognosis(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , Primary Health Care , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Haemophilus influenzae , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Patients , Peru/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases , Hospitals
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(4): S171-S197, agosto 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1281039


Las infecciones respiratorias agudas bajas (IRAB) continúan representando una importante causa de morbimortalidad en nuestro medio. El manejo normatizado de casos constituye una valiosa herramienta para enfrentarlas.Además de los aspectos relacionados con el diagnóstico y tratamiento de estas enfermedades, el análisis de factores de riesgo (tanto biológicos como socioambientales), desde una perspectiva local y actual, permitie implementar medidas efectivas de control y/o prevención, así como identificar aquellos pacientes susceptibles de presentar formas graves o complicaciones.Desde 1996 la Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría asumió el desafío de generar un documento que guíe el manejo integral de los pacientes con IRAB. En esta cuarta actualización se incluyen los últimos adelantos en el tema.

Acute lower respiratory infections (ARI) continue being an important cause of morbidity and mortality in our region. Standardized case management is a valuable tool to deal with them.In addition to aspects related to the diagnosis and treatment of these diseases, the analysis of risk factors (both biological and socio-environmental) from a local and current perspective, allows the implementation of effective control and/or prevention measures, as well as identifying those patients susceptible to presenting serious forms or complications.Since 1996, the Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría asumed the challenge of generating a document that guides the comprehensive management of patients with ARI. This fourth update includes the latest advances on the subject.

Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Pneumonia/therapy , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Bronchiolitis/diagnosis , Bronchiolitis/therapy , Bronchiolitis/epidemiology , Acute Disease , Risk Factors
São Paulo med. j ; 139(2): 170-177, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1181006


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Healthcare institutions are confronted with large numbers of patient admissions during large-scale or long-term public health emergencies like pandemics. Appropriate and effective triage is needed for effective resource use. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of the Pandemic Medical Early Warning Score (PMEWS), Simple Triage Scoring System (STSS) and Confusion, Uremia, Respiratory rate, Blood pressure and age ≥ 65 years (CURB-65) score in an emergency department (ED) triage setting. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective study in the ED of a tertiary-care university hospital in Düzce, Turkey. METHODS: PMEWS, STSS and CURB-65 scores of patients diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia were calculated. Thirty-day mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilation (MV) need and outcomes were recorded. The predictive accuracy of the scores was assessed using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. RESULTS: One hundred patients with COVID-19 pneumonia were included. The 30-day mortality was 6%. PMEWS, STSS and CURB-65 showed high performance for predicting 30-day mortality (area under the curve: 0.968, 0.962 and 0.942, respectively). Age > 65 years, respiratory rate > 20/minute, oxygen saturation (SpO2) < 90% and ED length of stay > 4 hours showed associations with 30-day mortality (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: CURB-65, STSS and PMEWS scores are useful for predicting mortality, ICU admission and MV need among patients diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia. Advanced age, increased respiratory rate, low SpO2 and prolonged ED length of stay may increase mortality. Further studies are needed for developing the triage scoring systems, to ensure effective long-term use of healthcare service capacity during pandemics.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Triage/methods , Risk Assessment/methods , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Early Warning Score , COVID-19/therapy , Turkey , Uremia/etiology , Uremia/epidemiology , Blood Pressure , Retrospective Studies , Respiratory Rate/physiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(1): 37-46, mar. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287239


Resumen La neumonía adquirida en la comunidad (NAC) representa un importante problema sanitario y ~20% de los pacientes requiere hospitalización. El objetivo principal del trabajo fue determinar las características clínico-imagenológicas de los episodios de NAC que requirieron internación. Los objetivos secundarios fueron determinar el rédito diagnóstico de los estudios microbiológicos e identificar las complicaciones. Realizamos un estudio analítico retrospectivo en un hospital de tercer nivel durante el período 2017-2019, en adultos admitidos por NAC, excluyendo embarazadas. Identificamos 340 episodios en 321 pacientes, la mediana de edad fue 75 años (rango intercuartil 57-85). Los factores de riesgo más frecuentes fueron inmunocompromiso (30%), enfermedad neurológica (22%) y enfermedad renal crónica (17%). Según tres scores pronósticos de gravedad, CURB65, qSOFA y PSI/PORT, 216 (63.5%), 290 (85.3%) y 130 (38%) episodios fueron identificados como de bajo riesgo, respectivamente. Del total de los episodios, 49 (14.4%) requirieron internación en unidad de cuidados intensivos, 39 (11.5%) ventilación mecánica y se registraron 30 (8.8%) muertes durante la hospitalización. Los patrones de imagen más frecuentes fueron consolidativo en 134 (39.4%), intersticio-alveolar en 98 (28.8%) y mixto entre ambos patrones en 67 (19.7%) episodios. Identificamos el agente causal en 79 (23.2%) episodios. Los microorganismos aislados más frecuentemente fueron influenza en 37 (10.9%) y Streptococcus pneumoniae en 11 (3.2%). La mayoría de los episodios afectaron pacientes ancianos y el principal patrón radiológico fue el consolidativo. El agente causal se pudo identificar en uno de cada cuatro episodios y el método con mayor rédito diagnóstico fue el test para influenza.

Abstract Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) represents a major health issue and ~20% of the patients require in-hospital attention. The main objective of the study was to determine clinical-imaging features of CAP episodes requiring hospitalization. The secondary objectives were to determine the diagnostic yield of microbiological analyses and the medical complications. A retrospective analytical study was conducted on adults admitted due to CAP in a third-level hospital in the period 2017-2019. Pregnant women were excluded. A total of 340 CAP episodes were identified in 321 patients; the median age was 75 years old (interquartile range 57-85). The most frequent risk factors were immunocompromise 102 (30%), neurological disease 75 (22%), and chronic kidney disease 58 (17%). According to three prognostic scores, CURB65, qSOFA and PSI/PORT, 216 (63.5%), 290 (83.5%) and 130 (38%) patients were identified as low risk, respectively. A total of 49 (14.4%) episodes required admission at the critical care unit and 39 (11.5%) required mechanical ventilation; 30 patients (8.8%) died during hospitalization. The radiologic patterns most frequently found were consolidation in 134 (39.4%), interstitial-alveolar pattern in 98 (28.8%), and the combination of both patterns in 67 (19.7%) episodes. Identification of the causal agent was achieved in 79 (23.2%) episodes. The most frequently isolated microorganisms were influenza virus in 37 (10.9%) episodes and Streptococcus pneumoniae in 11 (3.2%). Most of the hospitalized CAP patients were elderly with consolidative radiological patterns. The causal agent could be identified in less than a quarter of the patients, with the influenza test being the method with the highest diagnostic yield.

Humans , Female , Adult , Aged , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Community-Acquired Infections/therapy , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Retrospective Studies , Hospitalization
Rev. cuba. med ; 60(1): e1397, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156559


Introducción: Un instrumento ha sido utilizado para la estratificación de pacientes con neumonía adquirida en la comunidad en el Departamento de urgencias desde 2006. Objetivo: Evaluar el proceso de estratificación de pacientes con neumonía adquirida en la comunidad de pacientes hospitalizados. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo que incluyó 1 809 pacientes hospitalizados en el Departamento de urgencias entre los años 2009 y 2019. Para la evaluación del proceso se realizó una estratificación de control que permitió determinar la frecuencia y calidad de la estratificación inicial, así como la coincidencia entre esta y la estratificación real. En el análisis estadístico se utilizó la razón de productos cruzados (Odds Ratio) y el estadígrafo X2 para diferencias de proporciones; se aceptó un nivel de significación de 95 por ciento. Resultados: El índice de estratificación de la serie fue de 86 por ciento, y el índice de estratificación adecuada fue de 80 por ciento. Predominaron los pacientes con neumonía moderada y altas probabilidades de evolución desfavorable. La menor estratificación se comprobó en los pacientes con neumonía grave y altas probabilidades de recuperación (p<,05). Hubo diferencias en la calidad de la estratificación entre las agrupaciones de los estratos IA-IB-IIA y IIB-IIIA-IIIB (p<,05). Estos tres últimos estratos presentaron las cifras más altas del valor predictivo positivo de la estratificación inicial (p<,05). Conclusiones: El proceso de estratificación de pacientes con neumonía adquirida en la comunidad hospitalizados se caracterizó por una elevada frecuencia de estratificación y una adecuada calidad. No obstante, fueron identificados grupos de pacientes y situaciones específicas que se consideran áreas de superación de importancia para el mejoramiento de la calidad asistencia(AU)

Introduction: An instrument has been used for stratifying patients with community-acquired pneumonia in the emergency department since 2006. Objective: To evaluate the stratifying process of patients with community-acquired pneumonia in hospitalized patients. Methods: A descriptive study that included 1 809 patients hospitalized in the emergency department from 2009 to 2019 was carried out. A control stratification evaluated the process, which allowed determining the frequency and quality of the initial stratification, as well as the coincidence between this and the actual stratification. In the statistical analysis, the ratio of crossed products (Odds Ratio) and X2 statistic were used for differences in proportions; a significance level of 95 percent was accepted. Results: The stratification index of the series was 86 percent, and the adequate stratification index was 80 percent. Patients with moderate pneumonia and high probabilities of unfavorable evolution predominated. The lowest stratification was found in patients with severe pneumonia and high probability of recovery (p <.05). There were differences in the quality of stratification between the groupings of strata IA-IB-IIA and IIB-IIIA-IIIB (p <.05); these last three strata sowed the highest figures of the positive predictive value of the initial stratification (p <.05). Conclusions: The stratification process of hospitalized community-acquired pneumonia patients was characterized by high stratification frequency and adequate quality. However, this study identified groups of patients and specific situations that were considered as areas of improvement, important for improving the quality of care(AU)

Humans , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Emergency Medical Services , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Community-Acquired Infections/etiology
Rev. inf. cient ; 100(1): 1-13, ene.-feb. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156707


RESUMEN Introducción: La neumonía adquirida en la comunidad durante el embarazo no se ha caracterizado en el Hospital General Docente "Dr. Agostinho Neto". Objetivo: Caracterizar este tipo de neumonía en gestantes ingresadas en el citado hospital durante el 2015-2019. Método: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, aplicado, y retrospectivo. Se estudiaron indicadores relacionados con la morbilidad y mortalidad por esta enfermedad, edad biológica y gestacional, procedencia, comorbilidad, estadía, y estado al egreso de las gestantes; así como variables clínico- epidemiológicas relacionadas con la neumonía. Los datos se resumieron mediante análisis de frecuencias. Resultados: Ingresaron 67 gestantes con esta afección (9,1 % y 0,24 % respecto al total de pacientes maternas y al total de pacientes ingresados en la unidad por todas las causas, respectivamente). Sobre todo, tenían entre 20 y 29 años de edad (92,5 %) y entre 28 y 42 semanas de gestación (59,7 %), procedieron de áreas urbanas (89,5 %) y presentaron comorbilidad (31,3 %). La forma clínica-radiológica típica fue la más común (92,5 %), el germen causal más usual fue el Streptococcus pneumoniae (41,8 %), el 100 % se trató con fármacos antimicrobianos antivirales, cefalosporinas y macrólidos, el 73,1 % evolucionó de modo satisfactorio. Falleció una paciente. Conclusiones: Se caracterizó la neumonía adquirida en la comunidad durante el embarazo en pacientes del Hospital General Docente "Dr. Agostinho Neto" de Guantánamo durante el periodo 2015-2019, lo que posibilita reconocer que no significa un problema de salud, pero impacta en el perfil de morbilidad materna pues es la primera causa de ingreso de gestantes por enfermedades no obstétricas.

ABSTRACT Introduction: Pneumonia acquired in the community during pregnancy has not been characterized in the Hospital General Docente "Dr. Agostinho Neto". Objective: To characterize this type of pneumonia in pregnant women admitted to the aforementioned hospital during 2015-2019. Method: A descriptive, retrospective and applied study was carried out. Indicators related to morbidity and mortality, biological and gestational age, origin, comorbidity, stay and status at the time discharge of the pregnant women were studied; as well as clinical-epidemiological variables related to pneumonia. Data were summarized using frequency analysis. Results: 67 pregnant women with this condition were admitted (9.1% and 0.24% with respect to the total number of maternal patients and the total number of patients admitted to the unit for all causes, respectively). They were mostly between 20 and 29 years of age (92.5%) and between 28 and 42 weeks of gestation (59.7%); 89.5% came from urban areas and 31.3% presented comorbidity. The typical clinical-radiological form was the most common (92.5%); the most common causative germ was Streptococcus pneumoniae (41.8%); 100% were treated with antiviral antimicrobial drugs, cephalosporins and macrolides; 73.1% evolved satisfactorily. One patient passed away. Conclusions: Community-acquired pneumonia during pregnancy was characterized in patients from the Hospital General Docente "Dr. Agostinho Neto" in Guantánamo during the period 2015-2019, which makes it possible to recognize that this condition does not constitute a health problem, but it impacts on the maternal morbidity profile since it is the first cause of admission of pregnant women due to non-obstetric diseases.

RESUMO Introdução: Pneumonia adquirida na comunidade durante a gravidez não foi caracterizada no Hospital General Docente "Dr. Agostinho Neto". Objetivo: Caracterizar este tipo de pneumonia em gestantes internadas no referido hospital durante 2015-2019. Método: Foi realizado um estudo descritivo, aplicado e retrospectivo. Foram estudados indicadores relacionados à morbimortalidade por essa doença, idade biológica e gestacional, procedência, comorbidade, permanência e estado de alta das grávidas; bem como variáveis clínico-epidemiológicas relacionadas à pneumonia. Os dados foram resumidos por análise de frequência. Resultados: Foram internadas 67 grávidas com essa condição (9,1% e 0,24% do total de pacientes maternos e do total de pacientes internados na unidade por todas as causas, respectivamente). Acima de tudo, tinham entre 20 e 29 anos (92,5%) e entre 28 e 42 semanas de gestação (59,7%), eram procedentes da zona urbana (89,5%) e apresentavam comorbidade (31,3%). A forma clínico-radiológica típica foi a mais comum (92,5%), o germe causador mais comum foi Streptococcus pneumoniae (41,8%), 100% foram tratados com antimicrobianos antivirais, cefalosporinas e macrolídeos, 73,1% evoluíram de forma satisfatória. Um paciente faleceu. Conclusões: A pneumonia adquirida na comunidade durante a gravidez foi caracterizada em pacientes do Hospital General Docente "Dr. Agostinho Neto" de Guantánamo no período 2015-2019, o que permite reconhecer que não se trata de um problema de saúde, mas impacta no perfil de morbidade materna por ser a principal causa de internamento de grávidas por doenças não obstétricas.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pneumonia/mortality , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 60(2): 111-115, dic.2020. tab., ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1509626


La neumonía es definida por la Organización Mundial de Salud (OMS) como una infección respiratoria aguda que afecta a los alvéolos pulmonares, dificultando la respiración y absorción de oxígeno afectando a la población infantil. Por eso se propuso analizar la neumonía estafilocócica complicada con enfoque clínico, radiológico y tratamiento en el paciente pediátrico para establecer elementos que ayuden a la elaboración de protocolos de diagnóstico y tratamiento. Se realizó un estudio de tipo documental, observacional y analítico mediante la entrevista directa con el paciente y familiares y el análisis clínico de los signos y síntomas presentados por el paciente. Mediante la valoración clínico, radiológico y oportuno tratamiento en el paciente pediátrico con neumonía estafilocócica complicada, se logró establecer elementos que podrán ayudar a la elaboración de un protocolo de diagnóstico y tratamiento de dicha patología(AU)

Pneumonia is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as an acute respiratory infection that affects the pulmonary alveoli, making it difficult to breathe and absorb oxygen, affecting the child population. Therefore, it was proposed to analyze complicated staphylococcal pneumonia with a clinical, radiological and treatment approach in the pediatric patient to establish elements that help to develop diagnostic and treatment protocols. A documentary, observational and analytical study was conducted through a direct interview with the patient and family members and the clinical analysis of the signs and symptoms presented by the patient. By means of the clinical, radiological evaluation and timely treatment in the pediatric patient with complicated staphylococcal pneumonia, it was possible to establish elements that may help to elaborate a protocol for the diagnosis and treatment of said pathology(AU)

Humans , Male , Child , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Staphylococcal/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Staphylococcal/therapy
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(8): 571-578, Aug. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135670


This review reports the leading causes of death in feedlot beef cattle. It describes economic losses resulting from these deaths and suggests control alternatives. Diseases associated with the respiratory and digestive systems were the most frequently observed. In different geographical areas, the importance of each one might vary. Outbreaks of diseases such as botulism occur occasionally and can cause important economic losses. Cattle tick fever can cause significant losses in zones of enzootic tick instability. Technical assistance and sanitary and food management are critical for the best productivity in feedlot cattle.(AU)

Esta revisão discute as principais causas de morte em bovinos de corte em confinamento. Descreve as perdas econômicas resultantes dessas mortes e sugere alternativas de controle. As doenças associadas aos sistemas respiratório e digestivo foram as mais frequentemente observadas. Em diferentes áreas geográficas, a importância de cada uma pode variar. Surtos de doenças como o botulismo ocorrem ocasionalmente e podem causar importantes perdas econômicas. A tristeza parasitária bovina pode causar perdas significativas em zonas de instabilidade enzoótica do carrapato. A assistência técnica e um bom gerenciamento sanitário e alimentar são essenciais para a melhor produtividade em bovinos de corte confinados.(AU)

Animals , Cattle , Pneumonia/mortality , Pneumonia/prevention & control , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Acidosis, Lactic/mortality , Acidosis, Lactic/prevention & control , Acidosis, Lactic/epidemiology , Botulism/prevention & control , Botulism/epidemiology , Cattle Diseases/mortality , Flatulence/mortality , Flatulence/prevention & control , Flatulence/epidemiology , Cause of Death
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 20(1): 81-89, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS | ID: biblio-1136420


Abstract Objectives: to describe the characteristics of pneumonia hospitalizations in children under five years of age across the State of Maranhão, Brazil, and explore patterns of spatial distribution of admissions. Methods: ecological study using data on occurrences (age, gender, skin color/race, month of occurrence, and municipality of residence) between 2012 and 2017 taken from the Unified Health System's Hospital Information System and municipal level socioeconomic indicators for 2010. Each respiratory disease, including pneumonia, was presented as a percentage of overall admissions for respiratory tract diseases, together with the monthly distribution of admissions as a percentage of total annual cases, and annual rate of admissions by gender. The General G* statistic was calculated to identify significant clustering of municipalities with similar proportions of hospital admissions for pneumonia relative to overall hospital admissions. Results: pneumonia was the leading cause of admissions for respiratory disease, accounting for 57% of all cases and occurring with greater frequency in the rainy season (February to June) and in cities with lower socioeconomic indicator values. The rate of admissions decreased over the study period. Significant clusters (p<0.05) of municipalities with high proportions of hospital admissions for pneumonia relative to overall hospital admissions occurred predominantly in the south of the state, while clusters with low propor-tions were located mainly in and around the metropolitan region of the state capital São Luís. Conclusions: pneumonia was shown to be a key cause of hospitalization in children and its distribution was associated with contextual socioeconomic factors, reflecting the quality of life and health status of children in Maranhão.

Resumo Objetivos: descrever as características das hospitalizações por pneumonia entre crianças menores de cinco anos de idade no estado do Maranhão e verificar seu padrão de distribuição geoespacial. Métodos: estudo ecológico, com dados ocorridos entre 2012 e 2017, coletados do Sistema de Informações Hospitalares segundo idade, sexo, cor/raça, mês de ocorrência e município de residência. Utilizaram-se também medidas socioeconômicas contextuais dos municípios em 2010. Apresentaram-se as características percentuais das causas de hospitalização do aparelho respiratório e por pneumonia, sua variação temporal ao longo dos meses e as taxas nos anos de estudo. Aplicou-se a estatística G* para verificar a formação de significativos clusters de municípios com similares níveis de hospitalizações. Resultados: a pneumonia foi a principal causa da hospitalização (57%), ocorrendo, frequentemente, nos meses de intensas chuvas (fevereiro a junho) e em cidades com piores indicadores socioeconômicos. As taxas de internação decresceram no período. Significativos agrupamentos (p<0,05) de municípios com maiores proporções de pneumonia ocorreram no sul do estado e com menores na região metropolitana da capital São Luís. Conclusões: a pneumonia foi importante causa de hospitalização de crianças e sua distribuição está associada a características socioeconômicas contextuais, refletido o nível de qualidade de vida e saúde no Maranhão.

Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Child, Hospitalized/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data
São Paulo med. j ; 138(2): 126-132, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1139673


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Exposure to particulate material produced as a result of increased agricultural activity may increase the number of pneumonia hospitalizations among children. We hope to contribute to the knowledge base through highlighting the environmental mechanisms involved in this outcome and optimizing pollutant control policies. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between pneumonia hospitalizations among children and presence of environmental pollutants in a town in the Brazilian Legal Amazon region. DESIGN AND SETTING: Time series study conducted in the town of Tangará da Serra, Mato Grosso (MT), Brazil. METHODS: A total of 158 children aged 0 to 10 years participated in the study. Data on environmental variables and pollutants were extracted daily through the Coupled Chemistry-Aerosol-Tracer Transport model coupled to Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (CCATT-BRAMS). Meteorological data were provided by the Weather Forecasting and Climate Studies Center (CPTEC). RESULTS: There was greater frequency of pneumonia hospitalizations in the months of transition between the rainy and dry seasons, with a prevalence ratio 2.4 times higher than in other periods. For environmental pollutants, there was a significant positive correlation between particulate matter (PM2.5) and pneumonia hospitalizations (correlation 0.11), with more admissions on the days when PM2.5 levels were highest (averages of 6.6 µg/m3 when there were no admissions and 13.11 µg/m3 on days with two or more admissions). CONCLUSIONS: The higher the PM2.5 level was, the greater the frequency of hospitalizations also was. Children living in peripheral areas had higher prevalence of pneumonia hospitalizations in the dry period than those who were living in the town center.

Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Air Pollutants , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Seasons , Brazil/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Particulate Matter , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136736


ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the clinical profile of children and adolescents hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). They were divided into two groups: those with and those without comorbidities. Methods: An observational, cross-sectional, descriptive study with prospective data collection, was carried out in a cohort of patients aged zero to 11, who were hospitalized with a clinical and radiological diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia, from January 2010 to January 2012. As an exploratory study, the two groups were compared through logistic regression for possible risk factors associated with community-acquired pneumonia. Relative risk (RR) was used with a 95% confidence interval (95%CI). The process of selection for independent variables was stepwise forward, with a significance level of 5%. Results: There were 121 cases of community-acquired pneumonia evaluated, and 47.9% had comorbidities. In the bivariate analysis, patients with comorbidities demonstrated higher chances for: age >60 months (p=0.005), malnutrition (p=0.002), previous use of antibiotics (p=0.008) and previous hospitalization for community-acquired pneumonia in the last 24 months (p=0.004). In the multivariate analysis, these variables were independent predictors of community-acquired pneumonia in patients with the comorbidities: age >60 months (p=0.002; RR=5.39; 95%CI 1.89-15.40); malnutrition (p=0.008; RR=1.75; 95%CI 1.75-44.60); previous use of antibiotics (p=0.0013; RR=3.03; 95%CI 1.27-7.20); and previous hospitalization for community-acquired pneumonia (p=0.035; RR=2.91; 95%CI 1.08-7.90). Conclusions: Most patients with community-acquired pneumonia and comorbidities were aged >60 months, were malnourished, had used antibiotics and had been hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia. Comorbidities were associated with a higher chance of malnutrition and hospitalizations for community-acquired pneumonia in an older age group, compared to children without comorbidities. Knowledge of this clinical profile may contribute to better assist pediatric patients with community-acquired pneumonia hospitalized in referral centers.

RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever o perfil clínico de crianças e adolescentes hospitalizados com pneumonia adquirida na comunidade, separando-os em dois grupos: com e sem comorbidades. Métodos: Estudo observacional, transversal, descritivo, com coleta prospectiva de dados, realizado na coorte de pacientes de zero a 11 anos, hospitalizados com diagnósticos clínico e radiológico de pneumonia adquirida na comunidade de janeiro de 2010 a janeiro de 2012. De modo exploratório, buscou-se comparar os dois grupos por regressão logística quanto a possíveis fatores de risco para pneumonia adquirida na comunidade, por meio de risco relativo (RR) com intervalo de confiança de 95% (IC95%). O processo de seleção das variáveis independentes foi o de stepwise forward, a 5%. Resultados: Foram avaliados 121 casos; 47,9% tinham comorbidades. Na análise bivariada, pacientes com comorbidades mostraram maiores chances de apresentar: idade >60 meses (p=0,005), desnutrição (p=0,002), uso prévio de antibióticos (p=0,008) e hospitalização por pneumonia adquirida na comunidade nos últimos 24 meses (p=0,004). Na análise multivariada, estas foram variáveis preditoras independentes para pneumonia adquirida na comunidade, nos pacientes com comorbidades: idade >60 meses (p=0,002; RR=5,39; IC95% 1,89-15,40); desnutrição (p=0,008; RR=1,75; IC95% 1,75-44,60); uso prévio de antimicrobianos (p=0,0013; RR=3,03; IC95% 1,27-7,20) e hospitalização prévia por pneumonia adquirida na comunidade (p=0,035; RR=2,91; IC95% 1,08-7,90). Conclusões: A maioria dos pacientes com pneumonia adquirida na comunidade e comorbidades tinha idade >60 meses, desnutrição, fizera uso prévio de antibióticos e havia sido hospitalizado por pneumonia adquirida na comunidade. As comorbidades relacionam-se à maior chance de desnutrição e a hospitalizações por pneumonia adquirida na comunidade em faixa etária mais elevada do que crianças sem comorbidades. O conhecimento desse perfil clínico pode contribuir para melhor assistência da pneumonia adquirida na comunidade em pacientes pediátricos hospitalizados em serviços de referência.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 228-235, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941096


Objective: To explore the incidence, risk factors of cardiovascular events (CVE) and their impact on 30-day mortality in patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Methods: This is a multicenter, retrospective study. Patients hospitalized with CAP from 5 teaching hospitals in Beijing, Shandong and Yunnan provinces during 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2015 were included and clinical data were retrieved from the Hospital Information System (HIS), and patients were divided into CVE group and non-CVE group. Age, sex, comorbidities, pneumonia severity index(PSI)/CURB-65 score, routine blood test, biochemical examinations, radiological findings on admission and mortality on 30-day after admission were analyzed. The primary endpoint was acute CVE during hospitalization, the secondary endpoint was 30-day death after admission. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to explore the risk factors for CVE. Kaplan-Meier survival curve was used to compare the difference on 30-day mortality between CVE patients and non-CVE patients by Log-rank test. Multivariate Cox regression model was used to assess the impact of CVE on the 30-day mortality among CAP patients after adjustment with age, sex, comorbidities, PSI/CURB-65 score. Results: A total of 3 561 CAP patients were included into the final analysis, including 210 (5.9%) patients in CVE group and 3 351 (94.1%) patients in non-CVE group. Compared with patients in non-CVE group, patients in CVE group were older (P<0.001), prevalence of hypertension, coronary heart disease, chronic heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease, aspiration risk and bedrid were significantly higher (all P<0.001); prevalence of CURB-65 score 3-5 and PSI risk class Ⅳ/Ⅴ were also significantly higher (both P<0.001). The proportion of axillary temperature<36 ℃, respiratory rate≥30 beats/minutes, confusion, leukocytes>10×10(9)/L, hemoglobin<100 g/L, platelets>300×10(9)/L, albumin<35 g/L, blood urea nitrogen>7 mmol/L, fasting blood glucose>11 mmol/L, serum C-reaction protein>100 mg/L, serum procalcitonin≥2 μg/L, arterial pH<7.35, arterial PO(2)/FiO(2)≤300 mmHg (1 mmHg=0.133 kPa), and multilobar infiltrates and pleural effusion on chest X-ray or CT scan were significantly higher in CVE group than in non-CVE group(all P<0.05); the 30-day mortality was significantly higher in CVE group than in non-CVE group(P<0.001). The incidence of CVE was significantly higher in patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease(CVD) than in patients without CVD (13.9%(150/1 079) vs. 2.4%(60/2 482), χ(2)=178.737, P<0.001). Meanwhile, the incidence of CVE increased with PSI in patients with Ⅰ/Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ/Ⅴ class, respectively(χ(2)=228.350, P<0.001); and CURB-65 score 0-1, 2 and 3-5, respectively (χ(2)=387.154, P<0.001). Cox regression analysis revealed that age (HR=1.05, 95%CI 1.02-1.09, P=0.002), coronary heart disease (HR=1.88, 95%CI 1.01-3.51, P=0.048), chronic heart failure (HR=4.25, 95%CI 1.89-9.52, P<0.001), PSI risk class (HR=1.66, 95%CI 1.50-2.62, P=0.029) and serum procalcitonin≥ 2 μg/L (HR=3.72, 95%CI 1.60-8.66, P=0.002) were independent risk factors for CVE in CAP patients. Kaplan-Meier curve showed that the survival probability of patients with CVE was significantly lower than patients without CVE (P<0.001). After adjustment for age, sex, comorbidities and PSI/CURB-65 score, Cox regression model showed that CVE was associated with increased 30-day mortality in CAP patients (HR=6.05, 95%CI 3.11-11.76, P<0.001). Conclusions: Although the incidence of CVE is not high in Chinese patients hospitalized with CAP, CVE is common in patients with severe pneumonia and in patients with CVD. Age, cardiovascular disease, PSI risk class and serum procalcitonin are the risk factors for CVE in this patient cohort. CVE is related to increased 30-day mortality in CAP patients.

Humans , China/epidemiology , Incidence , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index