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1.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 52-61, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010296

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the in vitro and in vivo antitumor effects of the polysaccharide of Alocasia cucullata (PAC) and the underlying mechanism.@*METHODS@#B16F10 and 4T1 cells were cultured with PAC of 40 µg/mL, and PAC was withdrawn after 40 days of administration. The cell viability was detected by cell counting kit-8. The expression of Bcl-2 and Caspase-3 proteins were detected by Western blot and the expressions of ERK1/2 mRNA were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). A mouse melanoma model was established to study the effect of PAC during long-time administration. Mice were divided into 3 treatment groups: control group treated with saline water, positive control group (LNT group) treated with lentinan at 100 mg/(kg·d), and PAC group treated with PAC at 120 mg/(kg·d). The pathological changes of tumor tissues were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The apoptosis of tumor tissues was detected by TUNEL staining. Bcl-2 and Caspase-3 protein expressions were detected by immunohistochemistry, and the expressions of ERK1/2, JNK1 and p38 mRNA were detected by qRT-PCR.@*RESULTS@#In vitro, no strong inhibitory effects of PAC were found in various tumor cells after 48 or 72 h of administration. Interestingly however, after 40 days of cultivation under PAC, an inhibitory effect on B16F10 cells was found. Correspondingly, the long-time administration of PAC led to downregulation of Bcl-2 protein (P<0.05), up-regulation of Caspase-3 protein (P<0.05) and ERK1 mRNA (P<0.05) in B16F10 cells. The above results were verified by in vivo experiments. In addition, viability of B16F10 cells under long-time administration culture in vitro decreased after drug withdrawal, and similar results were also observed in 4T1 cells.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Long-time administration of PAC can significantly inhibit viability and promote apoptosis of tumor cells, and had obvious antitumor effect in tumor-bearing mice.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Alocasia/metabolism , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Caspase 3/metabolism , Apoptosis , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
2.
Biol. Res ; 56: 29-29, 2023. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1513741

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked lethal genetic disorder for which there is no effective treatment. Previous studies have shown that stem cell transplantation into mdx mice can promote muscle regeneration and improve muscle function, however, the specific molecular mechanisms remain unclear. DMD suffers varying degrees of hypoxic damage during disease progression. This study aimed to investigate whether induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have protective effects against hypoxia-induced skeletal muscle injury. RESULTS: In this study, we co-cultured iPSCs with C2C12 myoblasts using a Transwell nested system and placed them in a DG250 anaerobic workstation for oxygen deprivation for 24 h. We found that iPSCs reduced the levels of lactate dehydrogenase and reactive oxygen species and downregulated the mRNA and protein levels of BAX/BCL2 and LC3II/ LC3I in hypoxia-induced C2C12 myoblasts. Meanwhile, iPSCs decreased the mRNA and protein levels of atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 and increased myotube width. Furthermore, iPSCs downregulated the phosphorylation of AMPKA and ULK1 in C2C12 myotubes exposed to hypoxic damage. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that iPSCs enhanced the resistance of C2C12 myoblasts to hypoxia and inhibited apoptosis and autophagy in the presence of oxidative stress. Further, iPSCs improved hypoxia-induced autophagy and atrophy of C2C12 myotubes through the AMPK/ULK1 pathway. This study may provide a new theoretical basis for the treatment of muscular dystrophy in stem cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , Atrophy/metabolism , Atrophy/pathology , Autophagy , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Mice, Inbred mdx , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Muscle Fibers, Skeletal/metabolism , Hypoxia/metabolism
3.
Biol. Res ; 56: 19-19, 2023. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439486

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: AMBRA1 is an intrinsically disordered protein, working as a scaffold molecule to coordinate, by protein-protein interaction, many cellular processes, including autophagy, mitophagy, apoptosis and cell cycle progression. The zebrafish genome contains two ambra1 paralogous genes (a and b), both involved in development and expressed at high levels in the gonads. Characterization of the zebrafish paralogous genes mutant lines generated by CRISPR/Cas9 approach showed that ambra1b knockout leads to an all-male population. RESULTS: We demonstrated that the silencing of the ambra1b gene determines a reduction of primordial germ cells (PGCs), a condition that, in the zebrafish, leads to the development of all-male progeny. PGC reduction was confirmed by knockdown experiments and rescued by injection of ambra1b and human AMBRA1 mRNAs, but not ambra1a mRNA. Moreover, PGC loss was not rescued by injection with human AMBRA1 mRNA mutated in the CUL4-DDB1 binding region, thus suggesting that interaction with this complex is involved in PGC protection from loss. Results from zebrafish embryos injected with murine Stat3 mRNA and stat3 morpholino suggest that Ambra1b could indirectly regulate this protein through CUL4-DDB1 interaction. According to this, Ambra1+/- mice showed a reduced Stat3 expression in the ovary together with a low number of antral follicles and an increase of atretic follicles, indicating a function of Ambra1 in the ovary of mammals as well. Moreover, in agreement with the high expression of these genes in the testis and ovary, we found significant impairment of the reproductive process and pathological alterations, including tumors, mainly limited to the gonads. CONCLUSIONS: By exploiting ambra1a and ambra1b knockout zebrafish lines, we prove the sub-functionalization between the two paralogous zebrafish genes and uncover a novel function of Ambra1 in the protection from excessive PGC loss, which seems to require binding with the CUL4-DDB1 complex. Both genes seem to play a role in the regulation of reproductive physiology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Mice , Sex Differentiation , Zebrafish/genetics , Zebrafish/metabolism , Reproduction , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Zebrafish Proteins/genetics , Zebrafish Proteins/metabolism , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , Germ Cells/metabolism , Mammals/genetics , Mammals/metabolism
4.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 507-515, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986956

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the mechanism of Yifei Jianpi recipe for improving cigarette smoke- induced inflammatory injury and mucus hypersecretion in cultured human bronchial epithelial cells.@*METHODS@#Serum samples were collected from 40 SD rats treated with Yifei Jianpi recipe (n=20) or normal saline (n=20) by gavage. Cultured human bronchial epithelial 16HBE cells were stimulated with an aqueous cigarette smoke extract (CSE), followed by treatment with the collected serum at different dilutions. The optimal concentration and treatment time of CSE and the medicated serum for cell treatment were determined with CCK-8 assay. The expressions of TLR4, NF-κB, MUC5AC, MUC7, and muc8 at both the mRNA and protein levels in the treated cells were examined with RT- qPCR and Western blotting, and the effects of TLR4 gene silencing and overexpression on their expressions were assessed. The expressions of TNF-α, IL-1 β, IL-6 and IL-8 in the cells were detected using ELISA.@*RESULTS@#At the optimal concentration of 20%, treatment with the medicated serum for 24 h significantly lowered the mRNA and protein expressions of TLR4, NF- κB, MUC5AC, MUC7, and MUC8 in CSE- exposed 16HBE cells, and these effects were further enhanced by TLR4 silencing in the cells. In 16HBE cells with TLR4 overexpression, the expressions of TLR4, NF-κB, MUC5AC, MUC7, and MUC8 were significantly increased after CSE exposure and were lowered following treatment with the medicated serum (P < 0.05). The medicated serum also significantly lowered the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 in CSE-exposed 16HBE cells (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#In the 16HBE cell model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), treatment with Yifei Jianpi recipe-medicated serum improves inflammation and mucus hypersecretion possibly by reducing MUC secretion and inhibiting the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rats , Animals , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Interleukin-8/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Cigarette Smoking/adverse effects , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy , Signal Transduction , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Mucus/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
5.
Chinese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; (12): 930-938, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012300

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of endothelin A receptor (ETAR) expression in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC). To design ETAR carboxyl terminal (ETAR-C) amino acids derived polypeptide and to study the inhibitory effect on ovarian epithelial carcinoma cells in vitro. Methods: (1) A total of 126 patients who received surgical treatment and were diagnosed with HGSOC by postoperative pathological examination in Central Hospital of Xuzhou from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2017 were selected. All patients had completed clinicopathological data and follow-up data. Cancer tissue samples were collected and ETAR mRNA expression in HGSOC tissues was detected by reverse transcript-PCR. The clinical significance was analyzed. (2) ETAR-C fusion polypeptide was designed based on the sequence of carboxyl terminal amino acids of ETAR, expressed and purified in vitro. The effects of ETAR-C fusion polypeptide on migration and invasion ability of ovarian cancer SKOV3 and CAOV3 cells were detected by scratch test and invasion test, respectively. The effect of ETAR-C fusion polypeptide on chemosensitivity of cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer SKOV3/cDDP and CAOV3/cDDP cells was determined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) colorimetric assay. The effect of ETAR-C fusion polypeptide on β-arrestin-1 expression in ovarian cancer SKOV3 and CAOV3 cells was detected by western blot. Results: (1) The relative expression level of ETAR mRNA in HGSOC tissues was 18.6±5.1. Patients with HGSOC were divided into high ETAR mRNA expression (n=76) and low ETAR mRNA expression (n=50) with 61.7% as cut-off value analyzed by X-Tile software. High expression of ETAR mRNA was significantly correlated with abdominal water volume, platinum drug resistance, and cancer antigen 125 (CA125) value in HGSOC patients (all P<0.05), but was not related to the age of patients with HGSOC and the size of postoperative residual lesions (all P>0.05). The 5-year progression free survival rates were 18.4% and 28.0%, and the 5-year overall survival rates were 38.2% and 52.0% in HGSOC patients with high and low ETAR mRNA expression respectively, there were statistically significant differences (P=0.046, P=0.034). (2) The results of scratch test and invasion test showed that the scratch healing rate and cell invasion rate of SKOV3 or CAOV3 cells treated with endothelin-1 (ET-1) and ET-1+ETAR-C were respectively compared, and the differences were statistically significant (all P<0.05). MTT assay showed that the inhibition rates of ETAR-C fusion polypeptide treated in SKOV3/cDDP and CAOV3/cDDP cells were significantly higher than those of control cells after the addition of 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 24 μg/ml cisplatin (all P<0.05). Western blot analysis showed that the relative expression levels of β-arrestin-1 in SKOV3 or CAOV3 cells treated with ET-1 and ET-1+ETAR-C were 1.85±0.09 and 1.13±0.09 (SKOV3 cells), 2.14±0.15 and 1.66±0.12 (CAOV3 cells), respectively. The differences were statistically significant (all P<0.05). Conclusions: The prognosis of HGSOC patients with high expression of ETAR mRNA is significantly worse than those with low expression of ETAR mRNA. ETAR might be a new target for HGSOC treatment. The ETAR-C fusion polypeptide that interferes with the interaction of ETAR and β-arrestin-1 has good inhibitory effect on ovarian cancer cells in vitro, and might have clinical application potential.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Amino Acids/therapeutic use , beta-Arrestins/therapeutic use , Cell Line, Tumor , Cisplatin/pharmacology , Clinical Relevance , Ovarian Neoplasms/pathology , Receptor, Endothelin A/therapeutic use , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
6.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 1291-1297, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010942

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of microRNA-509-3p (miR-509-3p) on the apoptosis of atherosclerotic vascular endothelial cells.@*METHODS@#Mouse aortic endothelial cells (MAECs) were divided into normal control group, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) group, miR-509-3p overexpression group, miR-509-3p overexpression control group, miR-509-3p inhibitor + ox-LDL group, and miR-509-3p inhibitor control + ox-LDL group. MAEC were induced with 100 mg/L ox-LDL for 24 hours, and then transfected with miR-509-3p overexpression/inhibitor and corresponding control for 48 hours. The miR-509-3p expression in MAECs exposed to ox-LDL was detected using real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Flow cytometry was used to detect the level of apoptosis, and cell counting kit (CCK-8) was used to detect the proliferation activity of MAECs. The direct gene targets of miR-509-3p were predicted using bioinformatics analyses and confirmed using a dual luciferase reporter assay. The expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and protein was detected by RT-qPCR and Western blotting, respectively.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the normal control group, miR-509-3p was significantly upregulated in ox-LDL-stimulated MAECs (1.68±0.85 vs. 1.00±0.30, t = 2.398, P < 0.05). After transfection of MAECs with miR-509-3p overexpression, the luciferase activity of the BCL2 3'UTR WT reporter gene was significantly lower than that of miR-509-3p overexpression control group (0.83±0.06 vs. 1.00±0.07, t = 4.531, P = 0.001). The luciferase activity of the BCL2 3'-UTR mutant (MUT) reporter gene was not significantly different from that of miR-509-3p overexpression control group (0.94±0.05 vs. 1.00±0.08, t = 1.414, P = 0.188). Compared with the normal control group and miR-509-3p mimics control group, the cell proliferation activity was decreased [(0.60±0.06)% vs. (1.00±0.09)%, (0.89±0.04)%, both P < 0.01], the percentage of apoptotic cells were increased [(23.46±2.02)% vs. (7.66±1.52)%, (10.40±0.78)%, both P < 0.05], and the mRNA and protein expression of Bcl-2 were significantly downregulated (Bcl-2 mRNA: 0.52±0.13 vs. 1.00±0.36, 1.10±0.19, Bcl-2 protein: 0.42±0.07 vs. 1.00±0.11, 0.93±0.10, both P < 0.01) in miR-509-3p overexpression group. Compared with the ox-LDL group, inhibition of miR-509-3p expression could increase the proliferation activity of MAECs induced by ox-LDL [(0.64±0.35)% vs. (0.34±0.20%)%, P < 0.05], and reduce the apoptosis rate [(13.59±2.22)% vs. (29.84±5.19)%, P < 0.01], and up-regulated the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and protein in MAECs induced by ox-LDL (Bcl-2 mRNA relative expression: 0.82±0.09 vs. 0.52±0.10, Bcl-2 protein relative expression: 0.83±0.17 vs. 0.40±0.07, both P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Bcl-2 was one of the target genes of miR-509-3p. miR-509-3p can reduce the proliferation activity of endothelial cells, reduce the expression of Bcl-2, and promote cell apoptosis, thereby promoting the occurrence and development of atherosclerosis. Inhibition of miR-509-3p expression may be a potential therapeutic target for atherosclerosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Humans , Endothelial Cells , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Lipoproteins, LDL/metabolism , Apoptosis , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/pharmacology , Atherosclerosis/metabolism , Luciferases/pharmacology , Cell Proliferation , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells
7.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 67-71, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969949

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of wheat-grain moxibustion at "Dazhui" (GV 14), "Zusanli" (ST 36) and "Sanyinjiao" (SP 6) on Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in bone marrow cell in mice with bone marrow inhibition, and to explore the possible mechanism of wheat-grain moxibustion in treating bone marrow inhibition.@*METHODS@#Forty-five SPF male CD1(ICR) mice were randomly divided into a blank group, a model group and a wheat-grain moxibustion group, 15 mice in each group. The bone marrow inhibition model was established by intraperitoneal injection of 80 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide (CTX). The mice in the wheat-grain moxibustion group were treated with wheat-grain moxibustion at "Dazhui" (GV 14), "Zusanli" (ST 36) and "Sanyinjiao" (SP 6), 3 moxa cones per acupoint, 30 s per moxa cone, once a day, for 7 consecutive days. The white blood cell count (WBC) was measured before modeling, before intervention and 3, 5 d and 7 d into intervention. After intervention, the general situation of mice was observed; the number of nucleated cells in bone marrow was detected; the serum levels of interleukin-3 (IL-3), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were measured by ELISA; the protein and mRNA expression of β-catenin, cyclinD1 and C-Myc in bone marrow cells was measured by Western blot and real-time PCR method.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the blank group, the mice in the model group showed sluggish reaction, unstable gait, decreased body weight, and the WBC, number of nucleated cells in bone marrow as well as serum levels of IL-3, IL-6, GM-CSF were decreased (P<0.01), and the protein and mRNA expression of β-catenin, cyclinD1 and C-Myc was decreased (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the mice in the wheat-grain moxibustion group showed better general condition, and WBC, the number of nucleated cells in bone marrow as well as serum levels of IL-3, IL-6, GM-CSF were increased (P<0.01, P<0.05), and the protein and mRNA expression of β-catenin, cyclinD1 and C-Myc was increased (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Wheat-grain moxibustion shows therapeutic effect on bone marrow inhibition, and its mechanism may be related to activating Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in bone marrow cells, improving bone medullary hematopoiesis microenvironment and promoting bone marrow cell proliferation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , beta Catenin/metabolism , Bone Marrow/physiopathology , Bone Marrow Cells/physiology , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/metabolism , Interleukin-3/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Mice, Inbred ICR , Moxibustion/methods , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Triticum , Wnt Signaling Pathway , Hematopoiesis
8.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 64-73, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969807

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the expression and significance of protease activated receptor 2 (PAR2) in ovarian epithelial carcinoma. Methods: PAR2 mRNA expression levels in 410 cases of epithelial ovarian carcinoma and 88 cases of human normal ovary were analyzed from cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database and tissue genotypic expression database (GTEx). Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of PAR2 protein was performed in 149 patients with ovarian cancer who underwent primary surgical treatment at Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. Then the relationship between mRNA/protein expression of PAR2 and clinicopathological features and prognosis was analyzed. Gene functions and related signaling pathways involved in PAR2 were studied by enrichment analysis. Results: The mRNA expression of PAR2 in epithelial ovarian carcinoma was significantly higher than that in normal ovarian tissue (3.05±0.72 vs. 0.33±0.16, P=0.004). There were 77 cases showing positive and 19 showing strong positive of PAR2 IHC staining among the 149 patients, accounting for 64.4% in total. PAR2 mRNA/protein expression was closely correlated with tumor reduction effect and initial therapeutic effect (P<0.05). Survival analysis showed that the progression free survival time (P=0.033) and overall survival time (P=0.011) in the group with high PAR2 mRNA expression was significantly lower than that in the low PAR2 mRNA group. Multivariate analysis showed tumor reduction effect, initial therapeutic effect were independent prognostic factors on both progression-free survival and overall survival (P<0.05). The progression-free survival (P=0.016) and overall survival (P=0.038) of the PAR2 protein high expression group was significantly lower than that of the low group. Multivariate analysis showed PAR2 expression, initial treatment effect and chemotherapy resistance were independent prognostic factors on both progression-free survival and overall survival (P<0.05). Based on Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), PAR2 target genes were mainly enriched in function related to intercellular connection, accounting for 40%. Gene enrichment analysis (GSEA) showed that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway (P=0.023), the MAPK signaling pathway (P=0.029) and glycolysis related pathway (P=0.018) were enriched in ovarian cancer patients with high PAR2 mRNA expression. Conclusions: PAR2 expression is closely related to tumor reduction effect, initial treatment effect and survival of ovarian cancer patients. PAR2 may be involved in Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and intercellular connection promoting ovarian cancer invasion and metastasis.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Carcinoma, Ovarian Epithelial , Receptor, PAR-2 , Ovarian Neoplasms/pathology , Prognosis , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
9.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 629-635, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007778

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the present study was to explore the role of carotid body metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1) in chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH)-induced carotid body plasticity. Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were exposed to CIH (6%-21% O2, 4 min/cycle, 8 h/day) for 4 weeks. The blood pressure of rats was monitored non-invasively by tail-cuff method under consciousness. RT-qPCR was used to examine the mRNA expression level of mGluR1 in rat carotid body. Western blot was used to detect the protein expression level of mGluR1 in rat carotid body. The role of mGluR1 in CIH-induced carotid body sensory long-term facilitation (sLTF) was investigated by ex vivo carotid sinus nerve discharge recording, and the carotid body sLTF was evoked by a 10-episode of repetitive acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH: 1 min of 5% O2 interspersed with 5 min of 95% O2). The results showed that: 1) CIH increased the systolic blood pressure (P < 0.001), diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.005) and mean arterial blood pressure (P < 0.001) of rats; 2) CIH decreased the mRNA and protein levels of mGluR1 in the rat carotid body (P < 0.01); 3) 4 weeks of CIH induced carotid body sLTF significantly, exhibiting as an increasing baseline sensory activity during post-AIH, which was inhibited by application of an agonist of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors, (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG), during sLTF induction (P < 0.005). In summary, these results suggest that activation of mGluR1 inhibits CIH-induced carotid body plasticity in rats.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Carotid Body/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Hypoxia , Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
10.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 529-536, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007768

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to explore the role of group II and III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in carotid body plasticity induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) in rats. Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were treated with CIH in Oxycycler A84 hypoxic chamber for 4 weeks, and the tail artery blood pressure was measured at the end of model preparation. RT-qPCR was performed to examine the mRNA expression levels of mGluR2/3/8 in rat carotid body. Carotid sinus nerve activity was detected by ex vivo carotid sinus nerve discharge recording technique, and acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) was administered to induce carotid body sensory long-term facilitation (sLTF), in order to observe the role of group II and group III mGluRs in carotid body plasticity induced by CIH. The results showed that: 1) After 4 weeks of CIH exposure, the blood pressure of rats increased significantly; 2) CIH down-regulated the mRNA levels of mGluR2/3, and up-regulated the mRNA level of mGluR8 in the carotid body; 3) AIH induced sLTF in carotid body of CIH group. In the CIH group, activation of group II mGluRs had no effect on sLTF of carotid body, while activation of group III mGluRs completely inhibited sLTF. These results suggest that CIH increases blood pressure in rats, and group III mGluRs play an inhibitory role in CIH-induced carotid body plasticity in rats.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Carotid Body/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Hypoxia , Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
11.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 937-943, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007422

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effects of acupuncture at "Kongzui" (LU 6) and "Yuji" (LU 10) on the latent period of inducing asthma, pulmonary function and the expression of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and metallothionein-2 (MT-2) in asthma rats, and to explore the possible mechanism of acupuncture in alleviating airway smooth muscle spasm and improving the acute attack of asthma.@*METHODS@#A total of 40 male SD rats of SPF-grade were randomly divided into a normal group, a model group, a medication group and an acupuncture group, 10 rats in each group. Except for the normal group, ovalbumin sensitization method was used to establish the asthma model in the other 3 groups. Salbutamol nebulization was adopted in the medication group, while acupuncture was applied at bilateral "Kongzui" (LU 6) and "Yuji" (LU 10) in the acupuncture group. The intervention was given once a day for 14 days in the two groups. The latent period of inducing asthma and pulmonary function were observed, the levels of ET-1 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were detected by ELISA method, the morphology of the airway was observed by Masson staining, the ultrastructure of the airway smooth muscle was observed by transmission electron microscopy, the mRNA and protein expression of ET-1 and MT-2 in lung tissue was detected by real-time PCR and Western blot methods.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the normal group, in the model group, the latent period of inducing asthma was shortened (P<0.01); the airway resistance (RL) was increased while the dynamic compliance (Cdyn) was decreased (P<0.01, P<0.05); the levels of ET-1 and TNF-α in serum and BALF were increased (P<0.01); collagen fibers and collagen depositions were found around the bronchi, airway smooth muscle was thickened, the cell damage was severe and mitochondria were swollen; the mRNA and protein expression of ET-1 was increased while the mRNA and protein expression of MT-2 was decreased (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, in the acupuncture group, the latent period of inducing asthma was prolonged (P<0.05), the RL was decreased while the Cdyn was increased (P<0.01, P<0.05). Compared with the model group, in the medication group and the acupuncture group, the levels of ET-1 and TNF-α in serum and BALF were decreased (P<0.01, P<0.05); collagen fibers and collagen depositions around the bronchi were reduced, the thickened airway smooth muscle was lightened, the cell damage was improved; the mRNA and protein expression of ET-1 was decreased while the mRNA and protein expression of MT-2 was increased (P<0.01). Compared with the medication group, the mRNA expression of MT-2 was increased in the acupuncture group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Acupuncture at "Kongzui" (LU 6) and "Yuji" (LU 10) can improve the pulmonary function and alleviate the airway smooth muscle spasm in rats with asthma. Its mechanism may be related to the down-regulation of ET-1 expression and up-regulation of MT-2 expression.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Lung , Asthma/metabolism , Acupuncture Therapy , Spasm , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
12.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 194-204, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971652

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#This study was conducted to explore the mechanism of intestinal inflammation and barrier repair in Crohn's disease (CD) regulated by moxibustion through bile acid (BA) enterohepatic circulation and intestinal farnesoid X receptor (FXR).@*METHODS@#Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control group, CD model group, mild moxibustion group and herb-partitioned moxibustion group. CD model rats induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid were treated with mild moxibustion or herb-partitioned moxibustion at Tianshu (ST25) and Qihai (CV6). The changes in CD symptoms were rated according to the disease activity index score, the serum and colon tissues of rats were collected, and the pathological changes in colon tissues were observed via histopathology. Western blot, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunofluorescence were used to evaluate the improvement of moxibustion on intestinal inflammation and mucosal barrier in CD by the BA-FXR pathway.@*RESULTS@#Mild moxibustion and herb-partitioned moxibustion improved the symptoms of CD, inhibited inflammation and repaired mucosal damage to the colon in CD rats. Meanwhile, moxibustion could improve the abnormal expression of BA in the colon, liver and serum, downregulate the expression of interferon-γ and upregulate the expression of FXR mRNA, and inhibit Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) mRNA. The IHC results showed that moxibustion could upregulate the expression of FXR and mucin2 and inhibit TLR4 expression. Western blot showed that moxibustion inhibited the protein expression of TLR4 and MyD88 and upregulated the expression of FXR. Immunofluorescence image analysis showed that moxibustion increased the colocalization sites and intensity of FXR with TLR4 or nuclear factor-κB p65. In particular, herb-partitioned moxibustion has more advantages in improving BA and upregulating FXR and TLR4 in the colon.@*CONCLUSION@#Mild moxibustion and herb-partitioned moxibustion can improve CD by regulating the enterohepatic circulation stability of BA, activating colonic FXR, regulating the TLR4/MyD88 pathway, inhibiting intestinal inflammation and repairing the intestinal mucosal barrier. Herb-partitioned moxibustion seems to have more advantages in regulating BA enterohepatic circulation and FXR activation. Please cite this article as: Shen JC, Qi Q, Han D, Lu Y, Huang R, Zhu Y, Zhang LS, Qin XD, Zhang F, Wu HG, Liu HR. Moxibustion improves experimental colitis in rats with Crohn's disease by regulating bile acid enterohepatic circulation and intestinal farnesoid X receptor. J Integr Med. 2023; 21(2): 194-204.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Crohn Disease/pathology , Moxibustion/methods , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/metabolism , Colitis , Inflammation , Enterohepatic Circulation , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
13.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 308-316, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971530

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the correlation of inducible co-stimulatory molecules (ICOS) with mesenteric vascular endothelial- mesenchymal transition (EndMT) and sclerosis in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR).@*METHODS@#Twenty 4-week-old WKY rats and 20 SHRs of the same strain were both randomly divided into 4 groups for observation at 4, 6, 10 and 30 weeks of age. ICOS expression frequency in rat spleen CD4+T cells was analyzed using flow cytometry, and the expressions of ICOS, VE-cad, α-SMA and Col3 mRNA in rat mesentery were detected by RT-PCR. The distributions of ICOS, IL-17A and TGF-β in rat mesentery were detected by immunohistochemistry. The levels of IL-17A and TGF-β in rat plasma were measured using ELISA. The morphological changes of rat mesenteric vessels were observed with Masson staining. Spearman or Pearson correlation analyses were used to evaluate the correlation between ICOS expression and the expressions of the markers of vascular EndMT and sclerosis.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control WKY rats, the SHRs began to show significantly increased systolic blood pressure and ICOS expression frequency on CD4+T cells at 6 weeks of age (P < 0.05). In the SHRs, the mRNA and protein expressions of ICOS, α-SMA, Col3, IL-17A and TGF-β in the mesentery were significantly higher than those in control group (P < 0.05), while the mRNA and protein expressions of VE-cad started to reduce significantly at 10 weeks of age (P < 0.05). The plasma levels of IL-17A and TGF-β were significantly increased in SHRs since 6 weeks of age (P < 0.05) with progressive worsening of mesenteric vascular sclerosis (P < 0.05). ICOS mRNA and protein expression levels in the mesenteric tissues of SHRs began to show positive correlations with α-SMA and Col3 expression levels and the severity of vascular sclerosis at 6 weeks of age (P < 0.05) and a negative correlation with VE-cad expression level at 10 weeks (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#ICOS play an important pathogenic role in EndMT and sclerosis of mesenteric vessels in essential hypertension by mediating related immune responses.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Rats, Inbred SHR , Rats, Inbred WKY , Hypertension , Interleukin-17 , Sclerosis/pathology , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Mesentery/pathology , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Blood Pressure
14.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 1-14, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971365

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Ozone is widely applied to treat allergic skin diseases such as eczema, atopic dermatitis, and contact dermatitis. However, the specific mechanism remains unclear. This study aims to investigate the effects of ozonated oil on treating 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and the underling mechanisms.@*METHODS@#Besides the blank control (Ctrl) group, all other mice were treated with DNCB to establish an ACD-like mouse model and were randomized into following groups: a model group, a basal oil group, an ozonated oil group, a FcεRI-overexpressed plasmid (FcεRI-OE) group, and a FcεRI empty plasmid (FcεRI-NC) group. The basal oil group and the ozonated oil group were treated with basal oil and ozonated oil, respectively. The FcεRI-OE group and the FcεRI-NC group were intradermally injected 25 µg FcεRI overexpression plasmid and 25 µg FcεRI empty plasmid when treating with ozonated oil, respectively. We recorded skin lesions daily and used reflectance confocal microscope (RCM) to evaluate thickness and inflammatory changes of skin lesions. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, real-time PCR, RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq), and immunohistochemistry were performed to detct and analyze the skin lesions.@*RESULTS@#Ozonated oil significantly alleviated DNCB-induced ACD-like dermatitis and reduced the expressions of IFN-γ, IL-17A, IL-1β, TNF-α, and other related inflammatory factors (all P<0.05). RNA-seq analysis revealed that ozonated oil significantly inhibited the activation of the DNCB-induced FcεRI/Syk signaling pathway, confirmed by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry (all P<0.05). Compared with the ozonated oil group and the FcεRI-NC group, the mRNA expression levels of IFN-γ, IL-17A, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and other inflammatory genes in the FcεRI-OE group were significantly increased (all P<0.05), and the mRNA and protein expression levels of FcεRI and Syk were significantly elevated in the FcεRI-OE group as well (all P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Ozonated oil significantly improves ACD-like dermatitis and alleviated DNCB-induced ACD-like dermatitis via inhibiting the FcεRI/Syk signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Dinitrochlorobenzene/metabolism , Skin/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Dermatitis, Allergic Contact/pathology , Dermatitis, Atopic/chemically induced , Signal Transduction , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Mice, Inbred BALB C
15.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 44-51, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971324

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate and reveal the underlying mechanism of the effect of total saponins from Dioscoreae nipponica Makino (TSDN) on the arachidonic acid pathway in monosodium urate (MSU) crystal-induced M1-polarized macrophages.@*METHODS@#M1 polarization of RAW264.7 cells were induced by 1 µ g/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide method was then used to screen the concentration of TSDN. MSU (500 µ g/mL) was used to induce the gouty arthritis model. Afterwards, 10 µ g/L TSDN and 8 µ mol/L celecoxib, which was used as a positive control, were added to the above LPS and MSU-induced cells for 24 h. The mRNA and protein expressions of cyclooxygenase (COX) 2, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), microsomal prostaglandin E synthase derived eicosanoids (mPGES)-1, leukotriene B (LTB)4, cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4A, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to test the contents of M1 markers, including inducible nitric oxid synthase (NOS) 2, CD80, and CD86.@*RESULTS@#TSDN inhibited the proliferation of M1 macrophages and decreased both the mRNA and protein expressions of COX2, 5-LOX, CYP4A, LTB4, and PGE2 (P<0.01) while increased the mRNA and protein expression of mPGES-1 (P<0.05 or P<0.01). TSDN could also significantly decrease the contents of NOS2, CD80, and CD86 (P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#TSDN has an anti-inflammation effect on gouty arthritis in an in vitro model by regulating arachidonic acid signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Uric Acid/metabolism , Arachidonic Acid/metabolism , Dioscorea , Arthritis, Gouty , Lipopolysaccharides , Saponins/pharmacology , Macrophages , Signal Transduction , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
16.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 221-226, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971128

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the expression and its relative mechanism of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α(HIF-1α) in bone marrow(BM) of mice during G-CSF mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) .@*METHODS@#Flow cytometry was used to detect the proportion of Lin-Sca-1+ c-kit+ (LSK) cells in peripheral blood of C57BL/6J mice before and after G-CSF mobilization. And the expression of HIF-1α and osteocalcin (OCN) mRNA and protein were detected by RQ-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The number of osteoblasts in bone marrow specimens of mice was counted under the microscope.@*RESULTS@#The proportion of LSK cells in peripheral blood began to increase at day 4 of G-CSF mobilization, and reached the peak at day 5, which was significantly higher than that of control group (P<0.05). There was no distinct difference in the expression of HIF-1α mRNA between bone marrow nucleated cells and osteoblasts of steady-state mice (P=0.073), while OCN mRNA was mainly expressed in osteoblasts, which was higher than that in bone marrow nucleated cells (P=0.034). After mobilization, the expression level of HIF-1α increased, but OCN decreased, and the number of endosteum osteoblasts decreased. The change of HIF-1α expression was later than that of OCN and was consistent with the proportion of LSK cells in peripheral blood.@*CONCLUSION@#The expression of HIF-1α in bone marrow was increased during the mobilization of HSC mediated by G-CSF, and one of the mechanisms may be related to the peripheral migration of HSC induced by osteoblasts inhibition.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor/pharmacology , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Bone Marrow Cells/metabolism , Osteocalcin/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
17.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 161-167, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970732

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the role of Keap1/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway in liver injury induced by neodymium oxide (Nd(2)O(3)) in mice. Methods: In March 2021, forty-eight SPF grade healthy male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into control group (0.9% NaCl), low dose group (62.5 mg/ml Nd(2)O(3)), medium dose group (125.0 mg/ml Nd(2)O(3)), and high dose group (250.0 mg/ml Nd(2)O(3)), each group consisted of 12 animals. The infected groups were treated with Nd(2)O(3) suspension by non-exposed tracheal drip and were killed 35 days after dust exposure. The liver weight of each group was weighed and the organ coefficient was calculated. The content of Nd(3+) in liver tissue was detected by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). HE staining and immunofluorescence was used to observe the changes of inflammation and nuclear entry. The mRNA expression levels of Keap1, Nrf2 and HO-1 in mice liver tissue were detected by qRT-PCR. Western blotting was used to detect the protein expression levels of Keap1 and HO-1. The contents of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) were detected by colorimetric method. The contents of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were determined by ELISA. The data was expressed in Mean±SD. Two-independent sample t-test was used for inter-group comparison, and one-way analysis of variance was used for multi-group comparison. Results: Compared with the control group, the liver organ coefficient of mice in medium and high dose groups were increased, and the Nd(3+) accumulation in liver of mice in all dose groups were significantly increased (P<0.05). Pathology showed that the structure of liver lobules in the high dose group was slightly disordered, the liver cells showed balloon-like lesions, the arrangement of liver cell cords was disordered, and the inflammatory exudation was obvious. Compared with the control group, the levels of IL-1β and IL-6 in liver tissue of mice in all dose groups were increased, and the levels of TNF-α in liver tissue of mice in high dose group were increased (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the mRNA and protein expression levels of Keap1 in high dose group were significantly decreased, while the mRNA expression level of Nrf2, the mRNA and protein expression levels of HO-1 were significantly increased (P<0.05), and Nrf2 was successfully activated into the nucleus. Compared with the control group, the activities of CAT, GSH-Px and T-SOD in high dose group were significantly decreased (P<0.05) . Conclusion: A large amount of Nd(2)O(3) accumulates in the liver of male mice, which may lead to oxidative stress and inflammatory response through activation of Keap1/Nrf2/HO-1 signal pathway. It is suggested that Keap1/Nrf2/HO-1 signal pathway may be one of the mechanisms of Nd(2)O(3) expose-induced liver injury in mice.


Subject(s)
Mice , Male , Animals , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Oxidative Stress , Liver/metabolism , Metals, Rare Earth , Signal Transduction , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
18.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3565-3575, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981488

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the underlying mechanism of Zhenwu Decoction in the treatment of heart failure by regulating electrical remodeling through the transient outward potassium current(I_(to))/voltage-gated potassium(Kv) channels. Five normal SD rats were intragastrically administered with Zhenwu Decoction granules to prepare drug-containing serum, and another seven normal SD rats received an equal amount of distilled water to prepare blank serum. H9c2 cardiomyocytes underwent conventional passage and were treated with angiotensin Ⅱ(AngⅡ) for 24 h. Subsequently, 2%, 4%, and 8% drug-containing serum, simvastatin(SIM), and BaCl_2 were used to interfere in H9c2 cardiomyocytes for 24 h. The cells were divided into a control group [N, 10% blank serum + 90% high-glucose DMEM(DMEM-H)], a model group(M, AngⅡ + 10% blank serum + 90% DMEM-H), a low-dose Zhenwu Decoction-containing serum group(Z1, AngⅡ + 2% drug-containing serum of Zhenwu Decoction + 8% blank serum + 90% DMEM-H), a medium-dose Zhenwu Decoction-containing serum group(Z2, AngⅡ + 4% drug-containing serum of Zhenwu Decoc-tion + 6% blank serum + 90% DMEM-H), a high-dose Zhenwu Decoction-containing serum group(Z3, AngⅡ + 8% drug-containing serum of Zhenwu Decoction + 2% blank serum + 90% DMEM-H), an inducer group(YD, AngⅡ + SIM + 10% blank serum + 90% DMEM-H), and an inhibitor group(YZ, AngⅡ + BaCl_2 + 10% blank serum + 90% DMEM-H). The content of ANP in cell extracts of each group was detected by ELISA. The relative mRNA expression levels of ANP, Kv1.4, Kv4.2, Kv4.3, DPP6, and KChIP2 were detected by real-time quantitative PCR. The protein expression of Kv1.4, Kv4.2, Kv4.3, DPP6, and KChIP2 was detected by Western blot. I_(to) was detected by the whole cell patch-clamp technique. The results showed that Zhenwu Decoction at low, medium, and high doses could effectively reduce the surface area of cardiomyocytes. Compared with the M group, the Z1, Z2, Z3, and YD groups showed decreased ANP content and mRNA level, increased protein and mRNA expression of Kv4.2, Kv4.3, DPP6, and KChIP2, and decreased protein and mRNA expression of Kv1.4, and the aforementioned changes were the most notable in the Z3 group. Compared with the N group, the Z1, Z2, and Z3 groups showed significantly increased peak current and current density of I_(to). The results indicate that Zhenwu Decoction can regulate myocardial remodeling and electrical remodeling by improving the expression trend of Kv1.4, Kv4.2, Kv4.3, KChIP2, and DPP6 proteins and inducing I_(to) to regulate Kv channels, which may be one of the mechanisms of Zhenwu Decoction in treating heart failure and related arrhythmias.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Myocytes, Cardiac , Atrial Remodeling , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Heart Failure/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Potassium
19.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1760-1769, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981393

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to investigate the effect of diosgenin on mammalian target of rapamycin(mTOR), fatty acid synthase(FASN), hypoxia inducible factor-1α(HIF-1α), and vascular endothelial growth factor A(VEGFA) expression in liver tissues of rats with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) and explore the mechanism of diosgenin on lipogenesis and inflammation in NAFLD. Forty male SD rats were divided into a normal group(n=8) fed on the normal diet and an experimental group(n=32) fed on the high-fat diet(HFD) for the induction of the NAFLD model. After modeling, the rats in the experimental group were randomly divided into an HFD group, a low-dose diosgenin group(150 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), a high-dose diosgenin group(300 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), and a simvastatin group(4 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), with eight rats in each group. The drugs were continuously given by gavage for eight weeks. The levels of triglyceride(TG), total cholesterol(TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C), alanine transaminase(ALT), and aspartate transaminase(AST) in the serum were detected by the biochemical method. The content of TG and TC in the liver was detected by the enzyme method. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was used to measure interleukin 1β(IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor α(TNF-α) in the serum. Lipid accumulation in the liver was detected by oil red O staining. Pathological changes of liver tissues were detected by hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining. The mRNA and protein expression levels of mTOR, FASN, HIF-1α, and VEGFA in the liver of rats were detected by real-time fluorescence-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction(PCR) and Western blot, respectively. Compared with the normal group, the HFD group showed elevated body weight and levels of TG, TC, LDL-C, ALT, AST, IL-1β, and TNF-α(P<0.01), increased lipid accumulation in the liver(P<0.01), obvious liver steatosis, up-regulated mRNA expression levels of mTOR, FASN, HIF-1α, and VEGFA(P<0.01), and increased protein expression levels of p-mTOR, FASN, HIF-1α, and VEGFA(P<0.01). Compared with the HFD group, the groups with drug treatment showed lowered body weight and levels of TG, TC, LDL-C, ALT, AST, IL-1β, and TNF-α(P<0.05, P<0.01), reduced lipid accumulation in the liver(P<0.01), improved liver steatosis, decreased mRNA expression levels of mTOR, FASN, HIF-1α, and VEGFA(P<0.05, P<0.01), and declining protein expression levels of p-mTOR, FASN, HIF-1α, and VEGFA(P<0.01). The therapeutic effect of the high-dose diosgenin group was superior to that of the low-dose diosgenin group and the simvastatin group. Diosgenin may reduce liver lipid synthesis and inflammation and potentiate by down-regulating the mTOR, FASN, HIF-1α, and VEGFA expression, playing an active role in preventing and treating NAFLD.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Cholesterol, LDL , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Liver , Inflammation/metabolism , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Body Weight , Mammals
20.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2803-2809, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981383

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to explore the potentiating effect and mechanism of the extract of Jingfang Granules(JFG) on the activation of macrophages. The RAW264.7 cells were treated with JFG extract and then stimulated by multiple agents. Subsequently, mRNA was extracted, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) was used to measure the mRNA transcription of multiple cytokines in RAW264.7 cells. The levels of cytokines in the cell supernatant were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). In addition, the intracellular proteins were extracted and the activation of signaling pathways was determined by Western blot. The results showed that JFG extract alone could not promote or slightly promote the mRNA transcription of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, MIP-1α, MCP-1, CCL5, IP-10, and IFN-β, and significantly enhance the mRNA transcription of these cytokines in RAW264.7 cells induced by R848 and CpG in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, JFG extract also potentiated the secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1, and IFN-β by RAW264.7 cells stimulated with R848 and CpG. As revealed by mechanism analysis, JFG extract enhanced the phosphorylation of p38, ERK1/2, IRF3, STAT1, and STAT3 in RAW264.7 cells induced by CpG. The findings of this study indicate that JFG extract can selectively potentiate the activation of macrophages induced by R848 and CpG, which may be attributed to the promotion of the activation of MAPKs, IRF3, and STAT1/3 signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Plant Extracts/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Macrophages , Cytokines/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
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