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Int. j. morphol ; 42(1): 205-215, feb. 2024. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528814


SUMMARY: This study assessed the effects of Acacia Senegal (AS) combined with insulin on Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) activity and mRNA expression, serum glucose, renal function, and oxidative stress in a rat model of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Sixty rats were equally divided into six groups: normal control, normal+AS, diabetic (DM), DM+insulin, DM+AS, and DM+insulin+AS groups. Diabetes mellitus (type 1) was induced by a single injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg), and insulin and AS treatments were carried until rats were culled at the end of week 12. Serum glucose and creatinine levels, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were measured. Renal homogenate levels of NKA activity and gene expression, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and reduced glutathione (GSH) were evaluated as well as kidney tissue histology and ultrastructure. Diabetes caused glomerular damage and modulation of blood and tissue levels of creatinine, glucose, HbA1c, malondialdehyde, NKA activity and gene expression, SOD, catalase and GSH, which were significantly (p<0.05) treated with AS, insulin, and insulin plus AS. However, AS+insulin treatments were more effective. In conclusion, combined administration of AS with insulin to rats with DN decreased NKA activity and gene expression as well as oxidative stress, and improved glycemic state and renal structure and function.

Este estudio evaluó los efectos de Acacia senegal (AS) combinada con insulina sobre la actividad Na+/K+- ATPasa (NKA) y la expresión de ARNm, la glucosa sérica, la función renal y el estrés oxidativo en un modelo de nefropatía diabética (ND) en ratas. Sesenta ratas se dividieron equitativamente en seis grupos: control normal, normal+AS, diabética (DM), DM+insulina, DM+AS y DM+insulina+AS. La diabetes mellitus (tipo 1) se indujo mediante una única inyección de estreptozotocina (65 mg/kg), y los tratamientos con insulina y AS se llevaron a cabo hasta que las ratas fueron sacrificadas al final de la semana 12. Se midieron niveles séricos de glucosa y creatinina, hemoglobina A1c (HbA1c). Se evaluaron los niveles de homogeneizado renal de actividad NKA y expresión génica, malondialdehído, superóxido dismutasa (SOD), catalasa y glutatión reducido (GSH), así como la histología y ultraestructura del tejido renal. La diabetes causó daño glomerular y modulación de los niveles sanguíneos y tisulares de creatinina, glucosa, HbA1c, malondialdehído, actividad y expresión génica de NKA, SOD, catalasa y GSH, los cuales fueron tratados significativamente (p<0,05) con AS, insulina e insulina más AS. Sin embargo, los tratamientos con AS+insulina fueron más efectivos. En conclusión, la administración combinada de AS con insulina a ratas con DN disminuyó la actividad de NKA y la expresión genética, así como el estrés oxidativo, y mejoró el estado glucémico y la estructura y función renal.

Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/drug effects , Diabetic Nephropathies/drug therapy , Acacia/chemistry , Superoxide Dismutase , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Gene Expression , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/genetics , Oxidative Stress , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Therapy, Combination , Glycemic Control , Insulin/administration & dosage , Kidney/drug effects , Malondialdehyde
Int. j. morphol ; 42(1): 197-204, feb. 2024. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528841


SUMMARY: Obesity-related pathophysiologies such as insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome show a markedly increased risk for type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. This risk appears to be linked to alterations in adipose tissue function, leading to chronic inflammation and the dysregulation of adipocyte-derived factors. Brassica rapa have been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of several diseases, including diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the effect of nutritional stress induced by a high-fat and high-sucrose diet on the pathophysiology of visceral adipose tissue and the therapeutic effect of Brassica rapa in male Wistar rats. We subjected experimental rats to a high-fat (10 %) high-sucrose (20 %)/per day for 11 months and treated them for 20 days with aqueous extract Br (AEBr) at 200 mg/kg at the end of the experiment. At the time of sacrifice, we monitored plasma and tissue biochemical parameters as well as the morpho-histopathology of visceral adipose tissue. We found AEBr corrected metabolic parameters and inflammatory markers in homogenized visceral adipose tissue and reduced hypertrophy, hyperplasia, and lipid droplets. These results suggest that AEBr enhances anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and a protective effect on adipose tissue morphology in type 2 diabetes and obesity.

La fisiopatología relacionadas con la obesidad, como la resistencia a la insulina y el síndrome metabólico, muestran un riesgo notablemente mayor de diabetes tipo 2 y enfermedad cardiovascular aterosclerótica. Este riesgo parece estar relacionado con alteraciones en la función del tejido adiposo, lo que lleva a una inflamación crónica y a la desregulación de los factores derivados de los adipocitos. Brassica rapa se ha utilizado en la medicina tradicional para el tratamiento de varias enfermedades, incluida la diabetes. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar el efecto del estrés nutricional inducido por una dieta rica en grasas y sacarosa sobre la fisiopatología del tejido adiposo visceral y el efecto terapéutico de Brassica rapa en ratas Wistar macho. Sometimos a ratas experimentales a una dieta rica en grasas (10 %) y alta en sacarosa (20 %)/por día durante 11 meses y las tratamos durante 20 días con extracto acuoso de Br (AEBr) a 200 mg/kg al final del experimento. En el momento del sacrificio, monitoreamos los parámetros bioquímicos plasmáticos y tisulares, así como la morfohistopatología del tejido adiposo visceral. Encontramos parámetros metabólicos corregidos por AEBr y marcadores inflamatorios en tejido adiposo visceral homogeneizado y reducción de hipertrofia, hiperplasia y gotitas de lípidos. Estos resultados sugieren que AEBr mejora el efecto antidiabético, antiinflamatorio y protector sobre la morfología del tejido adiposo en la diabetes tipo 2 y la obesidad.

Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Brassica rapa/chemistry , Insulin Resistance , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Rats, Wistar , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Intra-Abdominal Fat , Glucose/toxicity , Inflammation , Lipids/toxicity , Obesity/drug therapy
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253084, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345551


Abstract Repeatedly frying process of dietary edible oil has a potential role in the generation of free radicals. Therefore, questions have always been raised as to whether, there is an efficient and economical method to reduce the harmful effects of repeated use of frying edible oil. Since hibiscus has been stated to have a wide variety of therapeutic effects, it was important to investigate its properties against harmful effects of free radicals. The current study aspires to find out whether irradiated powder of hibiscus has a protective role against adverse effects of repeated use of frying edible oil. Thirty-five adult male albino rats were equally assigned into five groups. First group"G1" was fed with normal diet as control group, meanwhile, group"G2" the diet mixed with fresh oil, "G3" diet mixed with repeatedly frying oil only, "G4" diet mixed with frying oil treated with hibiscus and "G5" diet mixed with frying oil treated with irradiated hibiscus. Feeding duration was six weeks. Fatty acid analyses of oil as well as peroxide values were determined. Blood and liver samples were collected for biochemical analyses as well as histological study. Repeatedly heated cooked oil has significant increases in peroxide value, acid value, free fatty acid and both conjugated diene and triene compared with repeatedly frying oil treated with hibiscus. Also there are significant increases in cholesterol and triglyceride and impaired in liver functions in "G3"compared with others. In addition, relative to the hibiscus groups, there is a substantial reduction in oxygen consumption in "G3". Both hibiscus as well as irradiated hibiscus attract attention in order to play a vital and economical role against harmful effects of frequent use of frying edible oil on some biological functions but, irradiated hibiscus was more effective.

Resumo O processo de fritura repetida de óleo comestível da dieta tem papel potencial na geração de radicais livres que podem ter efeitos prejudiciais em algumas funções biológicas. Portanto, sempre se questionou se existe uma maneira eficiente e econômica de prevenir ou pelo menos reduzir os efeitos nocivos do uso repetido de óleo comestível para fritar. Como o hibisco tem ampla variedade de efeitos terapêuticos, foi importante investigar suas propriedades como agente antioxidante contra os efeitos nocivos dos radicais livres. O presente estudo pretende descobrir se o pó irradiado de hibisco tem papel protetor contra os efeitos adversos do uso repetido de óleo comestível para fritar. Trinta e cinco ratos albinos machos adultos foram divididos igualmente em cinco grupos. O primeiro grupo "G1" foi alimentado com dieta normal como grupo controle, enquanto o grupo "G2" dieta misturada com óleo fresco, dieta "G3" misturada com óleo de fritura repetida, dieta "G4" misturada com óleo de fritura tratada com hibisco e dieta "G5" misturada com óleo de fritura tratada com hibisco irradiado. A duração da alimentação foi de seis semanas. Foram determinadas as análises de ácidos graxos de óleo, bem como os valores de peróxidos. Amostras de sangue e fígado foram coletadas para análises bioquímicas e estudo histológico. O óleo cozido repetidamente aquecido tem aumentos significativos no valor de peróxido, valor de ácido, ácido graxo livre e dieno e trieno conjugados em comparação com óleo de fritura repetidamente tratado com hibisco. Também há aumentos significativos no colesterol e triglicérides e comprometimento das funções hepáticas no "G3" em comparação com outros. Além disso, em relação aos grupos de hibiscos, há uma redução substancial no consumo de oxigênio no "G3". Tanto o hibisco como o hibisco irradiado chamam atenção por desempenhar papel vital e econômico contra os efeitos nocivos do uso frequente de óleo comestível para fritar em algumas funções biológicas, mas o hibisco irradiado foi mais eficaz.

Animals , Rats , Hibiscus , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Cholesterol , Cooking , Hot Temperature
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250936, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345557


Abstract This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Glutamine, as a dipeptide or a free amino acid form, on the progression of burn injuries in rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were burned with a comb metal plate heated in boiling water (98 °C) for three minutes, creating four rectangular full-thickness burn areas separated by three unburned interspaces (zone of stasis) in both dorsum sides. The animals were randomized into three groups (n=10): saline solution (G1-Control) and treated groups that orally received Glutamine as dipeptide (G2-Dip) or free amino acid (G3-FreeAA). Two and seven days after burn injury, lesions were photographed for unburned interspaces necrosis evolution assessment. Seven days after injury, glutathione seric was measured and histopathological analysis was performed. By photographs, there was a significant reduction in necrosis progression in G3-Free-AA between days two and seven. Histopathological analysis at day 7 showed a significantly higher stasis zone without necrosis and a higher number of fibroblasts in G2-Dip and G3-FreeAA compared with G1-Control. Also, glutathione serum dosage was higher in G2-Dip. The plasmatic glutathione levels were higher in the G2-Dip than the G1-Control, and there was a trend to higher levels in G3-FreeAA. The reduction in histological lesions, greater production of fibroblasts, and greater amounts of glutathione may have benefited the evolution of burn necrosis, which showed greater preservation of interspaces.

Resumo Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar o efeito da Glutamina, como um dipeptídeo ou forma de aminoácido livre, na progressão de queimaduras em ratos. Trinta ratos Wistar machos foram queimados com um pente de metal aquecido em água fervente (98 °C) por três minutos, criando quatro áreas retangulares queimadas separadas por três interesespaços não queimados (zona de estase) em ambos os lados do dorso. Os animais foram randomizados em três grupos (n = 10): solução salina (G1-Controle) e grupos tratados que receberam glutamina via oral como dipeptídeo (G2-Dip) ou aminoácido livre (G3-FreeAA). Dois e sete dias após a queimadura, as lesões foram fotografadas para avaliação da evolução da necrose entre os espaços não queimados. Sete dias após a lesão, foi dosada a glutationa sérica e realizada análise histopatológica. Pelas fotografias, houve uma redução significativa na progressão da necrose no G3-Free-AA entre os dias dois e sete. A análise histopatológica no dia 7 mostrou uma zona de estase significativamente maior sem necrose e número mais elevado de fibroblastos em G2-Dip e G3-FreeAA em comparação com G1-Controle. Os níveis plasmáticos de glutationa foram maiores no G2-Dip em relação ao G1-Controle, e houve tendência a níveis mais elevados no G3-FreeAA. A redução das lesões histológicas, maior produção de fibroblastos, maior quantidade de glutationa podem ter beneficiado a evolução da necrose da queimadura, que mostrou maior preservação dos interespaços.

Animals , Male , Rats , Burns/drug therapy , Glutamine , Rats, Wistar , Dipeptides , Disease Models, Animal , Amino Acids
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254646, 2024. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360224


Chronic stress (CS) can contribute to dysfunction in several organs including liver and kidney. This study was performed to investigate the changes in serum biochemistry, histological structure, as well as in localization of tyrosine phosphorylated proteins (TyrPho) and Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp-70) in liver and kidney tissues of CS rats induced by two stressors (restrained and force swimming) for 60 consecutive days. Samples of blood, liver, and kidney were collected from adult male Sprague-Dawley rats in each group. Our results showed that serum biochemical parameters including corticosterone, blood sugar, urea nitrogen, creatinine, cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-C, LDL-C, ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase in CS group were significantly different from that in normal group in both liver and kidney tissues. Although histological structure was not changed. TyrPho expression was significantly increased in liver lysate but significantly decreased in kidney. Hsp-70 expression in liver increased whereas in kidney decreased. In conclusion, CS can induce changes in liver and kidney functions.

O estresse crônico (SC) pode contribuir para a disfunção em vários órgãos, incluindo fígado e rim. Este estudo foi realizado para investigar as alterações na bioquímica sérica, estrutura histológica, bem como na localização de proteínas tirosina fosforiladas (TyrPho) e proteína de choque térmico 70 (Hsp-70) em tecidos hepáticos e renais de ratos CS induzidas por dois estressores (restrito e natação forçada) por 60 dias consecutivos. Amostras de sangue, fígado e rim foram coletadas de ratos Sprague-Dawley machos adultos em cada grupo. Nossos resultados mostraram que os parâmetros bioquímicos séricos, incluindo corticosterona, glicemia, nitrogênio ureico, creatinina, colesterol, triglicerídeos, HDL-C, LDL-C, ALT, AST, fosfatase alcalina no grupo CS foram significativamente diferentes do grupo normal em ambos os fígados e tecidos renais. Embora a estrutura histológica não tenha sido alterada, a expressão de TyrPho aumentou significativamente no lisado hepático, mas diminuiu significativamente no rim. A expressão de Hsp-70 no fígado aumentou, enquanto que no rim diminuiu. Em conclusão, a CS pode induzir alterações nas funções hepáticas e renais.

Rats , Stress, Physiological , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Kidney/anatomy & histology , Liver/anatomy & histology
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254234, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364499


Due to the severe side effects revealed by most of the currently used antidiabetic medicines, search for finding new and safe drugs to manage diabetes is continued. Naphthoquinones possessing strong antioxidant properties have been employed as candidates for diabetes therapy. Present study is aimed at finding the antioxidant and hypoglycaemic potential of some novel derivatives of 2-phenylamino-1,4-naphthoquinones (PAN) including chloro, nitro, methyl and bromo (5a-d) derivatives synthesized by single pot experiment. Product crystals were purified by TLC and characterized by FT-IR. The antioxidant potential of the compounds was assayed through DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power activities noted as UV-vis. absorbance. The DPPH assay has showed the powerful antioxidant activity of nitro and bromo derivatives, while the nitro derivative showed the significant reduction potential towards FRAP assay. Hypoglycaemic potential of the compounds was studied in rat animal model. All synthesized compounds revealed better hypoglycaemic activity; however, the chloro-derivative exhibited the more potent hypoglycaemic activity showing about 43% reduction in the mean blood glucose levels of the treated animals. As the bioreduction of naphthoquinones may be influenced by changing its redox properties, it has been noticed that the e-donating resonance effect (+R) of 'chloro' group has shown the significant effects on biological activity through stabalization of its imine form which limits the potential of generation of free radicals during bioreduction of quinones and thus has been proposed as the reason of its hypoglycaemic activity. Future studies employing the properties of e-donating groups of PAN may optimize the drug-receptor interaction for better drug designing and drug development strategies against diabetes and also for the clinical trials.

Em razão dos graves efeitos colaterais causados pela maioria dos medicamentos antidiabéticos atualmente utilizados, continua a busca por novos medicamentos seguros para o controle do diabetes. As naftoquinonas, que possuem fortes propriedades antioxidantes, têm sido empregadas como candidatas à terapia do diabetes. O presente estudo visa encontrar o potencial antioxidante e hipoglicemiante de alguns novos derivados de 2-fenilamino-1,4-naftoquinonas (PAN), incluindo derivados de cloro, nitro, metil e bromo (5a-d) sintetizados por experimento em pote único. Os cristais do produto foram purificados por TLC e caracterizados por FT-IR. O potencial antioxidante dos compostos foi testado por meio de atividades de sequestro de radicais DPPH e redução de energia observada como absorção no UV-vis. O ensaio DPPH mostrou a poderosa atividade antioxidante dos derivados nitro e bromo, enquanto o derivado nitro mostrou o potencial de redução significativo para o ensaio FRAP. O potencial hipoglicêmico dos compostos foi estudado em modelo animal de rato. Todos os compostos sintetizados revelaram melhor atividade hipoglicemiante; no entanto, o derivado cloro apresentou atividade hipoglicêmica mais potente, com redução de 43% nos níveis médios de glicose no sangue dos animais tratados. Como a biorredução de naftoquinonas pode ser influenciada pela alteração de suas propriedades redox, notou-se que o efeito da doação eletrônica por ressonância (+R) do grupo "cloro" tem sido significativo na atividade biológica por meio da estabilização de sua forma imina, que limita o potencial de geração de radicais livres durante a biorredução de quinonas, e, portanto, tem sido proposto como a razão de sua atividade hipoglicemiante. Estudos futuros empregando as propriedades de grupos de doação eletrônica de PAN podem otimizar a interação droga-receptor para melhor planejamento de medicamentos e estratégias de desenvolvimento de medicamentos contra o diabetes e também para os ensaios clínicos.

Rats , Models, Animal , Diabetes Mellitus , Drug Development , Hypoglycemic Agents , Antioxidants
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253061, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364520


Liver fibrosis is initial stage of any chronic liver disease and its end stage is develops into cirrhosis. Chronic liver diseases are a crucial global health issue and the cause of approximately 2 million deaths per year worldwide. Cirrhosis is currently the 11th most common cause of death globally. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) treatment is the best way to treat acute and chronic liver disease. The aim of this study is to improve the therapeutic potential of MSCs combined with melatonin (MLT) to overcome CCl4-induced liver fibrosis and also investigate the individual impact of melatonin and MSCs against CCl4-induced liver impairment in animal model. Female BALB/c mice were used as CCL4-induced liver fibrotic animal model. Five groups of animal model were made; negative control, Positive control, CCl4+MSCs treated group, CCl4+MLT treated group and CCl4+MSCs+MLT treated group. Cultured MSCs from mice bone marrow were transplanted to CCl4-induced liver injured mice model, individually as well as together with melatonin. Two weeks after MSCs and MLT administration, all groups of mice were sacrificed for examination. Morphological and Histopathological results showed that combined therapy of MSCs+MLT showed substantial beneficial impact on CCl4-induced liver injured model, compared with MSCs and MLT individually. Biochemically, considerable reduction was observed in serum bilirubin and ALT levels of MLT+MSC treated mice, compared to other groups. PCR results shown down-regulation of Bax and up-regulation of Bcl-xl and Albumin, confirm a significant therapeutic effect of MSCs+MLT on CCI4-induced liver fibrosis. From the results, it is concluded that combined therapy of MSCs and MLT show strong therapeutic effect on CCL4-induced liver fibrosis, compared with MSCs and MLT individually.

A fibrose hepática é a fase inicial de qualquer doença hepática crônica, e em sua fase final desenvolve-se para cirrose. As doenças hepáticas crônicas são uma questão de saúde global crucial e a causa de aproximadamente 2 milhões de mortes por ano em todo o mundo. A cirrose, hoje em dia, é a 11ª causa mais comum de morte globalmente. O tratamento da célula-tronco mesenquimal (MSCs) é uma maneira eletiva de tratar a doença hepática aguda e crônica. O objetivo deste estudo é melhorar o potencial terapêutico dos MSCs combinados com a melatonina (MLT) para superar a fibrose hepática induzida por CCl4 e também investigar o impacto individual da melatonina e MSCs contra o comprometimento do fígado induzido por CCl4 no modelo animal. Os ratos BALB / C fêmeas foram usados ​​como modelo de animal fibrótico de fígado induzido por CCl4. Cinco grupos de modelo animal foram feitos: Controle Negativo, Controle Positivo, CCl4 + MSCs Tratados Grupo, Grupo Tratado CCl4 + MLT e Grupo Tratado CCl4 + MSCs + MLT. MSCs cultivados da medula óssea dos ratos foram transplantados para o modelo de camundongos de fígado induzido por CCl4, individualmente, bem como em conjunto com a melatonina. Duas semanas após a administração MSCs e MLT, todos os grupos de camundongos foram sacrificados para o exame. Os resultados morfológicos e histopatológicos mostraram que a terapia combinada do MSCs + MLT mostrou impacto benéfico substancial no modelo ferido no fígado induzido pelo CCl4, em comparação com o MSCs e o MLT individualmente. A redução bioquimicamente considerável foi observada em bilirrubina sérica e níveis ALT de ratinhos tratados com MLT + MSCs, em comparação com outros grupos. Os resultados de PCR mostraram regulação negativa do BAX e regulação positiva do BCL-XL e da albumina, confirmando um efeito terapêutico significativo do MSCs + MLT na fibrose hepática induzida por CCl4. Dos resultados, conclui-se que a terapia combinada de MSCs e MLT mostram um forte efeito terapêutico na fibrose hepática induzida por CCl4, em comparação com MSCs e MLT individualmente.

Rats , Stem Cells , Fibrosis , Liver , Liver Diseases , Melatonin
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255120, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364532


This study aimed to determine the antiulcerogenic and antioxidant activities of Psyllium (Plantago ovata Forssk) seed ethanolic extract in rats. We assessed the antioxidant potential using free radical scavenging on DPPH, ß-carotene bleaching activity, ferric reducing power, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. In the antiulcerogenic study, pre-treatment with Plantago ovata seeds ethanolic extract (POE) (400 mg/kg b.wt) significantly protected against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats by decreasing the ulcer index value and preserving the integrity of the gastric mucosa. The oxidative stress status in the stomach tissues showed a significant increase in the antioxidant enzyme levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase with a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation during pre-treatment with POE. In conclusion, the POE protects against gastric ulcer due to its antioxidant potential and presence of bioactive molecules.

O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar as atividades antiulcerogênica e antioxidante das sementes de Psyllium (Plantago ovata Forssk) em ratos. O potencial antioxidante foi avaliado utilizando o método do sequestro do radical livre DPPH, autooxidação do ß-caroteno, poder redutor de ferro e atividade de sequestro do radical hidroxila. No estudo antiulcerogênico, o pré-tratamento com o extrato etanólico das sementes de Plantago ovata (POE) (400 mg/Kg b.wt) reduziu a úlcera gástrica induzida pelo etanol em ratos, diminuindo o valor do índice de úlcera e preservando a integridade da mucosa gástrica. O estudo do estresse oxidativo nos tecidos estomacais mostrou um aumento significativo dos níveis das enzimas antioxidantes superóxido dismutase, catalase e glutationa peroxidase, com uma diminuição significativa da peroxidação lipídica enquanto pré-tratamento com POE. Em conclusão, o POE protege contra úlcera gástrica devido aos seus potenciais antioxidantes e à presença de moléculas bioativas.

Rats , Plantago , Stomach Ulcer , Gastric Mucosa , Phytotherapy , Antioxidants
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253183, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355858


Abstract Nanoparticles are considered viable options in the treatment of cancer. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) and magnetite folate core shell (MFCS) on leukemic and hepatocarcinoma cell cultures as well as their effect on the animal model of acute myelocytic leukemia (AML). Through current study nanoparticles were synthesized, characterized by various techniques, and their properties were studied to confirm their nanostructure. Invivo study, nanoparticles were evaluated to inspect their cytotoxic activity against SNU-182 (human hepatocellular carcinoma), K562 (human leukemia), and THLE2 (human normal epithelial liver) cells via MTT test. Apoptotic signaling proteins Bcl-2 and Caspase-3 expression were inspected through RT-PCR method. A cytotoxic effect of MNPs and MFCS was detected in previous cell cultures. Moreover, the apoptosis was identified through significant up-regulation of caspase-3, with Bcl-2 down-regulation. Invitro study, AML was induced in rats by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea followed by oral treatment with MNPS and MFCS. Biochemical indices such as aspartate and alanine amino transferases, and lactate dehydrogenase activities, uric acid, complete blood count, and Beta -2-microglubulin were assessed in serum. Immunophenotyping for CD34 and CD38 detection was performed. Liver, kidney, and bone marrow were microscopically examined. Bcl-2 promoter methylation, and mRNA levels were examined. Although, both MNPs and MFCS depict amelioration in biochemical parameters, MFCS alleviated them toward normal control. Anticancer activity of MNPs and MFCS was approved especially for AML. Whenever, administration of MFCS was more effective than MNPs. The present work is one of few studies used MFCS as anticancer agent.

Resumo Nanopartículas são consideradas opções viáveis ​​no tratamento do câncer. Este estudo foi conduzido para investigar o efeito de nanopartículas de magnetita (MNPs) e núcleo de folato de magnetita (MFCS) em culturas de células leucêmicas e de hepatocarcinoma, bem como seu efeito no modelo animal de leucemia mielocítica aguda (LMA). Através do atual estudo, nanopartículas foram sintetizadas, caracterizadas por várias técnicas, e suas propriedades foram estudadas para confirmar sua nanoestrutura. No estudo in vivo, as nanopartículas foram avaliadas para inspecionar sua atividade citotóxica contra células SNU-182 (carcinoma hepatocelular humano), K562 (leucemia humana) e THLE2 (fígado epitelial humano normal) por meio do teste MTT. A expressão das proteínas sinalizadoras apoptóticas Bcl-2 e Caspase-3 foram inspecionadas através do método RT-PCR. Um efeito citotóxico de MNPs e MFCS foi detectado em culturas de células anteriores. Além disso, a apoptose foi identificada por meio de regulação positiva significativa da Caspase-3, com regulação negativa de Bcl-2. No estudo in vitro, a AML foi induzida em ratos por N-metil-N-nitrosoureia seguida por tratamento oral com MNPS e MFCS. Índices bioquímicos como aspartato e alanina aminotransferases e atividades de lactato desidrogenase, ácido úrico, hemograma completo e Beta-2-microglubulina foram avaliados no soro. A imunofenotipagem para detecção de CD34 e CD38 foi realizada. Fígado, rim e medula óssea foram examinados microscopicamente. A metilação do promotor Bcl-2 e os níveis de mRNA foram examinados. Embora tanto os MNPs quanto os MFCS representem uma melhora nos parâmetros bioquímicos, o MFCS os aliviou em direção ao controle normal. A atividade anticâncer de MNPs e MFCS foi aprovada especialmente para AML. Sempre, a administração de MFCS foi mais eficaz do que MNPs. O presente trabalho é um dos poucos estudos que utilizou o MFCS como agente anticâncer.

Animals , Rats , Magnetite Nanoparticles , Liver Neoplasms , Ferric Compounds , Folic Acid
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253616, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355880


Abstract This study evaluated the effect of the volatile oil of Alpinia zerumbet (VOAz) on caveolin-1 gene expression and muscular fibrosis. The rats were immobilized to induce fibrosis of the gastrocnemius muscle, and they were treated with VOAz. Collagen quality was assessed by histology and the expression of the caveolin-1 (CAV-1) gene was evaluated using qPCR. Histomorphological analysis indicated a significant reduction in the perimeter, width, and intensity of collagen in the treated groups, thus showing that the oil was effective in regulating the quality of collagen at the three concentrations. The results of expression levels suggested a decrease in the lesioned group and in two treatment groups (0.0115 µg/g and 0.009 µg/g). However, with the lowest concentration (0.0065 µg/g), no significant difference was observed, with levels similar to those found in healthy tissue. Therefore, the results showed that VOAz has the potential to be a non-invasive and low-cost alternative to aid in the treatment of muscular fibrosis.

Resumo Este estudo avaliou o efeito do óleo volátil de Alpinia zerumbet (OVAz) na expressão do gene da caveolina-1 e na fibrose muscular. Os ratos foram imobilizados para induzir a fibrose do músculo gastrocnêmio, e foram tratados com OVAz. A qualidade do colágeno foi avaliada com histologia e à expressão do gene caveolina-1 (CAV-1) foi avaliada usando qPCR. A análise histomorfológica indicou uma redução significativa no perímetro, largura e intensidade do colágeno nos grupos tratados. Os resultados dos níveis de expressão sugeriram diminuição nos grupos de lesão e em dois grupos de tratamento (0,0115 µg/g e 0,009 µg/g). No entanto, com a menor concentração (0,0065 µg/g), não foi observada diferença significativa, apresentando níveis semelhantes aos encontrados em tecido saudável. O uso do OVAz foi eficaz para reverter as alterações do colágeno causadas pela fibrose, e sua menor concentração apresentou uma possível tendência de aumento na expressão do CAV-1. Portanto, os resultados mostraram que o OVAz tem potencial para ser uma alternativa não invasiva e de baixo custo para auxiliar no tratamento da fibrose muscular.

Animals , Rats , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Collagen/metabolism , Alpinia/chemistry , Caveolin 1/metabolism , Muscles/drug effects , Fibrosis , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Brazil , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Muscles/pathology
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254552, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360202


Anti-tuberculosis drugs are reported to cause hepatotoxicity, which varies from asymptomatic rise of the hepatic enzymes. Hepatoprotective plants plays important role to protect liver. This study investigated the hepatoprotective potential of the Solanum lycopersicum in rats intoxicated with Isoniazid and Rifampicin (INH+RIF) to induce hepatotoxicity. Thirty wistar albino rats were divided into five groups of six animals each. Group 1 rats were kept control while groups II, III, IV and V were administered with INH+RIF (75+150 mg/kg) orally, for seven consecutive days. For treatment, rats in group III received silymarin while animals in group IV and V were provided with 40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg of Solanum lycopersicum extract, respectively. On day 0 and 8th blood samples were collected for the analysis of hepatic biomarkers. The data were subjected to one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni's post hoc test for statistical analysis. Hepatotoxicity induced by INH+RIF resulted in significant elevation of serum hepatic enzymes including Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin while decreased the albumin level. The Solanum lycopersicum at dose of 80 mg/kg significantly reduced the hepatic enzymes AST, ALT, ALP and bilirubin while the albumin level was significantly increased. The treatment had non-significant effect on body and liver weight. Drug induced hepatotoxicity can be effectively treated with Solanum lycopersicum at 80 mg/kg dose.

As drogas antituberculose são relatadas como causadoras de hepatotoxicidade, ocasionando o aumento assintomático das enzimas hepáticas. As plantas hepatoprotetoras desempenham um papel importante na proteção do fígado. Este estudo investigou o potencial hepatoprotetor de Solanum lycopersicum em ratos que foram intoxicados com isoniazida e rifampicina (INH + RIF) para induzir hepatotoxicidade. Trinta ratos wistar albinos foram divididos em cinco grupos de seis animais cada. Os ratos do grupo 1 representaram o grupo controle, enquanto os ratos dos grupos II, III, IV e V receberam INH + RIF (75 + 150 mg/kg) por via oral, por sete dias consecutivos. Para o tratamento, os ratos do grupo III receberam silimarina, enquanto os animais do grupo IV e V receberam 40 mg/kg e 80 mg/kg de extrato de S. lycopersicum, respectivamente. Nos dias 0 e 8, foram coletadas amostras de sangue para análise de biomarcadores hepáticos. Os dados foram submetidos a teste unilateral (ANOVA) e post hoc de Bonferroni para análise estatística. A hepatotoxicidade induzida por INH + RIF resultou em elevação significativa das enzimas hepáticas séricas, incluindo aspartato aminotransferase (AST), alanina aminotransferase (ALT), fosfatase alcalina (ALP) e bilirrubina total, enquanto houve a diminuição do nível de albumina. O S. lycopersicum, na dose de 80 mg / kg, reduziu significativamente as enzimas hepáticas AST, ALT, ALP e bilirrubina, enquanto o nível de albumina aumentou de forma significativa. O tratamento não teve efeito significativo no peso corporal e hepático. A hepatotoxicidade induzida por drogas pode ser tratada de forma eficaz com S. lycopersicum na dose de 80 mg/kg.

Animals , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Solanum lycopersicum , Liver/drug effects , Antitubercular Agents
Acta cir. bras ; 39: e390124, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1533360


Purpose: To determine the effect of gallic acid or its combination with glibenclamide on some biochemical markers and histology of the cornea of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Methods: Following induction of diabetes, 24 male albino rats were divided into four groups of six rats each. Groups 1 and 2 (control and diabetic) received rat pellets and distilled water; group 3 (gallic acid) received rat pellets and gallic acid (10 mg/kg, orally) dissolved in the distilled water; and group 4 (gallic acid + glibenclamide) received rat pellets, gallic acid (10 mg/kg, orally), and glibenclamide (5 mg/kg, orally) dissolved in the distilled water. The treatments were administered for three months after which the rats were sacrificed after an overnight fast. Blood and sera were collected for the determination of biochemical parameters, while their eyes were excised for histology. Results: STZ administration to the rats induced insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, microprotenuria, loss of weight, oxidative stress, inflammation, and alteration of their cornea histology, which was abolished following supplementation with gallic acid or its combination with glibenclamide. Conclusions: The study showed the potentials of gallic acid and glibenclamide in mitigating systemic complication and histological changes in the cornea of diabetic rats induced with STZ.

Animals , Rats , Glyburide/administration & dosage , Streptozocin/administration & dosage , Cornea/drug effects , Diabetes Mellitus , Gallic Acid/administration & dosage
Acta cir. bras ; 39: e390224, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1533355


Purpose: To investigate the protective effect of breviscapine on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (MIRI) in diabetes rats. Methods: Forty rats were divided into control, diabetes, MIRI of diabetes, and treatment groups. The MIRI of diabetes model was established in the latter two groups. Then, the treatment group was treated with 100 mg/kg breviscapine by intraperitoneal injection for 14 consecutive days. Results: After treatment, compared with MIRI of diabetes group, in treatment group the serum fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and glycosylated hemoglobin levels decreased, the serum total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased, the serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level increased, the heart rate decreased, the mean arterial pressure, left ventricular ejection fraction, and fractional shortening increased, the serum cardiac troponin I, and creatine kinase-MB levels decreased, the myocardial tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-6 levels decreased, the myocardial superoxide dismutase level increased, and the myocardial malondialdehyde level decreased (all P < 0.05). Conclusions: For treating MIRI of diabetes in rats, the breviscapine can reduce the blood glucose and lipid levels, improve the cardiac function, reduce the myocardial injury, and decrease the inflammatory response and oxidative stress, thus exerting the alleviating effect.

Animals , Rats , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury , Oxidative Stress , Diabetes Mellitus , Inflammation , Ischemia
Acta cir. bras ; 39: e390924, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1533354


Purpose: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease which is categorized via destruction of joint cartilage and it also affects the various joints, especially knees and hips. Sinomenine active phytoconstituents isolated from the stem of Sinomenium acutum and already proof anti-inflammatory effect against the arthritis model of rodent. In this experimental protocol, we scrutinized the anti-osteoarthritis effect of sinomenine against monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) induced OA in rats. Methods: MIA (3 mg/50 µL) was used for inducing the OA in the rats, and rats received the oral administration of sinomenine (2.5, 5 and 7.5 mg/kg body weight) up to the end of the experimental study (four weeks). The body and organs weight were estimated. Aggrecan, C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type II collagen (CTX-II), glycosaminoglycans (GCGs), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), Interferon gamma (IFN-γ), antioxidant, inflammatory cytokines, inflammatory mediators and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) were analyzed. Results: Sinomenine significantly (P < 0.001) boosted the body weight and reduced the heart weight, but the weight of spleen and kidney remain unchanged. Sinomenine significantly (P < 0.001) reduced the level of nitric oxide, MCP-1 and improved the level of aggrecan, IFN-γ and GCGs. Sinomenine remarkably upregulated the level of glutathione, superoxide dismutase and suppressed the level of malonaldehyde. It effectually modulated the level of inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory mediators and significantly (P < 0.001) reduced the level of MMPs, like MMP-1, 2, 3, 9 and 13. Conclusions: Sinomenine is a beneficial active agent for the treatment of OA disease.

Animals , Rats , Osteoarthritis , Iodoacetic Acid , Hip Injuries , Inflammation , Knee Injuries
Braz. dent. sci ; 27(1): 1-7, 2024. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1537427


Recent scientific evidence suggests a close relationship between estrogen deficiency and vitamin D- related genes. Estrogen and vitamin D were involved with alterations in odontogenesis and tooth eruption process. Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of estrogen deficiency on the expression of genes related to the activation and degradation of vitamin D in the odontogenic region of incisors in a murine model. Material and Methods: This is an experimental clinical study that used female Wistar Hannover rats. The animals were randomly divided into two groups according to the intervention received: Hypoestrogenism Group ­ animals submitted to estrogen deficiency by ovariectomy surgery and Control Group ­ animals submitted to sham surgery. Surgical intervention was performed in the prepubertal period; the animals were followed throughout the pubertal period. After euthanasia, the hemimandibles were removed to evaluate the mRNA expression of the vitamin D-related genes AMDHD1, CYP24A1, NADSYN1 and SEC23A in the odontogenic region of incisors through real time PCR. Student's t test was used to compare means. Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunn's posttest were also used. The level of significance was 5%. Results: SEC23A was overexpressed in the estrogen deficiency condition in the odontogenic region (p=0.021). Conclusion: Estrogen deficiency may influence the expression of the SEC23A gene involved in the activation and degradation of vitamin D in the odontogenic region of incisors in a murine model(AU)

Evidências científicas recentes sugerem uma estreita relação entre a deficiência de estrógeno e os genes relacionados à vitamina D. O estrógeno e a vitamina D estão envolvidos com alterações na odontogênese e no processo de erupção dentária. Objetivo: O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a influência da deficiência de estrógeno na expressão de genes relacionados à ativação e degradação da vitamina D na região odontogênica de incisivos em modelo murino. Material e Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo clínico experimental que utilizou ratas Wistar Hannover fêmeas. Os animais foram divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos de acordo com a intervenção recebida: Grupo Hipoestrogenismo ­ animais submetidos à deficiência de estrógeno pela cirurgia de ovariectomia e Grupo Controle ­ animais submetidos à cirurgia simulada. A intervenção cirúrgica foi realizada no período pré-púbere; os animais foram acompanhados durante todo o período puberal. Após a eutanásia, as hemimandíbulas foram removidas para avaliar a expressão de mRNA dos genes AMDHD1, CYP24A1, NADSYN1 e SEC23A, relacionados à vitamina D, na região odontogênica de incisivos por meio de PCR em tempo real. O teste t de Student foi utilizado para comparar as médias. Também foram utilizados o teste de Kruskal-Wallis e o pós-teste de Dunn. O nível de significância foi de 5%. Resultados: SEC23A foi superexpresso na condição de deficiência de estrógeno na região odontogênica (p=0,021). Conclusão: A deficiência de estrógeno pode influenciar a expressão do gene SEC23A envolvido na ativação e degradação da vitamina D na região odontogênica de incisivos em modelo murino (AU)

Animals , Female , Rats , Vitamin D , Gene Expression , Estrogens , Odontogenesis
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 31: e3726, Jan.-Dec. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1424054


Abstract Objective: to evaluate the effect of photobiomodulation with low-level 660 nm laser alone or associated with Human Amniotic Membrane in the repair of partial-thickness burns in rats. Method: an experimental study conducted with 48 male Wistar rats, randomized into four groups: Control, Human Amniotic Membrane, Low-Level Laser Therapy, and Low-Level Laser Therapy associated with Human Amniotic Membrane. The histopathological characteristics of the skin samples were analyzed 7 and 14 days after the burn. The data obtained were submitted to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Mann-Whitney tests. Results: the histological analysis of the burn injuries showed a decrease in inflammation (p<0.0001) and an increase in proliferation of fibroblasts (p<0.0001) mainly at 7 days in all treatments related to the control group. At 14 days, the greater effectiveness in accelerating the healing process was significant (p<0.0001) in the Low-Level Laser Therapy group associated with the Human Amniotic Membrane. Conclusion: the association of photobiomodulation therapies with the Human Amniotic Membrane allowed verifying a reduction in the healing process time of the experimental lesions, stimulating its proposal as a treatment protocol in partial-thickness burns.

Resumo Objetivo: avaliar o efeito da fotobiomodulação com laser de baixa intensidade 660 nm isoladamente ou associada à membrana amniótica humana no reparo de queimaduras de espessura parcial em ratos. Método: estudo experimental com 48 ratos Wistar machos, randomizados em quatro grupos: Controle, Membrana Amniótica Humana, Terapia a Laser de Baixa Intensidade e Terapia a Laser de Baixa Intensidade associado à Membrana Amniótica Humana. As características histopatológicas das amostras de pele foram analisadas aos 7 e 14 dias após a queimadura. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos aos testes de Kolmogorov-Smirnov e Mann Whitney. Resultados: a análise histológica das lesões por queimadura mostrou a diminuição da inflamação (p <0,0001) e aumento da proliferação de fibroblastos (p <0,0001), principalmente nos 7 dias em todos os tratamentos relacionados ao grupo controle. Aos 14 dias, a maior efetividade na aceleração do processo cicatricial foi significativa (p<0,0001) no grupo Terapia a Laser de Baixa Intensidade associado à Membrana Amniótica Humana. Conclusão: a associação das terapias de fotobiomodulação à membrana amniótica humana permitiu comprovar redução no tempo do processo cicatricial das lesões experimentais, estimulando sua proposição como protocolo de tratamento em queimaduras de espessura parcial.

Resumen Objetivo: evaluar el efecto de la fotobiomodulación con láser de baja intensidad 660 nm de sola o combinada con la membrana amniótica humana en la reparación de quemaduras de espesor parcial en ratas. Método: estudio experimental con 48 ratas Wistar macho, aleatorizadas en cuatro grupos: Control, Membrana Amniótica Humana, Terapia con Láser de Baja Intensidad y Terapia con Láser de Baja Intensidad combinada con la Membrana Amniótica Humana. Las características histopatológicas de las muestras de piel fueron analizadas a los 7 y 14 días después de la quemadura. Los datos obtenidos fueron sometidos a las pruebas de Kolmogorov-Smirnov y Mann-Whitney. Resultados: el análisis histológico de las lesiones por quemadura mostró una disminución de la inflamación (p <0,0001) y un aumento de la proliferación de fibroblastos (p <0,0001) principalmente a los 7 días en todos los tratamientos en comparación con el grupo control; a los 14 días, en el grupo de Terapia con Láser de Baja Intensidad combinada con la Membrana Amniótica Humana la mayor efectividad en la aceleración del proceso de cicatrización fue significativa (p<0,0001). Conclusión: la asociación de terapias de fotobiomodulación con la membrana amniótica humana permitió comprobar que hubo una reducción en el tiempo del proceso de cicatrización de lesiones experimentales, lo cual favorece que se proponga como protocolo de tratamiento en quemaduras de espesor parcial.

Animals , Rats , Skin/injuries , Wound Healing , Burns/pathology , Burns/therapy , Rats, Wistar , Low-Level Light Therapy , Amnion/pathology
Odovtos (En línea) ; 25(3): 43-54, Sep.-Dec. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1529068


Abstract The aim of this experimental study was to determine the effect of photobiomodulation therapy on bone repair in a rat tibia osteotomy model at 15 and 30 days. The sample consisted of 36 male Holtzman rats that were randomized into 6 equal groups. Groups A1 and A2: osteotomy + 1 J laser energy. Groups B1 and B2: osteotomy + 3 J laser energy. Groups C1 and C2 (controls): osteotomy only. The bone repair was analyzed by histological evaluation of osteoblasts and osteocytes both at 15 days (groups A1, B1, and C1) and at 30 days (groups A2, B2, and C2). Within the results, in all groups a greater number of osteoblasts was found at 15 days vs 30 days (p<0.05), and a greater number of osteocytes in B1 and C2 vs B2 and C1, respectively (p<0.05). When evaluating the 3 groups worked up to 15 days, more osteoblasts were found in A1 and C1 vs B1 (p<0.001); and osteocytes predominated in A1 and B1 vs C1 (p<0.001). At 30 days there was a greater quantity of osteoblasts in C2 vs A2 and B2 (p<0.05) and of osteocytes in C2 vs B2 (p<0.05). It is concluded that 1 J photobiomodulation therapy improved bone repair at 15 days; however, this improvement was not observed at 30 days because there were no differences between the irradiated groups and the control.

Resumen El objetivo de este estudio experimental fue determinar el efecto de terapia de fotobiomodulación sobre la reparación ósea en un modelo de osteotomía de tibia de rata a los 15 y 30 días. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 36 ratas Holtzman macho que se aleatorizaron en 6 grupos iguales. Grupos A1 y A2: osteotomía + energía láser de 1 Joule. Grupos B1 y B2: osteotomía + energía láser 3 Joule. Grupos C1 y C2 (controles): solo osteotomía. La reparación ósea fue analizada por evaluación histológica de osteoblastos y osteocitos tanto a los 15 días (grupos A1, B1 y C1) como a los 30 días (grupos A2, B2 y C2). Como resultados se encontró que en todos los grupos hubo mayor número de osteoblastos a los 15 días vs. 30 días (p<0,05), y mayor número de osteocitos en B1 y C2 vs B2 y C1, respectivamente (p<0,05). Al evaluar a los animales a los 15 días, se observó mayor número de osteoblastos en A1 y C1 vs B1 (p<0.001); y mayor número de osteocitos en A1 y B1 vs C1 (p<0,001). Al evaluar a los ratones a los 30 días hubo mayor cantidad de osteoblastos en C2 vs A2 y B2 (p<0,05) y de osteocitos en C2 vs B2 (p<0,05). Se concluye que la terapia de fotobiomodulación con 1 Joule mejoró la reparación ósea a los 15 días; sin embargo, dicha mejora no se observó a los 30 días porque no hubo diferencias entre los grupos irradiados y el control.

Animals , Rats , Tibia , Photobiology , Low-Level Light Therapy , Bone and Bones
Rev. biol. trop ; 71(1): e54636, dic. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1550730


Resumen Introducción: La Rata de Magdalena, Xenomys nelsoni, es un roedor endémico de México, de distribución restringida a las selvas bajas caducifolias densas, en una pequeña región de la costa del Pacífico mexicano. Es una especie poco conocida, catalogada como "En Peligro" de acuerdo con la Unión Internacional para la Conservación de la Naturaleza (IUCN). Este desconocimiento unido a la alta tasa de deforestación de su hábitat hace que su conservación sea prioritaria. Objetivo: Realizar un recuento histórico de los registros depositados en las colecciones científicas, generar mapas de distribución potencial y analizar el estado de conservación de la especie. Método: Los datos de ocurrencia de las especies se obtuvieron de la literatura y bases de datos digitales y se analizaron por décadas. Se utilizaron los programas GARP y MaxEnt para generar los modelos de nicho ecológico. La importancia de las variables en el modelo se estimó mediante un análisis Jackknife. Resultados: A lo largo de 129 años 19 recolectores registraron 69 ejemplares, de los cuales 65 están depositados en siete colecciones internacionales y una nacional. Aunque la especie sólo se ha recolectado en Jalisco y Colima, la distribución potencial de X. nelsoni incluye también el estado de Michoacán. De esta área estimada, sólo el 1.5 % se encuentra dentro de un Área Natural Protegida. Conclusiones: Los resultados de la distribución potencial podrían ser utilizados para verificar la presencia de la especie en lugares donde no ha sido recolectada como el norte de la Reserva de la Biosfera Chamela-Cuixmala y en algunas zonas de la provincia fisiográfica Costas del Sur en el estado de Michoacán. Es necesario incrementar los muestreos en regiones poco estudiadas predichas por el modelo y aumentar el área de protección.

Abstract Introduction: The Magdalena Rat, Xenomys nelsoni, is a rodent endemic to Mexico, whose distribution is restricted to dense tropical dry forests in a small region on the Pacific coast of Mexico. It is a poorly known species categorized as "Endangered" by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). This lack of knowledge and the high rates of deforestation of its habitat makes its conservation a priority. Objective: To summarize the historical records deposited in scientific collections, to create potential distribution maps, and to analyze the conservation status of the species. Methods: We obtained species occurrence data from literature and digital databases, analyzing them by the decade. We used GARP and MaxEnt software to generate the ecological niche models. The importance of the variables in the model was estimated using the Jackknife technique. Results: Over 129 years, 19 collectors registered 69 specimens, of which 65 are deposited in one national and seven international collections. Although the species has only been collected in Jalisco and Colima, the potential distribution for X. nelsoni also includes the state of Michoacán. Of this estimated area, only 1.5 % is in a Protected Natural Area. Conclusions: The results of the potential distribution could be used to verify the presence of the species in places where it has not been collected, such as the northern part of the Chamela-Cuixmala Biosphere Reserve and in some areas of the physiographic province Costas del Sur in the state of Michoacán. It is needed to increase samplings in the least studied regions predicted by the model and expand the area of protection.

Animals , Rats , Rats/anatomy & histology , Ecosystem , Endangered Species , Mexico
Int. j. morphol ; 41(6): 1887-1896, dic. 2023. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528807


SUMMARY: The therapeutic effect of a granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) biosimilar drug, zarzio, on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in a rat model was investigated in this study. Thirty-two rats were randomly divided into four groups. Groups I and II were fed a standard laboratory diet, whereas groups III and IV were fed a high fat diet (HFD) for 14 weeks. After 12 weeks of feeding, groups I and III were administered normal saline, and groups II and IV were intraperitoneally administered zarzio (200 mg/kg/day) for two consecutive weeks. Hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining was used to assess hepatic and pancreatic morphology in all groups, oil red O (ORO) staining for lipid accumulation, Masson's staining for fibrosis, and immunohistochemistry assay for hepatic protein expression of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and pancreatic caspase-3. The NAFLD rats (group III) developed hepatic steatosis with increased lipid accumulation, perisinusoidal fibrosis, upregulated IRS1, TNF-α (all P<0.05) without a significant increase in Nrf2 protein expression compared with normal control. In comparison, model rats treated with zarzio (group IV) showed significant rejuvenation of the hepatic architecture, reduction of fat accumulation, and fibrosis. This was accompanied by the upregulation of Nrf2, downregulation of IRS1 and TNF-α protein expression (all P<0.05). No correlation was detected between NAFLD and non-alcoholic fatty pancreas disease (NAFPD). However, the pancreatic β-cells in group III showed increased caspase-3 expression, which was decreased (P<0.05) in group IV. In conclusion, zarzio ameliorates NAFLD by improving the antioxidant capacity of liver cells, reducing hepatic IRS1, TNF-α protein expression and pancreatic β-cells apoptosis, suggesting that zarzio could be used as a potential therapy for NAFLD.

En este estudio se investigó el efecto terapéutico de un fármaco biosimilar del factor estimulante de colonias de granulocitos (G-CSF), zarzio, sobre la enfermedaddel hígado graso no alcohólico (NAFLD) en un modelo de rata. Treinta y dos ratas se dividieron aleatoriamente en cuatro grupos. Los grupos I y II fueron alimentados con una dieta estándar de laboratorio, mientras que los grupos III y IV fueron alimentados con una dieta alta en grasas (HFD) durante 14 semanas. Después de 12 semanas de alimentación, a los grupos I y III se les administró solución salina normal, y a los grupos II y IV se les administró zarzio por vía intraperitoneal (200 mg/kg/ día) durante dos semanas consecutivas. Se utilizó tinción de hematoxilina-eosina (H&E) para evaluar la morfología hepática y pancreática en todos los grupos, tinción con rojo aceite O (ORO) para la acumulación de lípidos, tinción de Masson para la fibrosis y ensayo de inmunohistoquímica para la expresión de la proteína hepática del sustrato 1 del receptor de insulina (IRS1), factor nuclear eritroide 2 relacionado con el factor 2 (Nrf2), factor de necrosis tumoral alfa (TNF-α) y caspasa-3 pancreática. Las ratas NAFLD (grupo III) desarrollaron esteatosis hepática con aumento de la acumulación de lípidos, fibrosis perisinusoidal, IRS1 y TNF-α regulados positivamente (todos P <0,05) sin un aumento significativo en la expresión de la proteína Nrf2 en comparación con el control normal. En comparación, las ratas modelo tratadas con zarzio (grupo IV) mostraron un rejuvenecimiento significativo de la arquitectura hepática, una reducción de la acumulación de grasa y fibrosis. Esto estuvo acompañado por la regulación positiva de Nrf2, la regulación negativa de la expresión de la proteína IRS1 y TNF-α (todas P <0,05). No se detectó correlación entre NAFLD y la enfermedad del páncreas graso no alcohólico (NAFPD). Sin embargo, las células β pancreáticas en el grupo III mostraron una mayor expresión de caspasa-3, que disminuyó (P <0,05) en el grupo IV. En conclusión, zarzio mejora la NAFLD al mejorar la capacidad antioxidante de las células hepáticas, reduciendo el IRS1 hepático, la expresión de la proteína TNF-α y la apoptosis de las células β pancreáticas, lo que sugiere que zarzio podría usarse como una terapia potencial para la NAFLD.

Animals , Male , Rats , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor/administration & dosage , Biosimilar Pharmaceuticals/administration & dosage , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/drug therapy , Immunohistochemistry , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Insulin-Secreting Cells/drug effects , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Caspase 3 , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects
Int. j. morphol ; 41(6): 1870-1880, dic. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528799


SUMMARY: The aim of this study is to reveal the gonadoprotective effects of myricetin (MYC), which has many biological properties, on cisplatin (CP)-induced testicular damage in rats. For this purpose, 40 male Wistar albino rats were divided into 4 groups as Control (group given no treatment), MYC (group given 5 mg/kg/i.p myricetin for 7 days), CP (group given 7 mg/kg/i.p cisplatin at 7th day) and MYC + CP (group given 5 mg/kg/i.p myricetin for 7 days before 7 mg/kg/i.p cisplatin injection). After administrations, testicular tissues of animals were extracted and processed according to tissue processing protocol. Hematoxylin & Eosin staining were performed to evaluate the histopathological changes and Johnsen'sTesticular Biopsy Score (JTBS) was applied and mean seminiferous tubule diameters (MSTD) were measured to compare experimental groups in terms of histopathological changes. Moreover, TLR4, NF-kB, HSP70 and HSP90 expression levels were detected by immunohistochemical staining and the density of immunoreactivity were measured to determine the difference in the expression levels of these factors among groups. Additionally, testicular apoptosis was detected via TUNEL assay. JTBS and MSTD data were significantly lower in CP group compared to other groups and MYC administrations significantly protects testicular tissue against CP-induced damage. Moreover, TLR4, NF-kB, HSP70 and HSP90 expressions and apoptotic cells significantly increased in the CP group (p<0.05). However, MYC administrations exerted a strong gonadoprotective effect on testicular tissue in terms of these parameters in MYC+CP group (p<0.05). According to our results, we suggested that MYC can be considered as a protective agent against cisplatin-induced testicular damage.

El objetivo de este estudio es revelar los efectos gonadoprotectores de la miricetina (MYC), que tiene muchas propiedades biológicas, sobre el daño testicular inducido por cisplatino (CP) en ratas. Para este propósito, se dividieron 40 ratas albinas Wistar macho en 4 grupos: Control (grupo que no recibió tratamiento), MYC (grupo que recibió 5 mg/kg/i.p de miricetina durante 7 días), CP (grupo que recibió 7 mg/kg/i.p de cisplatino al séptimo día) y MYC + CP (grupo que recibió 5 mg/ kg/i.p de miricetina durante 7 días antes de la inyección de 7 mg/ kg/i.p de cisplatino). Después de las administraciones, se extrajeron y procesaron tejidos testiculares de animales según el protocolo de procesamiento de tejidos. Se realizó tinción con hematoxilina y eosina para evaluar los cambios histopatológicos y se aplicó la puntuación de biopsia testicular de Johnsen (JTBS) y se midieron los diámetros medios de los túbulos seminíferos (MSTD) para comparar los grupos experimentales en términos de cambios histopatológicos. Además, los niveles de expresión de TLR4, NF-kB, HSP70 y HSP90 se detectaron mediante tinción inmunohistoquímica y se midió la densidad de inmunorreactividad para determinar la diferencia en los niveles de expresión de estos factores entre los grupos. Además, se detectó apoptosis testicular mediante el ensayo TUNEL. Los datos de JTBS y MSTD fueron significativamente más bajos en el grupo CP en comparación con otros grupos y las administraciones de MYC protegen significativamente el tejido testicular contra el daño inducido por CP. Además, las expresiones de TLR4, NF-kB, HSP70 y HSP90 y las células apoptóticas aumentaron significativamente en el grupo CP (p<0,05). Sin embargo, las administraciones de MYC ejercieron un fuerte efecto gonadoprotector sobre el tejido testicular en términos de estos parámetros en el grupo MYC+CP (p<0,05). Según nuestros resultados, sugerimos que MYC puede considerarse como un agente protector contra el daño testicular inducido por cisplatino.

Animals , Male , Rats , Testis/drug effects , Testis/injuries , Flavonoids/administration & dosage , Cisplatin/toxicity , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Immunohistochemistry , NF-kappa B , Rats, Wistar , Heat-Shock Response , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Toll-Like Receptor 4 , Inflammation , Antineoplastic Agents/toxicity