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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254646, 2024. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360224

ABSTRACT

Chronic stress (CS) can contribute to dysfunction in several organs including liver and kidney. This study was performed to investigate the changes in serum biochemistry, histological structure, as well as in localization of tyrosine phosphorylated proteins (TyrPho) and Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp-70) in liver and kidney tissues of CS rats induced by two stressors (restrained and force swimming) for 60 consecutive days. Samples of blood, liver, and kidney were collected from adult male Sprague-Dawley rats in each group. Our results showed that serum biochemical parameters including corticosterone, blood sugar, urea nitrogen, creatinine, cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-C, LDL-C, ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase in CS group were significantly different from that in normal group in both liver and kidney tissues. Although histological structure was not changed. TyrPho expression was significantly increased in liver lysate but significantly decreased in kidney. Hsp-70 expression in liver increased whereas in kidney decreased. In conclusion, CS can induce changes in liver and kidney functions.


O estresse crônico (SC) pode contribuir para a disfunção em vários órgãos, incluindo fígado e rim. Este estudo foi realizado para investigar as alterações na bioquímica sérica, estrutura histológica, bem como na localização de proteínas tirosina fosforiladas (TyrPho) e proteína de choque térmico 70 (Hsp-70) em tecidos hepáticos e renais de ratos CS induzidas por dois estressores (restrito e natação forçada) por 60 dias consecutivos. Amostras de sangue, fígado e rim foram coletadas de ratos Sprague-Dawley machos adultos em cada grupo. Nossos resultados mostraram que os parâmetros bioquímicos séricos, incluindo corticosterona, glicemia, nitrogênio ureico, creatinina, colesterol, triglicerídeos, HDL-C, LDL-C, ALT, AST, fosfatase alcalina no grupo CS foram significativamente diferentes do grupo normal em ambos os fígados e tecidos renais. Embora a estrutura histológica não tenha sido alterada, a expressão de TyrPho aumentou significativamente no lisado hepático, mas diminuiu significativamente no rim. A expressão de Hsp-70 no fígado aumentou, enquanto que no rim diminuiu. Em conclusão, a CS pode induzir alterações nas funções hepáticas e renais.


Subject(s)
Rats , Stress, Physiological , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Kidney/anatomy & histology , Liver/anatomy & histology
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248755, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350303

ABSTRACT

Abstract Consuming a high-fat diet causes a harmful accumulation of fat in the liver, which may not reverse even after switching to a healthier diet. Different reports dealt with the role of purslane as an extract against high-fat diet; meanwhile, it was necessary to study the potential role of fresh purslane as a hypolipidemic agent. This study is supposed to investigate further the potential mechanism in the hypolipidemic effect of fresh purslane, by measuring cholesterol 7a-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (Ldlr). Rats were divided into two main groups: the first one is the normal control group (n=7 rats) and the second group (n=28 rats) received a high fat diet for 28 weeks to induce obesity. Then the high fat diet group was divided into equal four subgroups. As, the positive control group still fed on a high fat diet only. Meanwhile, the other three groups were received high-fat diet supplemented with a different percent of fresh purslane (25, 50 and 75%) respectively. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed and samples were collected for molecular, biochemical, and histological studies. Current study reported that, supplementation of fresh purslane especially at a concentration of 75% play an important role against harmful effects of high-fat diet at both cellular and organ level, by increasing CYP7A1 as well as Ldlr mRNA expression. Also, there were an improvement on the tested liver functions, thyroid hormones, and lipid profile. Fresh purslane plays the potential role as a hypolipidemic agent via modulation of both Ldlr and Cyp7A, which will point to use fresh purslane against harmful effects of obesity.


Resumo O consumo de uma dieta rica em gordura causa um acúmulo prejudicial de gordura no fígado, que pode não reverter mesmo após a mudança para uma dieta mais saudável. Diferentes relatórios trataram do papel da beldroega como um extrato contra uma dieta rica em gordura; entretanto, foi necessário estudar o papel potencial da beldroega fresca como agente hipolipemiante. Este estudo pretende investigar mais profundamente o mecanismo potencial no efeito hipolipidêmico da beldroega fresca, medindo o colesterol 7a-hidroxilase (CYP7A1) e o receptor de lipoproteína de baixa densidade (Ldlr). Os ratos foram divididos em dois grupos principais: o primeiro é o grupo controle normal (n = 7 ratos) e o segundo grupo (n = 28 ratos) recebeu dieta rica em gorduras por 28 semanas para induzir a obesidade. Em seguida, o grupo de dieta rica em gordura foi dividido em quatro subgrupos iguais. Como, o grupo de controle positivo ainda se alimentava apenas com dieta rica em gordura. Enquanto isso, os outros três grupos receberam dieta rica em gordura suplementada com diferentes porcentagens de beldroegas frescas (25%, 50% e 75%), respectivamente. Ao final do experimento, os ratos foram sacrificados e amostras coletadas para estudos moleculares, bioquímica e histológicos. O estudo atual relatou que a suplementação de beldroegas frescas, especialmente a uma concentração de 75%, desempenha papel importante contra os efeitos prejudiciais da dieta rica em gordura em nível celular e orgânico, aumentando a expressão de CYP7A1 e Ldlr mRNA. Além disso, houve melhora nas funções hepáticas testadas, nos hormônios tireoidianos e no perfil lipídico. Beldroegas frescas desempenham papel potencial como agente hipolipemiante por meio da modulação de Ldlr e Cyp7A, o que apontará para o uso de beldroegas frescas contra os efeitos nocivos da obesidade.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Portulaca , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Hypolipidemic Agents , Cholesterol 7-alpha-Hydroxylase , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Liver
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(3): 832-838, jun. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385655

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: El objetivo del presente estudio fue establecer la influencia de diferentes materiales en el proceso de regeneración ósea de alveolos post exodoncia de ratas hembra adultas ovariectomizadas (OVX). Para ello, se utilizaron 40 ratas sprague dawley, divididas en grupo experimental (OVX) (n=20) y grupo control (Sin ovariectomía) (n=20). Todas las ratas del grupo experimental fueron sometidas a ovariectomía bilateral para simular un estado de osteoporosis inducida por déficit de estrógeno. Posterior a 12 semanas post OVX, las ratas de ambos grupos fueron divididas en 4 subgrupos, en los cuales fue extraído el primer molar superior derecho de cada rata. Posteriormente, las terapias realizadas en los alveolos post-exodoncia fueron: A: (N=5) Alveolo no rellenado para ser utilizado como control negativo. B: (N=5) Aplicación de injerto bifásico (HA+BTCP). C: (N=5) Aplicación de PRF. D: Aplicación de una combinación de injerto bifásico + PRF. Luego de tres semanas se realizó la eutanasia de los animales y obtención de las muestras para los análisis respectivos. Todos los animales sobrevivieron al final del estudio sin ninguna complicación postoperatoria. Los resultados cuantitativos del área ósea interradicular del segundo molar superior, mostraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre grupo control y grupo OVX. Mientras que no se observaron diferencias en la descripción histológica ni en el análisis cuantitativo de fibras colágenas tipo I y III. Es posible concluir que el modelo de osteoporosis inducida por déficit de estrógeno modificaría también la microarquitectura ósea de la Maxila. No obstante, nuevos estudios son necesarios para continuar con el estudio de biomateriales para regeneración ósea en modelos de osteoporosis inducida.


SUMMARY: The aim of the present study was to establish the influence of different materials on the process of bone regeneration in post-extraction sockets of ovariectomized (OVX) adult female rats. For this, 40 Sprague Dawley rats were used, divided into an experimental group (OVX) (n=20) and a control group (without ovariectomy) (n=20). All rats in the experimental group underwent bilateral ovariectomy to simulate a state of estrogen deficiency osteoporosis. After 12 weeks post OVX, rats from both groups were divided into 4 subgroups, in which the upper right first molar of each rat was extracted. Subsequently, the therapies performed in the post-extraction sockets were A: (N=5) Unfilled alveolus to be used as a negative control. B: (N=5) Biphasic graft application (HA+BTCP). C: (N=5) PRF application. D: Application of a combination of biphasic graft + PRF. After three weeks, the animals were euthanized, and the samples were obtained for the respective analyses. All animals survived to the end of the study without any postoperative complications. The quantitative results of the interradicular bone area of ??the upper second molar showed significant differences between the control group and the OVX group. While no differences were observed in the histological description or in the quantitative analysis of collagen fibers type I and III. It is possible to conclude that the model of osteoporosis induced by estrogen deficiency would modify the bone microarchitecture of the Maxilla. However, new studies are necessary to continue with the study of biomaterials for bone regeneration in models of induced osteoporosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Osteoporosis/therapy , Bone Regeneration , Ovariectomy , Bone Transplantation , Tooth Extraction , Biocompatible Materials , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Disease Models, Animal
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(3): 808-816, jun. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385645

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most common complication of diabetes. Several studies have been done in a trial to protect against this problem at the ultrastructure level. This study investigates the protective effect of oral administration of Acacia senegal (AS) against the development of DN. Sixty male albino rats were randomly divided into six groups: control, Acacia senegal control, Diabetic untreated, diabetic insulin-treated, Diabetic AS treated, and Diabetic insulin and AS combined treated groups. Plasma glucose, HbA1c, serum Albumin, creatinine, urine creatinine was measured using specific kits. Determinations of creatinine clearance and blood pressure were done. The renal tissues of both kidneys were prepared to investigate under both light (LM) and electron microscope (EM). Ultrastructure examination of renal rats tissue of diabetic untreated rats showed the destruction of the glomerular basement membrane and endothelial cells together with hemorrhage in glomerular capsules (Bowman's capsules). On the other side, both LM and EM revealed improving the endothelial cells and the other glomerular capsules structures, especially with the combined treated group, which confirmed the improvement of the biochemical investigation in the study. In conclusion, from the present study, using the oral AS together with SC insulin could be protected against the development of DN.


RESUMEN: La nefropatía diabética (ND) es la complicación más común de la diabetes. Se han realizado varios estudios de ensayo para abordar esta dificultad a nivel de ultraestructura. Este estudio investiga el efecto protector de la administración oral de Acacia senegal (AS) contra el desarrollo de la ND. Se dividieron sesenta ratas albinas machos aleatoriamente en seis grupos: control, control de Acacia senegal, diabéticos no tratados, diabéticos tratados con insulina, diabéticos tratados con AS y grupos tratados con compuesto de insulina diabética + AS. Se midieron utilizando kits específicos, glucosa plasmática, HbA1c, albúmina sérica, creatinina en sangre y en orina. Se registraron la creatinina y la presión arterial. Los tejidos renales de ambos riñones se prepararon para investigar tanto con microscopio óptico (MO) como electrónico (ME). El examen de la ultraestructura del tejido renal de ratas diabéticas no tratadas mostró la destrucción de la membrana basal glomerular y las células endoteliales junto con hemorragia en las cápsulas glomerulares (cápsulas de Bowman). Por otro lado, tanto MO como ME revelaron una mejora de las células endoteliales y las estructuras capsulares glomerulares, en el grupo tratado con el compuesto, lo que confirmó la mejora de la investigación bioquímica. En conclusión, el uso de AS oral en combinación con insulina podría proteger contra el desarrollo de ND.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Diabetic Nephropathies/prevention & control , Acacia , Gum Arabic/administration & dosage , Kidney/drug effects , Microscopy, Electron , Biomarkers , Administration, Oral , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Disease Models, Animal , Kidney/ultrastructure
5.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(3): 697-705, jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385688

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: An association between certain food additives and chronic diseases is reported. Current study determined whether administering toxic doses of the food additive monosodium glutamate (MSG) into rats can induce aortopathy in association with the oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers upregulation and whether the effects of MSG overdose can be inhibited by vitamin E. MSG at a dose of (4 mg/kg; orally) that exceeds the average human daily consumption by 1000x was administered daily for 7 days to the rats in the model group. Whereas, rats treated with vitamin E were divided into two groups and given daily doses of MSG plus 100 mg/ kg vitamin E or MSG plus 300 mg/kg vitamin E. On the eighth day, all rats were culled. Using light and electron microscopy examinations, a profound aortic injury in the model group was observed demonstrated by damaged endothelial layer, degenerated smooth muscle cells (SMC) with vacuoles and condensed nuclei, vacuolated cytoplasm, disrupted plasma membrane, interrupted internal elastic lamina, clumped chromatin, and damaged actin and myosin filaments. Vitamin E significantly protected aorta tissue and cells as well as inhibited MSG-induced tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). The highest used vitamin E dosage was more effective. Additionally, a significant correlation was observed between the aortic injury degree and tissue MDA, TNF-α, IL-6, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels (p=0.001). Vitamin E effectively protects against aortopathy induced by toxic doses of MSG in rats and inhibits oxidative stress and inflammation.


RESUMEN: Se reporta una asociación entre ciertos aditivos alimentarios y enfermedades crónicas. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar si la administración de dosis tóxicas del aditivo alimentario glutamato monosódico (MSG) en ratas puede inducir aortopatía en asociación con el estrés oxidativo y la regulación positiva de los biomarcadores inflamatorios y si el efecto de una sobredosis de MSG se puede inhibir con vitamina E. Se administró MSG diariamente durante 7 días una dosis de (4 g/kg; por vía oral) que excede el consumo diario humano promedio, en 1000x a las ratas del grupo modelo. Mientras que las ratas tratadas con vitamina E se dividieron en dos grupos y se administraron dosis diarias de MSG más 100 mg/kg de vitamina E o MSG más 300 mg/kg de vitamina E. Todas las ratas fueron sacrificadas en el octavo día. Usando exámenes de microscopía óptica y electrónica, se observó una lesión aórtica profunda en el grupo modelo demostrada por una capa endotelial dañada, células musculares lisas degeneradas (SMC) con vacuolas y núcleos condensados, citoplasma vacuolado, membrana plasmática rota, lámina elástica interna interrumpida, cromatina agrupada y filamentos de actina y miosina dañados. La vitamina E protegió significativamente el tejido y las células de la aorta, además de inhibir el malondialdehído tisular (MDA) inducido por MSG, la interleucina-6 (IL-6) y el factor de necrosis tumoral alfa (TNF-α). La dosis más alta de vitamina E utilizada fue más efectiva. Además, se observó una correlación significativa entre el grado de lesión aórtica y los niveles tisulares de MDA, TNF-α, IL-6 y superóxido dismutasa (SOD) (p=0,001). La vitamina E efectivamente protege contra la aortopatía inducida por dosis tóxicas de MSG en ratas e inhibe el estrés oxidativo y la inflamación.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Aorta/drug effects , Aortic Diseases/chemically induced , Sodium Glutamate/toxicity , Vitamin E/pharmacology , Aorta/pathology , Sodium Glutamate/administration & dosage , Vitamin E/administration & dosage , Microscopy, Electron , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Malondialdehyde/antagonists & inhibitors
6.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(1): 66-80, ene. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1372378

ABSTRACT

Melastoma malabathricum (M. malabathricum) extracts have been reported to exert various pharmacological activities including antioxidants, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activities. The objective of the present study was to determine the anticarcinogenic activity of its methanol extract (MEMM) against the azoxymethane (AOM)-induced early colon carcinogenesis in rats. Rats were randomly assigned to five groups (n=6) namely normal control, negative control, and treatment (50, 250 or 500 mg/kg of MEMM) groups. Colon tissues were harvested for histopathological analysis and endogenous antioxidant system determination. MEMM was also subjected to HPLC analysis. Findings showed that MEMM significantly (p<0.05) reversed the AOM-induced carcinogenicity by: i) reducing the formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in colon tissues, and; ii) enhancing the endogenous antioxidant activity (catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase). Moreover, various phenolics has been identified in MEMM. In conclusion, MEMM exerts the in vivo anticarcinogenic activity via the activation of endogenous antioxidant system and synergistic action of phenolics.


Se ha informado que los extractos de Melastoma malabathricum (M. malabathricum) ejercen diversas actividades farmacológicas, incluidas actividades antioxidantes, antiinflamatorias y antiproliferativas. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la actividad anticancerígena de su extracto de metanol (MEMM) contra la carcinogénesis de colon temprana inducida por azoximetano (AOM) en ratas. Las ratas se asignaron al azar a cinco grupos (n=6), a saber, los grupos de control normal, control negativo y tratamiento (50, 250 o 500 mg/kg de MEMM). Tejidos de colon fueron recolectados para análisis histopatológico y determinación del sistema antioxidante endógeno. MEMM también se sometió a análisis de HPLC. Los hallazgos mostraron que MEMM invirtió significativamente (p<0.05) la carcinogenicidad inducida por AOM al: i) reducir la formación de focos de criptas aberrantes (ACF) en los tejidos del colon, y; ii) potenciar la actividad antioxidante endógena (catalasa, superóxido dismutasa y glutatión peroxidasa). Además, se han identificado varios fenólicos en MEMM. En conclusión, MEMM ejerce la actividad anticancerígena in vivo mediante la activación del sistema antioxidante endógeno y la acción sinérgica de los fenólicos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Anticarcinogenic Agents/administration & dosage , Colonic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Melastomataceae/chemistry , Organ Size/drug effects , Body Weight/drug effects , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Colon/pathology , Plant Leaves , Methanol , Phenolic Compounds , Aberrant Crypt Foci , Carcinogenesis/drug effects , Antioxidants
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936368

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the therapeutic mechanism of tanshinone IIA in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in rats.@*METHODS@#A total of 100 male SD rats were randomized into 5 groups (n=20), and except for those in the control group with saline injection, all the rats were injected with monocrotaline (MCT) on the back of the neck to establish models of pulmonary hypertension. Two weeks after the injection, the rat models received intraperitoneal injections of tanshinone IIA (10 mg/kg), phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor (1 mg/kg), both tanshinone IIA and PI3K inhibitor, or saline (model group) on a daily basis. After 2 weeks of treatment, HE staining and α-SMA immunofluorescence staining were used to evaluate the morphology of the pulmonary vessels of the rats. The phosphorylation levels of PI3K, protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in the lung tissue were determined with Western blotting; the levels of eNOS and NO were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).@*RESULTS@#The results of HE staining and α-SMA immunofluorescence staining showed that tanshinone IIA effectively inhibited MCT-induced pulmonary artery intimamedia thickening and muscularization of the pulmonary arterioles (P < 0.01). The results of Western blotting showed that treatment with tanshinone IIA significantly increased the phosphorylation levels of PI3K, Akt and eNOS proteins in the lung tissue of PAH rats; ELISA results showed that the levels of eNOS and NO were significantly decreased in the rat models after tanshinone IIA treatment (P < 0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#Treatment with tanshinone IIA can improve MCT-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats through the PI3K/Akt-eNOS signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Abietanes , Animals , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Male , Monocrotaline/toxicity , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/therapeutic use , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/pharmacology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Pulmonary Artery , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936358

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of dihydromyricetin (DHM) on cardiac insufficiency in diabetic rats and explore the underlying mechanism.@*METHOD@#Twenty-four male SD rats were randomized equally into normal control group, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) group fed on a high-glucose and high-fat diet for 6 weeks with low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) injection, metformin (MET) group with daily intragastric administration of MET (150 mg/kg) for 8 weeks after T2DM modeling, and dihydromyricetin (DHM) group with daily intragastric administration of DHM (250 mg/kg) for 8 weeks after modeling. The levels of fasting blood glucose, low density lipoprotein (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) of the rats were measured, and plasma levels of insulin and high mobility group protein-1 (HMGB1) were detected with ELISA. The cardiac function of the rats was assessed using color echocardiography, ECG was measured using a biological signal acquisition system, and myocardial pathology was observed with HE staining. The protein expressions of HMGB1, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 and phospho-NF-κB p65 (p-NF-κB p65) in the myocardial tissue were detected using Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the rats in T2DM group showed significant anomalies in cardiac function after modeling with significantly increased plasma HMGB1 level and expressions of HMGB1, NF-κB p65 and p-NF-κB p65 proteins in the myocardial tissue (P < 0.05 or 0.01). Treatment with DHM significantly improved the indexes of cardiac function of the diabetic rats (P < 0.05 or 0.01), decreased plasma HMGB1 level and down-regulated the protein expressions of HMGB1 and p-NF-κB p65 in the myocardial tissue (P < 0.05 or 0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#DHM treatment can improve cardiac function in diabetic rats possibly by down-regulation of HMGB1 and phospho-NF-κB p65 expressions in the myocardium.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Flavonols , HMGB1 Protein , Heart Failure , Male , Metformin/therapeutic use , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936350

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the therapeutic effect of Epothilone D on traumatic optic neuropathy (TON) in rats.@*METHODS@#Forty-two SD rats were randomized to receive intraperitoneal injection of 1.0 mg/kg Epothilone D or DMSO (control) every 3 days until day 28, and rat models of TON were established on the second day after the first administration. On days 3, 7, and 28, examination of flash visual evoked potentials (FVEP), immunofluorescence staining and Western blotting were performed to examine the visual pathway features, number of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), GAP43 expression level in damaged axons, and changes of Tau and pTau-396/404 in the retina and optic nerve.@*RESULTS@#In Epothilone D treatment group, RGC loss rate was significantly decreased by 19.12% (P=0.032) on day 3 and by 22.67% (P=0.042) on day 28 as compared with the rats in the control group, but FVEP examination failed to show physiological improvement in the visual pathway on day 28 in terms of the relative latency of N2 wave (P=0.236) and relative amplitude attenuation of P2-N2 wave (P=0.441). The total Tau content in the retina of the treatment group was significantly increased compared with that in the control group on day 3 (P < 0.001), showing a consistent change with ptau-396/404 level. In the optic nerve axons, the total Tau level in the treatment group was significantly lower than that in the control group on day 7 (P=0.002), but the changes of the total Tau and pTau-396/404 level did not show an obvious correlation. Epothilone D induced persistent expression of GAP43 in the damaged axons, detectable even on day 28 of the experiment.@*CONCLUSION@#Epothilone D treatment can protect against TON in rats by promoting the survival of injured RGCs, enhancing Tau content in the surviving RGCs, reducing Tau accumulation in injured axons, and stimulating sustained regeneration of axons.


Subject(s)
Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Epothilones , Evoked Potentials, Visual , Nerve Regeneration/physiology , Optic Nerve Injuries/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Retinal Ganglion Cells/physiology
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936348

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To assess the effect of early abdominal puncture drainage (APD) on autophagy and Nrf-2/HO-1 pathway in rats with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and explore the possibile mechanism.@*METHODS@#Thirty-two male SD rats were randomly divided into sham-operated (SO) group, SAP group with retrograde injection of 4% sodium taurocholate, APD group with insertion of a drainage tube into the lower right abdomen after SAP induction, and APD + ZnPP group with intraperitoneal injection of 30 mg/kg ZnPP 12 h before APD modeling. Blood samples were collected from the rats 12 h after modeling for analysis of amylase and lipase levels and serum inflammatory factors. The pathological changes of the pancreatic tissue were observed with HE staining. Oxidative stress in the pancreatic tissue was detected with colorimetry, and sub-organelle structure and autophagy in pancreatic acinar cells were observed by transmission electron microscopy. The expressions of autophagy-related proteins and Nrf-2/HO-1 pathway were detected using RT-PCR and Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#Compared with those in SAP group, the rats with APD treatment showed significantly alleviated pathologies in the pancreas, reduced serum levels of lipase, amylase and inflammatory factors, lowered levels of oxidative stress, and activated expressions of Nrf-2/HO-1 pathway in the pancreas. The ameliorating effect of ADP was significantly inhibited by ZnPP treatment before modeling. APD obviously reversed mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum damages and p62 accumulation induced by SAP.@*CONCLUSION@#APD treatment can suppress oxidative stress and repair impaired autophagy in rats with SAP by activating the Nrf-2/HO-1 pathway, thereby reducing the severity of SAP.


Subject(s)
Acute Disease , Amylases/blood , Animals , Autophagy , Drainage , Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing) , Lipase/blood , Male , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Oxidative Stress , Pancreas/pathology , Pancreatitis/surgery , Punctures , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936331

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of pirfenidone for reducing urethral stricture following urethral injury in rats and explore the possible mechanism.@*METHODS@#Thirty male SD rats were randomly assigned into negative control group, positive control group and pirfenidone group (n=10). In pirfenidone and positive control groups, the rats were subjected to incision of the posterior urethral cavernous body followed by daily intraperitoneal injection of pirfenidone (100 mg/kg) and an equivalent volume of solvent, respectively. The rats in the negative control group were given intraperitoneal injections of solvent without urethral injury. At two weeks after modeling, retrograde urethrography was performed for observing urethral stricture, and the injured urethral tissues were harvested for HE staining, Masson staining, immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting for detecting the protein expressions of α-SMA and TGF-β1. The mRNA expressions of the inflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β were detected using qRT-PCR.@*RESULTS@#The body weight of the rats in pirfenidone group was significantly decreased compared with that in the other two groups (P < 0.05). Retrograde urethrography showed significant narrowing of the urethra in the positive control group but not in the pirfenidone group. HE staining of the injured urethral tissues showed obvious proliferation of urethral epithelial cells with narrow urethral cavity and increased inflammatory cells in positive control group. The pathological findings of the urethra were similar between pirfenidone group and the negative control group. Masson staining revealed obviously reduced collagen fibers and regular arrangement of the fibers in pirfenidone group as compared to the positive control group. Compared with those in the negative control group, the expressions of α-SMA and TGF-β1 were significantly increased in the positive control group, and pirfenidone treatment significantly inhibited their expressions (P < 0.05 or 0.01). Pirfenidone also significantly inhibited the mRNA expressions of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in the injured urethral tissue (P < 0.05 or 0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#Pirfenidone can prevent urethral fibrosis and stricture after urethral injury possibly by inhibiting the TGF-β1 pathway and inflammatory response.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Male , Pyridones/pharmacology , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Solvents , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Urethral Stricture/pathology
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936323

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the the effects of leptin on the proliferation, differentiation and PTEN expression of rat retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) cultured under hypoxic condition.@*METHODS@#SD rat RPCs were cultured in normoxic conditions or exposed to hypoxia in the presence of 0, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, 10, and 30 nmol/L leptin for 12, 48 and 72 h, and the cell viability was assessed using cell counting kit 8 (CCK 8) assay. The RPCs in primary culture were divided into control group, hypoxia group, and hypoxia+leptin group, and after 48 h of culture, the cell medium was replaced with differentiation medium and the cells were further cultured for 6 days. Immunofluorescence staining was employed to detect the cells positive for β-tubulin III and GFAP, and Western blotting was used to examine the expression of PTEN at 48 h of cell culture.@*RESULTS@#The first generation of RPCs showed suspended growth in the medium with abundant and bright cellular plasma and formed mulberry like cell spheres after 2 days of culture. Treatment with low-dose leptin (below 3.0 nmol/L) for 48 h obviously improved the viability of RPCs cultured in hypoxia, while at high concentrations (above 10 nmol/L), leptin significantly suppressed the cell viability (P < 0.05). The cells treated with 3.0 nmol/L leptin for 48 h showed the highest viability (P < 0.05). After treatment with 3.0 nmol/L leptin for 48 h, the cells with hypoxic exposure showed similar GFAP and β-tubulin Ⅲ positivity with the control cells (P>0.05), but exhibited an obvious down-regulation of PTEN protein expression compared with the control cells (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#In rat RPCs with hypoxic exposure, treatment with low dose leptin can promote the cell proliferation and suppress cellular PTEN protein expression without causing significant effects on cell differentiation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cell Hypoxia/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Leptin/pharmacology , PTEN Phosphohydrolase/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Retina/metabolism , Stem Cells/metabolism , Tubulin
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936309

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of TGF-β1 on Shh signaling pathway during the transformation of meningeal fibroblasts into myofibroblasts.@*METHODS@#Primary meningeal fibroblasts were isolated from neonatal (24 h) SD rats and purified using type Ⅳ collagenase. The isolated cells were treated with 10 ng/mL TGF-β1 alone or in combination with 20 μmol/L SB-431542 (a TGF-β1 receptor inhibitor) for 72 h, and the changes in proliferation and migration abilities of the fibroblasts were assessed with CCK-8 assay and cell scratch test. The expression of fibronectin (Fn) was detected with immunofluorescence assay, and Western blotting was performed to examine the expressions of Fn, α-SMA and Shh protein in the cells; the expression of Shh mRNA was detected with real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR.@*RESULTS@#TGF-β1 treatment obviously enhanced the proliferation and migration of primary meningeal fibroblasts (P < 0.05), and promoted the transformation of meningeal fibroblasts into myofibroblasts and the secretion of Fn (P < 0.05). TGF-β1 treatment also upregulated the expression of Shh at both protein and mRNA levels (P < 0.05). Treatment with SB-431542 partially blocked the effect of TGF-β1 on the transformation of meningeal fibroblasts (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#TGF-β1 can induce the transformation of meningeal fibroblasts into myofibroblasts by up-regulating Shh expression in Sonic Hedgehog signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Hedgehog Proteins , Myofibroblasts/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936306

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the inhibitory effect of ANA-12 that blocks brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/ tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) signaling on inflammatory pain in rats and explore the underlying mechanism.@*METHODS@#Forty-two adult SD rats were randomized into BDNF-induced acute pain group (n=24) and CFA-induced chronic pain group. The former group were randomly divided into 4 subgroups, including a control group, ANA-12 treatment group, BDNF treatment group, and BDNF+ANA-12 treatment group; the latter group were subgrouped into control group, CFA treatment group (CFA) and CFA + ANA-12 treatment group. The effects of ANA-12 treatment on pain behaviors of the rats with BDNF-induced acute pain and CFA-induced chronic inflammatory pain were observed. Western blotting was used to examine TrkB signaling and expressions of microglia marker protein Iba1 and TNF-α in the spinal cord of the rats.@*RESULTS@#BDNF injection into the subarachnoid space significantly increased the number of spontaneous paw withdrawal of the rats (P < 0.05), which was obviously reduced by ANA-12 treatment (P < 0.05). The rats with intraplantar injection of CFA, showed significantly increased ipsilateral mechanical stimulation sensitivity (P < 0.05), and ANA-12 treatment obviously increased the ipsilateral foot withdrawal threshold (P < 0.05). Treatment with either BDNF or CFA significantly increased the phosphorylation level of TrkB (Y705) in the spinal cord of the rats (P < 0.05), which was significantly lowered by ANA-12 treatment (P < 0.05). Treatment with BDNF and CFA both significantly up-regulated the expressions of Iba1 and TNF-α in the spinal cord (P < 0.05), but ANA-12 significantly reduced their expression levels (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#ANA-12 can reduce spinal cord inflammation and relieve acute and chronic pain in rats by targeted blocking of BDNF/TrkB signaling.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism , Chronic Pain/drug therapy , Inflammation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptor, trkB/metabolism
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936299

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the therapeutic mechanism of Longqi Fang (LQF) for diabetic kidney disease (DKD) based on GEO database and network pharmacology.@*METHODS@#LQF and DKD targets were obtained using the databases including GEO, TCMSP, CNKI, ChemDraw, and SwissTarget Prediction, and LQF-DKD intersection targets were obtained with VENNY. String was used for protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis, and R package for KEGG and GO enrichment analysis. Cytoscape 3.7.2 software Network graphs were constructed. The results of network pharmacology analysis were verified in SD rat models of DKD by daily treatment of the rats with LQF at low (1 g/kg), medium (2 g/kg), and high (2 g/kg) doses, and kidney pathology was observed with HE staining and the changes in renal function were assessed. Western blotting was used to detect the expression levels of NF-κB and p-NF-κB proteins.@*RESULTS@#We identified 760 main targets of LQF, and obtained 1026 differential genes using GEO database and 61 LQF-DKD intersection targets using Venny database. The core targets obtained through PPI network analysis included Myc, EGF, CASP3, VEGFA, CCL2, SPP1, VCAM1 and ICAM1. Go analysis showed that LQF affects mainly nuclear receptor activity and ligand activated transcription factor activity. KEGG analysis showed that LQF affects inflammatory signaling pathways by interfering with NF-κB, TNF, and PI3K-AKT. In rat models of DKD, treatment with LQF resulted in significant improvements of the renal functions (P < 0.05) and glomerular and tubular structure and arrangement in a dose-dependent manner. Western blotting results showed that LQF dose-dependently downregulated NF-κB and p-NF-κB expressions in the rat models.@*CONCLUSION@#The therapeutic mechanism of LQF for DKD involves multiple components, targets and signal pathways that mediate an inhibitory effect on NF-κB signaling pathway to protect the renal function.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Nephropathies/metabolism , Network Pharmacology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Protein Interaction Maps , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936292

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the therapeutic mechanism of gastrodin injection for alleviating lung injury caused by focal cerebral ischemia in rats and the role of the NGF-TrkA pathway in mediating this effect.@*METHODS@#Forty SD rats were equally randomized into normal group, sham-operated group, model group and gastrodin group, and in the latter two groups, rat models of focal cerebral ischemia were established by embolization of the right middle cerebral artery. After successful modeling, the rats were treated with intraperitoneal injection of gastrodin injection at the daily dose of 10 mg/kg for 14 days. After the treatment, the wet/dry weight ratio of the lung tissue was determined, the pathological changes in the lung tissue were observed using HE staining, and the levels of IL-10 and TNF-α in the arterial blood were detected with ELISA. The expressions of NF-κB p65 and TNF-α in the lung tissue were detected with Western blotting, and the expressions of NGF and TrkA were detected using immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the normal control and sham-operated groups, the rats in the model group showed obvious inflammatory lung injury, significantly increased wet/ dry weight ratio of the lungs (P < 0.01), increased TNF-α level in arterial blood (P < 0.01), and significantly up-regulated protein expressions of NF-κB p65 (P < 0.01), TNF-α (P < 0.01), NGF (P < 0.05) and TrkA(P < 0.05) in the lung tissue. Treatment with gastrodin injection obviously alleviated lung inflammation, decreased the wet/dry weight ratio of the lungs (P < 0.05), and significantly lowered TNF-α level (P < 0.01) and increased IL-10 level in the arterial blood in the rat models (P < 0.01); gastrodin injection also significantly decreased the protein expressions of NF-κB p65 and TNF-α (P < 0.05) and up-regulated the expressions of NGF and TrkA in the lung tissue of the rats (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The NGF/TrkA pathway may participate in cerebral ischemia-induced inflammatory lung injury, which can be obviously alleviated by gastrodin through the activation of the anti-inflammatory pathway mediated by the NGF/TrkA pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Benzyl Alcohols , Brain Ischemia , Glucosides , Lung/metabolism , Lung Injury , NF-kappa B , Nerve Growth Factor , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936289

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the protective effect against intestinal mucosal injury in rats following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and explore the underlying mechanism.@*METHODS@#SD rat models of TBI were established by fluid percussion injury (FPI), and the specimens were collected at 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after TBI. Another 15 rats were randomly divided into shamoperated group (n=5), TBI with saline treatment (TBI+NS) group (n=5), and TBI with PD treatment (TBI+PD) group (treated with 30 mg/kg PD after TBI; n=5). Body weight gain and fecal water content of the rats were recorded, and after the treatments, the histopathology of the jejunum was observed, and the levels of D-lactic acid (D-LAC), diamine oxidase (DAO), ZO-1, claudin-5, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected. Lipid peroxide (LPO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) 2 content, jejunal pro-inflammatory factors (IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF- α), Sirt1 activity, SOD2 and HMGB1 acetylation level were also determined after the treatments.@*RESULTS@#The rats showed significantly decreased body weight and fecal water content and progressively increased serum levels of D-LAC and DAO after TBI (P < 0.05) with obvious jejunal injury, significantly decreased expression levels of ZO-1 and claudin-5, lowered SOD2 and Sirt1 activity (P < 0.05), increased expression levels of LPO, ROS, and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and enhanced SOD2 and HMGB1 acetylation levels (P < 0.05). Compared with TBI+NS group, the rats in TBI+PD group showed obvious body weight regain, increased fecal water content, reduced jejunal pathologies, decreased D-LAC and DAO levels (P < 0.05), increased ZO-1, claudin-5, SOD2 expression levels and Sirt1 activity, and significantly decreased ROS, LPO, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and acetylation levels of SOD2 and HMGB1 (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#PD alleviates oxidative stress and inflammatory response by activating Sirt1-mediated deacetylation of SOD2 and HMGB1 to improve intestinal mucosal injury in TBI rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain Injuries, Traumatic , Glucosides/pharmacology , HMGB1 Protein/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sirtuin 1/metabolism , Stilbenes/pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936192

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effects of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) on proliferation and hormone secretion of parathyroid cells in votro. Methods: The parathyroid cells and ADMSCs were obtained from 10 SD rats by cell separation and culture. The phenotype of P3 generation for ADMSCs was detected by flow cytometry. The co-culture of parathyroid cells and ADMSCs was conducted in the ratios of 2∶1, 1∶1, 1∶2 and 1∶5, respectively. The level of parathyroid hormone in cell supernatant was determined. The results were compared with the parathyroid hormone in the supernatant of parathyroid cells cultured separately in the corresponding number. The effects of ADMSCs on the hormone secretion of parathyroid cells were evaluated. SPSS 11.0 software was used for statistical analysis. Results: The primary culture of either parathyroid cells or ADMSCs and the co-culture of these cells in vitro were performed successfully, and the in vitro culture of different proportions of the two cells showed different effects on parathyroid hormone secretion. The co-culture of parathyroid cells and ADMSCs, especially in the ratio of 1∶5, facilitated the secretion of parathyroid hormone ((1.3±0.0) vs. (0.8±0.1), (1.3±0.0) vs. (0.9±0.0), (1.7±0.5) vs. (0.9±0.0), (1.7±0.0) vs. (1.2±0.2))ng/L with t value of 25.46, 64.30, 3.32, 7.16, P<0.05 on the 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th days respectively. Secondly, when the ratio was 1∶2, the PTH level showed an upward trend. Conclusion: Parathyroid cells and ADMSCs can be co-cultured in vitro, facilitating the secretion of parathyroid hormone under the appropriate cell proportion such as the ratio of by parathyroid cells to ADMSCs at 1∶5.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue , Animals , Coculture Techniques , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922579

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate whether electroacupuncture (EA) alleviates cognitive impairment by suppressing the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) signaling pathway, which triggers immune-inflammatory responses in the hippocampus of rats with vascular dementia (VaD).@*METHODS@#The experiments were conducted in 3 parts and in total the Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 8 groups by a random number table, including sham, four-vessel occlusion (4-VO), 4-VO+EA, 4-VO+non-EA, sham+EA, 4-VO+lipopolysaccharide (LPS), 4-VO+LPS+EA, and 4-VO+TAK-242 groups. The VaD model was established by the 4-VO method. Seven days later, rats were treated with EA at 5 acupoints of Baihui (DV 20), Danzhong (RN 17), Geshu (BL 17), Qihai (RN 6) and Sanyinjiao (SP 6), once per day for 3 consecutive weeks. Lymphocyte subsets, lymphocyte transformation rates, and inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α(TNF-α) were measured to assess immune function and inflammation in VaD rats. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe the ultrastructure of nerve cells in the hippocampus. The levels of TLR4, MyD88, IL-6, and TNF-α were detected after EA treatment. TLR4/MyD88 signaling and cognitive function were also assessed after intracerebroventricular injection of TLR4 antagonist TAK-242 or TLR4 agonist LPS with or without EA.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the 4-VO group, EA notably improved immune function of rats in the 4-VO+EA group, inhibited the protein and mRNA expressions of TLR4 and MyD88 in the hippocampus of rats, reduced the expressions of serum IL-6 and TNF-α (all P0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#EA attenuated cognitive impairment associated with immune inflammation by inhibition of the TLR4/MyD88 signaling pathway. Thus, EA may be a promising alternative therapy for the treatment of VaD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dementia, Vascular/therapy , Electroacupuncture , Hippocampus/metabolism , Immunity , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88 , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922576

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the protective effects and underlying mechanisms of Xuebijing Injection (XBJ) on the lung endothelial barrier in hydrogen sulfide (H@*METHODS@#Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to H@*RESULTS@#The morphological investigation showed that XBJ attenuated H@*CONCLUSIONS@#XBJ ameliorated H


Subject(s)
Animals , Claudin-5 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Endothelial Cells , Hydrogen Sulfide , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/drug therapy
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