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1.
RECIIS (Online) ; 18(1)jan.-mar. 2024.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1553215

ABSTRACT

Neste artigo, iremos apresentar como ocorreu a edição virtual da Maratona do Rio de Janeiro em 2020, ainda sem autorizações sanitárias para a realização de grandes eventos. Para isso, analisaremos o Guia do corredor, apresentado aos corredores na época. A competição é realizada por meio de uso de aplicativos, mas o atleta é estimulado a correr com o slogan "Não correr nunca foi uma opção". Abordamos os conceitos de necrodemografia e necropolítica. Entende-se que a Maratona do Rio pratica uma espécie de necropolíti-ca ao organizar a competição em pleno período pandêmico do Brasil, apesar de valorizar a paisagem da rua em suas plataformas comunicacionais.


In this article, we will present how the virtual edition of the Rio de Janeiro Marathon took place in 2020 in the middle of the pandemic, still without health permits to hold major events. For this, we will analyze the Runner's Guide presented to the runners at the time. The competition is carried out using applications, but the athlete is encouraged to run with the slogan "Not running was never an option". We approach the concepts of necrodemography and necropolitics. It is understood that the Rio Marathon practices a kind of necropolitics when organizing the competition in the middle of the pandemic period in Brazil, despite valuing the street landscape in its communication platforms.


Dans cet article, nous allons vous présenter comment s'est déroulée l'édition virtuelle du Marathon de Rio de Janeiro en 2020, toujours sans autorisations sanitaires pour les grands événements. Pour cela, nous analyserons le Guide du marathonien, présenté aux marathoniens à l'époque. La compétition se déroule à l'aide d'applications, mais l'athlète est encouragé à courir avec le slogan "Ne pas courir n'a jamais été une option". Nous abordons les concepts de nécrodémographie et de nécropolitique. Il est entendu que le Marathon de Rio pratique une sorte de nécropolitique en organisant la compétition en pleine pandémie au Brésil, malgré la valorisation du paysage de rue dans ses plateformes de communication.


Subject(s)
Humans , Running , Politics , Socioeconomic Factors , Population Dynamics , Quarantine , Demography , COVID-19
2.
Psicol. Estud. (Online) ; 29: e55777, 2024.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1529194

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Este estudo teve por objetivo analisar o impacto do isolamento social decorrente da pandemia de Covid-19 sobre a vida familiar, com ênfase na vivência da maternidade e na relação com os filhos. Participaram 20 mães de camadas sociais médias, de 29 a 45 anos, que mantinham atividades laborais a distância e estavam em isolamento social. Foram realizadas entrevistas individuais em profundidade por meio digital. O material coletado foi transcrito e submetido à análise de conteúdo temática. Os resultados mostraram que as mudanças impostas pela pandemia impactaram diretamente a vida familiar, explicitando as desigualdades de gênero na organização da rotina, distribuição de tarefas domésticas e cuidados parentais. Observou-se uma relação ambivalente das mães com a maternidade e com seus imperativos sociais, que reverberam no vínculo que estabelecem com seus filhos. A análise revela que a sobrecarga emocional e física contribui para exacerbar sentimentos de culpa e solidão vivenciados na relação com a maternidade, além de evidenciar conflitos no desempenho dos papéis de mãe, esposa e profissional. As entrevistadas demonstraram exaustão com as demandas domésticas e de cuidados com os filhos, além de conflitos relacionados ao descompasso entre expectativas e padrões sociais que regulam o exercício da maternidade e suas experiências pessoais como mães. As conclusões sugerem a presença de uma crise identitária relacionada aos ideais sociais vinculados às vivências da maternidade, o que convida a pensar na urgência de se olhar para o sofrimento materno, buscando compreender as dimensões subjetivas das transformações que perpassam essa experiência na vigência do isolamento social.


RESUMEN El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar los efectos del aislamiento social resultante de la pandemia de COVID-19 en la vida familiar, con énfasis en la experiencia de la maternidad y la relación con los niños. Participaron 20 madres de estratos sociales medios, de 29 a 45 años de edad, que mantenían actividades laborales a distancia y se encontraban en aislamiento social. Se realizaron entrevistas individuales exhaustivas por medios digitales. El material recopilado se transcribió y se sometió a un análisis de contenido temático. Los resultados mostraron que los cambios impuestos por la pandemia afectaban directamente a la vida familiar, lo que explicaba las desigualdades de género en la organización rutinaria, la distribución de las tareas domésticas y el cuidado de los niños. Se observó una relación ambivalente entre las madres y la maternidad y sus imperativos sociales, que reverberaban en el vínculo que establecen con sus hijos. El análisis revela que la sobrecarga emocional y física contribuye a exacerbar los sentimientos de culpa y soledad experimentados en la relación con la maternidad, además de mostrar conflictos en el desempeño de los papeles de madre, esposa y profesional. Las mujeres entrevistadas mostraron agotamiento con las demandas domésticas y el cuidado de sus hijos, además de conflictos relacionados con el desajuste entre las expectativas y las normas sociales que regulan el ejercicio de la maternidad y sus experiencias personales como madres. Las conclusiones sugieren la presencia de una crisis de identidad ligada a los ideales sociales vinculados a las experiencias de la maternidad, lo que invita a pensar en la urgencia de mirar el sufrimiento materno, tratando de comprender las dimensiones subjetivas de las transformaciones en tiempos de aislamiento social.


ABSTRACT This study aimed to analyze the impacts of the social isolation resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic on family life, with emphasis on the experience of motherhood and the relationship with children. Twenty mothers from the middle social strata, from 29 to 45 years old, who kept working activities at a distance and were in social isolation, participated. In-depth individual interviews were conducted by digital means. The collected material was transcribed and submitted to thematic content analysis. The results showed that the changes imposed by the pandemic directly impacted family life, highlighting gender inequalities in routine organization, distribution of household tasks and parental care. An ambivalent relationship was observed between mothers and maternity and their social imperatives, which reverberated in the bond they establish with their children. The analysis reveals that emotional and physical burden contributes to exacerbate feelings of guilt and loneliness experienced in the relationship with motherhood, in addition to showing conflicts in the performance of the roles of mother, wife and professional. The women interviewed showed exhaustion with domestic and child care demands, in addition to conflicts related to the mismatch between expectations and social standards that regulate the exercise of motherhood and their personal experiences as mothers. The conclusions suggest the presence of an identity crisis due to the social ideals linked to the experiences of motherhood, which invites us to think about the urgency of looking at maternal suffering, seeking to understand the subjective dimensions of the transformations that this experience goes through in the times of social isolation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Social Isolation/psychology , Women, Working/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Mothers/psychology , Psychoanalysis , Stress, Physiological/physiology , Family/psychology , Family Characteristics , Parenting/psychology , Spouses/psychology , Emotions/physiology , Loneliness/psychology
3.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 73(4): 265-275, dic. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1537472

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El brote de COVID-19 generó cambios significativos en los hábitos alimentarios asociados a las medidas de confinamiento y distanciamiento social. Objetivo. Evaluar los hábitos alimentarios asociados a la emergencia sanitaria COVID-19 en adultos chilenos durante el año 2020. Materiales y Métodos. Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal en adultos chilenos seleccionados mediante muestreo no probabilístico por conveniencia. Se utilizó una encuesta validada por juicio de expertos, que incluyó preguntas sobre características sociodemográficas, ingesta habitual de alimentos y percepción de cambios de hábitos alimentarios durante el confinamiento. Resultados. Participaron 4.346 adultos chilenos con una edad promedio de 35,8 ± 13,9 años, predominantemente residentes urbanos (94,3%) y mujeres (75,1%). Se observó un aumento en el abastecimiento de alimentos en los hogares durante el confinamiento. La mayoría de los participantes manifestó que mantuvo o aumentó el consumo de verduras, frutas, lácteos, pescado y legumbres. Sin embargo, la ingesta de alimentos saludables no alcanzó las recomendaciones nutricionales establecidas. Adicionalmente, se encontró un aumento en el consumo de dulces. Conclusiones. Este estudio revela los efectos del confinamiento por la pandemia de COVID-19 en los hábitos alimentarios de los adultos chilenos, donde un porcentaje considerable de la población no cumplió con las recomendaciones de una dieta equilibrada según las guías alimentarias chilenas. El aumento en el consumo de algunos alimentos poco saludables puede tener implicaciones en la salud y el estado nutricional. Es necesario fomentar una alimentación equilibrada durante situaciones de crisis como esta pandemia(AU)


Introduction. The COVID-19 outbreak has led to significant changes in dietary habits due to confinement and social distancing measures. Objective. To assess the dietary habits associated with the COVID-19 health emergency among Chilean adults during the year 2020. Materials and methods. An observational, descriptive, and cross- sectional study was conducted on Chilean adults selected through non-probabilistic convenience sampling. A survey validated by expert judgment was used, including questions on sociodemographic characteristics, usual food intake, and perceived changes in dietary habits during confinement. Results. A total of 4,346 Chilean adults participated in the study, with an average age of 35.8 ± 13.9 years, predominantly urban residents (94.3%), and female (75.1%). An increase in household food supplies during confinement was observed. Most participants reported maintaining or increasing their consumption of vegetables, fruits, dairy, fish, and legumes. However, the intake of healthy foods did not meet the established nutritional recommendations. Additionally, there was an increase in the consumption of sweets. Conclusions. This study reveals the effects of COVID-19 confinement on the dietary habits of Chilean adults, where a considerable percentage of the population did not comply with the recommended balanced diet according to Chilean dietary guidelines. The increased consumption of some unhealthy foods may have implications for health and nutritional status. It is essential to promote balanced eating during crisis situations like this pandemic(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Quarantine , Feeding Behavior , COVID-19 , Sociodemographic Factors
4.
Rev. crim ; 65(3): 97-119, 20230910. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1538080

ABSTRACT

La emergencia sanitaria ocasionada por la pandemia del virus SARS-CoV-2 produjo limitaciones y cambios en la movilidad que transformaron el comportamiento, tanto de la sociedad en general como de los actores criminales en particular, impactando en los índices delictivos. Esto llevó a pensar a algunos analistas en la posibilidad de un "efecto rebote en el delito", luego de terminar el resguardo derivado de la pandemia. El objetivo de este artículo es revisar el impacto de la pandemia y sus medidas de confinamiento sobre la violencia letal contra las mujeres en México y Colombia. Para ello, a través de un ejercicio de estadística descriptiva, se analiza la tendencia del comportamiento del homicidio en ambos países desagregado por género, focalizando el análisis en 2019, 2020 y 2021, años considerados como periodos pre pandemia, pandemia y pos pandemia. Los hallazgos demuestran la falta de evidencia de un aumento significativo en los delitos de homicidio, homicidios de mujeres y feminicidios en relación con el periodo pre pandemia. Los homicidios de mujeres y los feminicidios dan cuenta de una continuidad en la cadena de violencias que reciben las mujeres a lo largo de su vida.


The health emergency caused by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic led to limitations and changes in mobility that transformed the behaviour of both society in general and criminal actors in particular, having an impact on crime rates. This led some analysts to consider the possibility of a "rebound effect on crime" after the end of the pandemic's safe haven. The aim of this article is to review the impact of the pandemic and its confinement measures on lethal violence against women in Mexico and Colombia. To do so, by means of a descriptive statistical exercise, we analyse the trend in homicide behaviour in both countries disaggregated by gender, focusing the analysis on 2019, 2020 and 2021, years considered as pre-pandemic, pandemic and post-pandemic periods. The findings demonstrate the lack of evidence of a significant increase in homicide, female homicide and femicide offences relative to the pre-pandemic period. Homicides of women and femicides show a continuity in the chain of violence against women throughout their lives.


A emergência de saúde causada pela pandemia de SARS-CoV-2 levou a limitações e mudanças na mobilidade que transformaram o comportamento da sociedade em geral e dos atores criminais em particular, com um impacto nas taxas de criminalidade. Isso levou alguns analistas a considerar a possibilidade de um "efeito rebote no crime" após o fim do refúgio seguro da pandemia. O objetivo deste artigo é analisar o impacto da pandemia e suas medidas de confinamento sobre a violência letal contra as mulheres no México e na Colômbia. Para isso, por meio de um exercício de estatística descritiva, analisamos a tendência do comportamento dos homicídios em ambos os países desagregados por gênero, concentrando a análise em 2019, 2020 e 2021, anos considerados como períodos pré-pandêmico, pandêmico e pós-pandêmico. Os resultados demonstram a falta de evidências de um aumento significativo nos crimes de homicídio, homicídio feminino e feminicídio em relação ao período pré-pandêmico. Os homicídios de mulheres e os feminicídios mostram uma continuidade na cadeia de violência contra as mulheres ao longo de suas vidas.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19 , Mexico , Quarantine , Colombia , Violence Against Women
5.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 73(supl. 2): 101-111, sept. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1537252

ABSTRACT

Introduction. The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted diet quality in differentways. In this context, community, organizational and consumer nutrition environments can influence the eating pattern. Objective. The purpose of this study was to identify how quarantine during the COVID-19 pandemic changed the diet in Brazil. Materials and methods. A natural experiment organized into experimental (social-isolated group - SIG) and control groups (non-isolated group - CG) was conducted with data collection from an online survey at the beginning of the pandemic (T0) and in the less restrictive period of 2020 (T1). Pre-post improvements in diet quality (IDQ) were determined for the SIG and CG. Intro-intergroup changes were tested using the Mann­Whitney and Wilcoxon signed rank tests. The intervention effect was estimated using crude and adjusted difference- indifference in multilevel regression analysis accounting for repeated measures. Results. A sample of 565 Brazilian adults answered the questionnaire at T0 and T1. IDQ was favored twice or more by attitudes such as buying food directly from farmers/street markets, reducing requests for food delivery, and increasing time spent on eating activities and the frequency of cooking. The isolated group had no IDQ at T1, whereas the no isolated group, who worsened diet quality (6.1%) at T0, improved it at T1 (4.8%). Conclusions. The restrictive quarantine forced the non-isolated population to have an experience comparable to a food desert, negatively affecting their diet(AU)


COVID-19 ha impactado la calidad de la dieta de diferentes maneras. Los entornos comunitarios, organizacionales y nutricionales de los consumidores pueden influir en los patrones dietéticos. Objetivo. el objetivo de este estudio fue identificar cómo la cuarentena durante la pandemia de COVID-19 cambió la dieta en Brasil. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un experimento natural organizado en grupos experimental (grupo socialmente aislado - SIG) y control (grupo no aislado - GC) con datos recolectados en una encuesta en línea al inicio de la pandemia (T0) y en el momento menos restrictivo de 2020 (T1). Se determinaron mejoras pre-post en la calidad de la dieta (IDQ) para SIG y GC. Los cambios intra-intergrupo se probaron utilizando las pruebas de rangos con signos de Mann-Whitney y Wilcoxon. El efecto de la intervención se estimó utilizando diferencias crudas y ajustadas en el análisis de regresión multinivel, teniendo en cuenta medidas repetidas. Resultados. Una muestra de 565 adultos brasileños respondió el cuestionario en T0 y T1. IDQ se vio favorecido dos o más veces por actitudes como comprar alimentos directamente de los agricultores/mercados callejeros, reducir los pedidos de entrega de alimentos y aumentar el tiempo dedicado a las actividades alimentarias y la frecuencia de cocinar. El grupo aislado no mostró IDQ en T1, mientras que el grupo no aislado, que tenía peor calidad de la dieta (6,1%) en T0, mejoró en T1 (4,8%). Conclusiones. La cuarentena restrictiva obligó a la población no aislada a tener una experiencia comparable a un desierto alimentario, afectando negativamente su dieta(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Social Isolation , Food Quality , Diet , COVID-19 , Quarantine
6.
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 6(2): 133-141, jul. 19, 2023. tab.
Article in Spanish | BISSAL, LILACS | ID: biblio-1442685

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Las drogas producen importantes consecuencias negativas en las sociedades. La prevalencia de su consumo sigue aumentando debido a que existen diversos motivos que acercan a las personas a consumirlas. Objetivo. Identificar las diferencias en la frecuencia y cantidad del consumo de tabaco, alcohol y cannabis durante y después del confinamiento por la pandemia de COVID-19; así como la influencia del confinamiento en los motivos y los riesgos de desarrollar un consumo problemático. Metodología. Estudio transversal analítico con muestreo no probabilístico en dos momentos. Participaron 520 jóvenes: 246 estudiantes de bachillerato y universidad en el año 2020, durante el confinamiento y 274, en 2022. Se evaluaron datos sociodemográficos, motivos de consumo y consumo problemático. Resultados. El consumo de cannabis durante el confinamiento (41,1 %) fue mayor que en el posconfinamiento (29,6 %; p 0,006). Hubo diferencias entre los grupos de consumo problemático de tabaco durante el confinamiento y los motivos sociales (W 8,178, p 0,017) y de afrontamiento (W 26,456, p < 0,001); también, entre los grupos de consumo problemático de alcohol y los motivos sociales (W 6865,5, p < 0,001); de animación (W 6768,0, p < 0,001); de afrontamiento (W 6176,0, p = 0,002) y de expansión (W 6774,0, p < 0,001). Entre los motivos del consumo problemático de cannabis se destacan los sociales (W 6,404, p 0,041); de animación (W 9,409, p 0,009); de afrontamiento (W 9,265, p 0,010) y de expansión (W 27,692, p < 0,001). Conclusión. El confinamiento incrementó el riesgo de consumir tabaco y cannabis. Los motivos de consumo también aumentaron, excepto las asociadas al consumo de alcohol en universitarios. El consumo problemático de tabaco estuvo motivado por necesidades sociales y de afrontamiento; el de alcohol y cannabis, por necesidades sociales, de animación, de afrontamiento y de expansión


Introduction. Drugs produce significant negative consequences in societies. The prevalence of drug use continues to increase because various reasons lead people to use them. Objective. Identify differences in the frequency and amount of tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis use during and after COVID-19 pandemic confinement, the influence of confinement on motives, and risks for developing problematic use. Methodology. Analytical cross-sectional study with non-probabilistic sampling at two points in time. Five hundred and twenty young people participated: 246 high school and university students during the confinement in 2020, and 274 in 2022. Sociodemographic data, reasons for consumption, and problematic consumption were evaluated. Results. Cannabis use during confinement (41.1 %) was higher than post-confinement (29.6 %; p 0.006). There were differences between the groups of problematic tobacco use during confinement and the social (W 8.178, p 0.017), and coping (W 26.456, p < 0.001) motives; also, between the groups of problematic alcohol consumption and social motives (W 6865.5, p < 0.001); encouragement (W 6768.0, p < 0.001); coping (W 6176.0, p = 0.002) and expansion (W 6774.0, p < 0.001). Among the motives for problematic cannabis use, social (W 6.404, p 0.041); animation (W 9.409, p 0.009); coping (W 9.265, p 0.010), and expansion (W 27.692, p < 0.001) were highlighted. Conclusion.Confinement increased the risk of tobacco and cannabis use. Motives for use also increased, except those associated with alcohol use in university students. Problem tobacco use was motivated by social and coping needs; alcohol and cannabis use was motivated by social, entertainment, coping and expansion needs


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Quarantine , Spain
7.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1536322

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La pandemia de COVID-19 ha creado una situación de crisis que requiere un enfrentamiento a los efectos directos del virus y otros problemas de salud relacionados por el temor al contagio, y a las medidas de confinamiento que repercuten en la salud mental. Objetivo: Describir afectaciones de la salud mental relacionadas con la COVID-19. Métodos: Se efectuó una revisión bibliográfica documental, mediante búsquedas electrónicas en las bases de datos científicas MEDLINE, Pubmed, EBsCO y Scielo. Se utilizaron como palabras clave: pandemia COVID-19; salud mental y COVID; cuarentena; impacto psicológico de la COVID-19 y su equivalente en inglés. Se consideraron comunicaciones oficiales de organismos internacionales, regionales y nacionales. Como resultado de la búsqueda se analizaron 44 artículos científicos que cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. El período de estudio estuvo comprendido entre septiembre del 2020 y febrero del 2021, en La Habana, Cuba. Conclusiones: La pandemia COVID-19 ha provocado un impacto negativo en la salud mental. Los síntomas más frecuentes desde el punto de vista de la salud mental han sido: depresión, ansiedad irritabilidad, insomnio, ira, agotamiento emocional y pánico. Se observó trastorno de estrés postraumático. El análisis y conocimiento de los resultados expuestos en esta revisión pueden ser útiles para la valoración de medidas que contribuyan a mitigar los trastornos emocionales en la población y prestarles atención especial a las afectaciones en la salud mental en grupos vulnerables, particularmente al personal de salud(AU)


Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has created a crisis situation that requires coping with the direct effects of the virus and other related health problems due to fear of contagion, and confinement measures that impact mental health. Objective: To describe mental health effects related to COVID-19. Methods: A documentary literature review was carried out by means of electronic searches in the scientific databases MEDLINE, PubMed, Ebsco and SciELO. Key words used were: COVID-19 pandemic; mental health and COVID; quarantine; psychological impact of COVID-19 and its English equivalent. Official communications from international, regional and national agencies were considered. As a result of the search, 44 scientific articles that met the inclusion criteria were analyzed. The study period was between September 2020 and February 2021, in Havana, Cuba. Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a negative impact on mental health. The most frequent symptoms from the mental health point of view have been: depression, anxiety, irritability, insomnia, anger, emotional exhaustion and panic. Post-traumatic stress disorder was observed. The analysis and knowledge of the results presented in this review may be useful for the assessment of measures that contribute to mitigate emotional disorders in the population and pay special attention to mental health effects in vulnerable groups, particularly health personnel(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Quarantine/methods , Mental Health , Health Personnel/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology
8.
Educ. med. super ; 37(1)mar. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1440009

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El confinamiento derivado de la situación sanitaria a finales del primer trimestre de 2020 en España obligó a que la segunda parte del curso 2019-2020 de todos los niveles educativos pasara a formato online de una manera forzada e imprevista. Objetivo: Identificar el impacto de la docencia online en el rendimiento académico de los estudiantes de medicina en el curso 2019-2020. Métodos: El estudio fue de tipo transversal y utilizó datos públicos anonimizados sobre rendimiento académico de estudiantes de medicina en universidades españolas. A partir de la información pública de los sistemas de garantía interna de calidad de estas universidades, se analizaron los valores medios de las tasas de rendimiento y éxito de los cuatro cursos comprendidos entre 2015 y 2019 en 17 universidades españolas. Estos se compararon mediante una prueba t de Student con los obtenidos en el curso 2019-2020. Resultados: Las tasas de rendimiento y éxito fueron superiores en el curso 2019-2020 en comparación con la media de los cuatro cursos anteriores. Conclusiones: La situación de confinamiento y de cambio forzado a docencia online parece haber producido una mejora en el ya de por sí elevado rendimiento académico de los estudiantes de medicina, lo que sugiere niveles elevados de resiliencia y una buena capacidad de adaptación a una situación adversa como la experimentada en la segunda parte del curso 2019-2020 (AU)


Introduction: The lockdown derived from the health situation at the end of the first quarter of 2020 in Spain forced the second part of the 2019-2020 academic course of all educational levels to be move to the online modality in a compulsory and unforeseen way. Objective: To identify the impact of online teaching on the academic performance of medical students in the 2019-2020 academic year. Methods: The study was cross-sectional and used anonymized public data on the academic performance of medical students in Spanish universities. Based on public information from the internal quality assurance systems of these universities, the mean values of performance and success rates were analyzed for the four academic years between 2015 and 2019 in seventeen Spanish universities. Using a Student's t test, these were compared with those obtained in the 2019-2020 academic year. Results: The performance and success rates were higher in the 2019-2020 academic year compared to the average of the four previous academic years. Conclusions: The situation of lockdown and forced change to online teaching seems to have produced an improvement in the already high academic performance of medical students, being this suggestive of high levels of resilience and a good capacity to adapt to an adverse situation such as the one experienced in the second part of the 2019-2020 academic year(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Students, Medical , Education, Distance/methods , Spain , Quarantine/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies
9.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 151(2): 197-205, feb. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1522083

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Different modalities of quarantines were one of the main measures implemented worldwide to avoid the spread of SARS-CoV2 virus. AIM: To analyze and compare retrospectively the implementation of the Step- to-Step plan devised by the Chilean Ministry of Health during the pandemic. To propose a decision-making path based on an artificial intelligence fuzzy system to determine confinements in specific territories. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The Step-to-Step Plan threshold values such hospital network capacity, epidemic spreading, testing and contact tracing capability were modeled using fuzzy numbers and fuzzy rule-based systems. RESULTS: Ministry of Health's decision-making opportuneness were unrelated with the Step-to-Step Plan indicators for deconfinement. Such disagreements undermined epidemiological indicators. CONCLUSIONS: Using an artificial intelligence system could improve decision-making transparency, emergency governance, and risk communication to the population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Artificial Intelligence , Quarantine , RNA, Viral , Retrospective Studies , Fuzzy Logic
10.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 27(5): 2110-2125, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1433769

ABSTRACT

O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a influência do isolamento social causado pela pandemia da COVID-19 em pacientes com Transtorno do Espectro Autista (TEA), atendidos em um serviço especializado. Foi realizado um estudo transversal do tipo observacional e descritivo por meio da aplicação de um formulário de 51 perguntas. Participaram do estudo 45 responsáveis por crianças e adolescentes com TEA, acompanhados na Policlínica Naval de São Pedro da Aldeia (PNSPA), no período de julho a novembro de 2021. Foram abordados aspectos demográficos, sociais, clínicos e comportamentais dos pacientes e familiares. Os resultados indicaram que a maioria dos pacientes era do sexo masculino (86,7%) com média de idade de 10,4 anos, sendo 57,8% TEA nível 1. Observou-se alterações comportamentais em 88,9% dos pacientes, sendo essas alterações consideradas como negativas por 57% dos responsáveis. Foi necessário o ajuste nas medicações em 51,1% dos pacientes que já usavam medicações no período, a maioria deles por causa de modificações no comportamento. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa quando avaliamos as modificações comportamentais por sexo (p-valor 0,471), nível do TEA (p-valor 0,128), idade (p-valor 0,460), número de irmãos (p-valor 0,903), modificações medicamentosas (p-valor 0,280) e isolamento social (p-valor 0,553). Observou-se que a manutenção das terapias e a participação nas atividades escolares foi fator protetor quando analisamos as modificações de comportamento (RP para ambos = 0,86). Em conclusão, o estudo mostrou o impacto da pandemia de COVID-19 em pacientes com TEA, pelo elevado percentual de mudanças comportamentais, especialmente aquelas consideradas negativas, independentemente de os pacientes terem permanecido ou não em isolamento social.


The aim of the study was to assess the influence of social distancing caused by the COVID-19 pandemic in patients with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD), treated at a specialized unit. It was performed a cross-sectional observational and descriptive study with 45 guardians of children and adolescents with ASD, treated at an outpatient clinic, from July to November 2021. Guardians were asked to fill out a 51-question form that addressed demographic, social, clinical, and behavioral aspects of patients and family members. The results showed that the most patients are male (86.7%) with a mean age of 10.4 years; 57.8% had level 1 ASD. There were behavioral changes in 88.9% of patients; such changes were considered negative by 57% of the guardians. Medication adjustment was necessary for 51.1% of the patients who were already using medications in the period, most of them because of changes in behavior. There was no statistically significant difference when behavioral changes were evaluated by gender (p-value 0.471), ASD level (p-value 0.128), age (p-value 0.460), number of siblings (p-value 0.903), changes in medication (p-value 0.280) and social distancing (p-value 0.553). The continuation of therapies and participation in school activities was a protective factor when we analyzed changes in behavior (PR for both = 0.86). In conclusion, the research indicates that the COVID-19 pandemic had an impact on ASD patients, which could be noticed by the high percentage of occurrence of behavioral changes, especially those considered negative, regardless of whether the patients practiced social distancing or not.


El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la influencia del distanciamiento social causado por la pandemia de COVID-19 en pacientes con Trastorno del Espectro Autista (TEA), atendidos en una unidad especializada. Se realizó un estudio transversal observacional y descriptivo con 45 tutores de niños y adolescentes con TEA, atendidos en una consulta externa, de julio a noviembre de 2021. Se pidió a los tutores que rellenaran un formulario de 51 preguntas que abordaba aspectos demográficos, sociales, clínicos y conductuales de los pacientes y sus familiares. Los resultados mostraron que la mayoría de los pacientes son varones (86,7%) con una edad media de 10,4 años; el 57,8% presentaba un TEA de nivel 1. Hubo cambios conductuales en el 88,9% de los pacientes; dichos cambios fueron considerados negativos por el 57% de los tutores. Fue necesario ajustar la medicación en el 51,1% de los pacientes que ya la utilizaban en ese periodo, la mayoría de ellos debido a cambios en el comportamiento. No hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas cuando se evaluaron los cambios de comportamiento en función del sexo (p-valor 0,471), el nivel de TEA (p-valor 0,128), la edad (p-valor 0,460), el número de hermanos (p-valor 0,903), los cambios de medicación (p-valor 0,280) y el distanciamiento social (p-valor 0,553). La continuación de las terapias y la participación en actividades escolares fue un factor protector cuando analizamos los cambios en el comportamiento (PR para ambos = 0,86). En conclusión, la investigación indica que la pandemia de COVID-19 tuvo un impacto en los pacientes con TEA, que pudo ser notado por el alto porcentaje de ocurrencia de cambios de comportamiento, especialmente los considerados negativos, independientemente de que los pacientes practicaran o no el distanciamiento social.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent Behavior , Pandemics , Autism Spectrum Disorder , COVID-19 , Sibling Relations , Social Isolation , Therapeutics , Adaptation, Psychological , Quarantine , Drug Interactions , Applied Behavior Analysis , Physical Distancing
11.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 82: e0031, 2023. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1449769

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar o perfil epidemiológico das conjuntivites atendidas no Pronto Socorro do Hospital Banco de Olhos de Porto Alegre (HBO) com destaque à conjuntivite infecciosa e compará-lo aos atendimentos após o início da pandemia pelo Coronavírus, observando como o isolamento social e as questões de higiene amplamente enfatizadas e estimuladas desde o início a pandemia influenciaram o número de conjuntivites bacterianas e virais atendidas neste serviço de referência. Métodos Estudo transversal e retrospectivo através da análise dos prontuários eletrônicos dos pacientes atendidos no serviço de emergência do HBO no período entre março e junho de 2019 e 2020. Resultados Observou-se uma redução significativa no número de atendimento no departamento de emergência após o início da pandemia. De março a junho de 2019, 21.678 atendimentos foram realizados. No mesmo período de 2020, este número foi de 14.194, uma queda de 34,5%. O índice de conjuntivite como principal causa da visita oftalmológica diminuiu significativamente, sendo a conjuntivite infecciosa aquela que teve a maior queda. Em 2019, a mesma foi responsável por 30,2% dos atendimentos e, em 2020, por 15,5%. Não foi observado mudanças em relação ao sexo mais atendido, no entanto, observou-se um aumento significante na idade do paciente. Conclusão O estudo demonstrou uma importante redução no número de atendimentos na emergência em relacionados à conjuntivite infecciosa após o início da pandemia pelo Coronavírus. Acredita-se que este fato esteja diretamente relacionado ao aumento dos cuidados de higiene, isolamento social e a restrições impostas pela pandemia.


ABSTRACT Objective The objective of this paper is to evaluate the profile of the cases of conjuntivitis treated in the emergency department of the Banco de Olhos Hospital, emphasizing the infectious conjunctivitis, and compare before and after the onset of the Coronavirus pandemic and social isolation, both in public and private health care system. Methods A retrospective and transversal study where electronic files of the patients who visited the emergency department between March and June of 2019 and 2020 were reviewed. Results A significant reduction in the number of consultations at the emergency department was observed after the beginning of the pandemic. From March to June 2019, 21.678 visits were made. In the same period of 2020, this number was 14.194, a drop of 34.5%. The rate of visits having conjunctivitis as main cause also dropped significantly. Infectious conjunctivitis was the one who showed the highest decrease. In 2019, it was responsible for 30.2% of the visits and, in 2020, for 15.5%. There were no changes regarding the gender, but a significantly increase in patients' age was observed. Conclusion The study showed a dramatic reduction in the number of visits at the emergency department of ophthalmology regarding infectious conjunctivitis after the beginning of the pandemic, and we believe that the cause is related with an increase of hygiene care, social isolation and restrictions caused by the Coronavirus pandemic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Conjunctivitis/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Quarantine , Medical Records , Hygiene , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Eye Banks/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Physical Distancing
12.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e250675, 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1448938

ABSTRACT

Em março de 2020 a situação causada pela covid-19 foi elevada à categoria de pandemia, impactando de inúmeras formas a vida em sociedade. O objetivo deste estudo foi compreender os impactos da pandemia na atuação e saúde mental do psicólogo hospitalar, profissional que atua nos espaços de saúde e tem experienciado mais de perto o sofrimento dos doentes e dos profissionais de saúde frente à covid-19. Trata-se de um estudo exploratório-descritivo com 131 psicólogos que atuam em hospitais. Os profissionais foram convidados a participar através de redes sociais e redes de contatos das pesquisadoras, utilizando-se a técnica Bola de Neve. Foram utilizados dois questionários, disponibilizados na plataforma Google Forms, um abordando os impactos da pandemia sentidos pelos profissionais e outro referente ao sofrimento psíquico. Os dados foram analisados a partir de estatísticas descritivas e inferenciais. Foram observados impactos na atuação de quase a totalidade dos participantes, constatada a necessidade de preparação dos profissionais para o novo cenário, a percepção de pouco apoio institucional e quase metade da população estudada referiu-se a sintomas de sofrimento psíquico considerável desde o início da pandemia. É fundamental dar atenção a sinais e sintomas de sofrimento psíquico, procurando evitar o adoecimento de uma categoria profissional que se encontra na linha de frente do combate aos danos psicológicos da pandemia e cuja própria saúde mental é pouco abordada na literatura.(AU)


In March 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic breakout hugely impacted life in society. This study analyzes how the pandemic impacted hospital psychologists' mental health and performance, professional who more closely experienced the suffering of patients and health professionals in this period. An exploratory and descriptive study was conducted with 131 hospital psychologists. Professionals were invited to participate through the researchers' social and contact networks using the Snowball technique. Data were collected by two questionnaires available on the Google Forms platform, one addressing the impacts felt by professionals and the other regarding psychic suffering, and analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics. Results showed that almost all participants had their performance affected by the need to prepare for the new scenario, the perceived little institutional support. Almost half of the study sample reported considerable psychological distress symptoms since the beginning of the pandemic. Paying attention to signs and symptoms of psychic suffering is fundamental to avoid compromising a professional category that is on the front line of combating the psychological damage caused by the pandemic and whose own mental health is little addressed by the literature.(AU)


En marzo de 2020, la situación provocada por el COVID-19 se caracterizó como pandemia e impactó el mundo de diversas maneras. El objetivo de este estudio fue comprender los impactos de la pandemia en la salud mental y la actuación del psicólogo en los hospitales, uno de los profesionales que trabaja en espacios sanitarios y que ha experimentado más de cerca el sufrimiento de pacientes y profesionales sanitarios frente al COVID-19. Este es un estudio exploratorio descriptivo, realizado con 131 psicólogos que trabajan en hospitales. Los profesionales recibieron la invitación a participar a través de las redes sociales y redes de contactos de las investigadoras, mediante la técnica snowball. Se utilizaron dos cuestionarios disponibles en la plataforma Google Forms: uno sobre los impactos de la pandemia en los profesionales y el otro sobre el sufrimiento psíquico. Los datos se analizaron a partir de estadísticas descriptivas e inferenciales. Se observaron impactos en el trabajo de casi todos los participantes, la necesidad de preparación de los profesionales para este nuevo escenario, la percepción de poco apoyo institucional, y casi la mitad de la población estudiada reportaron sentir síntomas de considerable angustia psicológica desde el inicio de la pandemia. Es esencial prestar atención a los signos y síntomas del sufrimiento psíquico, buscando evitar la enfermedad de una categoría profesional que está a la vanguardia de la lucha contra el daño psicológico de la pandemia y cuya propia salud mental se aborda poco en la literatura.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Psychology , Mental Health , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Anxiety , Orientation , Physicians , Protective Clothing , Respiration , Respiratory Tract Infections , Safety , Attention , Set, Psychology , Social Adjustment , Social Isolation , Stress, Physiological , Stress, Psychological , Awareness , Software , Immunoglobulin M , Adaptation, Psychological , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Irritable Mood , Family , Carrier State , Epidemiologic Factors , Public Health Practice , Quarantine , Sanitation , Hygiene , Public Health , Epidemiology , Risk , Disease Outbreaks , Data Collection , Survival Rate , Mortality , Transportation of Patients , Triage , Contact Tracing , Occupational Health , Immunization , Universal Precautions , Infection Control , Immunization Programs , Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Coronavirus , Comprehensive Health Care , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Remote Consultation , Containment of Biohazards , Pulmonary Ventilation , Emergency Plans , Disaster Vulnerability , Declaration of Emergency , Disaster Planning , Death , Trust , Air Pollution , Ethanol , Economics , Emergencies , Emergency Services, Psychiatric , Empathy , Ethics, Professional , Professional Training , Surveillance of the Workers Health , Family Relations , Family Therapy , Resilience, Psychological , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Fear , Epidemics , Social Networking , Binge Drinking , Epidemiological Monitoring , Personal Protective Equipment , Emotional Adjustment , Emergency Medical Dispatch , Survivorship , Family Separation , Posttraumatic Growth, Psychological , Embarrassment , Sadness , Teleworking , Physical Distancing , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , SARS-CoV-2 , Sociodemographic Factors , Suicide Prevention , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Health Services Research , Immune System , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Anger , Loneliness , Masks , Mass Media , Negativism , Nurses, Male , Nursing Assessment
13.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e253659, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1448943

ABSTRACT

Partindo da pergunta "Como tem sido ser mulher e mãe em tempos de pandemia?", o presente estudo convidou mulheres que são mães, em redes sociais virtuais, a partilhar um relato de suas experiências com a readaptação parental em função do distanciamento social causado pela pandemia de covid-19. O objetivo foi refletir sobre a experiência de ser mulher e mãe em tempos de covid-19 e distanciamento social, apontando algumas ressonâncias do cenário pandêmico na subjetividade dessas mulheres. O estudo teve como base o referencial psicanalítico, tanto na construção da pesquisa e análise dos relatos quanto na sua discussão. A análise dos cerca de 340 relatos coletados, os quais variaram de uma breve frase a longos parágrafos, apontou para uma série de questionamentos, pontos de análise e reflexões. A pandemia, e o decorrente distanciamento social, parece ter colocado uma lente de aumento sobre as angústias das mulheres que são mães, evidenciando sentimentos e sofrimentos sempre presentes. Destacaram-se, nos relatos, a sobrecarga das mulheres com as tarefas de cuidado dos filhos e da casa, a culpa, a solidão, a exaustão, e o sentimento de que não havia espaço nesse contexto para "ser mulher", sendo isso entendido especialmente a questões estéticas e de vaidade.(AU)


Starting from the question "How does it feel to be a woman and a mother in pandemic times?", this study invited women who are mothers, in virtual social networks, to share their experiences regarding parental adaptations due to social distancing caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. The objective was to reflect on the experience of being a woman and a mother in the context of COVID-19 and of social distancing, pointing out some resonances of the pandemic scenario in the subjectivity of these women. The study was based on the psychoanalytical framework, both in the construction of the research and analysis of the reports and in their discussion. The analysis of about 340 collected reports, which ranged from a brief sentence to long paragraphs, pointed to a series of questions, analysis topics, and reflections. The pandemic, and the resulting social distancing, seems to have placed a magnifying glass over the anguish of women who are mothers, showing ever-present feelings and suffering. The reports highlighted women's overload with child and house care tasks, the guilt, loneliness, exhaustion, and the feeling that there was no space in this context to "be a woman," and it extends to aesthetic and vanity related questions especially.(AU)


A partir de la pregunta "¿cómo te sientes siendo mujer y madre en tiempos de pandemia?", este estudio invitó por las redes sociales a mujeres que son madres a compartir un relato de sus experiencias sobre la readaptación parental en función del distanciamiento social causado por la pandemia del covid-19. Su objetivo fue reflexionar sobre la experiencia de ser mujer y madre en tiempos del covid-19 y el distanciamiento social, señalando algunas resonancias del escenario pandémico en la subjetividad de estas mujeres. Este estudio se basó en el marco psicoanalítico, tanto en la construcción de la investigación y análisis de los informes como en su discusión. El análisis de los casi 340 relatos, que variaron de una pequeña frase a largos párrafos, generó en las investigadoras una serie de cuestionamientos y reflexiones. La pandemia y el consecuente distanciamiento social parece haber agrandado las angustias de las mujeres que son madres, evidenciando sentimientos y sufrimientos siempre presentes. En los relatos destacan la sobrecarga de las mujeres con las tareas de cuidado de los hijos y del hogar, la culpa, la soledad, el cansancio, así como el sentimiento de que no hay espacio em este contexto para "ser mujer", relacionado principalmente a cuestiones estéticas y de vanidad.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Psychoanalysis , Women , Parenting , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Anxiety , Parent-Child Relations , Paternal Behavior , Paternity , Prenatal Care , Psychology , Psychology, Social , Relaxation , Self Care , Self Concept , Social Adjustment , Social Responsibility , Socialization , Socioeconomic Factors , Stereotyping , Stress, Physiological , Stress, Psychological , Women's Rights , Work Hours , Body Image , Burnout, Professional , Activities of Daily Living , Pregnancy , Adaptation, Biological , Family , Marriage , Child , Child Development , Child Rearing , Quarantine , Hygiene , Mental Health , Family Health , Immunization , Sex Characteristics , Universal Precautions , Employment, Supported , Cost of Illness , Confusion , Feminism , Self Efficacy , Affect , Culture , Parturition , Depression , Postpartum Period , Educational Status , Ego , Employment , Fear , Femininity , Sexism , Work-Life Balance , Frailty , Occupational Stress , Androcentrism , Freedom , Self-Neglect , Frustration , Body Dissatisfaction , Psychological Distress , Social Comparison , Teleworking , Physical Distancing , Gender Equity , Family Support , Family Structure , Guilt , Health Promotion , Household Work , Identification, Psychological , Identity Crisis , Income , Individuation , Anger , Leisure Activities , Loneliness , Love , Maternal Behavior , Maternal Welfare , Mothers
14.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 30(supl.1): e2023031, 2023.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1506293

ABSTRACT

Abstract Between March 2020 and March 2022, more than 213,000 Peruvians died of covid-19. In this research note, we will identify and analyze the various social responses to covid-19 in Peru: denial, panic, search for culprits, search for "magic remedies," and, in some sectors, mistrust towards the State and science. We argue that these social responses have been common throughout history, both in pandemics prior to the development of the bacteriological era and in the most recent ones. We intend to show that, in Peru, scientific ideas around health and disease coexist with religious ideas, conspiracy theories and traditional knowledge.


Resumen Entre marzo de 2020 y marzo de 2022, más de 213.000 peruanos fallecieron por covid-19. En esta nota de investigación, identificaremos las diversas respuestas sociales a la covid-19 en Perú: negación, pánico, búsqueda de culpables, búsqueda de "remedios mágicos" y, en algunos sectores, escepticismo y desconfianza hacia el Estado y la ciencia. Argumentamos que estas respuestas sociales han sido comunes a lo largo de la historia, tanto en las pandemias anteriores al desarrollo de la era bacteriológica como en las más recientes. Pretendemos mostrar que en el Perú conviven ideas científicas en torno a la salud y la enfermedad con ideas religiosas, teorías conspirativas y saberes tradicionales.


Subject(s)
Mortality , COVID-19 , Peru , Quarantine , History, 21st Century
15.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e255712, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1529208

ABSTRACT

Com o advento da covid-19, foi declarado estado de emergência de saúde pública e decretadas medidas de isolamento e distanciamento social para conter a propagação da doença. O Conselho Federal de Psicologia, considerando a importância do acolhimento seguro durante a pandemia, publicou a Resolução CFP nº 4/2020, permitindo que serviços psicológicos aconteçam de maneira remota. O presente estudo visa, através do Método da Cartografia, apresentar a construção de um setting on-line para intervenções grupais e os desafios na oferta de acolhimento e atendimento remoto. Foram ofertados grupos terapêuticos, por meio da plataforma Google Meet, para estudantes da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro. Um diário de bordo foi produzido para acompanhar as forças que atravessavam e constituíam o território e a experiência grupal remota. Compreendemos que o território-espaço-grupal-on-line era composto pelo espaço virtual em que nos reuníamos, pelos espaços individuais de cada integrante e pelas forças que os atravessavam. Observamos que nem sempre os participantes dispunham de um lugar privado, mas estiveram presentes no encontro com câmeras e áudios abertos e/ou fechados e/ou através do chat da videochamada. A participação no grupo funcionou como alternativa no momento de distanciamento social, sendo uma possibilidade para o atendimento psicológico em situações de dificuldade de encontros presenciais; entretanto, se mostrou dificultada em diversos momentos, pela falta de equipamentos adequados e instabilidade na internet, fatores que interferiram nas reuniões e impactaram na possibilidade de falar e escutar o que era desejado.(AU)


With the advent of COVID-19, a state of public health was declared, and measures of isolation and social distance to contain the spread of the disease was decreed. The Federal Council of Psychology, considering the importance of safe reception during the pandemic, published CFP Resolution No. 4/2020, allowing psychological services to happen remotely. This study narrates, via the Cartography Method, the experience of inventing an Online Setting for group reception. Therapeutic groups were offered, via Google Meet Platform, to students at the Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro. A logbook was produced to accompany the forces that crossed and constituted the territory and the remote group experience. We understand that the territoryspace-group-online was composed by the virtual-space that we gathered, by the individualspaces of each member and by the forces that crossed them. We observed that the participants did not always have a private place, but they were present at the meeting with open and/or closed cameras and audio and/or through the video call chat. Participation in the group worked as an alternative at the time of social distancing, being a possibility for psychological care in situations of difficulty in face-to-face meetings, however, it proved to be difficult at various times, due to the lack of adequate equipment and instability on the internet, factors that interfered in meetings and impacted the possibility of speaking and listening to what was desired.(AU)


La llegada de la COVID-19 produjo un estado de emergencia de salud pública, en el que se decretaron medidas de confinamiento y distanciamiento físico para contener la propagación de la enfermedad. El Consejo Federal de Psicología, considerando la importancia de la acogida segura durante la pandemia, publicó la Resolución CFP nº 4/2020, por la que se permite la atención psicológica remota. Este estudio tiene por objetivo presentar, mediante el método de la Cartografía, la elaboración de un escenario en línea para la intervención grupal y los desafíos en la oferta de acogida y atención remota. Grupos terapéuticos se ofrecieron, en la plataforma Google Meet, a estudiantes de la Universidad Federal Rural de Río de Janeiro. Se elaboró un diario para acompañar a las fuerzas que atravesaron y constituyeron el territorio y la experiencia remota del grupo. Entendemos que el territorio-espacio-grupo-en línea estaba compuesto por el espacio-virtual que reunimos, por los espacios individuales de cada integrante y por las fuerzas que los atravesaban. Observamos que los participantes no siempre tenían un lugar privado y que estaban presentes en la reunión con cámaras y audio abiertos y/o cerrados y/o por el chat de la videollamada. La participación en el grupo funcionó como una alternativa en el momento del distanciamiento físico y revela ser una posibilidad de atención psicológica en situaciones de dificultad en los encuentros presenciales, sin embargo, se mostró difícil en varios momentos, ya sea por la falta de medios adecuados o por inestabilidad en Internet, factores que interferían en las reuniones e impactaban en la posibilidad de hablar y escuchar lo que se deseaba.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Psychology , Attitude , Answering Services , Internet-Based Intervention , Teleworking , COVID-19 , Anxiety , Personal Satisfaction , Preceptorship , Professional Practice Location , Psychoanalysis , Psychology, Social , Quality of Life , Safety , Social Identification , Social Values , Socialization , Socioeconomic Factors , Speech , Students , Teaching , Unemployment , Universities , Work , Behavior , Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms , Work Hours , Attitude to Computers , Medical Informatics Applications , Bereavement , Single Parent , Family , Catchment Area, Health , Cell Adhesion , Cell Communication , Quarantine , Communicable Disease Control , Mental Health , Life Expectancy , Universal Precautions , Infection Control , Employment, Supported , Communication , Mandatory Testing , Confidentiality , Privacy , Imagery, Psychotherapy , Psychotherapeutic Processes , Internet , Crisis Intervention , Personal Autonomy , Death , Trust , Codes of Ethics , Depression , Air Pollution , Educational Status , Disease Prevention , Centers of Connivance and Leisure , Professional Training , Faculty , Family Relations , Fear , Emotional Intelligence , Return to Work , Hope , Social Skills , Emotional Adjustment , Optimism , Healthy Lifestyle , Work-Life Balance , Mentoring , Sadness , Respect , Solidarity , Psychological Distress , Social Integration , Transtheoretical Model , Psychosocial Intervention , Listening Effort , Social Cohesion , Belonging , Cognitive Training , Diversity, Equity, Inclusion , Psychological Well-Being , Household Work , Humanities , Individuality , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Interpersonal Relations , Learning , Life Change Events , Motivation , Object Attachment
16.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e243766, 2023. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1431119

ABSTRACT

A pandemia da covid-19 impôs transformações no cotidiano mundial, em âmbito micro e macroestrutural. Seu impacto psicológico desestabiliza e evidencia desigualdades e vulnerabilidades psicossociais brasileiras. Configura-se como um estudo de perspectiva crítica, com base na Psicologia Sócio-histórica, com o objetivo de mapear os posicionamentos da Psicologia, vindos de diferentes campos, diante das ações de saúde mental. Para tanto, utiliza-se o site do Conselho Federal de Psicologia para a análise de 62 documentos, que resultaram em dois eixos de produção crítica: 1) a relação da Psicologia com o Conselho Federal de Psicologia; e 2) da Psicologia com a sociedade. Revela-se o abismo social entre segmentos da sociedade brasileira; formas de exclusão da população carcerária; violência doméstica contra as mulheres e as crianças; dificuldades de acesso a estratégias sociais, na educação e na saúde, e de superação dos impasses acirrados com a infecção global pelo novo coronavírus. Conclui-se que a diversidade de públicos, temáticas, áreas de atuação e referenciais teóricos materializa um compromisso crítico e científico da Psicologia.(AU)


The COVID-19 pandemic imposed transformations in the world daily life, at the micro and macrostructural levels. Its psychological impact destabilizes and highlights Brazilian inequalities and psychosocial vulnerabilities. This is a critical perspective study, based in socio-historical Psychology, aiming to map the positions of Psychology, from different fields, in the face of mental health actions. To this end, the Federal Council of Psychology website is utilized to analyze 62 documents, which resulted in two axes of critical production: 1) the relation between Psychology and the Federal Council of Psychology; and 2) Psychology with society. They reveal the social gap between segments of Brazilian society; ways of excluding prison po7pulation; domestic violence against women and children; and difficulties in accessing social strategies, in education and health, and in overcoming impasses aggravated by the global infection by the new coronavirus. In conclusion, the diversity of public, themes, areas of professional performance, and theoretical references materialize Psychology's critical and scientific commitment.(AU)


La pandemia del COVID-19 provocó transformaciones globales en lo cotidiano a nivel micro y macroestructural. Su impacto psicológico desestabiliza y destaca las desigualdades y vulnerabilidades psicosociales en Brasil. Esta es una investigación en la perspectiva crítica, basada en la psicología sociohistórica, con el objetivo de mapear las posiciones de la Psicología, procedentes de diferentes campos, frente a las acciones de salud mental. Para este fin, se utiliza el sitio web del Consejo Federal de Psicología para el análisis de 62 documentos, lo que resultó en dos ejes de producción crítica: 1) la relación de la Psicología con el Consejo Federal de Psicología; y 2) de la Psicología con la sociedad. Se revelan la brecha social entre los segmentos de la sociedad brasileña; las formas de exclusión de la población carcelaria; la violencia doméstica contra las mujeres y los niños; y las dificultades para acceder a las estrategias sociales, en la educación y la salud, para superar los impasses agravados por la infección global por el nuevo coronavirus. Se concluye que la diversidad de públicos, temáticas, áreas de actividad y referentes teóricos materializa un compromiso crítico y científico de la Psicología.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Socioeconomic Factors , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Anxiety , Pain , Pneumonia, Viral , Poverty , Psychology , Public Policy , Quality of Life , Refugees , Research , Role , Safety , Sexual Behavior , Authoritarianism , Social Isolation , Social Problems , Sports , Torture , Population Characteristics , Food Relief , Ill-Housed Persons , Marriage , Poverty Areas , Child Abuse , Child Welfare , Quarantine , Public Health , Hunger , Codependency, Psychological , Coronavirus Infections , Combat Disorders , Congresses as Topic , Crime , Armed Conflicts , Relief, Assistance and Protection in Disasters , Access to Information , Judiciary , State , Dehumanization , Human Rights Abuses , Depression , Developing Countries , Air Pollution , Education , Elder Abuse , Emergencies , Professional Training , Information Technology , Emigrants and Immigrants , Social Marginalization , Help-Seeking Behavior , Physical Abuse , Social Segregation , Gender-Based Violence , Cultural Rights , Internet-Based Intervention , Psychological Distress , Gender Identity , Emotional Abuse , Social Cohesion , Social Vulnerability , Humanitarian Crisis , Family Support , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Post-Infectious Disorders , Health Promotion , Human Rights , Jurisprudence , Malpractice
17.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1515273

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La adolescencia es una de las etapas más trascendentales de la vida; en ella el cerebro experimenta una serie de cambios y conexiones que suponen un antes y un después para la persona. Cada adolescente vive esta experiencia de una manera diferente. Muchos estudios muestran las devastadoras consecuencias que ha dejado el confinamiento generado por la pandemia de COVID-19 en este segmento poblacional y la importancia de aplicar un tratamiento adecuado. Objetivo: Identificar las manifestaciones psicopatológicas frente al impacto de la COVID-19. Presentación del caso: Adolescente femenina, de 13 años, de procedencia urbana, con antecedentes de salud mental previa, que convive con ambos padres y una hermana menor, en un ambiente familiar armónico. Acudió al cuerpo de guardia en compañía de su madre, por presentar manifestaciones depresivas y ansiosas dadas por miedo a contagiarse, a la muerte, a estar sola, a la oscuridad, a perder a sus familiares, deambulaba de un lado a otro sin ningún propósito y se negaba a ingerir alimentos. Todo comenzó al inicio de la pandemia por la COVID-19. Se decidió su ingreso en la sala de psiquiatría del Hospital Pediátrico Docente Sur Dr. Antonio María Béguez César Santiago de Cuba en abril de 2020. Conclusiones: La intervención psicoterapéutica y el tratamiento psicofarmacológico, resultaron efectivos para disminuir la ansiedad, el miedo a la muerte, la fobia y los elementos obsesivos, la depresión y el insomnio, generados por el confinamiento debido a la pandemia por COVID-19 (AU)


Introduction: Adolescence is one of the most transcendental stages of life. In it the brain undergoes a series of changes and connections that represent a before and after for the person. Every teenager lives this experience in a different way. Many studies show the devastating consequences left by the confinement generated by the COVID-19 pandemic in this population segment, and the importance of applying adequate treatment. Objective: To identify the psycho-pathological manifestations against the impact of COVID-19. Case presentation: Female adolescent, 13 years old, of urban origin, with a previous mental health history, who lives with both parents and a younger sister, in a harmonious family environment. She went to the emergency service in the company of her mother, after presenting depressive and anxious manifestations given by fears of being infected, of death, of being alone, of darkness, of losing her relatives; she wandered back and forth without any purpose and refused to eat food. It all started at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. It was decided to admit her to the psychiatric service of Dr. Antonio María Béguez César South Teaching Pediatric Hospital, in Santiago de Cuba province in April 2020. Conclusions: Psychotherapeutic intervention and psycho-pharmacological treatment were effective in reducing anxiety, fear of death, phobia and obsessive elements, and depression and insomnia generated by the confinement due to the COVID-19 pandemic(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Anxiety/drug therapy , Family/psychology , Darkness , Depression/drug therapy , Fear/psychology , Loneliness/psychology , Quarantine/methods , COVID-19/etiology
18.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e256659, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1529213

ABSTRACT

Em 2020, o mundo enfrentou uma grave emergência de saúde pública devido à pandemia de COVID-19, que impactou significativamente a mobilidade humana e a vida cotidiana de milhares de imigrantes ao redor do mundo. Este artigo fez uso de entrevistas online e por telefone com imigrantes que chegaram ao Brasil a partir de 2016, para identificar as estratégias de enfrentamento adotadas durante a pandemia. Foi realizada uma análise transversal das entrevistas com o auxílio do software Atlas.ti 9, usando a técnica sistemática de categorização iterativa. Com base em uma perspectiva sociocultural em psicologia, o artigo introduz os impactos iniciais da pandemia em diferentes esferas da vida cotidiana desses imigrantes e apresenta as estratégias mobilizadas para restaurar continuidades funcionais e relacionais em um momento no qual as rupturas provocadas pela migração e pela pandemia se sobrepõem. Entre outros, podese identificar como os entrevistados ativaram rapidamente as redes sociais locais e transnacionais virtualmente, mobilizando competências e habilidades aprendidas durante a migração.(AU)


In 2020, the world faced a serious public health emergency due to the COVID-19 pandemic, which has significantly impacted human mobility and the daily lives of thousands of immigrants around the world. This article uses online and telephone interviews conducted with migrants who arrived in Brazil in 2016, to identify coping strategies employed during the pandemic. A transversal analysis of all interviews was conducted with the aid of the software Atlas.ti 9, using a systematic approach of iterative categorization. From a sociocultural perspective in psychology, the article introduces the initial impacts of the pandemic in different spheres of everyday life of these immigrants. With this everyday context, we present the strategies mobilized by immigrants to restore functional and relational continuities at a moment in which the ruptures caused by migration and the pandemic overlap. In particular, we identify how interviewees rapidly activated local and transnational social networks virtually, mobilizing skills learnt during migration.(AU)


En 2020, el mundo se enfrentó a un grave estado de emergencia en salud pública debido a la pandemia del COVID-19, que impactó significativamente la movilidad humana y la vida cotidiana de miles de inmigrantes en todo el mundo. Este artículo realizó entrevistas en línea y por teléfono con inmigrantes quienes llegaron a Brasil a partir de 2016, con el fin de identificar sus estrategias de afrontamiento adoptadas durante la pandemia. Se realizó un análisis transversal de las entrevistas con la ayuda del software Atlas.ti 9, utilizando la técnica sistemática de categorización iterativa. Desde una perspectiva sociocultural en Psicología, este artículo expone los impactos iniciales de la pandemia en diferentes ámbitos de la vida cotidiana de estos inmigrantes y presenta las estrategias movilizadas para restaurar las continuidades funcionales y relacionales en un momento en que se superponen las rupturas causadas por la migración y la pandemia. Entre otros aspectos, se puede identificar cómo los entrevistados activaron virtualmente las redes sociales locales y transnacionales movilizando habilidades y destrezas aprendidas durante la migración.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Adaptation, Psychological , Cultural Characteristics , Emigration and Immigration , COVID-19 , Anxiety , Aptitude , Politics , Psychology , Psychology, Social , Public Policy , Quality of Life , Refugees , Safety , Salaries and Fringe Benefits , Social Change , Social Desirability , Social Isolation , Social Mobility , Social Problems , Social Sciences , Social Work , Socioeconomic Factors , Unemployment , Viruses , Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms , Brazil , Career Mobility , Economic Development , Quarantine , Communicable Disease Control , Family Characteristics , Adjustment Disorders , Hygiene , Mental Health , Disease Outbreaks , Mortality , Immunization , Population Growth , Universal Precautions , Clinical Competence , Workplace , Interview , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Disease Notification , Refugee Camps , Endemic Diseases , Credentialing , Crisis Intervention , Affective Symptoms , Culture , Terrorism , Capitalism , Internationality , Disasters , Economics , Employment , Environment and Public Health , Job Market , Ethics , Products Distribution , Cultural Competency , Resilience, Psychological , Fear , Economic Recession , Policy , Remuneration , Forecasting , Faith-Based Organizations , Expression of Concern , Right to seek Asylum , Respect , Psychological Distress , Transtheoretical Model , Physical Distancing , Food Insecurity , Social Vulnerability , Disaster Operations , Human Development , Human Rights , Income , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Learning , Leisure Activities , Life Change Events , Loneliness
19.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 94(1): e203, 2023. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1420115

ABSTRACT

Introducción: en marzo de 2020, en Uruguay se decretó la emergencia sanitaria al detectarse los primeros casos de infección por SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). El confinamiento domiciliario voluntario fue una de las medidas de salud pública adoptadas en el control de la pandemia. Objetivo: describir el efecto del confinamiento sobre los hábitos de sueño, alimentación y actividad física de adolescentes de Montevideo y Canelones durante la pandemia de COVID-19. Metodología: encuesta elaborada ad hoc, voluntaria, anónima, online y autoadministrada a adolescentes de 12 a 19 años, usuarios de CASMU, CRAMI, COMECA y Asociación Española, entre el 1 de junio y el 1 de julio de 2020. Se aplicaron cuestionarios validados para evaluar sueño, alimentación y actividad física. Resultados: se encuestaron 465 adolescentes, 70,1% mujeres y 48,2% de adolescencia media. Refirieron permanecer más de 6 horas al día conectados a internet y al celular 58,3% y 42,4%, respectivamente. La convivencia durante el confinamiento resultó agradable en la mayoría. El 76% refirió dormir menos de 9 horas/día. Señaló un consumo adecuado de frutas 6%, verduras 5,8% y lácteos 32,2%. El porcentaje de adolescentes activos descendió de 30,7% previo a la pandemia a 19,7% durante la misma. A la pregunta "¿cuál es la primera palabra que te viene a la mente cuando escuchas pandemia de COVID-19?" la mayoría brindó respuestas negativas. Conclusiones: las medidas de confinamiento no se asociaron con problemas importantes en la convivencia familiar en este grupo de adolescentes. Se observó una profundización de los problemas en los hábitos de alimentación, actividad física, sueño que favorecen el "ambiente obesogénico" y el riesgo de desarrollo de enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles. Resulta relevante considerar el impacto negativo del confinamiento y planificar las medidas preventivas tendientes a mitigar sus efectos.


Introduction: in March 2020, a Health Emergency was decreed in Uruguay when the first cases of the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID 19) infection were detected. Voluntary home confinement was one of the public health measures adopted in theto control the pandemic. Objectives: describe the effects of confinement on sleep, eating and exercise habits of adolescents assisted by private health providers in Montevideo and Canelones during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methodology: ad hoc, voluntary, anonymous, online and self-administered survey to adolescents of 12 to 19 years of age, users of CASMU, CRAMI, COMECA and Asociación Española HMOs, between June 1 and July 1, 2020. Validated questionnaires were applied to assess sleep, diet and exercise habits. Results: 465 adolescents were surveyed, 70.1% women and 48.2% in mid-adolescence. They reported having been connected to Internet and cell phone more than 6 hours a day, 58.3% and 42.4%, respectively. Coexistence during confinement was mostly pleasant. 76% reported sleeping less than 9 hours/day. They reported an appropriate consumption of fruit 6%, vegetables 5.8% and dairy 32.2%. The percentage of active adolescents fell from 30.7% before the pandemic to 19.7% during the pandemic. To the question, What is the first word that comes to mind when you hear about the COVID-19 pandemic? most gave negative responses. Conclusions: confinement measures were not linked to important problems regarding coexistence with relatives in this group of adolescents. We observed a worsening of the eating, exercise and sleep habits, which may favor the "obesogenic environment" and increase the risk of developing chronic non-communicable diseases. It is relevant to consider the negative impact of confinement and plan preventive measures aimed at mitigating its effects.


Introdução: em março de 2020, a Emergência Sanitária foi decretada no Uruguai quando foram detectados os primeiros casos de infecção por SARS-CoV-2 (COVID 19). O confinamento domiciliar voluntário foi uma das medidas de saúde pública adotadas para controlar a pandemia. Objetivo: descrever o efeito do confinamento nos hábitos de sono, alimentação e atividade física de adolescentes em Montevidéu e Canelones durante a pandemia de COVID-19. Metodologia: inquérito ad hoc, voluntário, anônimo, online e autoadministrado a adolescentes de 12 a 19 anos de idade atendido pelas prestadoras CASMU, CRAMI, COMECA e Associação Espanhola, entre 1 de junho e 1 de julho de 2020. Foram aplicados questionários validados para avaliar os seus hábitos de sono, alimentação e atividade física. Resultados: foram pesquisados 465 adolescentes, 70,1% mulheres e 48,2% na adolescência média. 58,3% e 42,4%, respectivamente, relataram ficar mais de 6 horas por dia conectados à internet e ao celular. A convivência durante o confinamento foi agradável para a maioria. 76% relataram dormir menos de 9 horas/dia. 6% deles indicou consumo adequado de frutas, vegetais 5,8% e laticínios 32,2%. O percentual de adolescentes ativos caiu de 30,7% antes da pandemia para 19,7% durante ela. Quando perguntados: Qual é a primeira palavra que vem à mente quando você ouve a pandemia do COVID-19? a maioria forneceu respostas negativas. Conclusões: as medidas de confinamento não estiveram associadas a problemas importantes na vida familiar neste grupo de adolescentes. Observou-se aprofundamento dos problemas nos hábitos alimentares, de exercício físico e de sono que favorecem o "ambiente obesogênico" e o risco de desenvolver doenças crônicas não transmissíveis. É relevante considerar o impacto negativo do confinamento e planejar medidas preventivas visando mitigar seus efeitos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Health Behavior , Quarantine , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Uruguay/epidemiology , Health Surveys , Affect , Age and Sex Distribution , Family Relations , Cell Phone Use/statistics & numerical data , Internet Use/statistics & numerical data , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology
20.
Afr. j. infect. dis. (Online) ; 17(1): 10-26, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1411563

ABSTRACT

Background: Ebola Virus causes disease both in human and non-human primatesespecially in developing countries. In 2014 during its outbreak, it led to majority of deaths especially in some impoverished area of West Africa and its effect is still witnessed up till date. Materials and Methods:We studied the spread of Ebola virus and obtained a system of equations comprising of eighteen equations which completely described the transmission of Ebola Virus ina population where control measures were incorporated and a major source of contacting the disease which is the traditional washing of dead bodies was also incorporated. We investigated the local stability of the disease-free equilibrium using the Jacobian Matrix approach and the disease-endemic stability using the center manifold theorem. We also investigated the global stability of the equilibrium points using the LaSalle's Invariant principle.Results: The result showed that the disease-free and endemic equilibrium where both local and globally stable and that the system exhibits a forward bifurcation.Conclusions: Numerical simulations were carried out and our graphs show that vaccine and condom use is best for susceptible population, quarantine is best for exposed population, isolation is best for infectious population and proper burial of the diseased dead is the best to avoid further disease spread in the population and have quicker and better recovery.


Subject(s)
Vaccines , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , Models, Theoretical , Quarantine
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