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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254646, 2024. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360224

ABSTRACT

Chronic stress (CS) can contribute to dysfunction in several organs including liver and kidney. This study was performed to investigate the changes in serum biochemistry, histological structure, as well as in localization of tyrosine phosphorylated proteins (TyrPho) and Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp-70) in liver and kidney tissues of CS rats induced by two stressors (restrained and force swimming) for 60 consecutive days. Samples of blood, liver, and kidney were collected from adult male Sprague-Dawley rats in each group. Our results showed that serum biochemical parameters including corticosterone, blood sugar, urea nitrogen, creatinine, cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-C, LDL-C, ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase in CS group were significantly different from that in normal group in both liver and kidney tissues. Although histological structure was not changed. TyrPho expression was significantly increased in liver lysate but significantly decreased in kidney. Hsp-70 expression in liver increased whereas in kidney decreased. In conclusion, CS can induce changes in liver and kidney functions.


O estresse crônico (SC) pode contribuir para a disfunção em vários órgãos, incluindo fígado e rim. Este estudo foi realizado para investigar as alterações na bioquímica sérica, estrutura histológica, bem como na localização de proteínas tirosina fosforiladas (TyrPho) e proteína de choque térmico 70 (Hsp-70) em tecidos hepáticos e renais de ratos CS induzidas por dois estressores (restrito e natação forçada) por 60 dias consecutivos. Amostras de sangue, fígado e rim foram coletadas de ratos Sprague-Dawley machos adultos em cada grupo. Nossos resultados mostraram que os parâmetros bioquímicos séricos, incluindo corticosterona, glicemia, nitrogênio ureico, creatinina, colesterol, triglicerídeos, HDL-C, LDL-C, ALT, AST, fosfatase alcalina no grupo CS foram significativamente diferentes do grupo normal em ambos os fígados e tecidos renais. Embora a estrutura histológica não tenha sido alterada, a expressão de TyrPho aumentou significativamente no lisado hepático, mas diminuiu significativamente no rim. A expressão de Hsp-70 no fígado aumentou, enquanto que no rim diminuiu. Em conclusão, a CS pode induzir alterações nas funções hepáticas e renais.


Subject(s)
Rats , Stress, Physiological , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Kidney/anatomy & histology , Liver/anatomy & histology
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(5): 1537-1549, oct. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521025

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Cisplatin (Cis) is an important chemotherapeutic agent used in cancer treatment. Males exposed to Cis were reported to exhibit testicular toxicity. Cis-induced testicular toxicity is mediated by oxidative stress, inflammation, testosterone inhibition and apoptosis. Accordingly, this study was conducted to evaluate the potential protective roles of infliximab (IFX), which is an anti- TNF-a agent, and of white tea (Camellia sinensis), which is known to possess antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, and anti-inflammatory effects, against Cis-induced testicular toxicity in rats. Rats were randomly assigned into five groups as follows: control group, Cisplatin (7 mg/kg) treatment group, Cisplatin (7 mg/kg) + infliximab (7 mg/kg) treatment group, cisplatin + white tea (WT) treatment group, and Cisplatin+ WT+IFX combined treatment group. In the present study, Cis exposure reduced the sperm count. It also increased testicular oxidative stress as well as the levels of inflammatory and apoptotic markers. Histopathological assays supported the biochemical findings. Treatment with IFX and/or WT restored testicular histology, preserved spermatogenesis, suppressed oxidative stress and apoptosis, and significantly ameliorated Cis-induced damage. It was concluded that white tea and infliximab could potentially serve as therapeutic options for the protection of testicular tissue against the harmful effects of Cis.


El cisplatino (Cis) es un importante agente quimioterapéutico utilizado en el tratamiento del cáncer. Se informó que los hombres expuestos a Cis exhibieron toxicidad testicular. La toxicidad testicular inducida por Cis está mediada por el estrés oxidativo, la inflamación, la inhibición de la testosterona y la apoptosis. En consecuencia, este estudio se realizó para evaluar las posibles funciones protectoras de infliximab (IFX), un agente anti-TNF-α, y del té blanco (Camellia sinensis), conocido por sus propiedades antioxidantes, antiapoptóticas y anti-TNF-α -efectos inflamatorios, contra la toxicidad testicular inducida por Cis en ratas. Cinco grupos de ratas se asignaron al azar de la siguiente manera: grupo control, grupo de tratamiento con cisplatino (7 mg/ kg), grupo de tratamiento con cisplatino (7 mg/kg) + infliximab (7 mg/kg), grupo de tratamiento con cisplatino + té blanco (WT), y grupo de tratamiento combinado Cisplatino+ WT+IFX. En el presente estudio, la exposición a Cis redujo el conteo de espermatozoides. También aumentó el estrés oxidativo testicular, así como los niveles de marcadores inflamatorios y apoptóticos. Los ensayos histopatológicos respaldaron los hallazgos bioquímicos. El tratamiento con IFX y/o WT restauró la histología testicular, preservó la espermatogénesis, suprimió el estrés oxidativo y la apoptosis, y mejoró significativamente el daño inducido por Cis. Se concluyó que el té blanco y el infliximab podrían potencialmente servir como opciones terapéuticas para la protección del tejido testicular contra los efectos nocivos de Cis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Tea/chemistry , Testis/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Cisplatin/toxicity , Camellia sinensis/chemistry , Infliximab/pharmacology , Sperm Count , Testis/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Apoptosis , Oxidative Stress , Glutathione/analysis , Inflammation , Malondialdehyde/analysis
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(4): 1027-1035, ago. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514338

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Diabetic cardiomyopathy, characterized by diabetes mellitus (DM) -induced cardiac muscular abnormalities, is a strong inducer of impaired cardiac contraction and arrhythmia. Atrioventricular block, a serious type of arrhythmia resulting from interruption of cardiac impulse conduction via the atrioventricular node (AVN), frequently occurs among diabetic patients. However, details of structural changes in AVN in DM remain poorly explained. Here, this study defined the effects of DM on the morphological remodeling of the AVN in male Sprague Dawley rats induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight). At 24 weeks, the pathological changes in the AVN were assessed by light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Under LM, the AVN in diabetic rats became a less compact mass and exhibited the intracellular vacuolation. The nodal cells were more varied in sizes with the absence or shrinkage of nuclei and clear cytoplasm compared to the control. The collagen content significantly increased in relation to the presence of myofibroblasts. Consistent with LM, TEM images of the diabetic nodal cells revealed several signs of cell damage, such as mitochondrial changes, deterioration of cell organelles, gap junction internalization, and cell separation. Furthermore, changes in AVN innervation, evidenced by damaged Schwann cells and axons, were also found. These results indicated alterations in important components in the AVN during diabetic condition, which may lead to the impairment of electrical conduction, causing abnormal cardiac functions in diabetic patients.


La miocardiopatía diabética, caracterizada por anomalías musculares cardíacas inducidas por diabetes mellitus (DM), es un fuerte inductor de alteración de la contracción cardíaca y arritmia. El bloqueo atrioventricular, un tipo grave de arritmia resultante de la interrupción de la conducción del impulso cardíaco a través del nodo atrioventricular (NAV), se produce con frecuencia entre los pacientes diabéticos. Sin embargo, los detalles de los cambios estructurales en NAV en DM siguen estando pobremente explicados. Aquí, este estudio definió los efectos de la DM en la remodelación morfológica del NAV en ratas macho Sprague Dawley inducidas por inyección intraperitoneal de estreptozotocina (60 mg/kg de peso corporal). A las 24 semanas, los cambios patológicos en el NAV se evaluaron mediante microscopía óptica (MO) y microscopía electrónica de transmisión (MET). Bajo MO, el NAV en ratas diabéticas se convirtió en una masa menos compacta y exhibió la vacuolización intracelular. Las células nodales tenían tamaños más variados con ausencia o contracción de núcleos y citoplasma claro en comparación con el control. El contenido de colágeno aumentó significativamente en relación con la presencia de miofibroblastos. De acuerdo con MO, las imágenes MET de las células nodales diabéticas revelaron varios signos de daño celular, como cambios mitocondriales, deterioro de los orgánulos celulares, internalización de uniones comunicantes y separación celular. Además, también se encontraron cambios en la inervación del NAV, evidenciados por schwannocitos y axones dañados. Estos resultados indicaron alteraciones en componentes importantes en el NAV durante la condición diabética, lo que puede conducir al deterioro de la conducción eléctrica, causando funciones cardíacas anormales en estos pacientes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Atrioventricular Node/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(4): 1043-1052, ago. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514344

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder with rising incidences worldwide. Gastric symptoms of DM have been reported, including nausea, vomiting, bloating, and epigastric pain. Moreover, acute to chronic gastritis and atrophic gastritis occur in DM can affect the chief cells of the gastric gland. Chief cells are vital because of their ability to digest and separate vitamin B12 from protein. Lack of vitamin B12 leads to impaired DNA synthesis and abnormal metabolism in red blood cells, and eventually leading to pernicious anemia. Furthermore, decreased vibratory and positional senses, numbness, ataxia with subacute combined degeneration, and dementia are present in pernicious anemic patients. Twenty-four male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. The rats were divided into control (n = 12) and diabetic (n = 12) groups. The rats were further separated into two categories: short-term (4 weeks) and long-term (24 weeks) groups. DM model was induced by manually injecting intraperitoneally with streptozotocin in citrate buffer at a dose of 60 mg/kg body weight. The same amount of buffer was injected into the control group. After sacrifice, three regions of the stomach (the cardia, body, and pylorus) were dissected. Histopathology was performed by staining with toluidine blue. Image analysis was used to quantify the zymogen granule accumulation in chief cells. The data were compared between the control and DM rats in each period using Student's t-test. In addition, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was also used to examine the ultrastructures. There was a significant decrease in the percentage of zymogen granules in DM rats. Under TEM, the destructions of mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi apparatus in the DM rat were observed in the chief cells. In rats with uncontrolled diabetes, there is damage to the chief cells all over the area of the stomach, affecting digestion and malabsorption of vitamin B12. Therefore, this result helps clinicians recognize that diabetic patients with gastric symptoms may have hidden pernicious anemia.


La diabetes mellitus (DM) es un trastorno metabólico con incidencia creciente a nivel mundial. Se han informado síntomas gástricos de DM, que incluyen náuseas, vómitos, distensión abdominal y dolor epigástrico. Además, la gastritis aguda a crónica y la gastritis atrófica que ocurren en la DM pueden afectar las células principales de la glándula gástrica. Las células principales son vitales debido a su capacidad para digerir y separar la vitamina B12 de las proteínas. La falta de vitamina B12 conduce a una síntesis de ADN deteriorada y un metabolismo anormal en los glóbulos rojos, lo que eventualmente conduce a una anemia perniciosa. Además, los pacientes con anemia perniciosa presentan disminución de los sentidos vibratorio y posicional, entumecimiento, ataxia con degeneración combinada subaguda y demencia. En este estudio se usaron 24 ratas Sprague-Dawley macho adultas. Las ratas se dividieron en grupos control (n = 12) y diabéticas (n = 12). Las ratas se separaron además en dos categorías: grupos a corto plazo (4 semanas) y a largo plazo (24 semanas). El modelo de DM se indujo inyectando manualmente por vía intraperitoneal estreptozotocina en tampón de citrato a una dosis de 60 mg/kg de peso corporal. Se inyectó la misma cantidad de tampón en el grupo control. Después del sacrificio, se disecaron tres regiones del estómago (cardias, cuerpo y píloro). La histopatología se realizó mediante tinción con azul de toluidina. El análisis de imágenes se utilizó para cuantificar la acumulación de gránulos de zimógeno en las células principales. Los datos se compararon entre las ratas control y DM en cada período utilizando la prueba t de Student. Además, se utilizó microscopía electrónica de transmisión (TEM) para examinar la ultraestructura celular. Hubo una disminución significativa en el porcentaje de gránulos de zimógeno en ratas DM. Bajo TEM, se observaron en las células principales las destrucción de las mitocondrias, del retículo endoplásmico rugoso y del complejo golgiense en la rata DM. En ratas con diabetes no controlada, hay daño en las células principales de toda el área del estómago, lo que afecta la digestión y la malabsorción de vitamina B12. Por lo tanto, este resultado ayuda a los médicos a reconocer que los pacientes diabéticos con síntomas gástricos pueden tener una anemia perniciosa oculta.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Gastric Mucosa/pathology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Chief Cells, Gastric/pathology , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission
5.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(4): 1152-1157, ago. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514346

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: To investigate changes of MMP-9 in the rat spleen and hypoxia-induced microvascular basement membrane under high altitude hypoxia. Thirty male specific pathogen-free Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into control and hypoxia groups, with 15 rats in each group. The rats in the control group were placed in Dingxi City, Gansu Province (2080 m above sea level) for 30 days. Rats in the hypoxia group were raised in a hypoxic environment in Maduo County, Qinghai Province (4300 m above sea level), for 30 days to establish a hypoxic rat model. Routine blood tests, MMP-9 mRNA, MMP-9 protein, and the spleen microvascular basement membrane were detected. (1) Compared with the control group, the red blood cell count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit levels of the rats in the hypoxia group were all increased; thus, a hypoxia model was successfully established. (2) Compared with the control group, the expression of MMP-9 mRNA and protein was significantly higher in the spleen of rats in the hypoxic group, and the difference was statistically significant (P <0.05). (3) Compared with the control group, the blood vessel basement membrane in the spleen of the hypoxia group was degraded. Under natural low air pressure and high altitude conditions, the expression of MMP-9 in rat spleen tissue increases and participates in the degradation of the microvascular basement membrane.


El objetivo de este trabajo fue investigar los cambios de la MMP-9 en el bazo de la rata y la membrana basal microvascular inducida bajo hipoxia a gran altura. Treinta ratas macho Sprague Dawley, libres de patógenos específicos, se dividieron aleatoriamente en dos grupos de 15 ratas cada uno, un grupo control y un grupo hipoxia. Durante 30 días las ratas del grupo control estuvieron en la ciudad de Dingxi, provincia de Gansu (2080 m sobre el nivel del mar). Las ratas del grupo de hipoxia se criaron en un entorno hipóxico en el condado de Maduo, provincia de Qinghai (4300 m sobre el nivel del mar), durante 30 días para establecer un modelo de rata hipóxica. Se realizaron análisis de sangre de rutina, ARNm de MMP-9, proteína MMP-9 y de la membrana basal microvascular del bazo. En comparación con el grupo control, el recuento de glóbulos rojos, la hemoglobina y los niveles de hematocrito de las ratas del grupo de hipoxia aumentaron; por lo tanto, se estableció con éxito un modelo de hipoxia. En comparación con el grupo control, la expresión de ARNm y proteína de MMP-9 fue significativamente mayor en el bazo de las ratas del grupo hipóxico, siendo la diferencia estadísticamente significativa (P <0,05). En comparación con el grupo control, la membrana basal de los vasos sanguíneos estaba degradada en el bazo del grupo hipoxia. En condiciones naturales de baja presión atmosférica y gran altitud, la expresión de MMP-9 en el tejido del bazo de la rata aumenta y participa en la degradación de la membrana basal microvascular.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Spleen/pathology , Basement Membrane/pathology , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 , Altitude Sickness , Blotting, Western , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Disease Models, Animal
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(4): 1273-1278, ago. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514357

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Breathing is considered a vital function dependent on factors such as adequate permeability of the nasal route, which is linked to physiological functions, intellectual processes, and craniofacial growth. The aim of this study was to determine the changes in the craniomaxillofacial growth and bone development of Sprague Dawley rats subjected to permanent experimental unilateral nasal obstruction. Twenty-four newborn rats were used, randomized, and divided into experimental and control groups. The right nostril was obstructed, and weight, length, and Lee's index measurements were recorded at 8 and 16 weeks. Craniomandibular x-rays were taken of each animal, obtaining linear neuro- and viscerocranial measurements. Then, a biochemical analysis was performed to measure the alkaline phosphatase concentration. The results were analyzed in the SPSS software, performing a descriptive analysis, using a t-test for independent samples, comparing basal, cephalometric, and biochemical characteristics between the control and experimental groups, considering a significance range of 5%. When comparing the experimental and control groups, the variables length, weight, and Lee's index presented no significant differences. In the x-ray analysis, at 8 weeks, the Co-L1 and Co-Mn measurements were reduced, whereas the Ba-So increased, with significant differences. At 16 weeks, the L1-O, Po-Ba, and E-Mu measurements decreased; however, Co-Gn registered a greater value with significant differences. The alkaline phosphatase levels fell significantly at week 16 in the experimental group. In conclusion, the reduction of permanent nasal respiratory flow is related to modifications in facial growth at 8 and 16 weeks and to the reduction of alkaline phosphatases at 16 weeks.


La respiración se considera una función vital, dependiente de factores como la permeabilidad adecuada de la vía nasal, vinculada con funciones fisiológicas, procesos intelectuales y crecimiento cráneofacial. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar los cambios en el crecimiento y desarrollo óseo cráneo maxilo facial de ratas Sprague Dawley sometidas a obstrucción nasal unilateral experimental permanente. Se utilizaron 24 ratas macho neonatas, randomizadas y divididas en grupo control y experimental. Fue realizada obstrucción nasal de la narina derecha y realizadas mediciones de peso, longitud e índice de Lee a las 8 y 16 semanas. Se efectuaron radiografías cráneomandibulares a cada animal, obteniendo medidas lineales de neuro y viscerocráneo. Posteriormente se realizó análisis bioquímico, para medir la concentración de fosfatasa alcalina. Los resultados fueron analizados en el software SPSS, realizándose análisis descriptivo, empleando prueba T para muestras independientes comparando características basales, cefalométricas y bioquímicas entre los grupos control y experimental, considerando un umbral de significancia de 5 %. Al comparar los grupos control y experimental, las variables longitud, peso e índice de Lee no presentaron diferencias significativas. En el análisis radiográfico, a las 8 semanas, las medidas Co-L1 y Co-Mn presentaron reducción, mientras que Ba-So aumentó, con diferencias significativas. A las 16 semanas, las medidas L1-O, Po-Ba y E-Mu disminuyeron, sin embargo, Co-Gn registró un mayor valor, con diferencias significativas. Los niveles de fosfatasa alcalina disminuyeron significativamente en la semana 16 en el grupo experimental. En conclusión, la reducción de flujo respiratorio nasal permanente se relaciona con modificaciones del crecimiento facial a las 8 y 16 semanas y con la reducción de ALK en análisis a las 16 semanas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Skull/growth & development , Nasal Obstruction , Maxillofacial Development , Cephalometry , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Facial Bones/growth & development
7.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(3): 789-797, jun. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514318

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) exerts balancing the intracellular level between two-second messengers, diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid, by its phosphorylation activity. DGK ζ is often localized in cell nuclei, suggesting its involvement in the regulation of intranuclear activities, including mitosis and apoptosis. The present immunohistochemical study of rat kidneys first revealed no detection levels of DGK ζ -immunoreactivity in nuclei of most proximal tubule epithelia in contrast to its distinct occurrence in cell nuclei of collecting and distal tubules with the former more dominant. This finding suggests that DGK ζ is a key factor regulating vulnerability to acute kidney injury in various renal tubules: its low expression represents the high vulnerability of proximal tubule cells, and its distinct expression does the resistance of collecting and distal tubule cells. In addition, this isozyme was more or less localized in nuclei of cells forming glomeruli as well as in endothelial nuclei of peritubular capillaries and other intrarenal blood vessels, and epithelial nuclei of glomerular capsules (Bowman's capsules) and renal calyces, including intrarenal interstitial cells.


La diacilglicerol quinasa (DGK) ejerce el equilibrio del nivel intracelular entre dos segundos mensajeros, diacilglicerol y ácido fosfatídico, por su actividad de fosforilación. La DGK ζ a menudo se localiza en los núcleos celulares, lo que sugiere su participación en la regulación de las actividades intranucleares, incluidas la mitosis y la apoptosis. El presente estudio inmunohistoquímico en riñones de rata no reveló niveles de detección de inmunorreactividad de DGK ζ en los núcleos de la mayoría de los epitelios de los túbulos proximales, en contraste a la detección en los núcleos celulares de los túbulos colectores y distales, siendo el primero más dominante. Este hallazgo sugiere que DGK ζ es un factor clave que regula la vulnerabilidad a la lesión renal aguda en varios túbulos renales: su baja expresión representa la alta vulnerabilidad de las células del túbulo proximal, y su expresión distinta hace a la resistencia de las células del túbulo colector y distal. Además, esta isoenzima estaba más o menos localizada en los núcleos de las células que forman los glomérulos, así como en los núcleos endoteliales de los capilares peritubulares y otros vasos sanguíneos intrarrenales, y en los núcleos epiteliales de las cápsulas glomerulares (cápsulas de Bowman) y los cálices renales, incluidas las células intersticiales intrarrenales.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Diacylglycerol Kinase/metabolism , Kidney Tubules/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Microscopy, Immunoelectron , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Diacylglycerol Kinase/ultrastructure , Kidney Tubules/ultrastructure
8.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(3): 811-818, jun. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514286

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanism of prenatal stress on the cognitive function of offspring, and clarify the change of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) expression in hippocampal neurons of offspring. 16 pregnant SD rats were randomly divided into control group and stress group, with eight rats in each group. The stress group received restrained stress from 15 to 21 days of pregnancy, while the control group did not receive any treatment. Anxiety-like behavior and spatial memory, learning and memory ability were detected in open field, elevated plus maze, novel object recognition test, and Barnes maze. Nissl staining was used to detect the function of hippocampal neurons. Western blot was used to detect the expression of HDAC2 protein in hippocampal neurons of adult offspring. Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the expression of HDAC2 protein and hippocampal neurogenesis. The learning and memory ability of adult offspring was decreased. The prenatal stress damaged the function of hippocampal neurons , the expression of HDAC2 was down-regulated, and the number of neurons was reduced. Maternal prenatal stress can down- regulate the expression of HDAC2 in the hippocampus of offspring, inhibits hippocampal neurogenesis and impairs the cognitive function.


El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar el mecanismo del estrés prenatal en la función cognitiva de la descendencia y aclarar el cambio de la expresión de la histona desacetilasa 2 (HDAC2) en las neuronas del hipocampo de la descendencia. 16 ratas SD preñadas se dividieron aleatoriamente en un grupo de control y un grupo de estrés, con ocho ratas en cada grupo. El grupo de estrés recibió estrés durante 15 a 21 días de pre, preñez, mientras que el grupo de control no recibió ningún tratamiento. El comportamiento similar a la ansiedad y la memoria espacial, el aprendizaje y la capacidad de memoria se detectaron en campo abierto, laberinto en cruz elevado, prueba de reconocimiento de objetos novedosos y laberinto de Barnes. La tinción de Nissl se utilizó para detectar la función de las neuronas del hipocampo. Se utilizó Western blot para detectar la expresión de la proteína HDAC2 en las neuronas del hipocampo de la descendencia adulta. La tinción de inmunofluorescencia se utilizó para detectar la expresión de la proteína HDAC2 y la neurogénesis del hipocampo. La capacidad de aprendizaje y memoria de la descendencia adulta se redujo. El estrés prenatal dañó la función de las neuronas del hipocampo, se reguló negativamente la expresión de HDAC2 y se redujo el número de neuronas. El estrés prenatal materno puede regular a la baja la expresión de HDAC2 en el hipocampo de la descendencia, inhibe la neurogénesis del hipocampo y deteriora la función cognitiva.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Stress, Psychological , Histone Deacetylase 2/metabolism , Cognitive Dysfunction , Immunohistochemistry , Blotting, Western , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Neurogenesis , Epigenomics , Open Field Test , Elevated Plus Maze Test , Hippocampus , Learning , Memory
9.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 539-547, abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440313

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: A great deal of attention of air pollution on respiratory health is increasing, particularly in relation to haze days. It is that exposure to cigarette smoke augments the toxicity of common air contaminants, thereby increasing the complexity of respiratory diseases. Although there are various mechanisms involved to respiratory diseases caused or worsen by cigarette smoking, in which the role of AQPs in the lung with regard to fluid homeostasis still remains elusive. In this paper, we copied the rat models based on smoke generator, and investigated the morphological changes of mucosa and related functions depending on the balance of lining liquid of alveoli via AQPs expression. Compared with normal group, weak labelling of AQP1 and AQP5 protein abundance were clearly detected in the corresponding part of smoke exposure groups compared with normal group. Hence, it is suggested that the contribution of AQPs in the lung is diminished, thereby causing perturbed balancing between resorptive and secretory fluid homeostasis under cigarette smoking.


Cada vez se presta más atención a la contaminación del aire en la salud respiratoria, particularmente, en relación con los días de neblina. En consecuencia la exposición al humo del cigarrillo aumenta la toxicidad de los contaminantes comunes del aire, lo que además aumenta la complejidad de las enfermedades respiratorias. Aunque existen varios mecanismos involucrados en las enfermedades respiratorias causadas o empeoradas por el tabaquismo, en las que el papel de las AQP en el pulmón respecto a la homeostasis de líquidos sigue siendo difícil de alcanzar. En este artículo, copiamos los modelos de rata basados en el generador de humo e investigamos los cambios morfológicos de la mucosa y las funciones relacionadas según el equilibrio del líquido de revestimiento de los alvéolos a través de la expresión de AQP. En comparación con el grupo normal, se detectó claramente un etiquetado débil de la abundancia de proteínas AQP1 y AQP5 en la parte correspondiente de los grupos de exposición al humo en comparación con el grupo control. Por lo tanto, se sugiere que la contribución de las AQP en el pulmón está disminuida, provocando así un equilibrio perturbado entre la homeostasis del líquido secretor y de reabsorción bajo el hábito de fumar cigarrillos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Respiratory System/pathology , Cigarette Smoking/adverse effects , Respiratory System/drug effects , Body Fluids/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Microscopy, Electron , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Aquaporins/metabolism , Homeostasis , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology
10.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 59-64, feb. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430527

ABSTRACT

El periodo postnatal temprano se caracteriza por rápido crecimiento cerebral, posiblemente relacionado con variaciones del oxígeno tisular. Esto ha motivado el estudio de protocolos que suministran diferentes concentraciones de oxígeno intermitentes, para observar sus efectos morfológicos y cerebrales. Se utilizaron 52 crías de ratas Sprague Dawley, distribuidas en igual número a cuatro grupos experimentales, Control (C, 21 %O2), Hipoxia Intermitente (HI, 11 %O2), Hiperoxia Intermitente (HOI, 30 %O2) e Hipoxia Hiperoxia Intermitente (HHI, 11 % -30 %O2). Los protocolos consideraron 5 ciclos de 5 minutos de dosificación, durante 50 minutos diarios. Se realizó en una cámara semihermética entre los días 5 al 11 postnatales. Las evaluaciones de crecimiento corporal y cuantificación neuronal, se realizaron en las crías macho, en el día 28 postnatal. El peso corporal en el grupo hipoxia intermitente mostró diferencias significativas respecto al grupo hiperoxia intermitente (HI vs HOI, p<0,01) y al grupo hipoxia-hiperoxia Intermitente (HI vs HHI, p< 0,001). La talla corporal disminuyó en el grupo hipoxia-hiperoxia intermitente con diferencias significativas respecto del grupo control (C vs HHI, p<0,05) y respecto del grupo hipoxia intermitente (HHI vs HI, p< 0,01). El conteo neuronal en el área CA1 del hipocampo aumentó en el grupo hipoxia intermitente con diferencias significativas respecto a los grupos control (C vs HI; p<0,05), al grupo hiperoxia intermitente (HI vs HOI; p<0,001) y al grupo hipoxia-hiperoxia intermitente (HI vs HHI; p<0,001). Finalmente, el grupo hipoxia- hiperoxia Intermitente disminuyó significativamente en la cantidad de neuronas en comparación al grupo hiperoxia intermitente (HHI vs HOI; p<0,001). La hipoxia intermitente mostró resultados beneficiosos en el crecimiento corporal y cantidad de neuronas en el área CA1 del hipocampo, en contraste, la hipoxia hiperoxia intermitente experimentó resultados adversos con disminución de estas variables, en el periodo postnatal temprano de la rata.


SUMMARY: The early postnatal period is characterized by rapid brain growth, possibly related to variations in tissue oxygen. This has motivated the study of protocols that supply different intermittent oxygen concentrations, to observe their morphological and cerebral effects. Fifty-two pups Sprague-Dawley rats were distributed in equal numbers into four experimental groups, Control (C, 21 %O), Intermittent Hypoxia (HI, 11 %O), Intermittent Hyperoxia (HOI, 30 %O2) and Intermittent Hypoxia Hyperoxia (HHI, 11 % - 30 %O2). The protocols considered 5 cycles of 5 min of dosing, for 50 min diary. It was performed in a semi- hermetic chamber between 5 to 11postnatal days. The evaluations of body growth and neuronal quantification were analyzed in male pups, on postnatal day 28. Body weight in the intermittent hypoxia group showed significant differences compared to the intermittent hyperoxia group (HI vs HOI, p<0.01) and the intermittent hypoxia- hyperoxia group (HI vs HHI, p<0.001). Body size decreased in the Intermittent hypoxia-hyperoxia group with significant differences compared to the control group (C vs HHI, p<0.05) and with respect to the intermittent hypoxia group (HHI vs HI, p<0.01). The neuronal count in the area CA1 of the hippocampus increased in the intermittent hypoxia group with significant differences compared to the control groups (C vs HI; p<0.05), to the intermittent hyperoxia group (HI vs HOI; p< 0.001) and the intermittent hypoxia-hyperoxia group (HI vs HHI; p<0.001). Finally, the intermittent hypoxia- hyperoxia group decreased significantly in the number of neurons compared with the intermittent hyperoxia group (HHI vs HOI; p<0.001). Intermittent hypoxia showed beneficial results in body growth and the number of neurons in the CA1 area of the hippocampus, in contrast, intermittent hypoxia-hyperoxia experienced adverse results with a decrease in these variables, in the early postnatal period of the rat.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Oxygen/administration & dosage , CA1 Region, Hippocampal/growth & development , Hypoxia , Time Factors , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Hyperoxia
11.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 79-84, feb. 2023. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430536

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Paracetamol (known as acetaminophen, or APAP) poisoning causes acute liver damage that can lead to organ failure and death. We sought to determine that APAP overdose can augment tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)/ nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB)/induced nitic oxide synthase (iNOS) axis-mediated hepatotoxicity in rats, and the anti-inflammatory polyphenolic compounds, quercetin (QUR) plus resveratrol (RES) can ameliorate these parameters. Therefore, we induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats using APAP overdose (2 g/kg, orally) and the protective group of rats were treated with 50 mg/kg QUR plus 30 mg/kg RES for one week before APAP ingestion. Animals were killed at day 8. APAP poisoning caused the induction of hepatic tissue levels of TNF-α, NF-kB, and iNOS, which were significantly (p<0.05) decreased by QUR+RES. QUR+RES, also inhibited liver injury biomarkers, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Additionally, a link between liver injury and TNF-α /NF-kB / iNOS axis mediated hepatotoxicity was observed. Thus, the presented data backing the conclusion that intoxication by paracetamol increases TNF-α / NF-kB / iNOS axis -mediated hepatotoxicity, and is protected by a combination of quercetin and resveratrol.


El envenenamiento por paracetamol (conocido como acetaminofeno o APAP) causa daño hepático agudo que puede provocar una insuficiencia orgánica y la muerte. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar si la sobredosis de APAP puede aumentar la hepatotoxicidad mediada por el eje del factor de necrosis tumoral alfa (TNF-α)/factor nuclear kappa B (NF-kB)/óxido nítico sintasa inducida (iNOS) en ratas, y si el polifenólico antiinflamatorio compuesto por quercetina (QUR) más resveratrol (RES) pueden mejorar estos parámetros. Por lo tanto, inducimos hepatotoxicidad aguda en ratas usando una sobredosis de APAP (2 g/kg, por vía oral). El grupo protector de ratas se trató con 50 mg/ kg de QUR más 30 mg/kg de RES durante una semana antes de la ingestión de APAP. Los animales se sacrificaron el día 8. El envenenamiento con APAP en el tejido hepático provocó la inducción de niveles de TNF-α, NF-kB e iNOS, que se redujeron significativamente (p<0,05) con QUR+RES. QUR+RES, también inhibió los biomarcadores de daño hepático, la alanina aminotransferasa (ALT) y el aspartato aminotransferasa (AST). Además, se observó una relación entre la lesión hepática y la hepatotoxicidad mediada por el eje TNF-α /NF-kB/iNOS. Por lo tanto, los datos presentados respaldan la conclusión de que la intoxicación por paracetamol aumenta la hepatotoxicidad mediada por el eje TNF-α /NF-kB / iNOS, y está protegida por una combinación de quercetina y resveratrol.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Quercetin/administration & dosage , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury, Chronic/drug therapy , Resveratrol/administration & dosage , Acetaminophen/toxicity , Acute Disease , NF-kappa B/antagonists & inhibitors , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Nitric Oxide Synthase/antagonists & inhibitors , Protective Agents , Drug Therapy, Combination , Drug Overdose
12.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 85-89, feb. 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430538

ABSTRACT

Este estudio tuvo como objetivo demostrar la existencia de variaciones morfológicas en el tejido conectivo de la glándula submandibular de ratas obesas expuestas a glutamato monosódico (GMS). Se utilizaron 12 ratas Sprague Dawley machos recién nacidas (6 ratas para el grupo 1, control; 6 ratas para el grupo 2 (GMS), 4 mg/g de glutamato monosódico de peso (5 dosis) mantenidas por 16 semanas respectivamente con una dieta y agua ad libitum. En el estudio se realizó un análisis estereológico e histológico, demostrándose una variación en el tejido conectivo presentando una disminución del volúmen glandular, mayor fibrosis, y disminución de adipocitos a nivel periférico siendo reemplazado por tejido rico en colágeno. Los vasos sanguíneos observados a nivel estereológico no presentan mayores cambios en cuanto a volumen, superficie y área.


SUMMARY: This study aims to demonstrate the existence of morphological variations in the connective tissue of the submandibular gland of obese rats exposed to MSG. Twelve male newborn Sprague Dawley rats were used (6 rats for group 1, control; 6 rats for group 2 (MSG), 4 mg/g of monosodium glutamate of weight (5 doses) maintained for 16 weeks respectively with a diet and water ad libitum. In the study, a stereological and histological analysis was carried out, demonstrating a variation in the connective tissue, presenting a decrease in the glandular volume, greater fibrosis, and a decrease in adipocytes at the peripheral level, being replaced by tissue rich in collagen. Blood cells observed at the stereological level do not present major changes in terms of volume, surface and area, but in the histological study greater vascularization is observed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Sodium Glutamate/administration & dosage , Submandibular Gland/drug effects , Obesity , Sodium Glutamate/pharmacology , Blood Vessels/drug effects , Body Weight , Fibrosis , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Connective Tissue/drug effects , Animals, Newborn
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248755, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350303

ABSTRACT

Abstract Consuming a high-fat diet causes a harmful accumulation of fat in the liver, which may not reverse even after switching to a healthier diet. Different reports dealt with the role of purslane as an extract against high-fat diet; meanwhile, it was necessary to study the potential role of fresh purslane as a hypolipidemic agent. This study is supposed to investigate further the potential mechanism in the hypolipidemic effect of fresh purslane, by measuring cholesterol 7a-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (Ldlr). Rats were divided into two main groups: the first one is the normal control group (n=7 rats) and the second group (n=28 rats) received a high fat diet for 28 weeks to induce obesity. Then the high fat diet group was divided into equal four subgroups. As, the positive control group still fed on a high fat diet only. Meanwhile, the other three groups were received high-fat diet supplemented with a different percent of fresh purslane (25, 50 and 75%) respectively. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed and samples were collected for molecular, biochemical, and histological studies. Current study reported that, supplementation of fresh purslane especially at a concentration of 75% play an important role against harmful effects of high-fat diet at both cellular and organ level, by increasing CYP7A1 as well as Ldlr mRNA expression. Also, there were an improvement on the tested liver functions, thyroid hormones, and lipid profile. Fresh purslane plays the potential role as a hypolipidemic agent via modulation of both Ldlr and Cyp7A, which will point to use fresh purslane against harmful effects of obesity.


Resumo O consumo de uma dieta rica em gordura causa um acúmulo prejudicial de gordura no fígado, que pode não reverter mesmo após a mudança para uma dieta mais saudável. Diferentes relatórios trataram do papel da beldroega como um extrato contra uma dieta rica em gordura; entretanto, foi necessário estudar o papel potencial da beldroega fresca como agente hipolipemiante. Este estudo pretende investigar mais profundamente o mecanismo potencial no efeito hipolipidêmico da beldroega fresca, medindo o colesterol 7a-hidroxilase (CYP7A1) e o receptor de lipoproteína de baixa densidade (Ldlr). Os ratos foram divididos em dois grupos principais: o primeiro é o grupo controle normal (n = 7 ratos) e o segundo grupo (n = 28 ratos) recebeu dieta rica em gorduras por 28 semanas para induzir a obesidade. Em seguida, o grupo de dieta rica em gordura foi dividido em quatro subgrupos iguais. Como, o grupo de controle positivo ainda se alimentava apenas com dieta rica em gordura. Enquanto isso, os outros três grupos receberam dieta rica em gordura suplementada com diferentes porcentagens de beldroegas frescas (25%, 50% e 75%), respectivamente. Ao final do experimento, os ratos foram sacrificados e amostras coletadas para estudos moleculares, bioquímica e histológicos. O estudo atual relatou que a suplementação de beldroegas frescas, especialmente a uma concentração de 75%, desempenha papel importante contra os efeitos prejudiciais da dieta rica em gordura em nível celular e orgânico, aumentando a expressão de CYP7A1 e Ldlr mRNA. Além disso, houve melhora nas funções hepáticas testadas, nos hormônios tireoidianos e no perfil lipídico. Beldroegas frescas desempenham papel potencial como agente hipolipemiante por meio da modulação de Ldlr e Cyp7A, o que apontará para o uso de beldroegas frescas contra os efeitos nocivos da obesidade.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Portulaca , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Hypolipidemic Agents , Cholesterol 7-alpha-Hydroxylase , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Liver
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986039

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study the effects of cadmium chloride (CdCl(2)) exposure on testicular autophagy levels and blood-testis barrier integrity in prepubertal male SD rats and testicular sertoli (TM4) cells. Methods: In July 2021, 9 4-week-old male SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: control group (normal saline), low dose group (1 mg/kg·bw CdCl(2)) and high dose group (2 mg/kg·bw CdCl(2)), and were exposed with CdCl(2) by intrabitoneal injection. 24 h later, HE staining was used to observe the morphological changes of testis of rats, biological tracer was used to observe the integrity of blood-testis barrier, and the expression levels of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) -Ⅰ and LC3-Ⅱ in testicular tissue were detected. TM4 cells were treated with 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 μmol/L CdCl(2) for 24 h to detect the toxic effect of cadmium. The cells were divided into blank group (no exposure), exposure group (10.0 μmol/L CdCl(2)), experimental group[10.0 μmol/L CdCl(2)+60.0 μmol/L 3-methyladenine (3-MA) ] and inhibitor group (60.0 μmol/L 3-MA). After 24 h of treatment, Western blot analysis was used to detect the expression levels of LC3-Ⅱ, ubiquitin binding protein p62, tight junction protein ZO-1 and adhesion junction protein N-cadherin. Results: The morphology and structure of testicular tissue in the high dose group were obvious changed, including uneven distribution of seminiferous tubules, irregular shape, thinning of seminiferous epithelium, loose structure, disordered arrangement of cells, abnormal deep staining of nuclei and vacuoles of Sertoli cells. The results of biological tracer method showed that the integrity of blood-testis barrier was damaged in the low and high dose group. Western blot results showed that compared with control group, the expression levels of LC3-Ⅱ in testicular tissue of rats in low and high dose groups were increased, the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). Compared with the 0 μmol/L, after exposure to 5.0, 10.0 μmol/L CdCl(2), the expression levels of ZO-1 and N-cadherin in TM4 cells were significantly decreased, and the expression level of p62 and LC3-Ⅱ/LC3-Ⅰ were significantly increased, the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). Compared with the exposure group, the relative expression level of p62 and LC3-Ⅱ/LC3-Ⅰ in TM4 cells of the experimental group were significantly decreased, while the relative expression levels of ZO-1 and N-cadherin were significantly increased, the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05) . Conclusion: The mechanism of the toxic effect of cadmium on the reproductive system of male SD rats may be related to the effect of the autophagy level of testicular tissue and the destruction of the blood-testis barrier integrity.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , Testis , Cadmium Chloride/metabolism , Cadmium , Blood-Testis Barrier/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Cadherins/metabolism , Autophagy
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971599

ABSTRACT

Xenogenic organ transplantation has been considered the most promising strategy in providing possible substitutes with the physiological function of the failing organs as well as solving the problem of insufficient donor sources. However, the xenograft, suffered from immune rejection and ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), causes massive reactive oxygen species (ROS) expression and the subsequent cell apoptosis, leading to the xenograft failure. Our previous study found a positive role of PPAR-γ in anti-inflammation through its immunomodulation effects, which inspires us to apply PPAR-γ agonist rosiglitazone (RSG) to address survival issue of xenograft with the potential to eliminate the excessive ROS. In this study, xenogenic bioroot was constructed by wrapping the dental follicle cells (DFC) with porcine extracellular matrix (pECM). The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced DFC was pretreated with RSG to observe its protection on the damaged biological function. Immunoflourescence staining and transmission electron microscope were used to detect the intracellular ROS level. SD rat orthotopic transplantation model and superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) knockout mice subcutaneous transplantation model were applied to explore the regenerative outcome of the xenograft. It showed that RSG pretreatment significantly reduced the adverse effects of H2O2 on DFC with decreased intracellular ROS expression and alleviated mitochondrial damage. In vivo results confirmed RSG administration substantially enhanced the host's antioxidant capacity with reduced osteoclasts formation and increased periodontal ligament-like tissue regeneration efficiency, maximumly maintaining the xenograft function. We considered that RSG preconditioning could preserve the biological properties of the transplanted stem cells under oxidative stress (OS) microenvironment and promote organ regeneration by attenuating the inflammatory reaction and OS injury.


Subject(s)
Mice , Humans , Rats , Animals , Swine , PPAR gamma/pharmacology , Reactive Oxygen Species/pharmacology , Heterografts , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Rosiglitazone/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971532

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the mechanism that mediates the effect of soybean isoflavones (SI) against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in light of the regulation of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), ferroptosis, inflammatory response and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability.@*METHODS@#A total of 120 male SD rats were equally randomized into sham-operated group (Sham group), cerebral I/R injury group and SI pretreatment group (SI group). Focal cerebral I/R injury was induced in the latter two groups using a modified monofilament occlusion technique, and the intraoperative changes of real-time cerebral cortex blood flow were monitored using a laser Doppler flowmeter (LDF). The postoperative changes of cerebral pathological morphology and the ultrastructure of the neurons and the BBB were observed with optical and transmission electron microscopy. The neurological deficits of the rats was assessed, and the severities of cerebral infarction, brain edema and BBB disruption were quantified. The contents of Fe2+, GSH, MDA and MPO in the ischemic penumbra were determined with spectrophotometric tests. Serum levels of TNF-α and IL-1βwere analyzed using ELISA, and the expressions of GPX4, MMP-9 and occludin around the lesion were detected with Western blotting and immunohistochemistry.@*RESULTS@#The rCBF was sharply reduced in the rats in I/R group and SI group after successful insertion of the monofilament. Compared with those in Sham group, the rats in I/R group showed significantly increased neurological deficit scores, cerebral infarction volume, brain water content and Evans blue permeability (P < 0.01), decreased Fe2+ level, increased MDA level, decreased GSH content and GPX4 expression (P < 0.01), increased MPO content and serum levels of TNF-α and IL-1β (P < 0.01), increased MMP-9 expression and lowered occludin expression (P < 0.01). All these changes were significantly ameliorated in rats pretreated with IS prior to I/R injury (P < 0.05 or 0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#SI preconditioning reduces cerebral I/R injury in rats possibly by improving rCBF, inhibiting ferroptosis and inflammatory response and protecting the BBB.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , Soybeans/metabolism , Occludin/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Ferroptosis , Blood-Brain Barrier/ultrastructure , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Cerebral Infarction , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Isoflavones/therapeutic use , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971500

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the reliability of the Water Tank Scale for assessing recovery of motor function after spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats.@*METHODS@#Thirty-six adult female SD rats were randomly divided into SCI and sham-operated groups (n= 18). The recovery of the hind limb motor function was assessed using Water Tank scoring, BBB scoring, and motor-evoked potentials (MEP) at 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 21 days after SCI. MEP was used as the gold standard for analyzing and comparing differences between the two scoring methods.@*RESULTS@#The Water Tank scores of the rats were significantly higher than the BBB scores on day 3 (0.22±0.43 vs 0, P < 0.05) and also on days 5, 7 and 14 after SCI (0.67±0.49 vs 0.11±0.32, 4.33±1.19 vs 2.83±1.04, 8.61± 1.20 vs 7.06±1.0, P < 0.01). On day 21 after SCI, the scores of the Water Tank Scale of the rats did not significantly differ from the BBB scores (14.78±1.06 vs 14.50±1.47, P>0.05). Neurophysiological monitoring showed that both the Water Tank score and BBB score were significantly correlated with MEP latency, but the Water Tank score had a greater correlation coefficient with MEP latency (r=-0.90).@*CONCLUSION@#Compared with the BBB scale, Water Tank scoring allows more objective and accurate assessment of functional recovery of the spinal cord in early stages following SCI in rats, and can thus be used as a reliable method for assessing functional recovery of the hind limbs in rat models of acute SCI.


Subject(s)
Female , Animals , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reproducibility of Results , Spinal Cord Injuries , Water
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971438

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the role of CD4+CD25+regulatory cell (CD4+CD25+Treg) in auditory neuropathy (AN) using a rat model of autoimmune auditory neuropathy. Methods: The SD rats were immunized with P0 protein emulsified in complete Freunds adjuvant for 8 weeks. The number of CD4+CD25+Treg in peripheral blood and cochlea and the expression of Foxp3 gene in cochlea were detected respectively 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after the immunization with P0 protein in rats. Then CD4+CD25+Treg were transferred intravenously to the AN rats at 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks of the immunization, respectively. The change of auditory brainstem response (ABR) and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) were detected, and the morphological changes in the inner ear were investigated. Results: The number of CD4+CD25+Treg in the peripheral blood of AN rats decreased gradually after 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks of P0 protein immunization. The number of CD4+CD25+Treg in cochlea gradually increased with the prolongation of immunization time, but the expression of Foxp3 gene in cochlea gradually decreased over time. After intravenous transplantation of CD4+CD25+Treg in AN rats, the threshold of ABR response decreased, and DPOAE had no significant change. The number of spiral ganglion neurons in cochlea increased, and hair cells had no significant change under electron microscope. Conclusions: The decrease in the number and function of CD4+CD25+Treg reduces its inhibitory effect on autoimmune response and promotes the occurrence of autoimmune auditory neuropathy in AN rats. Adoptive transfer of CD4+CD25+Treg can reduce the autoimmune response and promote the recovery of autoimmune auditory neuropathy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Forkhead Transcription Factors , Myelin P0 Protein , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , CD4 Antigens/immunology , Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit/immunology
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971384

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) mainly characterized by inflammation, ulceration and erosion of colonic mucosa and submucosa. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is an important mediator of visceral pain and inflammatory bowel disease. This study aims to investigate the protective effect of water soluble propolis (WSP) on UC colon inflammatory tissue and the role of TRPV1.@*METHODS@#Male SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=8): a normal control (NC) group, an ulcerative colitis model (UC) group, a low-WSP (L-WSP) group, a medium-WSP (M-WSP) group, a high-WSP (H-WSP) group, and a salazosulfapyridine (SASP) group. The rats in the NC group drank water freely, and the other groups drank 4% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) solution freely for 7 d to replicate the ulcerative colitis model. Based on the successful replication of the UC, the L-WSP, M-WSP, and H-WSP groups were given 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of water-soluble propolis by gavage for 7 d, and the SASP group was given 100 mg/kg of sulfasalazine by gavage for 7 d. The body weight of rats in each group was measured at the same time every day, the fecal traits and occult blood were observed to record the disease activity index (DAI). After intragastric administration, the animals were sacrificed after fasted 24 h. Serum and colonic tissue were collected, and the changes of MDA, IL-6 and TNF-α were detected. The pathological changes of colon tissues were observed by HE staining, and the expression of TRPV1 in colon tissues was observed by Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence.@*RESULTS@#The animals in each group that drank DSS freely showed symptoms such as weight loss, decreased appetite, depressed state, and hematochezia, indicating that the model was successfully established. Compared with the NC group, DAI scores of other groups were increased (all P<0.05). MDA, IL-6, TNF-α in serum and colon tissues of the UC group were increased compared with the NC group (all P<0.01), and they were decreased after WSP and SASP treatment (all P<0.01). The results of showed that the colon tissue structure was obviously broken and inflammatory infiltration in the UC group, while the H-WSP group and the SASP group significantly improved the colon tissue and alleviated inflammatory infiltration. The expression of TRPV1 in colon tissues in the UC group was increased compared with the NC group (all P<0.01), and it was decreased after WSP and SASP treatment.@*CONCLUSIONS@#WSP can alleviate the inflammatory state of ulcerative colitis induced by DSS, which might be related to the inhibition of inflammatory factors release, and down-regulation or desensitization of TRPV1.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Colitis, Ulcerative/chemically induced , Colon/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Interleukin-6/pharmacology , Propolis/therapeutic use , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sulfasalazine/therapeutic use , TRPV Cation Channels , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971383

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a serious cerebrovascular disease. Early brain injury (EBI) and cerebral vasospasm are the main reasons for poor prognosis of SAH patients. The specific inhibitor of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6), tubastatin A (TubA), has been proved to have a definite neuroprotective effect on a variety of animal models of acute and chronic central nervous system diseases. However, the neuroprotective effect of TubA on SAH remains unclear. This study aims to investigate the expression and localization of HDAC6 in the early stage of SAH, and to evaluate the protective effects of TubA on EBI and cerebral vasospasm after SAH and the underlying mechanisms.@*METHODS@#Adult male SD rats were treated with modified internal carotid artery puncture to establish SAH model. In the first part of the experiment, rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: a sham group, a SAH-3 h group, a SAH-6 h group, a SAH-12 h group, a SAH-24 h group, and a SAH-48 h group. At 3, 6, 12, and 24 h after SAH modeling, the injured cerebral cortex of rats in each group was taken for Western blotting to detect the expression of HDAC6. In addition, the distribution of HDAC6 in the cerebral cortex of the injured side was measured by immunofluorescence double staining in SAH-24 h group rats. In the second part, rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: a sham group, a SAH group, a SAH+TubAL group (giving 25 mg/kg TubA), and a SAH+TubAH group (giving 40 mg/kg TubA). At 24 h after modeling, the injured cerebral cortex tissue was taken for Western blotting to detect the expression levels of HDAC6, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining to detect apoptosis, and hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining to detect the diameter of middle cerebral artery.@*RESULTS@#The protein expression of HDAC6 began to increase at 6 h after SAH (P<0.05), peaked at 24 h (P<0.001), and decreased at 48 h, but there was still a difference compared with the sham group (P<0.05). HDAC6 is mainly expressed in the cytoplasm of the neurons. Compared with the sham group, the neurological score was decreased significantly and brain water content was increased significantly in the SAH group (both P<0.01). Compared with the SAH group, the neurological score was increased significantly and brain water content was decreased significantly in the SAH+TubAH group (both P<0.05), while the improvement of the above indexes was not significant in the SAH+TubAL group (both P>0.05). Compared with the sham group, the expression of eNOS was significantly decreased (P<0.01) and the expressions of iNOS and HDAC6 were significantly increased (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively) in the SAH group. Compared with the SAH group, the expression of eNOS was significantly increased, and iNOS and HDAC6 were significantly decreased in the SAH+TubA group (all P<0.05). Compared with the SAH group, the number of TUNEL positive cells was significantly decreased and the diameter of middle cerebral artery was significantly increased in the SAH+TubA group (both P<0.05) .@*CONCLUSIONS@#HDAC6 is mainly expressed in neurons and is up-regulated in the cerebral cortex at the early stage of SAH. TubA has protective effects on EBI and cerebral vasospasm in SAH rats by reducing brain edema and cell apoptosis in the early stage of SAH. In addition, its effect of reducing cerebral vasospasm may be related to regulating the expression of eNOS and iNOS.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Vasospasm, Intracranial/metabolism , Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Histone Deacetylase 6/pharmacology , Apoptosis , Brain Injuries/drug therapy
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