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1.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 209-221, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007603

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Bladder cancer, characterized by a high potential of tumor recurrence, has high lifelong monitoring and treatment costs. To date, tumor cells with intrinsic softness have been identified to function as cancer stem cells in several cancer types. Nonetheless, the existence of soft tumor cells in bladder tumors remains elusive. Thus, our study aimed to develop a micro-barrier microfluidic chip to efficiently isolate deformable tumor cells from distinct types of bladder cancer cells.@*METHODS@#The stiffness of bladder cancer cells was determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The modified microfluidic chip was utilized to separate soft cells, and the 3D Matrigel culture system was to maintain the softness of tumor cells. Expression patterns of integrin β8 (ITGB8), protein kinase B (AKT), and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) were determined by Western blotting. Double immunostaining was conducted to examine the interaction between F-actin and tripartite motif containing 59 (TRIM59). The stem-cell-like characteristics of soft cells were explored by colony formation assay and in vivo studies upon xenografted tumor models.@*RESULTS@#Using our newly designed microfluidic approach, we identified a small fraction of soft tumor cells in bladder cancer cells. More importantly, the existence of soft tumor cells was confirmed in clinical human bladder cancer specimens, in which the number of soft tumor cells was associated with tumor relapse. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the biomechanical stimuli arising from 3D Matrigel activated the F-actin/ITGB8/TRIM59/AKT/mTOR/glycolysis pathways to enhance the softness and tumorigenic capacity of tumor cells. Simultaneously, we detected a remarkable up-regulation in ITGB8, TRIM59, and phospho-AKT in clinical bladder recurrent tumors compared with their non-recurrent counterparts.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The ITGB8/TRIM59/AKT/mTOR/glycolysis axis plays a crucial role in modulating tumor softness and stemness. Meanwhile, the soft tumor cells become more sensitive to chemotherapy after stiffening, that offers new insights for hampering tumor progression and recurrence.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Humans , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Actins/metabolism , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms , Glycolysis , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Mammals/metabolism , Tripartite Motif Proteins/metabolism , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism , Integrin beta Chains
2.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 243-250, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010328

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of Danmu Extract Syrup (DMS) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice and explore the mechanism.@*METHODS@#Seventy-two male Balb/C mice were randomly divided into 6 groups according to a random number table (n=12), including control (normal saline), LPS (5 mg/kg), LPS+DMS 2.5 mL/kg, LPS+DMS 5 mL/kg, LPS+DMS 10 mL/kg, and LPS+Dexamethasone (DXM, 5 mg/kg) groups. After pretreatment with DMS and DXM, the ALI mice model was induced by LPS, and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected to determine protein concentration, cell counts and inflammatory cytokines. The lung tissues of mice were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, and the wet/dry weight ratio (W/D) of lung tissue was calculated. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1 β in BALF of mice were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The expression levels of Claudin-5, vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), phospho-protein kinase B (p-Akt) and Akt were detected by Western blot analysis.@*RESULTS@#DMS pre-treatment significantly ameliorated lung histopathological changes. Compared with the LPS group, the W/D ratio and protein contents in BALF were obviously reduced after DMS pretreatment (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The number of cells in BALF and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity decreased significantly after DMS pretreatment (P<0.05 or P<0.01). DMS pre-treatment decreased the levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1 β (P<0.01). Meanwhile, DMS activated the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) pathway and reversed the expressions of Claudin-5, VE-cadherin and VEGF (P<0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#DMS attenuated LPS-induced ALI in mice through repairing endothelial barrier. It might be a potential therapeutic drug for LPS-induced lung injury.


Subject(s)
Mice , Male , Animals , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Claudin-5/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/chemically induced , Lung/pathology , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal
3.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 25-33, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010323

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To determine whether monotropein has an anticancer effect and explore its potential mechanisms against colorectal cancer (CRC) through network pharmacology and molecular docking combined with experimental verification.@*METHODS@#Network pharmacology and molecular docking were used to predict potential targets of monotropein against CRC. Cell counting kit assay, plate monoclonal assay and microscopic observation were used to investigate the antiproliferative effects of monotropein on CRC cells HCT116, HT29 and LoVo. Flow cytometry and scratch assay were used to analyze apoptosis and cell cycle, as well as cell migration, respectively in HCT116, HT29, and LoVo cells. Western blotting was used to detect the expression of proteins related to apoptosis, cell cycle, and cell migration, and the expression of proteins key to the Akt pathway.@*RESULTS@#The Gene Ontology and Reactome enrichment analyses indicated that the anticancer potential of monotropein against CRC might be involved in multiple cancer-related signaling pathways. Among these pathways, RAC-beta serine/threonine-protein kinase (Akt1, Akt2), cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (CDK6), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), cell division control protein 42 homolog (CDC42) were shown as the potential anticancer targets of monotropein against CRC. Molecular docking suggested that monotropein may interact with the 6 targets (Akt1, Akt2, CDK6, MMP9, EGFR, CDC42). Subsequently, cell activity of HCT116, HT29 and LoVo cell lines were significantly suppressed by monotropein (P<0.05). Furthermore, our research revealed that monotropein induced cell apoptosis by inhibiting Bcl-2 and increasing Bax, induced G1-S cycle arrest in colorectal cancer by decreasing the expressions of CyclinD1, CDK4 and CDK6, inhibited cell migration by suppressing the expressions of CDC42 and MMP9 (P<0.05), and might play an anticancer role through Akt signaling pathway.@*CONCLUSION@#Monotropein exerts its antitumor effects primarily by arresting the cell cycle, causing cell apoptosis, and inhibiting cell migration. This indicates a high potential for developing novel medication for treating CRC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Cell Proliferation , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 , Molecular Docking Simulation , Cell Cycle , ErbB Receptors , Apoptosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Cell Line, Tumor
4.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 213-221, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010320

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect and possible mechanism of hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) on human immortalized keratinocyte cell proliferation and migration.@*METHODS@#HaCaT cells were treated with HSYA. Cell proliferation was detected by the cell counting kit-8 assay, and cell migration was measured using wound healing assay and Transwell migration assay. The mRNA and protein expression levels of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like growth factor (HBEGF), EGF receptor (EGFR), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (AKT), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot, respectively. Circ_0084443-overexpressing HaCaT cells and empty plasmid HaCaT cells were constructed using the lentiviral stable transfection and treated with HSYA. The expression of circ_0084443 was detected by qRT-PCR.@*RESULTS@#HSYA (800 µmol/L) significantly promoted HaCaT cell proliferation and migration (P<0.05 or P<0.01). It also increased the mRNA and protein expression levels of HBEGF, EGFR, PI3K, AKT, mTOR and HIF-1α, and increased the phosphorylation levels of PI3K and AKT (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Furthermore, HSYA promoted HaCaT cell proliferation and migration via the HBEGF/EGFR and PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathways (P<0.01). Circ_0084443 attenuated the mRNA expression levels of HBEGF, EGFR, PI3K, AKT, mTOR and HIF-1α (P<0.05). HSYA inhibited the circ_0084443 expression, further antagonized the inhibition of circ_0084443 on HBEGF, EGFR, PI3K, AKT, mTOR and HIF-1α, and promoted the proliferation of circ_0084443-overexpressing HaCaT cells (P<0.05 or P<0.01). However, HSYA could not influence the inhibitory effect of circ_0084443 on HaCaT cell migration (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#HSYA played an accelerative role in HaCaT cell proliferation and migration, which may be attributable to activating HBEGF/EGFR and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, and had a particular inhibitory effect on the keratinocyte negative regulator circ_0084443.


Subject(s)
Humans , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , ErbB Receptors/genetics , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Cell Proliferation , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Cell Movement , Cell Line, Tumor , Chalcone/analogs & derivatives , Quinones
5.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 919-933, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010100

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Lung cancer is a major threat to human health. The molecular mechanisms related to the occurrence and development of lung cancer are complex and poorly known. Exploring molecular markers related to the development of lung cancer is helpful to improve the effect of early diagnosis and treatment. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) THAP7-AS1 is known to be highly expressed in gastric cancer, but has been less studied in other cancers. The aim of the study is to explore the role and mechanism of methyltransferase-like 3 (METTL3) mediated up-regulation of N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modified lncRNA THAP7-AS1 expression in promoting the development of lung cancer.@*METHODS@#Samples of 120 lung cancer and corresponding paracancerous tissues were collected. LncRNA microarrays were used to analyze differentially expressed lncRNAs. THAP7-AS1 levels were detected in lung cancer, adjacent normal tissues and lung cancer cell lines by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The diagnostic value of THAP7-AS1 in lung cancer and the relationship between THAP7-AS1 expression and survival rate and clinicopathological parameters were analyzed. Bioinformatics analysis, methylated RNA immunoprecipitation (meRIP), RNA pull-down and RNA-immunoprecipitation (RIP) assay were used to investigate the molecular regulation mechanism of THAP7-AS1. Cell proliferation, migration, invasion and tumorigenesis of SPC-A-1 and NCI-H1299 cells were determined by MTS, colony-formation, scratch, Transwell and xenotransplantation in vivo, respectively. Expression levels of phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kenase B (PI3K/AKT) signal pathway related protein were detected by Western blot.@*RESULTS@#Expression levels of THAP7-AS1 were higher in lung cancer tissues and cell lines (P<0.05). THAP7-AS1 has certain diagnostic value in lung cancer [area under the curve (AUC)=0.737], and its expression associated with overall survival rate, tumor size, tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage and lymph node metastasis (P<0.05). METTL3-mediated m6A modification enhanced THAP7-AS1 expression. The cell proliferation, migration, invasion and the volume and mass of transplanted tumor were all higher in the THAP7-AS1 group compared with the NC group and sh-NC group of SPC-A-1 and NCI-H1299 cells, while the cell proliferation, migration and invasion were lower in the sh-THAP7-AS1 group (P<0.05). THAP7-AS1 binds specifically to Cullin 4B (CUL4B). The cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and expression levels of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA), phosphoinositide-3 kinase, catalytic subunit delta (PIK3CD), phospho-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (p-PI3K), phospho-protein kinase B (p-AKT) and phospho-mammalian target of rapamycin (p-mTOR) were higher in the THAP7-AS1 group compared with the Vector group of SPC-A-1 and NCI-H1299 cells (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#LncRNA THAP7-AS1 is stably expressed through m6A modification mediated by METTL3, and combines with CUL4B to activate PI3K/AKT signal pathway, which promotes the occurrence and development of lung cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Up-Regulation , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Methyltransferases/metabolism , Cullin Proteins/genetics
6.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 867-885, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008142

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the role and mechanism of eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1(EEF1) family members (EEF1D,EEF1A1,and EEF1A2) in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) based on public databases.Methods We examined EEF1 member expression levels in human LUAD samples via The Cancer Genome Atlas in the UCSC Xena browser and the Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium.We analyzed the mRNA and protein levels of EEF1D,EEF1A1,and EEF1A2 and their correlations with pathological variables via the Mann-Whitney U test.The Kaplan-Meier curves were established to assess the prognostic values of EEF1D,EEF1A1,and EEF1A2.The single-sample gene set enrichment analysis algorithm was employed to explore the relationship between the expression levels of EEF1 members and tumor immune cell infiltration.Spearman and Pearson correlation analyses were performed to examine the relationship between the expression levels of EEF1 members and those of the genes in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B signaling pathway.The immunohistochemical assay was employed to determine the expression levels of EEF1D,EEF1A1,and EEF1A2 in the LUAD tissue (n=75) and paracancer tissue (n=75) samples.Results The mRNA and protein levels of EEF1D,EEF1A1,and EEF1A2 showed significant differences between tumor and paracancer tissues (all P<0.001).The patients with high protein levels of EEF1A1 showed bad prognosis in terms of overall survival (P=0.039),and those with high protein levels of EEF1A2 showed good prognosis in terms of overall survival (P=0.012).The influence of the mRNA level of EEF1D on prognosis was associated with pathological characteristics.The expression levels of EEF1 members were significantly associated with the infiltration of various immune cells and the expression of key molecules in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B signaling pathway.Conclusion EEF1D,EEF1A1,and EEF1A2 are associated with the progression of LUAD,serving as the candidate prognostic markers for LUAD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Peptide Elongation Factor 1/metabolism , Proteomics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Carcinogenesis , Adenocarcinoma of Lung , Lung Neoplasms , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Prognosis
7.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 703-712, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008122

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the effect of shionone(SHI)on motor function in the mouse model of spinal cord injury(SCI)and probe into the underlying molecular mechanism.Methods C57BL/6 mice were treated to induce the SCI model and then assigned into a model group(SCI group),a SCI+SHI group,and a sham surgery(control)group.The Basso mouse scale(BMS)score was determined to evaluate the recovery of motor function in SCI mice.Hematoxylin-eosin(HE)staining,Nissl staining,and immunofluorescence staining were employed to examine the fibrosis,morphological changes of neurons,and neuron apoptosis in the spinal cord tissue of SCI mice,respectively.The mouse hippocampal neuronal cell line HT22 was cultured in vitro and then classified into tumor necrosis factor α(TNF-α)induction and SHI groups.Western blotting was employed to determine the expression of apoptosis-associated proteins.Network pharmacology,gene ontology annotation,and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment were employed to predict the possible molecular targets and signaling pathways of SHI in promoting functional recovery from SCI.Furthermore,the prediction results were verified by in vitro and in vivo experiments.Results Compared with the SCI group,the SCI+SHI group showed increased BMS score on days 21,28,35,and 42(P=0.003,P=0.004,P=0.023,and P=0.007,respectively),reduced area of spinal cord fibrosis(P=0.021),increased neurons survived(P=0.001),and down-regulated expression of cleaved cysteine aspastic acid-specific protease 3(cleaved Caspase-3)(P=0.017).Compared with the TNF-α group,the SHI group presented down-regulated expression levels of cleaved Caspase-3 and Bax(P=0.010,P=0.001)and up-regulated expression level of Bcl-2(P=0.001).The results of bioinformatics analysis showed that SHI might improve the motor function of SCI mice via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase(PI3K)/protein kinase B(Akt)signaling pathway.The results of in vivo and in vitro experiments showed that SHI inhibited the phosphorylation of PI3K and Akt in SCI mice or HT22 cells exposed to TNF-α(all P<0.05).The number of apoptotic HT22 cells after treatment with insulin-like growth factor 1 was higher than that in the SHI group(P=0.003).Conclusion SHI may inhibit neuron apoptosis via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway,thereby promoting the recovery of motor function in SCI mice.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Caspase 3/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Spinal Cord Injuries , Apoptosis , Neurons/pathology , Fibrosis
8.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2596-2608, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007557

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by sicca syndrome and/or systemic manifestations. The treatment is still challenging. This study aimed to explore the therapeutic role and mechanism of exosomes obtained from the supernatant of stem cells derived from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED-exos) in sialadenitis caused by SS.@*METHODS@#SHED-exos were administered to the submandibular glands (SMGs) of 14-week-old non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, an animal model of the clinical phase of SS, by local injection or intraductal infusion. The saliva flow rate was measured after pilocarpine intraperitoneal injection in 21-week-old NOD mice. Protein expression was examined by western blot analysis. Exosomal microRNA (miRNAs) were identified by microarray analysis. Paracellular permeability was evaluated by transepithelial electrical resistance measurement.@*RESULTS@#SHED-exos were injected into the SMG of NOD mice and increased saliva secretion. The injected SHED-exos were taken up by glandular epithelial cells, and further increased paracellular permeability mediated by zonula occluden-1 (ZO-1). A total of 180 exosomal miRNAs were identified from SHED-exos, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis suggested that the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway might play an important role. SHED-exos treatment down-regulated phospho-Akt (p-Akt)/Akt, phospho-glycogen synthase kinase 3β (p-GSK-3β)/GSK-3β, and Slug expressions and up-regulated ZO-1 expression in SMGs and SMG-C6 cells. Both the increased ZO-1 expression and paracellular permeability induced by SHED-exos were abolished by insulin-like growth factor 1, a PI3K agonist. Slug bound to the ZO-1 promoter and suppressed its expression. For safer and more effective clinical application, SHED-exos were intraductally infused into the SMGs of NOD mice, and saliva secretion was increased and accompanied by decreased levels of p-Akt/Akt, p-GSK-3β/GSK-3β, and Slug and increased ZO-1 expression.@*CONCLUSION@#Local application of SHED-exos in SMGs can ameliorate Sjögren syndrome-induced hyposalivation by increasing the paracellular permeability of glandular epithelial cells through Akt/GSK-3β/Slug pathway-mediated ZO-1 expression.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Humans , Sjogren's Syndrome/therapy , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Tight Junctions/metabolism , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta , Mice, Inbred NOD , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Exosomes/metabolism , Xerostomia , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase , MicroRNAs/genetics
9.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1608-1616, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010012

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of long non-coding RNA LINC01268 on apoptosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells and related mechanisms.@*METHODS@#The expression levels of LINC01268 and miR-217 in peripheral blood samples from AML patients and AML cell lines HL-60 and KG-1 were detected by qRT-PCR. HL-60 cells were divided into pcDNA3.1-NC, pcDNA3.1-LINC01268, si-NC, si-LINC01268, miR-NC, miR-217 mimics, si-LINC01268 + inhibitor-NC and si-LINC01268+ miR-217 inhibitor groups. The mRNA expressions of LINC01268 and miR-217 were detected by qRT-PCR. The targeting relationship between LINC01268 and miR-217 was detected by dual-luciferase reporter assay. Cell viability was detected by CCK-8 assay. Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were detected by flow cytometry. The expression of cell cycle and apoptosis-related proteins p21, Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3 and PI3K/AKT signaling pathway-related proteins were detected by Western blot.@*RESULTS@#The expression of LINC01268 in peripheral blood samples of AML patients and AML cell lines HL-60 and KG-1 was increased (P < 0.05), and the expression of miR-217 was decreased (P < 0.05). Compared with si-NC group and miR-NC group, the viability of HL-60 cells was decreased in si-LINC01268 group and miR-217 mimics group (P < 0.05), the proportion of cells in G1 phase and apoptosis rate were increased (P < 0.05), the protein expression levels of p21, Bax and caspase-3 were increased (P < 0.05), while the protein expression level of Bcl-2 was decreased (P < 0.05). LINC01268 targeted and negatively regulated the expression of miR-217, and inhibiting the expression of miR-217 partially reversed the effects of LINC01268 interference on the viability, cell cycle and apoptosis of HL-60 cells. Interference with LINC01268 could inhibit the activity of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Inhibiting the expression of miR-217 could partially reverse the inhibition of LINC01268 interference on PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.@*CONCLUSION@#LINC01268 is highly expressed and miR-217 is lowly expressed in AML cells. LINC01268 can promote the activity of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, increase the survival rate and inhibit the apoptosis of AML cells by targeting miR-217 expression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Apoptosis , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism , Caspase 3 , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics
10.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1296-1302, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009984

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of phorbol-12-myristate-13-ace-tate (TPA) on the proliferation and apoptosis of acute promyelocytic leukemia cell line NB4 and its molecular mechanism.@*METHODS@#The effect of different concentrations of TPA on the proliferation of NB4 cells at different time points was detected by CCK-8 assay. The morphological changes of NB4 cells were observed by Wright-Giemsa staining. The cell cycle and apoptosis of NB4 cells after TPA treatment were detected by flow cytometry. The mRNA expressions of NB4 cells after TPA treatment were analyzed by high-throughput microarray analysis and real-time quantitative PCR. Western blot was used to detect the protein expression of CDKN1A, CDKN1B, CCND1, MYC, Bax, Bcl-2, c-Caspase 3, c-Caspase 9, PIK3R6, AKT and p-AKT.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, TPA could inhibit the proliferation of NB4 cells, induce the cells to become mature granulocyte-monocyte differentiation, and also induce cell G1 phase arrest and apoptosis. Differentially expressed mRNAs were significantly enriched in PI3K/AKT pathway. TPA treatment could increase the mRNA levels of CCND1, CCNA1, and CDKN1A, while decrease the mRNA level of MYC. It could also up-regulate the protein levels of CDKN1A, CDKN1B, CCND1, Bax, c-Caspase 3, c-Caspase 9, and PIK3R6, while down-regulate MYC, Bcl-2, and p-AKT in NB4 cells.@*CONCLUSION@#TPA induces NB4 cell cycle arrest in G1 phase and promotes its apoptosis by regulating PIK3/AKT signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute , Caspase 3/metabolism , Caspase 9/pharmacology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Division , Apoptosis , RNA, Messenger , Cell Proliferation
11.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6693-6701, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008867

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the effect of eleutheroside B on apoptosis and autophagy of lung cancer A549 and H460 cells and its molecular mechanism. MTT assay was used to detect the cytotoxicity of eleutheroside B at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, and 45 mmol·L~(-1) on lung cancer cells. Trypan blue exclusion assay was used to detect the effect of eleutheroside B on the survival rate of lung cancer A549 and H460 cells at different time. Colony formation assay was used to detect the effect of eleutheroside B on the proliferation of lung cancer A549 and H460 cells. AO/EB fluorescence double staining and Hoechst 33342 fluorescence staining were used to detect the effect of eleutheroside B on apoptosis of lung cancer A549 and H460 cells, and Western blot was used to detect apoptosis-related proteins to explore the apoptosis-related molecular mechanism. AO fluorescence staining and Western blot were used to detect the expression of autophagic vesicles and autophagy-related proteins P62 and LC3. The results showed that compared with the control group, eleutheroside B inhibited the growth of lung cancer A549 and H460 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The optimal effect time of eleutheroside B on lung cancer A549 and H460 cells was 24 h, and the optimal concentrations were 28.64 and 22.16 mmol·L~(-1), respectively. Eleutheroside B could inhibit the colony formation of A549 and H460 cells. Compared with the control group, eleutheroside B could promote the formation of apoptotic bodies and induce cell apoptosis, as well as induce the expression of mitochondrial pathway-related proteins. Under the effect of eleutheroside B, the acidic autophagy vacuole in lung cancer cells increased, LC3Ⅱ expression increased, P62 protein expression decreased, and PI3K, p-Akt, and p-mTOR protein expression decreased in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. Studies have shown that eleutheroside B can inhibit the growth of lung cancer cells, reduce colony formation, induce apoptosis of lung cancer cells through mitochondrial pathway, and induce autophagy. The mechanism may be related to the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lung Neoplasms/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Signal Transduction , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Apoptosis , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins , Autophagy , Cell Proliferation , Cell Line, Tumor , Glucosides , Phenylpropionates
12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6423-6433, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008842

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the molecular mechanism of tanshinone Ⅱ_(A )(TaⅡ_A) combined with endothelial progenitor cells-derived exosomes(EPCs-exos) in protecting the aortic vascular endothelial cells(AVECs) from oxidative damage via the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase(PI3K)/protein kinase B(Akt) pathway. The AVECs induced by 1-palmitoyl-2-(5'-oxovaleroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine(POVPC) were randomly divided into model, TaⅡ_A, EPCs-exos, and TaⅡ_A+EPCs-exos groups, and the normal cells were taken as the control group. The cell counting kit-8(CCK-8) was used to examine the cell proliferation. The lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) cytotoxicity assay kit, Matrigel assay, DCFH-DA fluorescent probe, and laser confocal microscopy were employed to examine the LDH release, tube-forming ability, cellular reactive oxygen species(ROS) level, and endothelial cell skeleton morphology, respectively. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was employed to measure the expression of interleukin(IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-α. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR(qRT-PCR) and Western blot were employed to determine the mRNA and protein levels, respectively, of PI3K and Akt. Compared with the control group, the model group showed decreased cell proliferation and tube-forming ability, increased LDH release, elevated ROS level, obvious cytoskeletal disruption, increased expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, and down-regulated mRNA and protein levels of PI3K and Akt. Compared with the model group, TaⅡ_A or EPCs-exos alone increased the cell proliferation and tube-forming ability, reduced LDH release, lowered the ROS level, repaired the damaged skeleton, decreased the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, and up-regulated the mRNA and protein levels of PI3K and Akt. TaⅡ_A+EPCs-exos outperformed TaⅡ_A or EPCs-exos alone in regulating the above indexes. The results demonstrated that TaⅡ_A and EPCs-exos exerted a protective effect on POVPC-induced AVECs by activating the PI3K/Akt pathway, and the combination of the two had stronger therapeutic effect.


Subject(s)
Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular , Oxidative Stress , Endothelial Progenitor Cells , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Abietanes
13.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5908-5914, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008789

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the mechanism and target sites of Shenfu Injection in the intervention of chronic heart fai-lure based on the PI3K/Akt/mTOR autophagy signaling pathway. The chronic heart failure model was induced in rats by subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol. The model rats were randomly divided into model group, Shenfu Injection group, and 3-methyladenine autophagy inhibitor(3-MA) group. A normal group was also set up. After 15 days of administration, cardiac function indexes of the rats were detected by echocardiography. The serum N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide(NT-proBNP) levels were measured using the ELISA. HE and Masson staining was performed to observe the morphological changes in myocardial tissues, and electron microscopy was used to observe the autophagosomes in myocardial tissues. Western blot was conducted to measure the changes in autophagy-related proteins(LC3 Ⅱ/Ⅰ and p62), PI3K, Akt, mTOR, and phosphorylation levels. The results showed that compared with normal group, model group in rats led to reduced cardiac function, significant activation of cardiac autophagy, increased fibrotic lesions in myocardial tissues, structural disorder of the myocardium, increased autophagosomes, and cytoplasmic vacuolization. Compared with model group, Shenfu Injection group in rats led to cardiac function significantly improved, myocardial fibrosis decreased, and the number of autophagosomes and cytoplasmic vacuolization decreased. The phosphorylation levels of PI3K, Akt, and mTOR were significantly increased(P<0.01). In the 3-MA group, autophagy was inhibited through the activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway, resulting in improved cardiac function, reduced myocardial fibrosis, and no significant cytoplasmic vacuolization. The findings suggest that Shenfu Injection can activate the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and inhibit autophagy, thereby improving cardiac function.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Autophagy , Fibrosis
14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5888-5897, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008787

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the therapeutic effects and potential mechanisms of resveratrol(Res) on poor ovarian response(POR) in mice. The common target genes shared by Res and POR were predicted by network pharmacology, used for Gene Ontology(GO) annotation and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) pathway enrichment, and then validated by animal experiments. The mice with regular estrous cycle after screening were randomized into normal, POR, and low-and high-dose(20 and 40 mg·kg~(-1), respectively) Res groups. The normal group was administrated with an equal volume of 0.9% sodium chloride solution by gavage, and the mice in other groups with tripterygium glycosides suspension(50 mg·kg~(-1)) by gavage for 2 weeks. After the modeling, the mice in low-and high-dose Res groups were treated with Res by gavage for 2 weeks, and the mice in normal and POR groups with an equal volume of 0.9% sodium chloride solution by gavage. Ovulation induction and sample collection were carried out on the day following the end of treatment. Vaginal smears were collected for observation of the changes in the estrous cycle, the counting of retrieved oocytes, and the measurement of ovarian wet weight and ovarian index. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was employed to measure the levels of anti-mullerian hormone(AMH), follicle-stimulating hormone(FSH), estradiol(E_2), and luteinizing hormone(LH) in the serum. The ovarian tissue morphology and granulosa cell apoptosis were observed by hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling(TUNEL), respectively. Western blot was employed to determine the protein levels of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase(PI3K), protein kinase B(AKT), forkhead box O(FOXO) 3a, hypoxia-inducible factor(HIF)-1α, B-cell lymphoma-2(Bcl-2), and Bcl-2-associated X protein(Bax). A total of 222 common targets shared by Res and POR were collected. GO annotation indicated that these targets were mainly involved in oxidative stress response. KEGG enrichment analysis revealed that Res can intervene in POR via PI3K/AKT, HIF-1, and FOXO signaling pathways. Animal experiments showed that the model group had higher rate of estrous cycle disorders, lower number and poorer morphology of normally developed follicles at all levels, more atretic follicles, higher apoptosis of ovarian granulosa cells, lower number of retrieved oocytes, lower ovarian wet weight and ovarian index, higher serum levels of FSH and LH, lower levels of AMH and E_2, higher expression levels of HIF-1α, FOXO3a and Bax, and lower expression levels of PI3K, AKT, and Bcl-2 in the ovarian tissue than the normal group. Compared with the POR group, low-and high-dose Res decreased the rate of estrous cycle disorders, improved the follicle number and morphology, reduced atretic follicles, promoted the apoptosis of ovarian granulosa cells, increased retrieved oocytes, ovarian wet weight and ovarian index, and lowered serum FSH and LH levels. Moreover, Res down-regulated the expression levels of HIF-1α, FOXO3a and Bax, and up-regulated the expression levels of PI3K, AKT and Bcl-2 in the ovarian tissue. In summary, Res can inhibit apoptosis and mitigate poor ovarian response in mice by regulating the PI3K/AKT/FOXO3a and HIF-1α pathways.


Subject(s)
Female , Mice , Animals , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Resveratrol/pharmacology , bcl-2-Associated X Protein , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Sodium Chloride , Follicle Stimulating Hormone , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2
15.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4475-4482, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008702

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the effect and mechanism of morin in inducing autophagy and apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells through the protein kinase B(Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin(mTOR)/signal transducer and activator of transcription protein 3(STAT3) pathway. Human hepatocellular carcinoma SK-HEP-1 cells were stimulated with different concentrations of morin(0, 50, 100, 125, 200, and 250 μmol·L~(-1)). The effect of morin on the viability of SK-HEP-1 cells was detected by Cell Counting Kit-8(CCK-8). The effect of morin on the proliferation and apoptosis of SK-HEP-1 cells was investigated using colony formation assay, flow cytometry, and BeyoClick~(TM) EdU-488 with different concentrations of morin(0, 125, and 250 μmol·L~(-1)). The changes in the autophagy level of cells treated with morin were examined by transmission electron microscopy and autophagy inhibitors. The impact of morin on the expression levels of proteins related to the Akt/mTOR/STAT3 pathway was verified by Western blot. Compared with the control group, the morin groups showed decreased viability of SK-HEP-1 cells in a time-and concentration-dependent manner, increased number of apoptotic cells, up-regulated expression level of apoptosis marker PARP, up-regulated phosphorylation level of apoptosis-regulating protein H2AX, decreased number of positive cells and the colony formation rate, an upward trend of expression levels of autophagy-related proteins LC3-Ⅱ, Atg5, and Atg7, and decreased phosphorylation levels of Akt, mTOR, and STAT3. These results suggest that morin can promote apoptosis, inhibit proliferation, and induce autophagy in hepatocellular carcinoma cells, and its mechanism of action may be related to the Akt/mTOR/STAT3 pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Apoptosis , Autophagy , Cell Proliferation , Cell Line, Tumor , STAT3 Transcription Factor/metabolism
16.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4774-4781, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008644

ABSTRACT

This study aims to observe the effect and explore the mechanism of Qirong Tablets in the treatment of premature ovarian insufficiency(POI) in mice via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase(PI3K)/protein kinase B(Akt)/hypoxia inducible factor 1(HIF-1) signaling pathway. Sixty SPF female BALB/c mice were randomly divided into normal group, model group, positive control group, Qirong Tablets low-, medium-and high-dose group. The normal group was intraperitoneally injected with the same amount of normal saline, and the other groups were intraperitoneally injected with cyclophosphamide 120 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1) once to establish a POI animal model. After the model was successfully established, the low-, medium-and high-dose groups of Qirong Tablets were administered orally with 0.6, 1.2, 2.4 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1) respectively. The positive control group was given 0.22 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1) Clementine Tablets by intragastric administration, and the normal group and model group were given intragastric administration with the same amount of normal saline, and the treatment was 28 d as a course of treatment. After drug intervention, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was employed to measure the levels of estradiol(E_2), follicle-stimulating hormone(FSH), luteinizing hormone(LH), and anti-mullerian hormone(AMH) in peripheral blood, and hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining to observe the ovarian tissue. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling(TUNEL) assay was used to detect the apoptosis of granulosa cells, and Western blot to determine the expression levels of B-cell lymphoma-2(Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein(Bax), caspase-3, PI3K, Akt, and HIF-1. Compared with the normal group, the modeling of POI caused loose or destroyed ovarian tissue with vacuolar structures, edema and fibrosis in the ovarian interstitium, disordered or loose arrangement of granulosa cells, and reduced normal follicles. Compared with the model group, drug interventions restored the ovarian tissue and follicles at all the development stages and reduced atretic follicles. Compared with the normal group, the modeling of POI lowered the serum level of E_2 and AMH(P<0.01), and elevated the level of FSH and LH(P<0.01). Compared with the model group, high-dose Qirong Tablets elevated the levels of E_2 and AMH(P<0.05), and lowered the levels of FSH and LH(P<0.05). Compared with the normal group, the modeling of POI up-regulated the protein levels of PI3K, Akt, HIF-1, Bax, and caspase-3 and down-regulated the protein level of Bcl-2 in the ovarian tissue(P<0.01). Compared with the model group, low-, medium-, and high-dose Qirong Tablets down-regulated the protein levels of PI3K, Akt, HIF-1, Bax, and caspase-3 proteins and up-regulated the protein level of Bcl-2 in the ovarian tissue(P<0.05). In conclusion, Qirong Tablets can up-regulate the expression Bcl-2, down-regulate the expression of Bax and caspase-3 in POI mice. Qirong Tablets may inhibit the apoptosis of follicular granulosa cells in mice, thereby delaying ovarian aging, improving reproductive axis function, and strengthening ovarian reserve capacity, which may be associated with the inhibition of PI3K/Akt/HIF-1 pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mice , Female , Animals , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , bcl-2-Associated X Protein , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Caspase 3/metabolism , Saline Solution/therapeutic use , Signal Transduction , Granulosa Cells , Primary Ovarian Insufficiency/drug therapy , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/therapeutic use , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , Apoptosis
17.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4702-4710, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008637

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the effect and molecular mechanism of sinomenine on proliferation, apoptosis, metastasis, and combination with inhibitors in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells and SK-HEP-1 cells. The effect of sinomenine on the growth ability of HepG2 and SK-HEP-1 cells were investigated by CCK-8 assay, colony formation assay, and BeyoClick~(TM) EdU-488 staining. The effect of sinomenine on DNA damage was detected by immunofluorescence assay, and the effect of sinomenine on apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells was clarified by Hoechst 33258 staining and CellEvent~(TM) Cystein-3/7Green ReadyProbes~(TM) reagent assay. Cell invasion assay and 3D tumor cell spheroid invasion assay were performed to investigate the effect of sinomenine on the invasion ability of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro. The effect of sinomenine on the regulation of protein expression related to the protein kinase B(Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin(mTOR)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3(STAT3) signaling pathway in HepG2 and SK-HEP-1 cells was examined by Western blot. Molecular docking was used to evaluate the strength of affinity of sinomenine to the target cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase-3(caspase-3) and STAT3, and combined with CCK-8 assay to detect the changes in cell viability after combination with STAT3 inhibitor JSI-124 in combination with CCK-8 assay. The results showed that sinomenine could significantly reduce the cell viability of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells in a concentration-and time-dependent manner, significantly inhibit the clonogenic ability of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, and weaken the invasive ability of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro. In addition, sinomenine could up-regulate the cleaved level of poly ADP-ribose polymerase(PARP), a marker of apoptosis, and down-regulate the protein levels of p-Akt, p-mTOR, and p-STAT3 in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Molecular docking results showed that sinomenine had good affinity with the targets caspase-3 and STAT3, and the sensitivity of sinomenine to hepatocellular carcinoma cells was diminished after STAT3 was inhibited. Therefore, sinomenine can inhibit the proliferation and invasion of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells and induce apoptosis, and the mechanism may be attributed to the activation of caspase-3 signaling and inhibition of the Akt/mTOR/STAT3 pathway. This study can provide a new reference for the in-depth research and clinical application of sinomenine and is of great significance to further promote the scientific development and utilization of sinomenine.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Caspase 3/metabolism , Liver Neoplasms/genetics , Molecular Docking Simulation , Sincalide/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Hep G2 Cells , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Apoptosis
18.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 324-332, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986007

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effect and mechanism of miR-96-5p on apoptosis of PC12 cells induced by maltol aluminum. Methods: In January 2021, PC12 cells at logarithmic growth phase were divided into blank control group and low, medium and high dose group. Cells in each group were treated with 0, 100, 200 and 400 μmol/L maltol aluminum for 24 hours respectively. Cells were collected and cell apoptosis rates were detected by flow cytometry, miR-96-5p and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) mRNA expressions were detected by qRT-PCR, and the protein expression levels of cysteine protease 3 (Caspase3) 、activated cysteine protease 3 (Cleaved-caspase3) 、IRS1、phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-AKT) and phosphorylated glucose synthesis kinase 3β (p-GSK3β) were detected by western blotting. The target binding relationship between miR-96-5p and IRS1 was detected by double luciferase reporter gene experiment. The miR-96-5p inhibitor cells and negative control cells were constructed after transfecting PC12 cells with miR-96-5p inhibitor for 24 hours. The cells were divided into blank control group, negative control group, aluminum exposure group, aluminum exposure+negative control group, aluminum exposure+miR-96-5p inhibition group, and miR-96-5p inhibition group. After transfecting PC12 cells with miR-96-5p inhibition and IRS1 siRNA for 24 h, the cells were divided into aluminum exposure+miR-96-5p inhibition+negative control group and aluminum exposure+miR-96-5p inhibition+IRS1 inhibition group. The control group was cultured in complete culture medium, and cells in the aluminum exposure group were treated with 200 μmol/L maltol aluminum for 24 hours. Cells in each group were collected and the apoptosis rate, miR-96-5p and IRS1 mRNA expression levels, as well as protein expression levels of Caspase3, Cleaved-caspase3, IRS1, p-AKT, and p-GSK3β were measured. Results: After 24 hours of exposure, compared with blank control group and low-dose group, the apoptosis rates, relative expressions of Caspase3 and Cleaved-caspase3 proteins, and relative expressions of miR-96-5p in the medium and high-dose groups of PC12 cells were significantly increased, while the relative expression levels of IRS1 mRNA, IRS1, p-AKT and p-GSK3β proteins were significantly decreased (P<0.05). Targetscan prediction and double luciferase report experiment both proved that IRS1 was a direct target gene of miR-96-5p. In the transfection experiment, compared with the aluminum exposure group, the apoptosis rate, the relative expressions of Caspase3 and Cleaved-caspase3 proteins, the relative expression of miR-96-5p in the aluminum exposure+miR-96-5p inhibition group were significantly decreased, while the relative expression levels of IRS1 mRNA and IRS1, p-AKT and p-GSK3β proteins were significantly increased (P<0.05). In the IRS1 low expression experiment, compared with the aluminum exposure+miR-96-5p inhibition+negative control group, the apoptosis rate, the relative expressions of Caspase3 and Cleaved-caspase3 proteins in the aluminum exposure+miR-96-5p inhibition+IRS1 inhibition group were significantly increased, while the relative expression levels of IRS1 mRNA and IRS1, p-AKT and p-GSK3β proteins were significantly decreased (P<0.05) . Conclusion: The increased expression of miR-96-5p and the targeted inhibition of IRS1 may be one of the mechanisms of apoptosis of PC12 cells induced by maltol aluminum exposure.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Aluminum/toxicity , Apoptosis , Cell Proliferation , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta/metabolism , Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , PC12 Cells , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , RNA, Messenger
19.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 527-539, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982722

ABSTRACT

Activated fibroblasts and M2-polarized macrophages may contribute to the progression of pulmonary fibrosis by forming a positive feedback loop. This study was aimed to investigate whether fibroblasts and macrophages form this loop by secreting SDF-1 and TGF-β and the impacts of neotuberostemonine (NTS) and tuberostemonine (TS). Mice were intratracheally injected with 3 U·kg-1 bleomycin and orally administered with 30 mg·kg-1 NTS or TS. Primary pulmonary fibroblasts (PFBs) and MH-S cells (alveolar macrophages) were used in vitro. The animal experiments showed that NTS and TS improved fibrosis related indicators, inhibited fibroblast activation and macrophage M2 polarization, and reduced the levels of TGF-β and SDF-1 in alveolar lavage fluid. Cell experiments showed that TGF-β1 may activated fibroblasts into myofibroblasts secreting SDF-1 by activating the PI3K/AKT/HIF-1α and PI3K/PAK/RAF/ERK/HIF-1α pathways. It was also found for the first time that SDF-1 was able to directly polarize macrophages into M2 phenotype secreting TGF-β through the same pathways as mentioned above. Moreover, the results of the cell coculture confirmed that fibroblasts and macrophages actually developed a feedback loop to promote fibrosis, and the secretion of TGF-β and SDF-1 was crucial for maintaining this loop. NTS and TS may disturb this loop through inhibiting both the PI3K/AKT/HIF-1α and PI3K/PAK/RAF/ERK/HIF-1α pathways to improve pulmonary fibrosis. NTS and TS are stereoisomeric alkaloids with pyrrole[1,2-a]azapine skeleton, and their effect on improving pulmonary fibrosis may be largely attributed to their parent nucleus. Moreover, this study found that inhibition of both the AKT and ERK pathways is essential for maximizing the improvement of pulmonary fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Pulmonary Fibrosis/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta/pharmacology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Fibroblasts , Macrophages/metabolism
20.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 279-291, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982699

ABSTRACT

Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in cadmium (Cd)-induced myocardial injury. Mitsugumin 53 (MG53) and its mediated reperfusion injury salvage kinase (RISK) pathway have been demonstrated to be closely related to myocardial oxidative damage. Potentilla anserina L. polysaccharide (PAP) is a polysaccharide with antioxidant capacity, which exerts protective effect on Cd-induced damage. However, it remains unknown whether PAP can prevent and treat Cd-induced cardiomyocyte damages. The present study was desgined to explore the effect of PAP on Cd-induced damage in H9c2 cells based on MG53 and the mediated RISK pathway. For in vitro evaluation, cell viability and apoptosis rate were analyzed by CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Furthermore, oxidative stress was assessed by 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) staining and using superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) kits. The mitochondrial function was measured by JC-10 staining and ATP detection assay. Western blot was performed to detect the expression of proteins related to MG53, the RISK pathway, and apoptosis. The results indicated that Cd increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in H9c2 cells. Cd decreased the activities of SOD and CAT and the ratio of GSH/GSSG, resulting in decreases in cell viability and increases in apoptosis. Interestingly, PAP reversed Cd-induced oxidative stress and cell apoptosis. Meanwhile, Cd reduced the expression of MG53 in H9c2 cells and inhibited the RISK pathway, which was mediated by decreasing the ratio of p-AktSer473/Akt, p-GSK3βSer9/GSK3β and p-ERK1/2/ERK1/2. In addition, Cd impaired mitochondrial function, which involved a reduction in ATP content and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and an increase in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, cytoplasmic cytochrome c/mitochondrial cytochrome c, and Cleaved-Caspase 3/Pro-Caspase 3. Importantly, PAP alleviated Cd-induced MG53 reduction, activated the RISK pathway, and reduced mitochondrial damage. Interestingly, knockdown of MG53 or inhibition of the RISK pathway attenuated the protective effect of PAP in Cd-induced H9c2 cells. In sum, PAP reduces Cd-induced damage in H9c2 cells, which is mediated by increasing MG53 expression and activating the RISK pathway.


Subject(s)
Cadmium/metabolism , Caspase 3/metabolism , Potentilla/metabolism , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta/pharmacology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Cytochromes c/metabolism , Glutathione Disulfide/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress , Myocytes, Cardiac , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Apoptosis , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism
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