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1.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 410-415, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981956

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to explore transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) findings of prostate cancer (PCa) guided by multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) and to improve the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) system for avoiding unnecessary mpMRI-guided targeted biopsy (TB). From January 2018 to October 2019, fusion mpMRI and TRUS-guided biopsies were performed in 162 consecutive patients. The study included 188 suspicious lesions on mpMRI in 156 patients, all of whom underwent mpMRI-TRUS fusion imaging-guided TB and 12-core transperineal systematic biopsy (SB). Univariate analyses were performed to investigate the relationship between TRUS features and PCa. Then, logistic regression analysis with generalized estimating equations was performed to determine the independent predictors of PCa and obtain the fitted probability of PCa. The detection rates of PCa based on TB alone, SB alone, and combined SB and TB were 55.9% (105 of 188), 52.6% (82 of 156), and 62.8% (98 of 156), respectively. The significant predictors of PCa on TRUS were hypoechogenicity (odds ratio [OR]: 9.595, P = 0.002), taller-than-wide shape (OR: 3.539, P = 0.022), asymmetric vascular structures (OR: 3.728, P = 0.031), close proximity to capsule (OR: 3.473, P = 0.040), and irregular margins (OR: 3.843, P = 0.041). We propose subgrouping PI-RADS score 3 into categories 3a, 3b, 3c, and 3d based on different numbers of TRUS predictors, as the creation of PI-RADS 3a (no suspicious ultrasound features) could avoid 16.7% of mpMRI-guided TBs. Risk stratification of PCa with mpMRI-TRUS fusion imaging-directed ultrasound features could avoid unnecessary mpMRI-TBs.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Prostate/pathology , Image-Guided Biopsy/methods
2.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 345-349, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981944

ABSTRACT

The long-term survival outcomes of radical prostatectomy (RP) in Chinese prostate cancer (PCa) patients are poorly understood. We conducted a single-center, retrospective analysis of patients undergoing RP to study the prognostic value of pathological and surgical information. From April 1998 to February 2022, 782 patients undergoing RP at Queen Mary Hospital of The University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong, China) were included in our study. Multivariable Cox regression analysis and Kaplan-Meier analysis with stratification were performed. The 5-year, 10-year, and 15-year overall survival (OS) rates were 96.6%, 86.8%, and 70.6%, respectively, while the 5-year, 10-year, and 15-year PCa-specific survival (PSS) rates were 99.7%, 98.6%, and 97.8%, respectively. Surgical International Society of Urological Pathology PCa grades (ISUP Grade Group) ≥4 was significantly associated with poorer PSS (hazard ratio [HR] = 8.52, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.42-51.25, P = 0.02). Pathological T3 stage was not significantly associated with PSS or OS in our cohort. Lymph node invasion and extracapsular extension might be associated with worse PSS (HR = 20.30, 95% CI: 1.22-336.38, P = 0.04; and HR = 7.29, 95% CI: 1.22-43.64, P = 0.03, respectively). Different surgical approaches (open, laparoscopic, or robotic-assisted) had similar outcomes in terms of PSS and OS. In conclusion, we report the longest timespan follow-up of Chinese PCa patients after RP with different approaches.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostate/pathology , Prostatectomy , Prognosis , Neoplasm Grading
3.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1510879

ABSTRACT

Luego de una lectura interesada y estructurada del artículo «Biopsia de próstata, acceso transperineal bajo anestesia local¼ 1, es innegable que el diagnóstico del cáncer de próstata se basa principalmente en los resultados de las biopsias tomadas, por lo cual es un procedimiento que se realiza con frecuencia por parte de médicos urólogos; se estima que en Europa y los Estados Unidos se realizan anualmente un millón de procedimientos basados en la elevación del antígeno prostático específico y en el hallazgo de un tacto rectal anormal. En la actualidad se encuentran disponibles varios abordajes para la toma de las biopsias de próstata, dentro de los que destaca el acceso transperineal como alternativa a la vía transrectal, basado en las complicaciones asociadas a esta (retención urinaria, hematuria, infección urinaria o del tracto genitourinario, sepsis). Desde 2015, cuando fue recomendada por la Asociación Europea de Urología como un procedimiento fiable, se ha generado una mayor adopción de esta técnica bien sea guiada por resonancia o por ultrasonido


After an interested and structured reading of the article "Prostate biopsy, transperineal access under local anesthesia", it is undeniable that the diagnosis of prostate cancer is based mainly on the results of the biopsies taken. it is undeniable that the diagnosis of prostate cancer is based mainly on the results of the biopsies taken, which is why it is a procedure frequently performed by urologists; it is estimated that in Europe and the United States one million procedures are performed annually based on the elevation of prostate-specific antigen and on the finding of an abnormal digital rectal examination. Several approaches are currently available for taking prostate biopsies, among which transperineal access stands out as an alternative to the transrectal route, based on the complications associated with it (urinary retention, hematuria, urinary or genitourinary tract infection, sepsis). Since 2015, when it was recommended by the European Association of Urology as a reliable procedure, it has generated a greater adoption of this technique either guided by MRI or ultrasound.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Prostate/pathology
4.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 1012-1016, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012355

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the expression differences of LLGL2 between prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) and prostatic acinar adenocarcinoma, and its potential clinical significance. Methods: Eighteen patients diagnosed of PDA or prostatic acinar adenocarcinoma with PDA component by histopathology during January 2015 and December 2019 in the Beijing Hospital, China were retrospectively studied. The transcriptome analysis was conducted using the tissue of PDA and prostatic acinar adenocarcinoma. Differentially expressed genes and the differences in expression profiles were identified. Further, differentially expressed proteins were verified by immunohistochemistry. Results: The tissue from 8 of the 18 patients were used for transcriptome analysis, the results of which were compared with data from public databases. 129 differentially expressed genes were identified. 45 of them were upregulated while 84 were downregulated. The results of gene enrichment analysis and gene oncology (GO) analysis revealed that the differentially expressed genes were mostly enriched in the hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and interleukin-17 related pathways. GPAT2, LLGL2, MAMDC4, PCSK9 and SMIM6 were differentially expressed between PDA and prostatic acinar adenocarcinoma. Moreover, LLGL2 was more likely expressed in the cytoplasm (P=0.04) than the nucleus (P<0.01) in PDA, compared with prostatic acinar adenocarcinoma. Conclusions: The gene expression profiling indicates that PDA are very similar to prostatic acinar adenocarcinoma. Among the differentially expressed proteins screened and verified in this study, the expression of GPAT2, LLGL2, MAMDC4 and PCSK9 is increased in PDA, while that of SMIM6 is reduced in PDA. The expression of LLGL2 shows significantly different patterns between PDA and prostatic acinar carcinoma, and thus may help differentiate PDA from prostatic acinar adenocarcinoma in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Carcinoma, Acinar Cell/pathology , Proprotein Convertase 9 , Prostate/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Prostatic Neoplasms/metabolism
5.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 353-357, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985679

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze three different integrated scoring schemes of prostate biopsy and to compare their concordance with the scoring of radical prostatectomy specimens. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 556 patients with radical prostatectomy performed in Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, Nanjing, China from 2017 to 2020. In these cases, whole organ sections were performed, the pathological data based on biopsy and radical prostatectomy specimens were summarized, and 3 integrated scores of prostate biopsy were calculated, namely the global score, the highest score and score of the largest volume. Results: Among the 556 patients, 104 cases (18.7%) were classified as WHO/ISUP grade group 1, 227 cases (40.8%) as grade group 2 (3+4=7); 143 cases (25.7%) as grade group 3 (4+3=7); 44 cases (7.9%) as grade group 4 (4+4=8) and 38 cases (6.8%) as grade group 5. Among the three comprehensive scoring methods for prostate cancer biopsy, the consistency of global score was the highest (62.4%). In the correlation analysis, the correlation between the scores of radical specimens and the global scores was highest (R=0.730, P<0.01), while the correlations of the scores based on radical specimens with highest scores and scores of the largest volume based on biopsy were insignificant (R=0.719, P<0.01; R=0.631, P<0.01, respectively). Univariate and multivariate analyses showed tPSA group and the three integrated scores of prostate biopsy were statistically correlated with extraglandular invasion, lymph node metastasis, perineural invasion and biochemical recurrence. Elevated global score was an independent prognostic risk factor for extraglandular invasion and biochemical recurrence in patients; increased serum tPSA was an independent prognostic risk factor for extraglandular invasion; increased hjighest score was an independent risk factor for perineural invasion. Conclusions: In this study, among the three different integrated scores, the overall score is most likely corresponded to the radical specimen grade group, but there is difference in various subgroup analyses. Integrated score of prostate biopsy can reflect grade group of radical prostatectomy specimens, thereby providing more clinical information for assisting in optimal patient management and consultation.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Prostate/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Prostatectomy/methods , Biopsy , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology
6.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 674-679, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009799

ABSTRACT

Using prostate-specific antigen (PSA) for prostate cancer (PCa) screening led to overinvestigation and overdiagnosis of indolent PCa. We aimed to investigate the value of prostate health index (PHI) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prostate in an Asian PCa screening program. Men aged 50-75 years were prospectively recruited from a community-based PSA screening program. Men with PSA 4.0-10.0 ng ml -1 had PHI result analyzed. MRI prostate was offered to men with PSA 4.0-50.0 ng ml -1 . A systematic prostate biopsy was offered to men with PSA 4.0-9.9 ng ml -1 and PHI ≥35, or PSA 10.0-50.0 ng ml -1 . Additional targeted prostate biopsy was offered if they had PI-RADS score ≥3. Clinically significant PCa (csPCa) was defined as the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) grade group (GG) ≥2 or ISUP GG 1 with involvement of ≥30% of total systematic cores. In total, 12.8% (196/1536) men had PSA ≥4.0 ng ml -1 . Among 194 men with PSA 4.0-50.0 ng ml -1 , 187 (96.4%) received MRI prostate. Among them, 28.3% (53/187) had PI-RADS ≥3 lesions. Moreover, 7.0% (107/1536) men were indicated for biopsy and 94.4% (101/107) men received biopsy. Among the men received biopsy, PCa, ISUP GG ≥2 PCa, and csPCa was diagnosed in 42 (41.6%), 24 (23.8%), and 34 (33.7%) men, respectively. Compared with PSA/PHI pathway in men with PSA 4.0-50.0 ng ml -1 , additional MRI increased diagnoses of PCa, ISUP GG ≥2 PCa, and csPCa by 21.2% (from 33 to 40), 22.2% (from 18 to 22), and 18.5% (from 27 to 32), respectively. The benefit of additional MRI was only observed in PSA 4.0-10.0 ng ml -1 , and the number of MRI needed to diagnose one additional ISUP GG ≥2 PCa was 20 in PHI ≥35 and 94 in PHI <35. Among them, 45.4% (89/196) men with PSA ≥4.0 ng ml -1 avoided unnecessary biopsy with the use of PHI and MRI. A screening algorithm with PSA, PHI, and MRI could effectively diagnose csPCa while reducing unnecessary biopsies. The benefit of MRI prostate was mainly observed in PSA 4.0-9.9 ng ml -1 and PHI ≥35 group. PHI was an important risk stratification step for PCa screening.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , East Asian People , Image-Guided Biopsy/methods , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Prostate/pathology , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies
7.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 148-156, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971380

ABSTRACT

Prostate cancer is currently one of the most common malignancies that endanger the lives and health of elderly men. In recent years, immunotherapy, which exploits the activation of anti-cancer host immune cells to accomplish tumor-killing effects, has emerged as a new study avenue in the treatment of prostate cancer. As an important component of immunotherapy, cancer vaccines have a unique position in the precision treatment of malignant tumors. Monocyte cell vaccines, dendritic cell vaccines, viral vaccines, peptide vaccines, and DNA/mRNA vaccines are the most often used prostate cancer vaccines. Among them, Sipuleucel-T, as a monocyte cell-based cancer vaccine, is the only FDA-approved therapeutic vaccine for prostate cancer, and has a unique position and role in advancing the development of immunotherapy for prostate cancer. However, due to its own limitations, Sipuleucel-T has not been widely adopted. Meanwhile, owing to the complexity of immunotherapy and the specificity of prostate cancer, the remaining prostate cancer vaccines have not shown good clinical benefit in large randomized phase II and phase III trials, and further in-depth studies are still needed.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Cancer Vaccines/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy , Prostate/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Tissue Extracts/therapeutic use
8.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 217-222, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971029

ABSTRACT

The Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) has good ability to identify the nature of lesions on prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, some lesions are still reported as PI-RADS 4 and 5 but are biopsy-proven benign. Herein, we aimed to summarize the reasons for the negative prostate biopsy of patients who were assessed as PI-RADS 4 and 5 by biparameter MRI. We retrospectively sorted out the prostate MRI, treatment, and follow-up results of patients who underwent a biparameter MRI examination of the prostate in The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University (Nanjing, China) from August 2019 to June 2021 with PI-RADS 4 and 5 but a negative biopsy. We focused on reviewing the MRI characteristics. A total of 467 patients underwent transperineal prostate biopsy. Among them, biopsy pathology of 93 cases were negative. After follow-up, 90 patients were ruled out of prostate cancer. Among the 90 cases, 40 were considered to be overestimated PI-RADS after review. A total of 22 cases were transition zone (TZ) lesions with regular appearance and clear boundaries, and 3 cases were symmetrical lesions. Among 15 cases, the TZ nodules penetrated the peripheral zone (PZ) and were mistaken for the origin of PZ. A total of 17 cases of lesions were difficult to distinguish from prostate cancer. Among them, 5 cases were granulomatous inflammation (1 case of prostate tuberculosis). A total of 33 cases were ambiguous lesions, whose performance was between PI-RADS 3 and 4. In summary, the reasons for "false-positive MRI diagnosis" included PI-RADS overestimation, ambiguous images giving higher PI-RADS, diseases that were really difficult to distinguish, and missed lesion in the initial biopsy; and the first two accounted for the most.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Retrospective Studies , Image-Guided Biopsy/methods , Prostate/pathology
9.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 171-178, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971022

ABSTRACT

Although immunotherapy has revolutionized cancer treatment and achieved remarkable success across many different cancer types, only a subset of patients shows meaningful clinical responses. In particular, advanced prostate cancer exhibits overwhelming de novo resistance to immune checkpoint blockade therapy. This is primarily due to the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment of prostate cancer. Therefore, it is paramount to understand how prostate cancer cell-intrinsic mechanisms promote immune evasion and foster an immunosuppressive microenvironment. Here, we review recent findings that reveal the roles of the genetic alterations, androgen receptor signaling, cancer cell plasticity, and oncogenic pathways in shaping the immunosuppressive microenvironment and thereby driving immunotherapy resistance. Based on preclinical and clinical observations, a variety of therapeutic strategies are being developed that may illuminate new paths to enhance immunotherapy efficacy in prostate cancer.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostate/pathology , Immunotherapy , Tumor Microenvironment
10.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 259-264, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971018

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to analyze the value of transrectal shear-wave elastography (SWE) in combination with multivariable tools for predicting adverse pathological features before radical prostatectomy (RP). Preoperative clinicopathological variables, multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) manifestations, and the maximum elastic value of the prostate (Emax) on SWE were retrospectively collected. The accuracy of SWE for predicting adverse pathological features was evaluated based on postoperative pathology, and parameters with statistical significance were selected. The diagnostic performance of various models, including preoperative clinicopathological variables (model 1), preoperative clinicopathological variables + mp-MRI (model 2), and preoperative clinicopathological variables + mp-MRI + SWE (model 3), was evaluated with area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) analysis. Emax was significantly higher in prostate cancer with extracapsular extension (ECE) or seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) with both P < 0.001. The optimal cutoff Emax values for ECE and SVI were 60.45 kPa and 81.55 kPa, respectively. Inclusion of mp-MRI and SWE improved discrimination by clinical models for ECE (model 2 vs model 1, P = 0.031; model 3 vs model 1, P = 0.002; model 3 vs model 2, P = 0.018) and SVI (model 2 vs model 1, P = 0.147; model 3 vs model 1, P = 0.037; model 3 vs model 2, P = 0.134). SWE is valuable for identifying patients at high risk of adverse pathology.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Prostate/pathology , Seminal Vesicles/diagnostic imaging , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Retrospective Studies , Extranodal Extension/pathology , Neoplasm Staging , Prostatectomy/methods , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods
11.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 223-229, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971017

ABSTRACT

We identified distinct senescence-related molecular subtypes and critical genes among prostate cancer (PCa) patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) or radical radiotherapy (RT). We conducted all analyses using R software and its suitable packages. Twelve genes, namely, secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (SFRP4), DNA topoisomerase II alpha (TOP2A), pleiotrophin (PTN), family with sequence similarity 107 member A (FAM107A), C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 14 (CXCL14), prostate androgen-regulated mucin-like protein 1 (PARM1), leucine zipper protein 2 (LUZP2), cluster of differentiation 38 (CD38), cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), vestigial-like family member 3 (VGLL3), apolipoprotein E (APOE), and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 family member (ALDH2), were eventually used to subtype PCa patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database and GSE116918, and the molecular subtypes showed good correlations with clinical features. In terms of the tumor immune environment (TME) analysis, compared with cluster 1, cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) scored significantly higher, while endothelial cells scored lower in cluster 2 in TCGA database. There was a statistically significant correlation between both CAFs and endothelial cells with biochemical recurrence (BCR)-free survival for PCa patients undergoing RP. For the GSE116918 database, cluster 2 had significantly lower levels of CAFs and tumor purity and higher levels of stromal, immune, and Estimation of STromal and Immune cells in MAlignant Tumor tissues using Expression data (ESTIMATE) scores than cluster 1; in addition, patients with high levels of CAFs, stromal scores, immune scores, and ESTIMATE scores and low levels of tumor purity tended to suffer from BCR. Based on the median of differentially expressed checkpoints, high expression of CD96, hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 2 (HAVCR2), and neuropilin 1 (NRP1) in GSE116918 and high expression of CD160 and tumor necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily member 18 (TNFSF18) in TCGA database were associated with a significantly higher risk of BCR than their counterparts. In conclusion, we first constructed distinct molecular subtypes and critical genes for PCa patients undergoing RP or RT from the fresh perspective of senescence.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Endothelial Cells , Ligands , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostate/pathology , Prostatectomy , Aldehyde Dehydrogenase, Mitochondrial , DNA-Binding Proteins , Transcription Factors
12.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 126-131, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970991

ABSTRACT

This study explored a new model of Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PIRADS) and adjusted prostate-specific antigen density of peripheral zone (aPSADPZ) for predicting the occurrence of prostate cancer (PCa) and clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa). The demographic and clinical characteristics of 853 patients were recorded. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), PSA density (PSAD), PSAD of peripheral zone (PSADPZ), aPSADPZ, and peripheral zone volume ratio (PZ-ratio) were calculated and subjected to receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The calibration and discrimination abilities of new nomograms were verified with the calibration curve and area under the ROC curve (AUC). The clinical benefits of these models were evaluated by decision curve analysis and clinical impact curves. The AUCs of PSA, PSAD, PSADPZ, aPSADPZ, and PZ-ratio were 0.669, 0.762, 0.659, 0.812, and 0.748 for PCa diagnosis, while 0.713, 0.788, 0.694, 0.828, and 0.735 for csPCa diagnosis, respectively. All nomograms displayed higher net benefit and better overall calibration than the scenarios for predicting the occurrence of PCa or csPCa. The new model significantly improved the diagnostic accuracy of PCa (0.945 vs 0.830, P < 0.01) and csPCa (0.937 vs 0.845, P < 0.01) compared with the base model. In addition, the number of patients with PCa and csPCa predicted by the new model was in good agreement with the actual number of patients with PCa and csPCa in high-risk threshold. This study demonstrates that aPSADPZ has a higher predictive accuracy for PCa diagnosis than the conventional indicators. Combining aPSADPZ with PIRADS can improve PCa diagnosis and avoid unnecessary biopsies.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Prostate/pathology , Prostate-Specific Antigen/analysis , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Biopsy , Nomograms , Retrospective Studies
13.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 43-49, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970989

ABSTRACT

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-targeted prostate biopsy is the recommended investigation in men with suspicious lesion(s) on MRI. The role of concurrent systematic in addition to targeted biopsies is currently unclear. Using our prospectively maintained database, we identified men with at least one Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) ≥3 lesion who underwent targeted and/or systematic biopsies from May 2016 to May 2020. Clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa) was defined as any Gleason grade group ≥2 cancer. Of 545 patients who underwent MRI fusion-targeted biopsy, 222 (40.7%) were biopsy naïve, 247 (45.3%) had previous prostate biopsy(s), and 76 (13.9%) had known prostate cancer undergoing active surveillance. Prostate cancer was more commonly found in biopsy-naïve men (63.5%) and those on active surveillance (68.4%) compared to those who had previous biopsies (35.2%; both P < 0.001). Systematic biopsies provided an incremental 10.4% detection of csPCa among biopsy-naïve patients, versus an incremental 2.4% among those who had prior negative biopsies. Multivariable regression found age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.03, P = 0.03), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) density ≥0.15 ng ml-2 (OR = 3.24, P < 0.001), prostate health index (PHI) ≥35 (OR = 2.43, P = 0.006), higher PI-RADS score (vs PI-RADS 3; OR = 4.59 for PI-RADS 4, and OR = 9.91 for PI-RADS 5; both P < 0.001) and target lesion volume-to-prostate volume ratio ≥0.10 (OR = 5.26, P = 0.013) were significantly associated with csPCa detection on targeted biopsy. In conclusion, for men undergoing MRI fusion-targeted prostate biopsies, systematic biopsies should not be omitted given its incremental value to targeted biopsies alone. The factors such as PSA density ≥0.15 ng ml-2, PHI ≥35, higher PI-RADS score, and target lesion volume-to-prostate volume ratio ≥0.10 can help identify men at higher risk of csPCa.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Prostate/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Image-Guided Biopsy/methods , Retrospective Studies
14.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 504-508, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935627

ABSTRACT

Prostate biopsy is the gold standard for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. In order to successfully and effectively complete the biopsy, clinicians should not only select the correct puncture method, but also pay attention to the pain control of patients undergoing puncture. It is necessary to select a reasonable anesthetic method for biopsy. The pain during biopsy comes from the skin, muscle and other structures in the puncture approach, and also comes from the prostate capsule. Therefore, the anesthesia emphasis of transperineal and transrectal biopsy approaches will also be different. The use of appropriate anesthesia is of great significance to improve the patient's cooperation and ensure the success rate of biopsy. With the continuous maturity of the technology and concept of prostate biopsy, a single anesthesia method has been unable to meet the actual anesthetic needs of biopsy, and the use of multi-site and multi-phase combined anesthesia for different sources of pain has become the mainstream anesthetic option.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Anesthesia , Anesthesia, Local , Biopsy , Image-Guided Biopsy/methods , Pain/pathology , Prostate/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology
15.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 1263-1268, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970666

ABSTRACT

Prostate cancer is the most common malignant tumor in male urinary system, and the morbidity and mortality rate are increasing year by year. Traditional imaging examinations have some limitations in the diagnosis of prostate cancer, and the advent of molecular imaging probes and imaging technology have provided new ideas for the integration of diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. In recent years, prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) has attracted much attention as a target for imaging and treatment of prostate cancer. PSMA ligand positron emission tomography (PET) has important reference value in the diagnosis, initial staging, detection of biochemical recurrence and metastasis, clinical decision-making guidance and efficacy evaluation of prostate cancer. This article briefly reviews the clinical research and application progress on PSMA ligand PET imaging in prostate cancer in recent years, so as to raise the efficiency of clinical applications.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Prostate/pathology , Ligands , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Positron-Emission Tomography
16.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 40(2): 167-173, 15/06/2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362229

ABSTRACT

Introduction Cerebral metastases are the most common cancer of the central nervous system (CNS). Meningeal infiltration by neoplasms that did not originate in the CNS is a rare fact that is present in 0.02% of the autopsies. Epidemiologically, the radiological presentation mimicking a subdural hematoma is even more uncommon. We report a case of meningeal carcinomatosis by an adenocarcinoma of the prostate mimicking a chronic subdural hematoma. Case Report A 60-year-old male patient was diagnosed with prostate cancer in 2011. He underwent radical resection of the prostate, as well as adjuvant hormonal therapy and chemotherapy. Five years later, the patient presented peripheral facial paralysis that evolved with vomiting and mental confusion. Tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans confirmed the subdural collection. At surgery, the dura was infiltrated by friable material of difficult hemostasis. The anatomicopathological examination showed atypical epithelial cells. The immunohistochemistry was positive for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and other keymarkers, and it was conclusive for meningeal carcinomatosis by a prostate adenocarcinoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/complications , Adenocarcinoma/therapy , Hematoma, Subdural, Chronic/therapy , Neoplasm Metastasis/therapy , Prostate/surgery , Prostate/pathology , Adenocarcinoma/complications , Adenocarcinoma/diagnostic imaging , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Hematoma, Subdural, Chronic/complications
17.
Lima; IETSI; mayo 1, 2021. 109 p. tab, ilus.
Non-conventional in Spanish | BIGG, LILACS | ID: biblio-1363277

ABSTRACT

El cáncer de próstata es producto de una proliferación descontrolada de células glandulares, ductales u otras de la glándula prostática. El tipo histológico más frecuente es el adenocarcinoma y se ubican principalmente en la zona periférica de la próstata (1). Así mismo, esta neoplasia se puede clasificar según el estadio clínico en cáncer de próstata localizado, localmente avanzado, y metastásico. Además, el cáncer de próstata localizado puede clasificarse según el riesgo en riesgo bajo, intermedio, o alto (1-4). En el mundo, el cáncer de próstata es la segunda neoplasia maligna más frecuente y una de las principales causas de mortalidad por cáncer en varones. Se diagnostican más de 1,2 millones de casos y las muertes relacionadas a esta neoplasia suelen superar las 350 mil cada año (1). En Perú, se reportó que el cáncer de próstata fue la neoplasia maligna más frecuente y la segunda más letal, independientemente de la edad y género (44,3 casos nuevos por cada 1000 habitantes, y 11,4 fallecimientos por cada 1000 habitantes, respectivamente) en el 2020, tendencia que se mantiene si se toma en cuenta solo a varones (5). En adición, en el Seguro Social de Salud de Perú (EsSalud) se estimó que el cáncer de próstata representó el 3,8% de los años de vida perdidos por muerte prematura causados por tumores malignos en el 2018 (6). Para reducir las cifras de mortalidad causadas por cáncer de próstata y otras neoplasias, en 2012 se implementó el Plan Esperanza, el cual pretende cubrir los servicios de prevención, detección temprana, diagnóstico definitivo, estadiaje, tratamiento y cuidado paliativo (7). Pese a ello, la tendencia de mortalidad por cáncer de próstata en varones mayores de 50 años se ha incrementado entre los años 2009 y 2016 (10,9% vs 21,8%, respectivamente) (8). Además, el manejo del cáncer de próstata se ha vuelto más complejo con el advenimiento de nuevas formas de subclasificación de grupos de riesgo, y nueva evidencia sobre la eficacia y seguridad de las diferentes modalidades de tratamiento inicial para esta neoplasia (3, 4, 9). Por ello, el Seguro Social de Salud (EsSalud) priorizó la realización de la presente guía de práctica clínica (GPC) para establecer enunciados basados en evidencia con el fin de gestionar de la mejor manera los procesos y procedimientos asistenciales de la presente condición. Esta GPC fue realizada por la Dirección de Guías de Práctica Clínica, Farmacovigilancia y Tecnovigilancia del Instituto de Evaluación de Tecnologías en Salud e Investigación (IETSI) de EsSalud.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Prostate/diagnostic imaging , Prostatic Neoplasms , Prostate/pathology , Ultrasonography
18.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 10(1): 262, abr. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LIVECS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1147578

ABSTRACT

El bloqueo del nervio peri prostático con lidocaína, proporciona un buen alivio del dolor en la realización de la biopsia prostática guiada por ultrasonido, pero el dolor post-procedimiento, puede llegar a ser significativo, la adición del supositorio de diclofenac, podría proporcionar alivio adicional. Se asignaron al azar pacientes en 2 grupos el grupo 1 bloqueo con lidocaína del plexo peri prostático + supositorio de diclofenac sódico y el grupo 2 bloqueo con lidocaína del plexo peri prostático + supositorio de placebo, realizando biopsia doble sextante, el dolor a varios intervalos después del procedimiento se registró en una escala visual análoga (EVA) de 0 a 10. Los 2 grupos fueron similares en cuanto a edad, volumen de próstata, antígeno prostático específico, diagnóstico histopatológico. Los pacientes que recibieron diclofenac tuvieron puntajes de dolor significativamente más bajos que los que recibieron placebo (2 frente a 3,35) p 0,02. La administración rectal de diclofenac antes de la realización de la biopsia de próstata es un procedimiento simple que alivia significativamente el dolor experimentado sin aumento en la morbilidad(AU)


The peri-prostatic nerve block with lidocaine, provides good pain relief in performing ultrasoundguided prostate biopsy, but the postprocedure pain can be significant, the addition of diclofenac suppository, could provide additional relief. Patients were randomly assigned in 2 groups to group 1 blockade with lidocaine of the prostatic peri plexus + suppository of diclofenac sodium and group 2 blockade with lidocaine of the prostatic peri plexus + placebo suppository, performing double sextant biopsy, pain at several intervals after the procedure was recorded on a visual analog scale (EVA) from 0 to 10. Thee 2 groups were similar in terms of age, prostate volume, prostate-specific antigen, histopathological diagnosis. Patients who received diclofenac had pain scores significantly lower than those who received placebo (2 vs. 3.35) p 0.02. Rectal administration of diclofenac before performing a prostate biopsy is a simple procedure that relieves significantly pain experienced without increased morbidity(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Prostate/pathology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Diclofenac/therapeutic use , Anesthetics, Local/therapeutic use , Lidocaine/therapeutic use , Nerve Block/methods , Placebos/therapeutic use , Prostate/diagnostic imaging , Administration, Rectal , Prospective Studies , Pain Management/methods , Image-Guided Biopsy , Anesthesia, Local
19.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 29-38, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880916

ABSTRACT

Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed non-cutaneous cancers in North American men. While androgen deprivation has remained as the cornerstone of prostate cancer treatment, resistance ensues leading to lethal disease. Forkhead box A1 (FOXA1) encodes a pioneer factor that induces open chromatin conformation to allow the binding of other transcription factors. Through direct interactions with the Androgen Receptor (AR), FOXA1 helps to shape AR signaling that drives the growth and survival of normal prostate and prostate cancer cells. FOXA1 also possesses an AR-independent role of regulating epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In prostate cancer, mutations converge onto the coding sequence and cis-regulatory elements (CREs) of FOXA1, leading to functional alterations. In addition, FOXA1 activity in prostate cancer can be modulated post-translationally through various mechanisms such as LSD1-mediated protein demethylation. In this review, we describe the latest discoveries related to the function and regulation of FOXA1 in prostate cancer, pointing to their relevance to guide future clinical interventions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Amino Acid Sequence , Epigenesis, Genetic , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 3-alpha/metabolism , Histone Demethylases/metabolism , Histones/metabolism , Mutation , Prostate/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Protein Binding , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Receptors, Androgen/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Transcription, Genetic
20.
Rev. argent. radiol ; 84(4): 115-122, ago. 2020. tab, graf, il.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1149663

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio es demostrar la utilidad de una secuencia tardía post-contraste en la resonancia magnética multiparamétrica de próstata (RMMP) para caracterizar lesiones PI-RADS II. Materiales y métodos: Se analizaron en forma retrospectiva las RMMP realizadas entre enero de 2015 y diciembre de 2016. El protocolo de la RMMP fue basado en las recomendaciones del PI-RADS versión 2, y se agregó una adquisición tardía luego del dinámico post-contraste. Los reportes fueron revisados bajo la versión 2.1. Resultados: Se seleccionaron 31 pacientes que presentaron lesiones categorizadas como PI-RADS II en la zona periférica, los cuales se encontraban en seguimiento del antígeno prostático específico y presentaron confirmación histológica de prostatitis crónica. Se evidenció un realce tardío de la lesión en todos los pacientes. Según los resultados histopatológicos, 30 presentaban prostatitis crónica y el restante tejido benigno (tejido fibromuscular). Discusión: La prostatitis crónica no muestra realce temprano, y presenta realce tardío debido al tejido conectivo fibroso que la compone. En la RMMP, la prostatitis puede imitar el cáncer de próstata. Agregar una adquisición tardía solo adiciona 150 segundos al estudio y podría ayudar a resolver aquellos casos inciertos categorizados como PI-RADS III empleando las secuencias convencionales, debido a que el realce tardío de la lesión es altamente sugestivo de un proceso inflamatorio (PI-RADS II). Conclusión: La presencia de realce tardío es una herramienta útil para realizar un adecuado diagnóstico de una lesión PI-RADS II en la zona periférica, pudiendo evitar una biopsia innecesaria.


Abstract Objective: The aim of this study is to demonstrate the utility of a post-contrast late sequence in multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (RMMP) to characterize PI-RADS II lesions. Materials and methods: The RMMPs performed between January 2015 and December 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. The RMMP protocol was based on the recommendations of the PI-RADS version 2, and a late acquisition was added, after the dynamic post-contrast. The reports were reviewed under the version 2.1. Results: 31 patients with PI-RADS II lesions in the peripheral zone were selected, who were in prostate specific antigen follow-up and had histological confirmation of chronic prostatitis. A late enhancement of the lesion was evidenced in all patients. According to the histopathological results, 30 had chronic prostatitis and the remaining benign tissue (fibromuscular tissue). Discussion: Chronic prostatitis does not show early enhancement, and presents late enhancement due to its fibrous connective tissue. In RMMP, prostatitis may mimic prostate cancer. Adding a late sequence only adds 150 seconds to the study and could help to resolve those uncertain cases categorized as PI-RADS III using traditional sequences because the late enhancement of the lesion is highly suggestive of an inflammatory process (PI-RADS II). Conclusion: The presence of late enhancement is a useful tool to perform an adequate diagnosis of a PI-RADS II lesion in the peripheral zone, helping to avoid an unnecessary biopsy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Prostatitis/diagnostic imaging , Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Prostate/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Biopsy , Retrospective Studies
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