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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(5): 1558-1563, oct. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521033

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: In solid and malignant tumors, innate and adaptive immunity are combined in antitumor responses. This study aimed to analyze the activation of plasma cells and the correlation between the infiltration of B and T lymphocytes with the degree of malignancy or Gleason grade in human prostate biopsies diagnosed with cancer. Prostate cancer biopsies were obtained from the Clinical Hospital of Universidad de Chile (n=70), according to the bioethical norms of the institution. Histological sections of 5µm thickness were processed for immunohistochemistry with primary antibodies against BL and total TL (HRP/DAB). Recognition and quantification were performed under a Leica DM750 optical microscope. Microsoft Excel and GraphPad software were used for the statistical study. Correlation coefficient (Pearson) and mean comparison tests (Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn) and p≤ 0.05 were developed. B and T lymphocyte populations were inversely interregulated in prostate cancer (Gleason) (r= -0.46). Their relationship with Gleason grade is variable according to lymphocyte type (LB vs. Gleason r= -0.0.47 and LT vs. Gleason r= -0.21). Histological diagnosis of prostate cancer correlates with a predominance of LT. The malignancy of the pathology correlates with a predominance of LTs, according to the Gleason grade. The increased knowledge of B and T lymphocyte infiltration and plasma cell activation could be used to better target clinical trials on treatments based on immune system responses. Immunotherapy could be a new paradigm to apply better antitumor therapy strategies.


En tumores sólidos y malignos, la inmunidad innata y adaptativa se combinan en respuestas antitumorales. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar la activación de células plasmáticas y la correlación entre la infiltración de linfocitos B y T con el grado de malignidad o grado de Gleason en biopsias de próstata humana diagnosticadas con cáncer. Las biopsias de cáncer de próstata se obtuvieron del Hospital Clínico de la Universidad de Chile (n=70), de acuerdo con las normas bioéticas de la institución. Secciones histológicas de 5 µm de espesor fueron procesadas para inmunohistoquímica con anticuerpos primarios contra LB y LT total (HRP/DAB). El reconocimiento y las cuantificaciones se realizaron bajo un microscopio óptico Leica DM750. Para el estudio estadístico se utilizaron los programas Microsoft Excel y GraphPad. Se desarrollaron pruebas de coeficiente de correlación (Pearson) y comparación de medias (Kruskal-Wallis y Dunn) y p≤ 0.05. Los resultados muestran que las poblaciones de linfocitos B y T están inversamente interreguladas en el cáncer de próstata (r= -0,4578). Su relación con el grado de Gleason es variable según el tipo de linfocito (LB vs Gleason r= -0,47* y LT vs Gleason r= -0,21). Se concluye que la malignidad del cáncer de próstata se correlaciona con un predominio de LT, versus el grado de Gleason. El mayor conocimiento de la infiltración de linfocitos B y T y la activación de células plasmáticas podría aprovecharse para una mejor orientación de ensayos clínicos en tratamientos basados en las respuestas del sistema inmunitario. La inmunoterapia podría ser un nuevo paradigma para aplicar mejores estrategias de terapias antitumorales.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Plasma Cells , Prostatic Neoplasms/immunology , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , T-Lymphocytes , Biopsy , Immunohistochemistry , B-Lymphocytes , Immunomodulation , Neoplasm Grading , Microscopy
2.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 838-842, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010138

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the diagnostic value of dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) for prostate imaging reporting and data system (PI-RADS) 4 lesion in prostate peripheral zone.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of patients with PI-RADS 4 lesion in prostate peripheral zone who underwent prostate biopsy from January 2018 to September 2021 in Peking University First Hospital were retrospectively included. According to DCE status, the patients were divided into the conventional group (4 points for diffusion-weighted imaging) and the comprehensive group (3 points for diffusion-weighted imaging + 1 point for DCE positive). Pearson's chi-square test or Fisher's exact test for comparison was conducted between prostate cancer and non-cancer patients. Univariate and multivariate Logistic regression were performed to analyze the correlation of positive biopsy with age, total prostate specific antigen (PSA), free PSA/total PSA (f/tPSA), prostate volume (PV), PSA density (PSAD) and DCE status.@*RESULTS@#Among the 267 prostate biopsy patients, 217 cases were diagnosed as prostatic cancer (81.27%) and 50 cases were non-cancer (18.73%). Statistical analysis between the prostatic cancer group and the non-cancer group showed that there were significant differences in age, tPSA, PV and PSAD (all P < 0.05), but no significant differences in f/tPSA between the two groups. About different PI-RADS 4 lesion groups, the conventional group and the comprehensive group showed significant difference in biopsy results (P=0.001), and the conventional group had a higher positive rate. The PV of comprehensive group was larger than that of the conventional group. Among the prostate cancer patients diagnosed by biopsy, statistical analysis between the conventional group and comprehensive group showed that there were not significant differences in International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) grade and distinguishing clinically significant prostate cancer (all P > 0.05). Logistic univariate analysis showed that the diagnosis of prostate cancer was related to age, tPSA, f/tPSA, PV and DCE group status (all P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that age, tPSA, PV and DCE group status (all P < 0.05) were independent risk factors for the diagnosis of prostatic cancer.@*CONCLUSION@#tPSA, f/tPSA, PV and PSAD are the indicators to improve the diagnosis of prostatic cancer with PI-RADS 4 lesion in peripheral zone lesions. DCE status is worth considering, so that we can select patients for biopsy more accurately, reduce the rate of missed diagnosis of prostate cancer as well as avoid unnecessary prostate puncture.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Retrospective Studies
3.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 818-824, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010135

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Constructing a predictive model for urinary incontinence after laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) based on prostatic gland related MRI parameters.@*METHODS@#In this study, 202 cases were included. All the patients were diagnosed with prostate cancer by prostate biopsy and underwent LRP surgery in Peking University Third Hospital. The preoperative MRI examination of all the patients was completed within 1 week before the prostate biopsy. Prostatic gland related parameters included prostate length, width, height, prostatic volume, intravesical prostatic protrusion length (IPPL), prostate apex shape, etc. From the first month after the operation, the recovery of urinary continence was followed up every month, and the recovery of urinary continence was based on the need not to use the urine pad all day long. Logistic multivariate regression analysis was used to analyze the influence of early postoperative recovery of urinary continence. Risk factors were used to draw the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves of each model to predict the recovery of postoperative urinary continence, and the difference of the area under the curve (AUC) was compared by DeLong test, and the clinical net benefit of the model was evaluated by decision curve analysis (DCA).@*RESULTS@#The average age of 202 patients was 69.0 (64.0, 75.5) years, the average prostate specific antigen (PSA) before puncture was 12.12 (7.36, 20.06) μg/L, and the Gleason score < 7 points and ≥ 7 points were 73 cases (36.2%) and 129 cases (63.9%) respectively, with 100 cases (49.5%) at T1/T2 clinical stage, and 102 cases (50.5%) at T3 stage. The prostatic volume measured by preoperative MRI was 35.4 (26.2, 51.1) mL, the ratio of the height to the width was 0.91 (0.77, 1.07), the membranous urethral length (MUL) was 15 (11, 16) mm, and the IPPL was 2 (0, 6) mm. The prostatic apex A-D subtypes were 67 cases (33.2%), 80 cases (39.6%), 24 cases (11.9%) and 31 cases (15.3%), respectively. The training set and validation set were 141 cases and 61 cases, respectively. The operations of all the patients were successfully completed, and the urinary continence rate was 59.4% (120/202) in the 3 months follow-up. The results of multivariate analysis of the training set showed that the MUL (P < 0.001), IPPL (P=0.017) and clinical stage (P=0.022) were independent risk factors for urinary incontinence in the early postoperative period (3 months). The nomogram and clinical decision curve were made according to the results of multivariate analysis. The AUC value of the training set was 0.885 (0.826, 0.944), and the AUC value of the validation set was 0.854 (0.757, 0.950). In the verification set, the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test was performed on the model, and the Chi-square value was 5.426 (P=0.711).@*CONCLUSION@#Preoperative MUL, IPPL, and clinical stage are indepen-dent risk factors for incontinence after LRP. The nomogram developed based on the relevant parameters of MRI glands can effectively predict the recovery of early urinary continence after LRP. The results of this study require further large-scale clinical research to confirm.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Prostate/surgery , Prostatectomy/adverse effects , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Urinary Incontinence/etiology , Laparoscopy/methods , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/adverse effects , Recovery of Function , Retrospective Studies
4.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 812-817, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010134

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the diagnostic efficacy of targeted biopsy (TBx), systematic biopsy (SBx), TBx+6-core SBx in prostate cancer (PCa) / clinically significant prostate cancer (cs-PCa) for patients with prostate imaging reporting and data system (PI-RADS) score of 5, and thereby to explore an optimal sampling scheme.@*METHODS@#The data of 585 patients who underwent multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) with at least one lesion of PI-RADS score 5 at Peking University First Hospital from January 2019 to June 2022 were retrospectively analyzed. All patients underwent mpMRI / transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) cognitive guided biopsy (TBx+SBx). With the pathological results of combined biopsy as the gold standard, we compared the diagnostic efficacy of TBx only, SBx only, and TBx+6-core SBx for PCa/csPCa. The patients were grouped according to mpMRI T-stage (cT2, cT3, cT4) and the detection rates of different biopsy schemes for PCa/csPCa were compared using Cochran's Q and McNemar tests.@*RESULTS@#Among 585 patients with a PI-RADS score of 5, 560 (95.7%) were positive and 25(4.3%) were negative via TBx+SBx. After stratified according to mpMRI T-stage, 233 patients (39.8%) were found in cT2 stage, 214 patients (36.6%) in cT3 stage, and 138 patients (23.6%) in cT4 stage. There was no statistically significant difference in the detection rate of PCa/csPCa between TBx+6-core SBx and TBx+SBx (all P>0.999). Also, there was no statistically significant difference in the detection rate of PCa/csPCa between TBx and TBx+SBx in the cT2, cT3, and cT4 subgroups (PCa: P=0.203, P=0.250, P>0.999; csPCa: P=0.700, P=0.250, P>0.999). The missed diagnosis rate of SBx for PCa and csPCa was 2.1% (12/560) and 1.8% (10/549), and that of TBx for PCa and csPCa was 1.8% (10/560) and 1.4% (8/549), respectively. However, the detection rate of TBx+6-core SBx for PCa and csPCa was 100%. Compared with TBx+SBx, TBx and TBx+6-core SBx had a fewer number of cores and a higher detection rate per core (P < 0.001).@*CONCLUSION@#For patients with a PI-RADS score of 5, TBx and TBx+6-core SBx showed the same PCa/csPCa detection rates and a high detection rates per core as that of TBx+SBx, which can be considered as an optimal scheme for prostate biopsy.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Retrospective Studies , Prostate/diagnostic imaging , Image-Guided Biopsy/methods
5.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences ; (6): 178-184, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982033

ABSTRACT

The American Urological Association (AUA), European Association of Urology (EUA) and International Urological Society (SIU) annual meetings were held in 2022. Studies on prostate cancer reported in the meetings mainly focus on the advances of diagnostic biomarkers (such as α-2, 3-1inked sialylation of terminal N-glycan on free PSA density, SelectMDx) and imaging techniques [such as multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging, prostate specific membrane antigen(PSMA)-PET/CT], the new method for prostate biopsy, the new treatments of prostate cancer including [177Lu] Ludotadipep and DROP-IN PSMA probe, and the prognosis assessment of prostate cancer (such as AR-V7). This article provides an overview on the research hotspots of three international academic meetings.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Urology , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Gallium Radioisotopes
6.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences ; (6): 133-138, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982027

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the prevalence of pathogenic germline mutations of mismatch repair (MMR) genes in prostate cancer patients and its relationship with clinicopathological characteristics.@*METHODS@#Germline sequencing data of 855 prostate cancer patients admitted in Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center from 2018 to 2022 were retrospectively analyzed. The pathogenicity of mutations was assessed according to the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) standard guideline, Clinvar and Intervar databases. The clinicopathological characteristics and responses to castration treatment were compared among patients with MMR gene mutation (MMR+ group), patients with DNA damage repair (DDR) gene germline pathogenic mutation without MMR gene (DDR+MMR- group) and patients without DDR gene germline pathogenic mutation (DDR- group).@*RESULTS@#Thirteen (1.52%) MMR+ patients were identified in 855 prostate cancer patients, including 1 case with MLH1 gene mutation, 6 cases with MSH2 gene mutation, 4 cases with MSH6 gene mutation and 2 cases with PMS2 gene mutation. 105 (11.9%) patients were identified as DDR gene positive (except MMR gene), and 737 (86.2%) patients were DDR gene negative. Compared with DDR- group, MMR+ group had lower age of onset (P<0.05) and initial prostate-specific antigen (PSA) (P<0.01), while no significant differences were found between the two groups in Gleason score and TMN staging (both P>0.05). The median time to castration resistance was 8 months (95%CI: 6 months-not achieved), 16 months (95%CI: 12-32 months) and 24 months (95%CI: 21-27 months) for MMR+ group, DDR+MMR- group and DDR- group, respectively. The time to castration resistance in MMR+ group was significantly shorter than that in DDR+MMR- group and DDR- group (both P<0.01), while there was no significant difference between DDR+MMR- group and DDR- group (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#MMR gene mutation testing is recommended for prostate cancer patients with early onset, low initial PSA, metastasis or early resistance to castration therapy.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Prostate-Specific Antigen/genetics , Germ-Line Mutation , Retrospective Studies , DNA Mismatch Repair/genetics , DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , China , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology
7.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 410-415, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981956

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to explore transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) findings of prostate cancer (PCa) guided by multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) and to improve the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) system for avoiding unnecessary mpMRI-guided targeted biopsy (TB). From January 2018 to October 2019, fusion mpMRI and TRUS-guided biopsies were performed in 162 consecutive patients. The study included 188 suspicious lesions on mpMRI in 156 patients, all of whom underwent mpMRI-TRUS fusion imaging-guided TB and 12-core transperineal systematic biopsy (SB). Univariate analyses were performed to investigate the relationship between TRUS features and PCa. Then, logistic regression analysis with generalized estimating equations was performed to determine the independent predictors of PCa and obtain the fitted probability of PCa. The detection rates of PCa based on TB alone, SB alone, and combined SB and TB were 55.9% (105 of 188), 52.6% (82 of 156), and 62.8% (98 of 156), respectively. The significant predictors of PCa on TRUS were hypoechogenicity (odds ratio [OR]: 9.595, P = 0.002), taller-than-wide shape (OR: 3.539, P = 0.022), asymmetric vascular structures (OR: 3.728, P = 0.031), close proximity to capsule (OR: 3.473, P = 0.040), and irregular margins (OR: 3.843, P = 0.041). We propose subgrouping PI-RADS score 3 into categories 3a, 3b, 3c, and 3d based on different numbers of TRUS predictors, as the creation of PI-RADS 3a (no suspicious ultrasound features) could avoid 16.7% of mpMRI-guided TBs. Risk stratification of PCa with mpMRI-TRUS fusion imaging-directed ultrasound features could avoid unnecessary mpMRI-TBs.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Prostate/pathology , Image-Guided Biopsy/methods
8.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 296-308, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981952

ABSTRACT

A complete proteomics study characterizing active androgen receptor (AR) complexes in prostate cancer (PCa) cells identified a diversity of protein interactors with tumorigenic annotations, including known RNA splicing factors. Thus, we chose to further investigate the functional role of AR-mediated alternative RNA splicing in PCa disease progression. We selected two AR-interacting RNA splicing factors, Src associated in mitosis of 68 kDa (SAM68) and DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box helicase 5 (DDX5) to examine their associative roles in AR-dependent alternative RNA splicing. To assess the true physiological role of AR in alternative RNA splicing, we assessed splicing profiles of LNCaP PCa cells using exon microarrays and correlated the results to PCa clinical datasets. As a result, we were able to highlight alternative splicing events of clinical significance. Initial use of exon-mini gene cassettes illustrated hormone-dependent AR-mediated exon-inclusion splicing events with SAM68 or exon-exclusion splicing events with DDX5 overexpression. The physiological significance in PCa was investigated through the application of clinical exon array analysis, where we identified exon-gene sets that were able to delineate aggressive disease progression profiles and predict patient disease-free outcomes independently of pathological clinical criteria. Using a clinical dataset with patients categorized as prostate cancer-specific death (PCSD), these exon gene sets further identified a select group of patients with extremely poor disease-free outcomes. Overall, these results strongly suggest a nonclassical role of AR in mediating robust alternative RNA splicing in PCa. Moreover, AR-mediated alternative spicing contributes to aggressive PCa progression, where we identified a new subtype of lethal PCa defined by AR-dependent alternative splicing.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Alternative Splicing , Cell Line, Tumor , DEAD-box RNA Helicases/metabolism , Disease Progression , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Receptors, Androgen/metabolism , RNA Splicing Factors/metabolism
9.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 345-349, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981944

ABSTRACT

The long-term survival outcomes of radical prostatectomy (RP) in Chinese prostate cancer (PCa) patients are poorly understood. We conducted a single-center, retrospective analysis of patients undergoing RP to study the prognostic value of pathological and surgical information. From April 1998 to February 2022, 782 patients undergoing RP at Queen Mary Hospital of The University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong, China) were included in our study. Multivariable Cox regression analysis and Kaplan-Meier analysis with stratification were performed. The 5-year, 10-year, and 15-year overall survival (OS) rates were 96.6%, 86.8%, and 70.6%, respectively, while the 5-year, 10-year, and 15-year PCa-specific survival (PSS) rates were 99.7%, 98.6%, and 97.8%, respectively. Surgical International Society of Urological Pathology PCa grades (ISUP Grade Group) ≥4 was significantly associated with poorer PSS (hazard ratio [HR] = 8.52, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.42-51.25, P = 0.02). Pathological T3 stage was not significantly associated with PSS or OS in our cohort. Lymph node invasion and extracapsular extension might be associated with worse PSS (HR = 20.30, 95% CI: 1.22-336.38, P = 0.04; and HR = 7.29, 95% CI: 1.22-43.64, P = 0.03, respectively). Different surgical approaches (open, laparoscopic, or robotic-assisted) had similar outcomes in terms of PSS and OS. In conclusion, we report the longest timespan follow-up of Chinese PCa patients after RP with different approaches.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostate/pathology , Prostatectomy , Prognosis , Neoplasm Grading
10.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 353-357, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985679

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze three different integrated scoring schemes of prostate biopsy and to compare their concordance with the scoring of radical prostatectomy specimens. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 556 patients with radical prostatectomy performed in Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, Nanjing, China from 2017 to 2020. In these cases, whole organ sections were performed, the pathological data based on biopsy and radical prostatectomy specimens were summarized, and 3 integrated scores of prostate biopsy were calculated, namely the global score, the highest score and score of the largest volume. Results: Among the 556 patients, 104 cases (18.7%) were classified as WHO/ISUP grade group 1, 227 cases (40.8%) as grade group 2 (3+4=7); 143 cases (25.7%) as grade group 3 (4+3=7); 44 cases (7.9%) as grade group 4 (4+4=8) and 38 cases (6.8%) as grade group 5. Among the three comprehensive scoring methods for prostate cancer biopsy, the consistency of global score was the highest (62.4%). In the correlation analysis, the correlation between the scores of radical specimens and the global scores was highest (R=0.730, P<0.01), while the correlations of the scores based on radical specimens with highest scores and scores of the largest volume based on biopsy were insignificant (R=0.719, P<0.01; R=0.631, P<0.01, respectively). Univariate and multivariate analyses showed tPSA group and the three integrated scores of prostate biopsy were statistically correlated with extraglandular invasion, lymph node metastasis, perineural invasion and biochemical recurrence. Elevated global score was an independent prognostic risk factor for extraglandular invasion and biochemical recurrence in patients; increased serum tPSA was an independent prognostic risk factor for extraglandular invasion; increased hjighest score was an independent risk factor for perineural invasion. Conclusions: In this study, among the three different integrated scores, the overall score is most likely corresponded to the radical specimen grade group, but there is difference in various subgroup analyses. Integrated score of prostate biopsy can reflect grade group of radical prostatectomy specimens, thereby providing more clinical information for assisting in optimal patient management and consultation.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Prostate/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Prostatectomy/methods , Biopsy , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology
11.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 674-679, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009799

ABSTRACT

Using prostate-specific antigen (PSA) for prostate cancer (PCa) screening led to overinvestigation and overdiagnosis of indolent PCa. We aimed to investigate the value of prostate health index (PHI) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prostate in an Asian PCa screening program. Men aged 50-75 years were prospectively recruited from a community-based PSA screening program. Men with PSA 4.0-10.0 ng ml -1 had PHI result analyzed. MRI prostate was offered to men with PSA 4.0-50.0 ng ml -1 . A systematic prostate biopsy was offered to men with PSA 4.0-9.9 ng ml -1 and PHI ≥35, or PSA 10.0-50.0 ng ml -1 . Additional targeted prostate biopsy was offered if they had PI-RADS score ≥3. Clinically significant PCa (csPCa) was defined as the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) grade group (GG) ≥2 or ISUP GG 1 with involvement of ≥30% of total systematic cores. In total, 12.8% (196/1536) men had PSA ≥4.0 ng ml -1 . Among 194 men with PSA 4.0-50.0 ng ml -1 , 187 (96.4%) received MRI prostate. Among them, 28.3% (53/187) had PI-RADS ≥3 lesions. Moreover, 7.0% (107/1536) men were indicated for biopsy and 94.4% (101/107) men received biopsy. Among the men received biopsy, PCa, ISUP GG ≥2 PCa, and csPCa was diagnosed in 42 (41.6%), 24 (23.8%), and 34 (33.7%) men, respectively. Compared with PSA/PHI pathway in men with PSA 4.0-50.0 ng ml -1 , additional MRI increased diagnoses of PCa, ISUP GG ≥2 PCa, and csPCa by 21.2% (from 33 to 40), 22.2% (from 18 to 22), and 18.5% (from 27 to 32), respectively. The benefit of additional MRI was only observed in PSA 4.0-10.0 ng ml -1 , and the number of MRI needed to diagnose one additional ISUP GG ≥2 PCa was 20 in PHI ≥35 and 94 in PHI <35. Among them, 45.4% (89/196) men with PSA ≥4.0 ng ml -1 avoided unnecessary biopsy with the use of PHI and MRI. A screening algorithm with PSA, PHI, and MRI could effectively diagnose csPCa while reducing unnecessary biopsies. The benefit of MRI prostate was mainly observed in PSA 4.0-9.9 ng ml -1 and PHI ≥35 group. PHI was an important risk stratification step for PCa screening.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , East Asian People , Image-Guided Biopsy/methods , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Prostate/pathology , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies
12.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 653-661, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009797

ABSTRACT

The final analysis of the phase 3 Targeted Investigational Treatment Analysis of Novel Anti-androgen (TITAN) trial showed improvement in overall survival (OS) and other efficacy endpoints with apalutamide plus androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) versus ADT alone in patients with metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer (mCSPC). As ethnicity and regional differences may affect treatment outcomes in advanced prostate cancer, a post hoc final analysis was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of apalutamide in the Asian subpopulation. Event-driven endpoints were OS, and time from randomization to initiation of castration resistance, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression, and second progression-free survival (PFS2) on first subsequent therapy or death. Efficacy endpoints were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional-hazards models without formal statistical testing and adjustment for multiplicity. Participating Asian patients received once-daily apalutamide 240 mg ( n = 111) or placebo ( n = 110) plus ADT. After a median follow-up of 42.5 months and despite crossover of 47 placebo recipients to open-label apalutamide, apalutamide reduced the risk of death by 32% (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.42-1.13), risk of castration resistance by 69% (HR: 0.31; 95% CI: 0.21-0.46), PSA progression by 79% (HR: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.13-0.35) and PFS2 by 24% (HR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.44-1.29) relative to placebo. The outcomes were comparable between subgroups with low- and high-volume disease at baseline. No new safety issues were identified. Apalutamide provides valuable clinical benefits to Asian patients with mCSPC, with an efficacy and safety profile consistent with that in the overall patient population.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Castration , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant/drug therapy
13.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4147-4155, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008611

ABSTRACT

Based on the androgen receptor(AR)/mammalian target of rapamycin(mTOR)signaling pathway, the effects of Xihuang Pills-medicated serum on the proliferation and apoptosis of prostate cancer LNCaP cells were investigated. The drug-containing serum of SD rats was prepared by intragastric administration of Xihuang Pills suspension. The effects of low-, medium-, and high-dose Xihuang Pills-containing serum on the in vitro proliferation of LNCaP cells were detected by cell counting kit-8(CCK-8). Flow cytometry was used to detect the apoptosis level of LNCaP cells after intervention with different concentrations of Xihuang Pills. Protein expression of cleaved cysteinyl aspartate-specific proteinase caspase-3(cleaved caspase-3), B-cell lymphoma-2(Bcl-2), and AR as well as the phosphorylation level of mTOR protein were detected by Western blot. The results showed that compared with the blank serum, the drug-medicated serum could blunt the activity of LNCaP cells. Low-, medium-, and high-dose Xihuang Pills-containing serum could significantly increase the cell apoptosis rate, increase the expression of cleaved caspase-3 protein, decrease the expression of Bcl-2 protein, reduce the expression of AR protein, and down-regulate the level of phosphorylated mTOR(p-mTOR). To study the effect of Xihuang Pills on the growth of LNCaP cells in vivo, different doses of Xihuang Pills were used to intervene in the subcutaneous graft model in nude mice inoculated with LNCaP cells. The expression levels of AR, mTOR, p-mTOR, Bcl-2, and cleaved caspase-3 were detected by Western blot. The results showed that the volumes of subcutaneous graft tumor in the low-dose, medium-dose, and high-dose Xihuang Pills groups significantly decreased compared with that in the model group. The weight of subcutaneous transplanted tumor in each group with drug intervention was significantly lower than that in the model group. Compared with the model group, the low-dose, medium-dose, and high-dose Xihuang Pills groups showed increased cleaved caspase-3 protein expression, decreased Bcl-2 and AR protein expression, and reduced p-mTOR protein expression. Further experiments showed that AR agonist R1881 could block the anti-proliferation and pro-apoptotic effects of Xihuang Pills. The mechanism of Xihuang Pills against prostate cancer is related to the inhibition of the AR/mTOR signaling pathway, inhibition of LNCaP cell proliferation, and induction of apoptosis in cancer cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Mice , Rats , Animals , Caspase 3/metabolism , Mice, Nude , Cell Line, Tumor , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Cell Proliferation , Apoptosis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , Mammals/metabolism
14.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 148-156, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971380

ABSTRACT

Prostate cancer is currently one of the most common malignancies that endanger the lives and health of elderly men. In recent years, immunotherapy, which exploits the activation of anti-cancer host immune cells to accomplish tumor-killing effects, has emerged as a new study avenue in the treatment of prostate cancer. As an important component of immunotherapy, cancer vaccines have a unique position in the precision treatment of malignant tumors. Monocyte cell vaccines, dendritic cell vaccines, viral vaccines, peptide vaccines, and DNA/mRNA vaccines are the most often used prostate cancer vaccines. Among them, Sipuleucel-T, as a monocyte cell-based cancer vaccine, is the only FDA-approved therapeutic vaccine for prostate cancer, and has a unique position and role in advancing the development of immunotherapy for prostate cancer. However, due to its own limitations, Sipuleucel-T has not been widely adopted. Meanwhile, owing to the complexity of immunotherapy and the specificity of prostate cancer, the remaining prostate cancer vaccines have not shown good clinical benefit in large randomized phase II and phase III trials, and further in-depth studies are still needed.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Cancer Vaccines/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy , Prostate/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Tissue Extracts/therapeutic use
15.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 217-222, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971029

ABSTRACT

The Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) has good ability to identify the nature of lesions on prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, some lesions are still reported as PI-RADS 4 and 5 but are biopsy-proven benign. Herein, we aimed to summarize the reasons for the negative prostate biopsy of patients who were assessed as PI-RADS 4 and 5 by biparameter MRI. We retrospectively sorted out the prostate MRI, treatment, and follow-up results of patients who underwent a biparameter MRI examination of the prostate in The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University (Nanjing, China) from August 2019 to June 2021 with PI-RADS 4 and 5 but a negative biopsy. We focused on reviewing the MRI characteristics. A total of 467 patients underwent transperineal prostate biopsy. Among them, biopsy pathology of 93 cases were negative. After follow-up, 90 patients were ruled out of prostate cancer. Among the 90 cases, 40 were considered to be overestimated PI-RADS after review. A total of 22 cases were transition zone (TZ) lesions with regular appearance and clear boundaries, and 3 cases were symmetrical lesions. Among 15 cases, the TZ nodules penetrated the peripheral zone (PZ) and were mistaken for the origin of PZ. A total of 17 cases of lesions were difficult to distinguish from prostate cancer. Among them, 5 cases were granulomatous inflammation (1 case of prostate tuberculosis). A total of 33 cases were ambiguous lesions, whose performance was between PI-RADS 3 and 4. In summary, the reasons for "false-positive MRI diagnosis" included PI-RADS overestimation, ambiguous images giving higher PI-RADS, diseases that were really difficult to distinguish, and missed lesion in the initial biopsy; and the first two accounted for the most.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Retrospective Studies , Image-Guided Biopsy/methods , Prostate/pathology
16.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 152-157, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971026

ABSTRACT

Chromodomain-helicase-DNA-binding protein 1 (CHD1) deletion is among the most common mutations in prostate cancer (PCa), but its role remains unclear. In this study, RNA sequencing was conducted in PCa cells after clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9)-based CHD1 knockout. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) indicated upregulation of hypoxia-related pathways. A subsequent study confirmed that CHD1 deletion significantly upregulated hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) expression. Mechanistic investigation revealed that CHD1 deletion upregulated HIF1α by transcriptionally downregulating prolyl hydroxylase domain protein 2 (PHD2), a prolyl hydroxylase catalyzing the hydroxylation of HIF1α and thus promoting its degradation by the E3 ligase von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor (VHL). Functional analysis showed that CHD1 deletion promoted angiogenesis and glycolysis, possibly through HIF1α target genes. Taken together, these findings indicate that CHD1 deletion enhances HIF1α expression through PHD2 downregulation and therefore promotes angiogenesis and metabolic reprogramming in PCa.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein/metabolism , DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Prolyl Hydroxylases/metabolism , Hypoxia , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Glycolysis , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , DNA Helicases/metabolism
17.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 208-216, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971023

ABSTRACT

Given the dual role of autophagy presenting in tumorigenesis and inhibition, we established an autophagy-related gene prognostic index (ARGPI) with validation to well predict the biochemical recurrence (BCR), metastasis, as well as chemoresistance for patients with prostate cancer (PCa) who underwent radical radiotherapy or prostatectomy. Then, Lasso and COX regression was used to develop the ARGPI. We performed the whole analyses through R packages (version 3.6.3). Secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1), single-minded 2 (SIM2), serine protease inhibitor b5 (SERPINB5), aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), and acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain 3 (ACSL3) were eventually used to establish the ARGPI score. Patients were divided into two different-risk groups based on the median ARGPI score, high-risk patients with a higher risk of BCR than low-risk patients (hazard ratio [HR]: 5.46, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.23-9.24). The risk of metastasis of high-risk patients was higher than low-risk patients (HR: 11.31, 95% CI: 4.89-26.12). In The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset, we observed similar prognostic value of ARGPI in terms of BCR-free survival (HR: 1.79, 95% CI: 1.07-2.99) and metastasis-free survival (HR: 1.80, 95% CI: 1.16-2.78). ARGPI score showed a diagnostic accuracy of 0.703 for drug resistance. Analysis of gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) indicated that patients in the high-risk group were significantly positively related to interleukin (IL)-18 signaling pathway. Moreover, ARGPI score was significantly related to cancer-related fibroblasts (CAFs; r = 0.36), macrophages (r = 0.28), stromal score (r = 0.38), immune score (r = 0.35), estimate score (r = 0.39), as well as tumor purity (r = -0.39; all P < 0.05). Drug analysis showed that PI-103 was the common sensitive drug and cell line analysis indicated that PC3 was the common cell line of PI-103 and the definitive gene. In conclusion, we found that ARGPI could predict BCR, metastasis, and chemoresistance in PCa patients who underwent radical radiotherapy or prostatectomy.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Prognosis , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostatectomy , Drug Resistance , Aldehyde Dehydrogenase, Mitochondrial
18.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 171-178, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971022

ABSTRACT

Although immunotherapy has revolutionized cancer treatment and achieved remarkable success across many different cancer types, only a subset of patients shows meaningful clinical responses. In particular, advanced prostate cancer exhibits overwhelming de novo resistance to immune checkpoint blockade therapy. This is primarily due to the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment of prostate cancer. Therefore, it is paramount to understand how prostate cancer cell-intrinsic mechanisms promote immune evasion and foster an immunosuppressive microenvironment. Here, we review recent findings that reveal the roles of the genetic alterations, androgen receptor signaling, cancer cell plasticity, and oncogenic pathways in shaping the immunosuppressive microenvironment and thereby driving immunotherapy resistance. Based on preclinical and clinical observations, a variety of therapeutic strategies are being developed that may illuminate new paths to enhance immunotherapy efficacy in prostate cancer.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostate/pathology , Immunotherapy , Tumor Microenvironment
19.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 259-264, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971018

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to analyze the value of transrectal shear-wave elastography (SWE) in combination with multivariable tools for predicting adverse pathological features before radical prostatectomy (RP). Preoperative clinicopathological variables, multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) manifestations, and the maximum elastic value of the prostate (Emax) on SWE were retrospectively collected. The accuracy of SWE for predicting adverse pathological features was evaluated based on postoperative pathology, and parameters with statistical significance were selected. The diagnostic performance of various models, including preoperative clinicopathological variables (model 1), preoperative clinicopathological variables + mp-MRI (model 2), and preoperative clinicopathological variables + mp-MRI + SWE (model 3), was evaluated with area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) analysis. Emax was significantly higher in prostate cancer with extracapsular extension (ECE) or seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) with both P < 0.001. The optimal cutoff Emax values for ECE and SVI were 60.45 kPa and 81.55 kPa, respectively. Inclusion of mp-MRI and SWE improved discrimination by clinical models for ECE (model 2 vs model 1, P = 0.031; model 3 vs model 1, P = 0.002; model 3 vs model 2, P = 0.018) and SVI (model 2 vs model 1, P = 0.147; model 3 vs model 1, P = 0.037; model 3 vs model 2, P = 0.134). SWE is valuable for identifying patients at high risk of adverse pathology.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Prostate/pathology , Seminal Vesicles/diagnostic imaging , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Retrospective Studies , Extranodal Extension/pathology , Neoplasm Staging , Prostatectomy/methods , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods
20.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 223-229, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971017

ABSTRACT

We identified distinct senescence-related molecular subtypes and critical genes among prostate cancer (PCa) patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) or radical radiotherapy (RT). We conducted all analyses using R software and its suitable packages. Twelve genes, namely, secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (SFRP4), DNA topoisomerase II alpha (TOP2A), pleiotrophin (PTN), family with sequence similarity 107 member A (FAM107A), C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 14 (CXCL14), prostate androgen-regulated mucin-like protein 1 (PARM1), leucine zipper protein 2 (LUZP2), cluster of differentiation 38 (CD38), cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), vestigial-like family member 3 (VGLL3), apolipoprotein E (APOE), and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 family member (ALDH2), were eventually used to subtype PCa patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database and GSE116918, and the molecular subtypes showed good correlations with clinical features. In terms of the tumor immune environment (TME) analysis, compared with cluster 1, cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) scored significantly higher, while endothelial cells scored lower in cluster 2 in TCGA database. There was a statistically significant correlation between both CAFs and endothelial cells with biochemical recurrence (BCR)-free survival for PCa patients undergoing RP. For the GSE116918 database, cluster 2 had significantly lower levels of CAFs and tumor purity and higher levels of stromal, immune, and Estimation of STromal and Immune cells in MAlignant Tumor tissues using Expression data (ESTIMATE) scores than cluster 1; in addition, patients with high levels of CAFs, stromal scores, immune scores, and ESTIMATE scores and low levels of tumor purity tended to suffer from BCR. Based on the median of differentially expressed checkpoints, high expression of CD96, hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 2 (HAVCR2), and neuropilin 1 (NRP1) in GSE116918 and high expression of CD160 and tumor necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily member 18 (TNFSF18) in TCGA database were associated with a significantly higher risk of BCR than their counterparts. In conclusion, we first constructed distinct molecular subtypes and critical genes for PCa patients undergoing RP or RT from the fresh perspective of senescence.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Endothelial Cells , Ligands , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostate/pathology , Prostatectomy , Aldehyde Dehydrogenase, Mitochondrial , DNA-Binding Proteins , Transcription Factors
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