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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 122(1): e202303001, feb. 2024. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1524312

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Con el uso de la nutrición parenteral agresiva en recién nacidos de muy bajo peso, se detectaron alteraciones del metabolismo fosfocálcico. En 2016 se implementó una estrategia de prevención a través del monitoreo fosfocálcico y su suplementación temprana. El objetivo fue estudiar si esta estrategia disminuye la prevalencia de osteopenia e identificar factores de riesgo asociados. Población y métodos. Estudio cuasiexperimental que comparó la prevalencia de osteopenia entre dos grupos: uno después de implementar la estrategia de monitoreo y suplementación fosfocálcica (01/01/2017-31/12/2019), y otro previo a dicha intervención (01/01/2013-31/12/2015). Resultados. Se incluyeron 226 pacientes: 133 pertenecen al período preintervención y 93 al posintervención. La prevalencia de osteopenia global fue del 26,1 % (IC95% 20,5-32,3) y disminuyó del 29,3 % (IC95% 21,7-37,8) en el período preintervención al 21,5 % (IC95% 13,6-31,2) en el posintervención, sin significancia estadística (p = 0,19). En el análisis multivariado, el puntaje NEOCOSUR de riesgo de muerte al nacer, recibir corticoides posnatales y el período de intervención se asociaron de manera independiente a osteopenia. Haber nacido luego de la intervención disminuyó un 71 % la probabilidad de presentar fosfatasa alcalina >500 UI/L independientemente de las restantes variables incluidas en el modelo. Conclusión. La monitorización y suplementación fosfocálcica precoz constituye un factor protector para el desarrollo de osteopenia en recién nacidos con muy bajo peso al nacer.


Introduction. With the use of aggressive parenteral nutrition in very low birth weight infants, alterations in calcium and phosphate metabolism were detected. In 2016, a prevention strategy was implemented through calcium phosphate monitoring and early supplementation. Our objective was to study whether this strategy reduces the prevalence of osteopenia and to identify associated risk factors. Population and methods. Quasi-experiment comparing the prevalence of osteopenia between two groups: one after implementing the calcium phosphate monitoring and supplementation strategy (01/01/2017­12/31/2019) and another prior to such intervention (01/01/2013­12/31/2015). Results. A total of 226 patients were included: 133 in the pre-intervention period and 93 in the post-intervention period. The overall prevalence of osteopenia was 26.1% (95% CI: 20.5­32.3) and it was reduced from 29.3% (95% CI: 21.7­37.8) in the pre-intervention period to 21.5% (95% CI: 13.6­31.2) in the post-intervention period, with no statistical significance (p = 0.19). In the multivariate analysis, the NEOCOSUR score for risk of death at birth, use of postnatal corticosteroids, and the intervention period were independently associated with osteopenia. Being born after the intervention reduced the probability of alkaline phosphatase > 500 IU/L by 71%, regardless of the other variables included in the model. Conclusion. Calcium phosphate monitoring and early supplementation is a protective factor against the development of osteopenia in very low birth weight infants.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/prevention & control , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/epidemiology , Calcium , Phosphates , Calcium Phosphates , Prevalence
2.
Ibom Medical Journal ; 17(1): 56-61, 2024. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1525510

ABSTRACT

Background:Methicillin resistant S. aureus(MRSA) has become a major public health predicament worldwide. This is owing to its involvement in the evolution of MDR strains and difficulty in therapeutic management of infected patients. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureusamong patients in two health facilities in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.Materials and Methods:Clinical isolates of patients from University of Uyo Teaching Hospital (UUTH), Uyo and General Hospital, Ikot Abasi (GHIA) were investigated based on the strategic location of the hospitals. The study design was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Three hundred clinical samples were collected from male and female in and out-patients of all ages and processed using standard bacteriological methods. Detection of Staphylococcus aureusand MRSAstrains were done according to standard protocols while antibiotic susceptibility testing of MRSAisolates was conducted using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method and interpreted following the CLSI 2021 guidelines. Results:The prevalence of MRSAstrains in this study was 42.9%. Majority of patients with MRSAwere from UUTH (44%) closely followed by patients from GHIA(40%). High antibiotics resistant rates of MRSAwere recorded for ampicillin (96.6%), ciprofloxacin (73.3%), erythromycin (63.3%) and cotrimoxazole (60%). Gentamicin and ceftriaxone sensitivity rates were 53.3% and 63.4%, respectively. Conclusion:Health facilities in the state should institute effective antimicrobial stewardship, intensify surveillance and screening of Staphylococcus aureusfor MRSAstrains to guard against dissemination of multidrug resistant strains in both hospital and community settings because of the clinical implications


Subject(s)
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Prevalence
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254251, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350307

ABSTRACT

Abstract Blood and fecal samples of chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar), albino pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), silver pheasant (Lophura nycthemera), rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) were analyzed to check parasitic prevalence. To record parasites these five avian species were placed kept in separate cages at Avian Conservation and Research Center, Department of Wildlife an Ecology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. 100 fecal and 100 blood samples for each bird species were inspected to analyze internal parasites. During present study, 17 species of endoparasites 14 from fecal samples and three from blood were examined. Two species of ectoparasites i.e. mite Dermanyssus gallinae 42% and fowl ticks Args persicus 41%were studied. Blood parasites included Plasmodium juxtanucleare 50%, Leucoctoyzoon simond having parasitic prevalence 40%, and Aegyptinella pullorum having parasitic prevalence of 40%. Parasitic species recorded from fecal samples included 6 species of nematodes viz. Allodpa suctoria 2%. Syngamus trachea with parasitic prevalence of 60%, Capillaria annulata 37.5%, Ascardia galli 24%, Capillaria anatis 40% and Heterakis gallinarum 28.3%. Similarly, two species of trematodes viz. Prosthogonimus ovatus having parasitic prevalence of 50% and Prosthogonimus macrorchis 21% were also documented from fecal avian samples . Single cestode species Raillietina echinobothrida having parasitic prevalence of 72% and 3 protozoan species i.e. Eimeria maxima having parasitic prevalence of 21%, Giardia lamblia 41% and Histomonas meleagridis 18% were documented during corpological analysis. In our recommendation, proper sanitation, medication and vaccination of bird's enclousres are suggested to avoid parasites.


RESUMO Amostras de sangue e fezes de perdiz chukar (Alectoris chukar), faisão-albino (Phasianus colchicus), faisão-prateado (Lophura nycthemera), periquito-de-rosa (Psittacula krameri) e perus (Meleagris gallopavo) foram analisadas para verificar a prevalência de parasitas. Para registrar os parasitas, essas cinco espécies de aves foram colocadas em gaiolas separadas no Centro de Conservação e Pesquisa de Aves, Departamento de Vida Selvagem e Ecologia, Universidade de Veterinária e Ciências Animais, Lahore, Paquistão. Cem amostras fecais e 100 amostras de sangue para cada espécie de ave foram inspecionadas para analisar os parasitas internos. Durante o presente estudo, foram examinadas 17 espécies de endoparasitas, 14 de amostras fecais e 3 de sangue. Foram estudadas duas espécies de ectoparasitas, ou seja, o ácaro Dermanyssus gallinae 42% e o carrapato aviário Args persicus 41%. Os parasitas sanguíneos incluíram Plasmodium juxtanucleare 50%, Leucoctoyzoon simond com prevalência parasitária de 40% e Aegyptinella pullorum com prevalência parasitária de 40%. As espécies parasitas registradas em amostras fecais incluíram 6 espécies de nematoides viz. Allodpa suctoria 2%, Syngamus traqueia com prevalência parasitária de 60%, Capillaria annulata 37,5%, Ascardia galli 24%, Capillaria anatis 40% e Heterakis gallinarum 28,3%. Da mesma forma, duas espécies de trematódeos viz. Prosthogonimus ovatus com prevalência parasitária de 50% e Prosthogonimus macrorchis 21% também foram documentados em amostras fecais de aves. Espécies de cestoide único Raillietina echinobothrida com prevalência parasitária de 72% e 3 espécies de protozoários, isto é, Eimeria maxima com prevalência parasitária de 21%, Giardia lamblia 41% e Histomonas meleagridis 18% foram documentadas durante a análise corpológica. Em nossa recomendação, o saneamento adequado, medicação e vacinação de invólucros de pássaros são sugeridos para evitar parasitas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Parasites , Bird Diseases/epidemiology , Galliformes , Prevalence , Animals, Wild
4.
Actual. SIDA. infectol ; 31(113): 34-41, 20230000. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1527380

ABSTRACT

ntroducción: El diagnóstico tardío de la infección por VIH y el acceso de los pacientes con enfermedad avanzada al sistema de salud afectan negativamente los beneficios in-dividuales y colectivos del tratamiento antirretroviral. A nivel mundial existe una alta prevalencia de diagnóstico tardío es-pecialmente en poblaciones vulnerables como los migrantes.Objetivos: Medir la prevalencia de diagnóstico tardío de infección por VIH entre migrantes internacionales y com-pararla con la de los argentinos.Material y métodos: Estudio retrospectivo, observacional, de personas mayores de 16 años asistidas en el Hospital General de Agudos Donación Francisco Santojanni que hubieran recibido diagnóstico de infección por VIH entre 01/1/2018 y el 31/12/2021. Se determinó la mediana de recuento de CD4 basal y la prevalencia de diagnóstico tar-dío. Aplicamos la prueba de la suma de rangos de Wilcoxon para la variable contínua y la prueba de Fisher para com-parar proporciones.Resultados: Incluimos 199 personas (52 migrantes, 147 argentinos). Los migrantes presentaron un nivel basal de linfocitos CD4 significativamente menor [Mediana (RIC 25-75) 248 (79-466) vs. 331 (166-532); p=0,044], mayor tasa de presentación tardía [69,2% vs. 54,4%; RR 1,27 (IC95 1,01-1,61); p=0,072] y con sida [44,2% vs. 30,6%; RR 1,44 (IC95 0,98-2,13); p=0,089] y una menor proporción de diagnós-ticos en etapa temprana [13,5% vs. 29,3%; RR 0,46 (IC95 0,22-0,96); p=0,026].Conclusiones: Los migrantes internacionales accedieron al diagnóstico en peor estado clínico que los argentinos. Conocer este dato es imprescindible para elaborar políti-cas tendientes a mejorar el acceso al diagnóstico de esta población vulnerable.


Introduction: The late diagnosis of HIV infection and the access of patients to health system with advanced disease negatively affect the individual and collective benefits of antiretroviral treatment. There is a worldwide high prevalence of late diagnosis, specially in vulnerable populations, such as migrants.Objectives: to measure the prevalence of late diagnosis of HIV infection among international migrants and compare it with the people born in Argentina.Material and methods: retrospective and observational study of people over 16 years old, assisted at the Donación Francisco Santojanni General Hospital, who had received a diagnosis of HIV infection between 01-01-2018 and 12-31-2021. The median baseline CD4 cell count and the prevalence of late diagnosis were determined. We applied the Wilcoxon rank sum test for the continuous variable and the Fisher test to compare proportions.Results: 199 subjects (52 migrants, 147 Argentinians) were included. Migrants presented a significantly lower baseline CD4 cell count [Median (IQR 25-75) 248 (79-466) vs 331 (166-532); p=0.044], a higher rate of late presentation [69.2% vs 54.4%; RR 1.27 (CI95 1.01-1.61); p=0.072], presentation with aids [44.2% vs 30.6%; RR 1.44 (CI95 0.98-2.13); p=0.089]; and a lower proportion of early stage presentation [13.5% vs 29.3%; RR 0.46 (CI95 0.22-0.96); p=0.026].Conclusions: international migrants accessed to the diagnosis in a worse clinical condition than Argentinians. Knowing this information is essential for the development of policies aimed to improve the access to diagnosis of this vulnerable population


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Transients and Migrants , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Prevalence , Vulnerable Populations , Delayed Diagnosis
5.
Respirar (Ciudad Autón. B. Aires) ; 15(4): 263-278, Diciembre 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1518685

ABSTRACT

Las enfermedades respiratorias crónicas avanzadas son prevalentes y producen deterioro de la calidad de vida, en particular la enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC), las enfermedades pulmonares intersticiales difusas (EPID) y las enfermedades neuromusculares progresivas con compromiso diafragmático (ENM). Quienes las padecen presentan síntomas persistentes que no son siempre adecuada-mente controlados por los tratamientos recomendados por las guías clínicas de mane-jo. El tratamiento paliativo de los síntomas persistentes es un punto relevante y suelen presentarse barreras para su implementación.Este artículo ofrece una revisión narrativa sobre una perspectiva latinoamericana acerca del rol de los cuidados paliativos en enfermedades respiratorias avanzadas.


Advanced chronic respiratory diseases are prevalent and cause deterioration in qual-ity of life, particularly chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), diffuse intersti-tial lung diseases (ILD) and progressive neuromuscular diseases with diaphragmatic involvement (NMD). Those who suffer from them usually present persistent symptoms that are not always adequately controlled by the treatments recommended by the clinical management guidelines. Palliative treatment of persistent symptoms is a relevant point, but the pal-liative approach usually presents barriers to its implementation.This article offers a narrative review over Latin American perspective on the role of pal-liative care in advanced respiratory diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Palliative Care , Respiratory Tract Diseases/therapy , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/therapy , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Neuromuscular Diseases/therapy , Prevalence , Caregivers , Drug Therapy , Pain Management
6.
Respirar (Ciudad Autón. B. Aires) ; 15(4): 253-262, Diciembre 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1518676

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Marianao históricamente ha sido un municipio de La Habana con alta carga de tuberculosis. Una nueva mirada sería importante.


Introduction: Marianao has historically been a municipality of Havana with a high bur-den of tuberculosis. A new look would be important.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Public Health , Epidemiological Monitoring , Socioeconomic Factors , Incidence , Prevalence , Cuba/epidemiology , Health Status Disparities , Sociodemographic Factors , Health Policy
7.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 31: e3980, Jan.-Dec. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1515333

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: identificar la prevalencia y los factores asociados a la ideación suicida pasiva y activa a lo largo de la vida en estudiantes ingresantes de posgrado. Método: estudio analítico y de diseño transversal, con una muestra compuesta por 321 estudiantes ingresantes de posgrado. Se realizó análisis estadístico descriptivo e inferencial múltiple. Resultados: los análisis multivariados indican que la ideación suicida pasiva y activa tuvieron una prevalencia mayor y similar en los estudiantes de orientación sexual minoritaria, del sexo femenino, que realizaban actividad física diaria ≤ 30 minutos/día y sufrieron victimización por violencia psicológica en los últimos 12 meses. Los factores abuso de alcohol, las exigencias del posgrado stricto sensu no afectaron las relaciones familiares y baja autoestima se asociaron solo con la ideación suicida pasiva. A su vez, el consumo de marihuana en los últimos 30 días, no tener una buena relación interpersonal con sus pares académicos, ejercer la actividad profesional junto con las exigencias del posgrado se asociaron únicamente con ideación suicida activa. Conclusión: se identificó una alta prevalencia de ideación suicida pasiva y activa a lo largo de la vida en los estudiantes ingresantes de posgrado y se comprobó que hubo similitudes y diferencias entre algunos de los factores asociados a ambos resultados.


Objective: to identify the prevalence and factors associated with passive and active suicidal ideation throughout life among students entering graduate courses. Method: an analytical and cross-sectional study with a sample comprised of 321 students entering graduate courses. Multiple descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were performed. Results: the multivariate analyses indicated that passive and active suicidal ideation were similarly more prevalent among female students belonging to minority sexual orientations who engaged in daily physical activity ≤ 30 minutes/day and were victims of psychological violence in the past 12 months. Alcohol abuse, family relationships not impaired due to the demands imposed by stricto sensu graduate studies and low self-esteem were only associated with passive suicidal ideation. In turn, recent marijuana use in the last 30 days, poor interpersonal relationships with academic peers, and engagement in professional activities concomitantly with the demands imposed by graduate studies were only associated with active suicidal ideation. Conclusion: high prevalence of lifetime passive and active suicidal ideation was identified among graduate students, and similarities and differences were verified between some associated factors for both outcomes.


Objetivo: identificar a prevalência e fatores associados à ideação suicida passiva e ativa ao longo da vida em estudantes ingressantes na pós-graduação. Método: estudo analítico e de delineamento transversal, amostra composta por 321 estudantes ingressantes da pós-graduação. Realizou-se análise estatística descritiva e inferencial múltipla. Resultados: análises multivariadas apontaram que ideação suicida passiva e ativa foram similarmente mais prevalentes entre estudantes de orientações sexuais minoritárias, do sexo feminino, que realizavam atividade física diária ≤ 30 minutos/dia e sofreram vitimização por violência psicológica nos últimos 12 meses. O abuso de álcool, o não prejuízo no relacionamento familiar por demandas da pós-graduação stricto sensu e a baixa autoestima foram associadas unicamente com ideação suicida passiva. Por sua vez, o consumo de maconha ocorrido nos últimos 30 dias, a falta de um relacionamento interpessoal satisfatório com seus pares acadêmicos e a prática da atividade profissional em concomitância com as demandas da pósgraduação foram associadas apenas com ideação suicida ativa. Conclusão: identificou-se alta prevalência de ideação suicida passiva e ativa ao longo da vida entre estudantes ingressantes na pós-graduação e verificou-se a ocorrência de similitudes e diferenças entre alguns fatores associados para ambos os desfechos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Students , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Alcoholism , Suicidal Ideation
8.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 17(3): 224-228, sept. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514370

ABSTRACT

El Centro de Salud Familiar (CESFAM) de San Pedro de Atacama, es el único establecimiento de Atención de salud en la comuna y alrededores, se hace imperativo para los Cirujanos Dentistas ser resolutivos y entregar una solución efectiva a la demanda local. El objetivo de este trabajo consistió en determinar prevalencia de complicaciones postexodoncia de terceros molares de pacientes atendidos en CESFAM San Pedro de Atacama entre enero y octubre de 2020. Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal entre enero y octubre 2020, se realizó revisión retrospectiva de fichas clínicas manuales y base de datos electrónica de atenciones odontológicas realizadas en CESFAM. Se incluyeron en el estudio pacientes mayores 18 años, sistémicamente sanos o ASA II compensados, que se hayan realizado exodoncia de tercer molar superior o inferior y que hayan asistido a control clínico a los 7 días. Se excluyeron fichas clínicas ilegibles o sin evolución, pacientes que tuvieran antecedentes de pericoronaritis hasta 7 días previos y pacientes inmunocomprometidos. La frecuencia de complicaciones postoperatorias se relacionó según dificultad de la intervención (leve/moderada/alta) y si el diente era maxilar o mandibular. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo y estadístico de los datos obtenidos mediante prueba exacta de Fisher para evaluar asociación entre las variables utilizando programa estadístico STATA v. 15. Entre enero y octubre de 2020 se realizaron 146 exodoncias de terceros molares; 61 fueron de dificultad leve (41,7 %), 58 dificultad moderada (39,8 %) y 21 dificultad alta (18,5 %). El total de complicaciones postexodoncia alcanza 5,4 % (n=8) donde la complicación más frecuente es alveolitis. Las complicaciones postexodoncia se relacionan significativamente con el nivel de dificultad leve (p0,05).


The Communnity Health Center (CESFAM) of San Pedro de Atacama, is the only establishment of health assistance in the community and surroundings, it is imperative for Dental Surgeons to be decisive and deliver an effective solution to local demand. Determinate the prevalence of post-extraction complications of third molars in patients treated at CESFAM San Pedro de Atacama between January and October 2020. Descriptive cross- sectional study between January and October 2020. It has been done a retrospective review of manual clinical records and electronic database of dental care performed at CESFAM. Patients over 18 years old, systemically healthy or compensated ASA II, who had extracted an upper or lower third molar and who had attended a 7-day clinical check-up were included in the study. Were excluded Illegible or no follow up clinical records, patients with a history of pericoronitis up to 7 days previously, and immunocompromised patients. The frequency of postoperative complications was related to the difficulty of the intervention (mild / moderate / high) and whether the tooth was maxillary or mandibular. A descriptive and statistical analysis of the data obtained by Fisher's exact test was carried out to evaluate the association between the variables using the statistical program STATA v. 15. Between January and October 2020, 146 third molar extractions were performed; 61 were of mild difficulty (41.7 %), 58 of moderate difficulty (39.8 %) and 21 of high difficulty (18.5 %). The result of post-extraction complications reached 5.4 % (n = 8), where the most frequent complication was alveolitis. Post-extraction complications are significantly related to the level of mild difficulty (p 0,05).


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Surgery, Oral , Molar, Third/surgery , Tooth Extraction , Chile/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prevalence , Dry Socket/complications
9.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 17(3): 229-235, sept. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514372

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la prevalencia de anomalías dentomaxilares y la necesidad de tratamiento ortodóncico en escolares pertenecientes al pueblo originario de Rapa Nui. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, observacional, transversal y no probabilístico. Se evaluaron 85 alumnos entre primero básico y primero medio, entre los 6 y 16 años de edad, de dos colegios de Rapa Nui. Se realizó un examen clínico estandarizado, realizado por dos investigadores previamente calibrados, donde se completó una ficha clínica diseñada para el estudio. Para el análisis de las anomalías dentomaxilares se realizó un escaneo digital de la cavidad oral completa para su posterior análisis. De 85 estudiantes evaluados, 75 (88,2 %) se encontraban afectados por algún tipo de anomalía dentomaxilar en el plano sagital, vertical y/o transversal, independiente de su gravedad. Un 87,1 % de los estudiantes necesitan tratamiento ortodóncico según el Índice de Necesidad de Tratamiento Ortodóncico, de los cuales un 57,7, % se clasificó dentro de los rangos de moderado, grave y muy grave. Existe una alta prevalencia de anomalías dentomaxilares en los escolares pertenecientes al pueblo originario Rapa Nui, encontrándose por sobre las cifras nacionales como internacionales, lo cual da como resultado que la mayoría de los alumnos evaluados necesiten de algún tipo tratamiento ortodóncico, ya sea preventivo, interceptivo y/o correctivo.


The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dentomaxillary anomalies and the need for orthodontic treatment in schoolchildren belonging to the Rapa Nui native people. A descriptive, observational, cross- sectional and non-probabilistic study was carried out. Eighty- five students between first grade and first middle school, between 6 and 16 years of age, from two schools of Rapa Nui were evaluated. A standardized clinical examination was performed by two previously calibrated investigators, where a clinical record designed for the study was completed. For the analysis of dentomaxillary anomalies, a digital scan of the full mouth was performed for subsequent analysis. Of 85 students evaluated, 75 (88.2 %) were affected by some type of dentomaxillary anomaly in the sagittal, vertical and/or transversal plane, regardless of its severity. Some 87.1 % of the students needed orthodontic treatment according to the Orthodontic Treatment Need Index, of which 57.7 % were classified within the moderate, severe and very severe ranges. There is a high prevalence of dentomaxillary anomalies in schoolchildren belonging to the Rapa Nui native people, which is above the national and international figures, resulting in the majority of the students evaluated needing some type of orthodontic treatment, whether preventive, interceptive and/or corrective.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Tooth Abnormalities/epidemiology , Indigenous Peoples , Chile/epidemiology , Prevalence , Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need/methods , Malocclusion/epidemiology
10.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 17(3): 372-383, sept. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514383

ABSTRACT

Canalis sinuosus, canal intraóseo localizado en región maxilar anterior, contiene elementos vasculonerviosos alveolares anterosuperiores. Diversas intervenciones en región maxilar anterior como colocación de implantes, exodoncias, instalación de microtornillos ortodóncicos, procedimientos quirúrgicos, entre otros, pueden comprometer al Canalis sinuosus y/o sus canales accesorios dañando los elementos contenidos en su interior causando complicaciones como hemorragias, parestesia, disestesia, etc. Dado el gran desconocimiento de su existencia, el Canalis sinuosus frecuentemente es confundido con lesiones patológicas y/o endodónticas. Clásicamente la literatura lo describe como una variación anatómica variación anatómica, sin embargo, presenta elevadas prevalencias (51,7 %-100 %), siendo cuestionada esta aseveración. Determinar prevalencia y característica s anatómicas del Canalis sinuosus mediante Cone Beam CT en pacientes chilenos del centro radiológico IMAPROX® entre 2017- 2021. Análisis retrospectivo de 220 CBCT maxilares anonimizados, considerando variables sexo, presencia del Canalis sinuosus, Canalis sinuosus uni/bilateral, diámetro mayor del Canalis sinuosus, presencia/número de accesorios. Análisis estadístico uni y bivariado. 100 % de prevalencia del Canalis sinuosus en ambos sexos, presencia bilateral 100 %. Diámetro mayor promedio del Canalis sinuosus: 2,58 mm. El 76,8 % presentó accesorios, siendo más prevalente la presencia de 2 CA (34,1 %). Una estructura anatómica normal habitual debe presentar sobre 50 % de prevalencia para ser considerada como tal, pero no hay consensos en criterios empleados para definir variación anatómica o estructura anatómica normal habitual. Literatura describe al Canalis sinuosus como variación anatómica, pero estudios actuales muestran elevadas prevalencias: Rusia 67 %, Brasil 88 %, Turquía, Colombia y Chile 100 %. Este estudio encontró 100 % de prevalencia, sugiriendo que Canalis sinuosus es una estructura anatómica normal habitual. Sin embargo, Canalis sinuosus es poco conocido asociándose a numerosas complicaciones por procedimientos odontológicos y/o quirúrgicos en RMA pudiendo generar hemorragias, parestesia/disestesia, dolor agudo, etc. Elevadas prevalencias reportadas sugieren que Canalis sinuosus es una estructura anatómica normal habitual y no una variación anatómica, pero se requieren más estudios y consensos para aseverarlo. Es de relevancia clínica conocer la existencia y localización del Canalis sinuosus para evitar complicaciones.


Canalis sinuosus, an intraosseous canal located in the anterior maxillary region, contains anterosuperior alveolar vascular-nervous elements. Various interventions in anterior maxillary region such as implant placement, extractions, installation of orthodontic microscrews, surgical procedures, among others, can compromise the Canalis sinuosus and/or its accessory canals, damaging the elements contained inside, causing complications such as bleeding, paresthesia, dysesthesia, etc. Given the great ignorance of its existence, Canalis sinuosus is frequently confused with pathological and/or endodontic lesions. Classically, the literature describes it as an anatomical variation, however, it presents high prevalence (51.7 %-100 %), this assertion being questioned. Objective: to determine the prevalence and anatomical characteristics of Canalis sinuosus using Cone Beam CT in Chilean patients from the IMAPROX® radiological center between 2017-2021. Retrospective analysis of 220 anonymous maxillary CBCT, considering variables sex, presence of Canalis sinuosus, uni/bilateral Canalis sinuosus, largest diameter of Canalis sinuosus, presence/number of accessory canals. Univariate and bivariate statistical analysis. The 100 % prevalence of Canalis sinuosus in both sexes, 100 % bilateral presence. Canalis sinuosus average major diameter: 2.58 mm, 76.8 % presented accessory canals, with the presence of 2 accessory canals being more prevalent (34.1 %). A habitual normal anatomical structure must have a prevalence of over 50 % to be considered as such, but there is no consensus on the criteria used to define anatomical variation or normal anatomical structure. Literature describes Canalis sinuosus as anatomical variation, but current studies show high prevalence: Russia 67 %, Brazil 88 %, Turkey, Colombia and Chile 100 %. This study found 100 % prevalence, suggesting that Canalis sinuosus is an normal anatomical structure. However, Canalis sinuosus is little known as it is associated with numerous complications from dental and/or surgical procedures in anterior maxillary region, which can cause bleeding, paresthesia/ dysesthesia, acute pain, etc. High reported prevalences suggest that Canalis sinuosus is an normal anatomical structure and not an anatomical variation, but more studies and consensus are required to confirm this. It is clinically relevant to know the existence and location of Canalis sinuosus to avoid complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography/methods , Maxilla/anatomy & histology , Chile/epidemiology , Prevalence , Anatomic Variation
11.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(4): e202202813, ago. 2023. mapas, graf, tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1442590

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La tuberculosis continúa siendo un problema frecuente en contextos de vulnerabilidad socioeconómica. El objetivo principal fue establecer la prevalencia de infección latente y viraje tuberculínico en contactos escolares de casos de tuberculosis. Población y métodos. En un área programática del sur de la ciudad, se evaluó la prevalencia de infección y viraje tuberculínico de 691 niñas, niños y adolescentes utilizando la prueba cutánea de tuberculina. Se investigó la asociación entre pérdida de seguimiento por parte del equipo de salud y características demográficas, escolares y asistencia inicial, y se describió el grado de adherencia cuando la quimioprofilaxis con isoniacida fue indicada. Resultados. Según las definiciones consideradas, la prevalencia de infección latente fue entre el 3,4 % (IC95 %: 2,3-5,2) y el 11,6 % (IC95 %: 9,3-14,4) de los 610 contactos con al menos una prueba cutánea aplicada. La incidencia de viraje tuberculínico se encontró entre el 0,3 % y el 6,8 % de los 294 evaluados. La edad mayor de 18 años, la mayor prevalencia de necesidades básicas insatisfechas en la comuna escolar, la pertenencia al turno escolar vespertino, la negatividad en la baciloscopia del caso índice y la ausencia de aplicación de la prueba cutánea inicial se asociaron con pérdida de seguimiento del contacto. Conclusiones. La incidencia de viraje tuberculínico en contactos escolares fue baja. La adherencia a isoniacida continúa siendo limitada. Se identificaron factores asociados con la pérdida de seguimiento de contactos que podrían orientar estrategias necesarias para mejorar este proceso.


Introduction. Tuberculosis continues to be a common problem in settings of socioeconomic vulnerability. Our primary objective was to establish the prevalence of latent infection and tuberculin conversion among school contacts of tuberculosis cases. Population and methods. In a programmatic area in the south of the City of Buenos Aires, the prevalence of latent infection and tuberculin conversion was assessed in 691 children and adolescents using the tuberculin skin test. The association between loss to follow-up by the health care team and the demographic, school, and baseline care characteristics was studied, and the level of adherence when isoniazid chemoprophylaxis was indicated was described. Results. According to established definitions, the prevalence of latent infection was between 3.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.3­5.2) and 11.6% (95% CI: 9.3­14.4) in the 610 contacts with at least one skin test. The incidence of tuberculin conversion was between 0.3% and 6.8% in the 294 assessed participants. Age older than 18 years, a higher prevalence of unmet basic needs in the school district, attending the afternoon school shift, negative sputum smear results in the index case, and absence of baseline skin test were associated with contact lost to follow-up. Conclusions. The incidence of tuberculin conversion among school contacts was low. Adherence to isoniazid treatment remains limited. Factors associated with loss of contact tracing were identified, which may guide strategies necessary to improve this process.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Latent Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Latent Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Latent Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculin , Tuberculin Test , Incidence , Prevalence , Isoniazid/therapeutic use
12.
Distúrb. comun ; 35(2): 59932, 02/08/2023.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1444680

ABSTRACT

Introdução: As infecções congênitas durante a gravidez são indicadores de risco para a deficiência auditiva. Objetivo: Verificar a frequência da deficiência auditiva nas crianças atendidas num serviço público com indicadores de risco de infecções congênitas. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo transversal retrospectivo. A população do estudo foi de crianças de 0 a 3 anos atendidas no período de 2011 a 2019. Foi realizada consulta e análise no banco de dados da Instituição extraindo informações das crianças quanto à presença de infecção congênita relatada (citomegalovírus, herpes, rubéola, sífilis, toxoplasmose, HIV e Zika vírus) e o diagnóstico audiológico completo. A amostra deste estudo foi constituída por 558 crianças e foram analisadas a presença de coocorrência entre as infecções ou de outros indicadores de risco para a deficiência auditiva. Realizou-se análise descritiva para estabelecer a frequência da deficiência auditiva em relação a cada infecção congênita isolada ou associada a outros indicadores de risco. Resultados: 14,40% das crianças apresentavam o relato de infecção congênita isolada ou em combinação com outro IRDA. A frequência da deficiência auditiva foi de 1,25%, com a presença da perda auditiva sensorioneural em seis crianças (85,71%) e uma perda auditiva do tipo condutiva (14,29%), das quais seis foram bilaterais (85,71%) e uma unilateral (14,29%). Esta frequência de deficiência auditiva foi relacionada ao histórico de citomegalovírus (57,14%), seguido de toxoplasmose (28,57%) e rubéola com Zika vírus (14,29%). Conclusão: A frequência do diagnóstico de deficiência auditiva foi de 1,25% nas crianças com relato de infecções congênitas. (AU)


Introduction: Congenital infections during pregnancy are risk indicators for hearing loss. Purpose: To verify the frequency of hearing loss in children attended at the public service with risk indicators for congenital infections. Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study. The population consisted of children aged 0 to 3 years attended in the period from 2011 to 2019. Consultation and analysis were carried out in the Institution's database, extracting information from the children regarding the presence of reported congenital infection (cytomegalovirus, herpes, rubella, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, HIV and Zika virus) and the complete audiological diagnosis. The sample of this study consisted of 558 children and the presence of co-occurrence between infections or other risk indicators for hearing loss was analyzed. Descriptive analysis was performed to establish the frequency of hearing loss in relation to each congenital infection isolated or associated with other risk indicators. Results: 14.40% of the children had a report of isolated congenital infection or in combination with another risk indicator. The frequency of hearing loss was 1.25%, with sensorineural hearing loss in six children (85.71%) and a conductive hearing loss (14.29%), of which six were bilateral (85, 71%) and one unilateral (14.29%). This frequency of hearing loss was related to the history of cytomegalovirus (57.14%), followed by toxoplasmosis (28.57%) and rubella with zika virus (14.29%). Conclusion: The frequency of diagnosis of hearing loss was 1.25% in children with reports of congenital infections. (AU)


Introducción: Las infecciones congénitas durante el embarazo son indicadores de riesgo de hipoacusia. Propósito: Verificar la frecuencia de hipoacusia en niños atendidos en el servicio público con indicadores de riesgo de infecciones congénitas. Métodos: Se trata de un estudio transversal retrospectivo. La población de estudio estuvo constituida por los niños de 0 a 3 años atendidos en el periodo de 2011 a 2019. Se realizó consulta y análisis en la base de datos de la Institución, extrayéndose información de los niños en cuanto a la presencia de infección congénita reportada (citomegalovirus, herpes, rubéola, sífilis, toxoplasmosis, VIH y virus Zika) y el diagnóstico audiológico completo. La muestra de este estudio estuvo constituida por 558 niños y se analizó la presencia de coocurrencia entre infecciones u otros indicadores de riesgo de hipoacusia. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo para establecer la frecuencia de hipoacusia con relación a cada infección congénita aislada o asociada a otros indicadores de riesgo. Resultados: El 14,40% de los niños tenían reporte de infección congénita aislada o en combinación con otro indicador de riesgo. La frecuencia de hipoacusia fue del 1,25%, con hipoacusia neurosensorial en seis niños (85,71%) y hipoacusia conductiva (14,29%), de los cuales seis fueron bilaterales (85,71%) y uno unilateral (14,29%). Esta frecuencia de hipoacusia se relacionó con el antecedente de citomegalovirus (57,14%), seguido de toxoplasmosis (28,57%) y rubéola con virus zika (14,29%). Conclusión: La frecuencia de diagnóstico de hipoacusia fue de 1,25% en niños con reporte de infecciones congénitas. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Hearing Loss/etiology , Congenital Abnormalities , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Hearing Loss/epidemiology
13.
Actual. SIDA. infectol ; 31(112): 44-52, 20230000. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1451847

ABSTRACT

La aparición del SARS-CoV-2 a fines de 2019 provocó difi-cultades en los sistemas sanitarios para cumplir con las metas propuestas por la OMS destinadas a erradicar el VIH, principalmente en países en vías de desarrollo. Con el fin de evaluar el impacto en nuestro medio, un hospital público de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires relevó los testeos de VIH (asistenciales y voluntarios) y sus resultados en el periodo enero 2017-diciembre 2022 a partir de los registros del laboratorio central. Los test realizados en pandemia fueron el 62% de los históricos (38% menos) y las prevalen-cias de serologías reactivas del asistencial mostraron una disminución (3,13% vs. 2,56%), mientras que las del Cen-tro de Prevención, Asesoramiento y Diagnóstico (CEPAD) aumentaron (3,56% vs. 5,39%). Teniendo en cuenta que la ausencia de diagnóstico de VIH implica perpetuación del virus en la población, y que el aumento de prevalencias de serologías reactivas en un grupo poblacional es indicativo de rebrote de VIH, es necesario retomar en forma proactiva la lucha contra el VIH


The emergence of SARS-COV-2 at the end of 2019 caused difficulties for the public health system to achieve the goals set by the WHO (World's Health Organization) focused on the eradication of HIV, mainly in developing countries. With the purpose of evaluating the impact in our field, a public hospital in Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires provided the information about the tested tests (assistance and voluntary) and their results from the records of the central laboratory (January 2017-December 2022).The pandemic tests were 62% of histories (38%) and the prevalence of reactive serology the Healthcare serology decreased 3,13% vs 2,56%), while the Center for Prevention, Counseling and Diagnosis (CEPAD) serology increased (3,56% vs. 5,39%). Considering that the absence of an HIV diagnosis implies perpetuation of the virus in the population, and the increase in PSR% in a group is indicative of a possible regrowth of HIV, it is necessary to resume the fight against HIV proactively


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Serologic Tests , Prevalence , HIV/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology
14.
Actual. SIDA. infectol ; 31(112): 27-35, 20230000. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1451761

ABSTRACT

ntroducción: Las infecciones perinatales pueden transmi-tirse al feto y al recién nacido. Sífilis, VIH y hepatitis B deben tamizarse durante la gestación.Objetivo: Conocer la incidencia, prevalencia y manejo de sífilis, VIH y hepatitis B en el binomio madre/hijo. Comparar resultados con estadísticas oficiales.Materiales y métodos: Estudio retrospectivo, descriptivo y analítico, mediante revisión de historias clínicas del Sana-torio de la Cañada y Hospital Pasteur, Villa María, Córdoba. Período 01/12/2020 al 31/07/2021. Resultados: Se estudiaron 870 embarazos, la incidencia de sífilis materna fue 52,87/1000 embarazos, 76,1% de las gestantes eran menores de 30 años y hubo 41% de diag-nósticos tardíos. La incidencia de sífilis congénita fue de 18,3/1000 RN vivos. La incidencia de VIH materno fue de 6,89/1000 embarazos, 66,7% tenían menos de 30 años y el 77,7% tuvo carga viral indetectable al parto. El 100% de los RN expuestos fueron estudiados, todos con carga viral indetectable al nacimien-to. No hubo casos de hepatitis B.Conclusión: 6,3% de las embarazadas presentaron al me-nos una serología reactiva y el mayor porcentaje diagnós-tico se centró en menores de 30 años. La incidencia de sífilis congénita superó la provincial y nacional (18,3 vs. 1,18 vs. 1,14). El porcentaje de positividad de VIH materno superó al provincial. No hubo transmisión vertical de VIH al nacimiento. La prevalencia de hepatitis B fue menor a las oficiales


Introduction: Perinatal infections can be transmitted to the fetus and new-born. Syphilis, HIV and Hepatitis B must be monitored during pregnancy.Objective: To know incidence, prevalence and management of syphilis, HIV and Hepatitis B in the mother/child binomial. To compare results with official statistics.Materials and methods: Retrospective, descriptive and analytical study, through the review of medical records from Sanatorio La Cañada and Hospital Pasteur in Villa Maria, Cordoba. Period 12/01/2020 to 07/31/2021.Results 870 pregnancies were studied, the incidence of maternal syphilis was 57.87/1000 pregnancies, 76.1% of pregnant women were under 30 years old, and there were 41% late diagnoses. The incidence of congenital syphilis was 18.3/1000 live newborns. The incidence of maternal HIV was 6.89/1000 pregnancies, 66.7% were women under 30 years old and 77.7% had undetectable viral load at birth. 100% of the exposed newborns were studied, all with undetectable viral load at birth. There were no cases of Hepatitis B.Conclusion: 6.3% of pregnant women presented at least one reactive serology and the highest diagnostic percentage was focused on those under 30 years old. The incidence of congenital syphilis exceeded the provincial and national data (18.3 vs 1.18 vs 1.14). The percentage of maternal HIV positivity was superior to the provincial one. There was no vertical transmission of HIV at birth. The prevalence of Hepatitis B was less than the official ones.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Syphilis, Congenital/therapy , Prevalence , HIV/immunology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Hepatitis B/therapy
15.
Prensa méd. argent ; 109(4): 158-165, 20230000. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1512367

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: El objetivo de la realización del presente artículo de revisión bibliográfica es analizar las características del Papiloma conjuntival como: el pronóstico, prevalencia, relación con el VPH, diagnóstico, tratamiento e importancia que representa la presencia del mismo. Métodos: El siguiente artículo se realizó mediante la búsqueda de artículos científicos en español e inglés, mismos que fueron obtenidos a través de base de datos como Scopus, PubMed y Google Academic. Se hizo usó de la plataforma virtual de la biblioteca católica de Cuenca utilizando comandos de búsqueda avanzada (""), AND, OR. Finalmente se incluyeron 15 artículos dentro de la revisión bibliográfica. Para el trabajo conjunto de los colaboradores se hizo uso de la plataforma Google Drive. Resultados: Papiloma conjuntival es un tumor de células escamosas benigno de la conjuntiva con una tendencia mínima a la malignidad. Estos tumores están relacionados con el VPH específicamente los tipos VI y XI. Para obtener un diagnóstico es importante realizar una anamnesis y un examen oftalmológico exhaustivo, una biopsia posterior a la extirpación de la lesión, la tomografía de coherencia óptica de alta definición (HR-OCT), y la biomicroscopia ultrasónica (UBM). El MSP, ha elaborado una iniciativa denominada "Programa Ampliado de Inmunizaciones (PAI)", mismo que consiste en el proceso de vacunación de la población femenina de 9, 10 y 11 años pertenecientes a escuelas públicas y privadas. Conclusiones: Es importante que las instituciones educativas fomenten más la salud ocular porque al momento de que existe un contagio de VPH hay riesgo de tener papiloma conjuntival y las personas desconocen este medio de transmisión. Además, se debe promover la vacunación en niños porque cualquier género es propenso a adquirir el VPH


Objective: The aim of this literature review article is to analyze the characteristics of: conjunctival papilloma such as prognosis, prevalence, relationship with HPV, diagnosis, treatment and importance of its presence. Methods: The following article was carried out by searching scientific articles in Spanish and English, which were obtained through databases such as Scopus, PubMed and Google Academic. We used the virtual platform of the Catholic Library of Cuenca using advanced search commands (""), AND, OR. Finally, 15 articles were included in the biliographic review. For the joint work of the collaborators, use was made of the Google Drive platform. Results: Conjunctival papilloma is a benign squamous cell tumor of the conjunctiva with a minimal tendency to malignancy. These tumors are related to HPV specifically types VI and XI. To obtain a diagnosis it is important to perform a thorough anamnesis and ophthalmologic examination, a biopsy after removal of the lesion, high-definition optical coherence tomography (HR-OCT), and ultrasonic biomicroscopy (UBM). The MSP has developed an initiative called "Expanded Program of Immunizations (PAI)", same that consists of the vaccination process of the female population of 9, 10 and 11 years old belonging to public and private schools. Conclusions: It is important that educational institutions promote more eye health because when there is an HPV infection there is a risk of having conjunctival papilloma and people are unaware of this means of transmission. In addition, vaccination should be promoted in children because any gender is prone to acquire HPV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Prevalence , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Human papillomavirus 6/immunology , Human papillomavirus 11/immunology
16.
RFO UPF ; 27(1): 58-72, 08 ago. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1509384

ABSTRACT

Objective: This cross-sectional study aimed to describe the prevalence of apical periodontitis (AP) in people living with HIV (PLHIV) over 50 years old and explore its association with sociodemographic, medical, and oral characteristics. Methods: Data from 59 PLHIV were collected, and the periapical area of 1018 teeth was evaluated through periapical radiographs (Rx) using the periapical index (PAI). The presence and quality of root fillings and restorations (coronal fillings and crowns) were assessed with Rx, and caries presence was based on Rx and clinical data. Viral load (VL) and T CD4 counts were also analyzed. Results: AP prevailed in 71% of individuals and 8% of teeth. Family income of >5 Brazilian minimum wages (OR=0.06, 95% CI=0.005-0.62) and having at least one root-filled tooth (OR=14.55, 95% CI=1.45-145.72) were associated with AP prevalence, whereas VL and T CD4 were not. Caries, root filling, and restorations were associated with AP occurrence. Conclusion: PLHIV presented a high AP prevalence, but intrinsic factors related to HIV infection were not associated with AP in the studied subjects. PLHIV would benefit from oral health policies to prevent AP, as the results indicate that the endodontic disease in the present sub-population might be related to social problems.(AU)


Objetivo: este estudo transversal teve como objetivo descrever a prevalência de periodontite apical (PA) em pessoas vivendo com HIV (PVHIV) acima de 50 anos de idade, e explorar sua associação com características sociodemográficas, médicas e bucais. Métodos: os dados de 59 PVHIV foram coletados e a região periapical de 1018 dentes foi avaliada através de radiografias periapicais (Rx) usando o Índice Periapical (PAI). A presença e qualidade das obturações radiculares e restaurações (restaurações diretas e coroas) também foram avaliadas no Rx; a presença de cárie foi baseada em dados clínicos e radiográficos. Carga Viral (CV) e contagem de linfócitos T CD4 também foram avaliados. Resultados: a prevalência de PA nos indivíduos foi de 71%, e 8% dos dentes apresentaram PA. Renda familiar >5 salários mínimos (OR=0.06, 95% CI=0.005-0.62) e ter pelo menos um dente com obturação endodôntica (OR=14.55, 95% CI=1.45-145.72) foram associados com a prevalência de PA, enquanto que CV e T-CD4 não foram. A presença de cárie, obturação endodôntica e restaurações foram associadas com a presença de PA no dente. Conclusão: PVHIV apresentaram uma alta prevalência de PA, mas fatores intrínsecos relacionados à infecção pelo HIV não foram associados com PA nos sujeitos avaliados. PVHIV se beneficiariam de políticas públicas de saúde para prevenir a PA, uma vez que os resultados indicam que a doença endodôntica na presente subpopulação pode ser relacionada a problemas sociais.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Periapical Periodontitis/epidemiology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Periapical Periodontitis/etiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Sex Distribution
17.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 58(4): 592-598, July-Aug. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521792

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective This study aimed to determine the prevalence of low back pain before and during the pandemic, comparing both periods. Methods A questionnaire was administered, containing questions about the presence of low back pain, sociodemographic characteristics and environmental factors that could be related to such pain. Results Among the 978 responses obtained, the prevalence of low back pain during the pandemic was 69.94%, which represented a significant increase over values from the pre-pandemic period (57.37%). A high prevalence of low back pain was found between all groups, especially among women. Some factors were associated with the incidence of low back pain, such as having previously diagnosed spinal problems and sedentary lifestyle. Conclusions The prevalence of low back pain increased significantly during the pandemic in the studied groups.


Resumo Objetivo Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar a prevalência de lombalgia antes e durante a pandemia, comparando os dois períodos. Métodos Foi aplicado um questionário contendo questões sobre a presença de lombalgia, características sociodemográficas e hábitos que poderiam estar relacionados à essa dor. Resultados Entre as 978 respostas obtidas, a prevalência de lombalgia durante a pandemia foi de 69,94%, o que representou um aumento significativo em relação aos valores do período pré-pandêmico (57,37%). Foi encontrada alta prevalência de lombalgia entre todos os grupos, principalmente entre as mulheres. Alguns fatores foram associados à incidência de lombalgia, como ter problemas de coluna previamente diagnosticados e sedentarismo. Conclusões A prevalência de lombalgia aumentou significativamente durante a pandemia nos grupos estudados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Risk-Taking , Students , Prevalence , Low Back Pain/epidemiology , COVID-19
18.
RFO UPF ; 28(1)20230808. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1524679

ABSTRACT

Objective: To estimate the prevalence of three roots in deciduous mandibular molars. Methodology: Electronic searches were carried out in PubMed and Scopus to identify cross-sectional studies published up to September 2023. The Joanna Briggs Institute tool was used to critically appraise the studies. STATA 16.0 was used to generate risk of bias figures and perform the meta-analysis. Results: Eighteen studies evaluating 9,067 patients (8,969 first molars and 10,765 second molars) were included in this review. The overall prevalence of radix in mandibular deciduous molars was 9.61% (3.67% for first molars and 18.72% for second molars). The prevalence rate of teeth diagnosed using Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) was similar to the diagnoses made using conventional radiographic techniques together (periapical, interproximal and panoramic). Final considerations: Lower deciduous molars with three roots have a prevalence of almost 10%, with a higher prevalence in second molars. The diagnosis of this morphological alteration can be made using conventional radiographic techniques, but the use of CBCT is recommended.(AU)


Objetivo: estimar a prevalência de três raízes em molares inferiores decíduos. Metodologia: foram realizadas buscas eletrônicas na PubMed e Scopus para identificar estudos transversais publicados até setembro/2023. Para a avaliação crítica dos estudos foi utilizada a ferramenta do Instituto Joanna Briggs. STATA 16.0 foi usado para gerar figura do risco de viés e realizar a metanálise. Resultados: dezoito estudos que avaliaram 9.067 pacientes (8.969 primeiros molares e 10.765 segundos molares) foram incluídos nesta revisão. A prevalência global de radix em molares decíduos inferiores foi de 9,61% (3,67% para primeiros molares e 18,72% para segundo molares). A taxa de prevalência de dentes com diagnóstico através de Tomografia Computadorizada Cone Beam (TCCB) foi semelhante aos diagnósticos realizados pelas técnicas radiográficas convencionais em conjunto (periapical, interproximal e panorâmica). Considerações finais: os molares decíduos inferiores com três raízes têm uma prevalência de quase 10%, com maior prevalência em segundo molares. O diagnóstico desta alteração morfológica pode ser feito através das técnicas radiográficas convencionais, porém recomenda-se a utilização de TCCB.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Tooth Abnormalities/epidemiology , Tooth Root/abnormalities , Molar/abnormalities , Prevalence , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography
19.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(3): e202202661, jun. 2023. tab, graf, mapas
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1435623

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El feto que no alcanza el potencial de crecimiento esperado en el útero se considera pequeño para la edad gestacional (PEG). Esta restricción depende de factores genéticos y/o ambientales; la altura geográfica es uno muy relevante. Este trabajo analiza la distribución espacial de las prevalencias de PEG y su tendencia secular en Jujuy (1991-2014). Materiales y métodos. Se analizaron los registros de 308 469 nacidos vivos de Jujuy (Dirección de Estadísticas e Información de Salud). Se estimaron prevalencias de PEG (peso/edad gestacional

Introduction. A fetus that does not reach the expected growth potential in utero is considered small for gestational age (SGA). Such restriction depends on genetic and/or environmental factors, being altitude a very relevant factor. This study analyzes the spatial distribution of the prevalence of SGA and its secular trend in Jujuy (1991­2014). Materials and methods. The records of 308 469 live births in Jujuy (Health Statistics and Information Department) were analyzed. The prevalence of SGA (weight/gestational age < P10 and < P3) was estimated for sex according to the INTERGROWTH-21 st standard in the ecoregions of Jujuy (Valle and Ramal ­less than 2000 MASL­, Puna, and Quebrada) across 3 periods (1991­2000, 2001­2009, 2010­2014) and proportions were compared. The secular trend was assessed using the Joinpoint regression analysis. Results. The overall prevalence of SGA was 2.3% (< P3) and 7% (< P10). Significantly higher values were observed in Puna and Quebrada in both SGA categories and across all periods. Only in Valle, significant differences were observed between sexes across all periods. The prevalence of SGA showed a significant downward secular trend at a provincial and regional level, and this was greater in Quebrada (5.2% < P3 and 3.5% < P10). Conclusions. A consistent and significant decrease in the prevalence of SGA has been observed since the 1990s in Jujuy, where altitude is itself a determining factor of size at birth, since the Puna and Quebrada regions showed the highest prevalence of SGA during the entire period.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Infant, Small for Gestational Age , Parturition , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Gestational Age , Altitude
20.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(3): e202202779, jun. 2023. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1435653

ABSTRACT

Introducción. En neonatos internados es frecuente sospechar sepsis neonatal, pero solo en el 25 % al 30 % se confirma con cultivos positivos. La selección del esquema antibiótico basándose en la epidemiología local favorece el uso racional y minimiza sus efectos colaterales. Objetivo primario. Describir la prevalencia de sepsis precoz y tardía con rescate microbiológico y sus características clínicas. Población y método. Estudio transversal retrospectivo, realizado del 1 de enero de 2013 al 31 de diciembre de 2017, en una maternidad pública de Argentina, que incluyó todos los recién nacidos internados en la unidad con diagnóstico de sepsis precoz y tardía con rescate microbiológico, y aquellos reingresados dentro del mes de vida. Resultados. Ingresaron 3322 recién nacidos, 1296 evaluados por sospecha de sepsis precoz, cultivos positivos en 25 (1,9 %; tasa: 0,86 ‰). El 52 % eran menores de 33 semanas de edad gestacional. Microorganismos: Escherichia coli 5, Listeria monocytogenes 4, Streptococcus agalactiae (SGB) 3, Streptococcus pneumoniae 3. Sepsis tardía (tasa 8,73 ‰), el 68 % ocurridas en menores de 33 semanas. Microorganismos intrahospitalarios: Staphylococcus coagulasa negativos 115, Staphylococcus aureus 47, Escherichia coli 30, Cándida spp. 16, Enterococcus faecalis 13, Klebsiella pneumoniae 11 y Streptococcus agalactiae 10. En los reingresos: E. coli 11, S. aureus 12, SGB 3 y Haemophilus influenzae 3. Conclusiones. Se observa en el período estudiado una frecuencia de sepsis precoz similar a los reportes internacionales, con predominio de E. coli y L. monocytogenes. La tasa de sepsis tardía presentó una tendencia descendente en los años analizados, con predominio de los cocos grampositivos


Introduction. Neonatal sepsis is often suspected in hospitalized newborn infants, but only in 25­30% of cases it is confirmed via a positive culture. Selecting the antibiotics based on local epidemiology favors their rational use and minimizes their side effects. Primary objective. To describe the prevalence of early- and late-onset sepsis with microorganism isolation and their clinical characteristics. Population and method. Retrospective, cross-sectional study conducted between 01-01-2013 and 12-31-2017 in a public maternity center of Argentina in all hospitalized newborn infants with a diagnosis of early- and late-onset sepsis with microorganism isolation, and those re-admitted in their first month of life. Results. A total of 3322 newborn infants were admitted; 1296 were assessed for suspected early- onset sepsis; 25 had a positive culture (1.9%; rate: 0.86‰). Of these, 52% were born before 33 weeks of gestation. Microorganisms: Escherichia coli 5, Listeria monocytogenes 4, Streptococcus agalactiae (SGB) 3, Streptococcus pneumoniae 3. Also, 68% of late-onset sepsis cases (rate: 8.73‰) occurred in infants born before 33 weeks of gestation. Hospital-acquired microorganisms: coagulase-negative Staphylococcus 115, Staphylococcus aureus 47, Escherichia coli 30, Candida spp. 16, Enterococcus faecalis 13, Klebsiella pneumoniae 11, and Streptococcus agalactiae 10. In re-admissions: E. coli 11, S. aureus 12, SGB 3, and Haemophilus influenzae 3. Conclusions. During the study period, the frequency of early-onset sepsis was similar to international reports, with a predominance of E. coli and L. monocytogenes. The rate of late-onset sepsis showed a downward trend in the analyzed years, with a predominance of Gram-positive cocci.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Sepsis/microbiology , Neonatal Sepsis/drug therapy , Neonatal Sepsis/epidemiology , Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus agalactiae , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Escherichia coli , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
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