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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936373

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the protective effect of fucoxanthin (FX) against diabetic cardiomyopathy and explore the underlying mechanism.@*METHODS@#Rat models of diabetes mellitus (DM) induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg) were randomized into DM model group, fucoxanthin treatment (DM+FX) group and metformin treatment (DM+ Met) group, and normal rats with normal feeding served as the control group. In the two treatment groups, fucoxanthin and metformin were administered after modeling by gavage at the daily dose of 200 mg/kg and 230 mg/kg, respectively for 12 weeks, and the rats in the DM model group were given saline only. HE staining was used to examine the area of cardiac myocyte hypertrophy in each group. The expression levels of fibrotic proteins TGF-β1 and FN proteins in rat hearts were detected with Western blotting. In the cell experiment, the effect of 1 μmol/L FX on H9C2 cell hypertrophy induced by exposure to high glucose (HG, 45 mmol/L) was evaluated using FITC-labeled phalloidin. The mRNA expression levels of the hypertrophic factors ANP, BNP and β-MHC in H9C2 cells were detected using qRT-PCR. The protein expressions of Nrf2, Keap1, HO-1 and SOD1 proteins in rat heart tissues and H9C2 cells were determined using Western blotting. The DCFH-DA probe was used to detect the intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS).@*RESULTS@#In the diabetic rats, fucoxanthin treatment obviously alleviated cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis, increased the protein expressions of Nrf2 and HO-1, and decreased the protein expressions of Keap1 in the heart tissue (P < 0.05). In H9C2 cells with HG exposure, fucoxanthin significantly inhibited the enlargement of cell surface area, lowered the mRNA expression levels of ANP, BNP and β-MHC (P < 0.05), promoted Nrf2 translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, and up-regulated the protein expressions its downstream targets SOD1 and HO-1 (P < 0.05) to enhance cellular antioxidant capacity and reduce intracellular ROS production.@*CONCLUSION@#Fucoxanthin possesses strong inhibitory activities against diabetic cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis and is capable of up-regulating Nrf2 signaling to promote the expression of its downstream antioxidant proteins SOD1 and HO-1 to reduce the level of ROS.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants/metabolism , Atrial Natriuretic Factor/pharmacology , Cardiomegaly , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Fibrosis , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/metabolism , Metformin , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Rats , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase-1/pharmacology , Xanthophylls
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936338

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of wogonoside on high glucose-induced dysfunction of human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (hRMECs) and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic retinopathy in rats and explore the underlying molecular mechanism.@*METHODS@#HRMECs in routine culture were treated with 25 mmol/L mannitol or exposed to high glucose (30 mmol/L glucose) and treatment with 10, 20, 30, 40 μmol/L wogonoside. CCK-8 assay and Transwell assay were used to examine cell proliferation and migration, and the changes in tube formation and monolayer cell membrane permeability were tested. ROS, NO and GSH-ST kits were used to evaluate oxidative stress levels in the cells. The expressions of IL-1β and IL-6 in the cells were examined with qRT-PCR and ELISA, and the protein expressions of VEGF, HIF-1α and SIRT1 were detected using Western blotting. We also tested the effect of wogonoside on retinal injury and expressions of HIF-1α, ROS, VEGF, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and SIRT1 proteins in rat models of STZ-induced diabetic retinopathy.@*RESULTS@#High glucose exposure caused abnormal proliferation and migration, promoted angiogenesis, increased membrane permeability (P < 0.05), and induced inflammation and oxidative stress in hRMECs (P < 0.05). Wogonoside treatment concentration-dependently inhibited high glucose-induced changes in hRMECs. High glucose exposure significantly lowered the expression of SIRT1 in hRMECs, which was partially reversed by wogonoside (30 μmol/L) treatment; interference of SIRT1 obviously attenuated the inhibitory effects of wogonoside against high glucose-induced changes in proliferation, migration, angiogenesis, membrane permeability, inflammation and oxidative stress in hRMECs. In rat models of STZ-induced diabetic retinopathy, wogonoside effectively suppressed retinal thickening (P < 0.05), alleviated STZ-induced retinal injury, and increased the expression of SIRT1 in the retinal tissues (P < 0.001).@*CONCLUSION@#Wogonoside alleviates retinal damage caused by diabetic retinopathy by up-regulating SIRT1 expression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Diabetic Retinopathy/metabolism , Endothelial Cells , Flavanones , Glucose/pharmacology , Glucosides , Inflammation/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Neovascularization, Pathologic/metabolism , Rats , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Sirtuin 1/metabolism , Streptozocin/pharmacology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936296

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the expression of microRNA-132 (miR-132) and its potential role in the development of atherosclerosis (AS).@*METHODS@#Thirty AS samples and 30 samples of normal peripheral vessels were collected from atherosclerotic patients undergoing peripheral angiostomy in our hospital for detecting the expression level of miR-132 using RT-qPCR. The expression of miR-132 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) was up-regulated by liposome transfection, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), localization relationship between ROS and mitochondria, functional changes of mitochondrial reactive oxygen superoxide species (mtROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) were analyzed by flow cytometry and laser confocal microscopy. The activity of mitochondrial redox respiratory chain complex (type I, II, III, IV and V) in HUVECs was detected using ELISA, and the expression levels of key iron death proteins were detected with Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#RT-qPCR results showed that miR-132 was significantly up-regulated in atherosclerotic plaques compared with normal vascular samples (P < 0.001). Compared with control HUVECs, HUVECs overexpressing miR-132 showed a significantly increased level of intracellular ROS (P < 0.001), and most of ROS was colocalized with mitochondria. HUVECs overexpressing miR-132 also showed significantly decreased MMP (P < 0.001) and obviously increased mtROS (P < 0.001) and opening of mPTP (P < 0.001), which led to mitochondrial REDOX respiratory chain stress disorder. The key iron death protein GPX4 was significantly down-regulated and the oxidized protein NOX4 was significantly increased in miR-132-overexpressing HUVECs (P < 0.001).@*CONCLUSION@#MiR-132 promotes atherosclerosis by inducing mitochondrial oxidative stress-mediated ferroptosis, which may serve as a promising therapeutic target for AS.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Atherosclerosis/genetics , Ferroptosis , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Mitochondria/metabolism , Oxidation-Reduction , Oxidative Stress , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936291

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the interaction between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ferroptosis in methylglyoxalinduced injury of mouse embryonic osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1 cells).@*METHODS@#MC3T3-E1 cells were treated with methylglyoxal to establish a cell model of diabetic osteoporosis. CCK-8 assay was used to detect the viability of MC3T3-E1 cells. Rhodamine 123 staining followed by photofluorography was used to examine mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). The intracellular ROS level was detected by 2', 7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate staining with photofluorograph. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in the cells was detected using an ALP kit, the number of mineralized nodules was determined with alizarin red S staining, and the level of iron ions was detected using a detection kit. The expression level of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4, a marker protein that inhibits ferroptosis) in the osteoblasts was determined using Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#Treatment of MC3T3-E1 cells with 0.6 mmol/L methylglyoxal for 24 h significantly inhibited the expression level of GPX4 (P < 0.001), increased intracellular iron ion concentration, decreased the cell viability, increased the loss of MMP and intracellular ROS level, decreased both ALP activity and the number of mineralized nodules in the cells (P < 0.001). Co-treatment of MC3T3-E1 cells with 2 mmol/L N-acetylcysteine (NAC, a ROS scavenger) and methylglyoxal significantly increased the expression level of GPX4 (P < 0.01); co-treatment with 4 mmo/L FER-1 (a ferroptosis inhibitor) and methylglyoxal obviously decreased the intracellular ROS level (P < 0.001). Co-treatment of the cells either with NAC and methylglyoxal or with FER-1 and methylglyoxal attenuated methylglyoxal-induced injuries in the osteoblasts (P < 0.001).@*CONCLUSION@#The interaction between ROS and ferroptosis pathway plays an important role in methylglyoxal-induced injury of mouse embryonic osteoblasts.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Survival , Ferroptosis , Mice , Osteoblasts , Pyruvaldehyde/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928961

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To determine whether salvianolic acid B (Sal B) exerts protective effects on diabetic peripheral neuropathy by attenuating apoptosis and pyroptosis.@*METHODS@#RSC96 cells were primarily cultured with DMEM (5.6 mmol/L glucose), hyperglycemia (HG, 125 mmol/L glucose) and Sal B (0.1, 1, and 10 µ mol/L). Cells proliferation was measured by 3-(4, 5-cimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-dilphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and apoptosis rate were detected by flow cytometry analysis. Western blot was performed to analyze the expressions of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), cleaved-caspase 3, cleaved-caspase 9, Bcl-2, Bax, NLRP3, ASC, and interleukin (IL)-1β.@*RESULTS@#Treatment with HG at a concentration of 125 mmol/L attenuated cellular proliferation, while Sal B alleviated this injury (P<0.05). In addition, Sal B inhibited HG-induced ROS production and apoptosis rate (P<0.05). Furthermore, treatment with Sal B down-regulated HG-induced PARP, cleaved-caspase 3, cleaved-caspase 9, Bax, NLRP3, ASC, and IL-1β expression, but mitigated HG-mediated down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Sal B may protect RSC96 cells against HG-induced cellular injury via the inhibition of apoptosis and pyroptosis activated by ROS.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Benzofurans/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress , Pyroptosis , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941024

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the mechanism by which berberine inhibits ferroptosis of mouse hippocampal neuronal cells (HT22).@*METHODS@#Cultured HT22 cells were pretreated with 30 or 60 μmol/L berberine for 2 h before exposure to 0.5 μmol/L erastin for 8 h, and the cell proliferation, intracellular ferric iron level, changes in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell apoptosis were detected using CCK-8, Fe2+ fluorescent probe, fluorescent dye (DAPI) and fluorescent probe (H2DCFH-DA). RT-qPCR and Western blotting were used to detect the mRNA and protein expressions of Nrf2, HO-1 and GPX4 in the cells. We further tested the effects of treatments with 2 μmol/L ML385 (a Nrf2 inhibitor), 60 μmol/L berberine and erastin in the cells to explore the protective mechanism of berberine against erastin-induced ferroptosis in the neuronal cells.@*RESULTS@#Treatment with 0.5 μmol/L erastin significantly lowered the viability of HT22 cells (P < 0.05) and increased the production of ROS, cell apoptosis rate and ferric iron level (P < 0.05). Pretreatment with 30 and 60 μmol/L berberine both significantly increased the vitality of erastin-exposed cells (P < 0.05) and lowered the levels of intracellular ROS and ferric iron content (P < 0.05). RT-qPCR and Western blotting showed that berberine obviously promoted the expressions of Nrf2, HO-1 and GPX4 in the cells (P < 0.05), and treatment with ML385 significantly inhibited the Nrf2-HO-1/GPX4 pathway, increased intracellular ROS and ferric iron contents and mitigated the protective effect of berberine against erastin-induced ferroptosis (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Berberine can inhibit erastin-induced ferroptosis in HT22 cells possibly by activating the Nrf2-HO-1/ GPX4 pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Berberine/pharmacology , Ferroptosis , Fluorescent Dyes , Hippocampus/metabolism , Iron/metabolism , Mice , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Piperazines , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941016

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effects of isobavachalcone (IBC) on cell death of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells and explore the possible mechanism.@*METHODS@#MCF-7 cells were treated with different concentrations of IBC, and the changes in cell proliferation were assessed using MTT assay. Apoptosis of MCF-7 cells following treatment with 10, 20, and 40 μmol/L IBC was analyzed using flow cytometry with annexin V-FITC/PI double staining and fluorescence microscopy, and the expressions of apoptosis- and autophagy-related proteins (Bax, Bcl-2, Akt, p-Akt, p62, and LC3) were detected with Western blotting. Electron microscopy was used to observe the changes in submicrostructure of the cells following treatment with 40 μmol/L IBC. JC-1 assay kit, ATP assay kit, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) kit were used to determine the effect of IBC on mitochondrial function of the cells.@*RESULTS@#MTT assay showed that IBC significantly inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, with IC50 values of 38.46, 31.31, and 28.26 μmol/L at 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. IBC also concentration-dependently induced apoptosis of MCF-7 cells. IBC-induced cell death was inhibited by z-VAD-fmk, a caspase inhibitor (P < 0.05), but not by the necroptosis inhibitor necrostatin-1 (Nec-1). Western blotting showed that IBC-induced MCF-7 cell apoptosis by increasing Bax expression and down-regulating the expressions of Bcl-2, Akt and p-Akt-473 (all P < 0.05). With the increase of IBC concentration, the expression of autophagy-related protein p62 and the LC3-II/I ratio increased progressively. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of autophagic bodies in IBC-treated MCF-7 cells. IBC treatment also resulted in decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular ATP level and increased ROS accumulation in MCF-7 cells (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#IBC is capable of inducing both apoptosis and autophagy in MCF-7 cells, suggesting the potential value of IBC as a lead compound in the development of anti-breast cancer agents.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate , Cell Death , Chalcones , Humans , MCF-7 Cells , Neoplasms , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , bcl-2-Associated X Protein
8.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 463-472, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939901

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#"Multi-targeting" drugs can prove fruitful to combat drug-resistance of multifactorial disease-cervical cancer. This study envisioned to reveal if Thuja homeopathic mother tincture (MT) and its bioactive component could combat human papillomavirus (HPV)-16-infected SiHa cervical cancer cells since it is globally acclaimed for HPV-mediated warts.@*METHODS@#Thuja MT was studied for its antiproliferative and antimigratory properties in SiHa cells followed by microscopic determination of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) staining and loss in mitochondrial membrane potential (MtMP) by rhodamine 123 (Rh123) staining. Apoptosis and autophagy inductions were studied by acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining and immunoblot analyses of marker proteins. The bioactive component of Thuja MT detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was studied for antiproliferative and antimigratory properties along with in silico prediction of its cellular targets by molecular docking and oral drug forming competency.@*RESULTS@#Thuja MT showed significant antiproliferative and antimigratory potential in SiHa cells at a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 17.3 µL/mL. An increase in DCFDA fluorescence and loss in Rh123 fluorescence prove that Thuja MT acted through the burst of ROS and loss in MtMP respectively. AO/EB-stained cells under the microscope and immunoblot analyses supported Thuja-induced cellular demise via dual pathways-apoptosis and autophagy. Immunoblots showed cleavage of caspase-3 and poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) along with upregulation of Beclin-1, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3B (LC3B)-II, and p62 proteins. Hence, the apoptotic cascade followed a caspase-3-dependent pathway supported by PARP-1 cleavage, while autophagic death was Beclin-1-dependent and mediated by accumulation of LC3BII and p62 proteins. Thujone, detected as the bioactive principle of Thuja MT, showed greater anti-proliferative and anti-migratory potential at an IC50 of 77 µg/mL, along with excellent oral drug competency with the ability for gastrointestinal absorption and blood-brain-barrier permeation with nil toxicity. Molecular docking depicted thujone with the strongest affinity for mammalian target of rapamycin, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, and protein kinase B followed by B-cell lymphoma 2, murine double minute 2 and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, which might act as upstream triggers of apoptotic-autophagic crosstalk.@*CONCLUSION@#Robust "multi-targeting" anticancer potential of Thuja drug and thujone for HPV-infected cervical cancer ascertained its therapeutic efficacy for HPV infections.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Autophagy , Beclin-1/pharmacology , Bicyclic Monoterpenes , Caspase 3 , Cell Line, Tumor , Female , Humans , Mammals/metabolism , Mice , Molecular Docking Simulation , Papillomavirus Infections/drug therapy , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Thuja/metabolism , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/pathology
9.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 365-375, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939894

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Qili Qiangxin (QLQX), a compound herbal medicine formula, is used effectively to treat congestive heart failure in China. However, the molecular mechanisms of the cardioprotective effect are still unclear. This study explores the cardioprotective effect and mechanism of QLQX using the hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R)-induced myocardial injury model.@*METHODS@#The main chemical constituents of QLQX were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light-scattering detection. The model of H/R-induced myocardial injury in H9c2 cells was developed to simulate myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Apoptosis, autophagy, and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured to assess the protective effect of QLQX. Proteins related to autophagy, apoptosis and signalling pathways were detected using Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#Apoptosis, autophagy and the excessive production of ROS induced by H/R were significantly reduced after treating the H9c2 cells with QLQX. QLQX treatment at concentrations of 50 and 250 μg/mL caused significant reduction in the levels of LC3II and p62 degradation (P < 0.05), and also suppressed the AMPK/mTOR signalling pathway. Furthermore, the AMPK inhibitor Compound C (at 0.5 μmol/L), and QLQX (250 μg/mL) significantly inhibited H/R-induced autophagy and apoptosis (P < 0.01), while AICAR (an AMPK activator, at 0.5 mmol/L) increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis and autophagy and abolished the anti-apoptotic effect of QLQX. Similar phenomena were also observed on the expressions of apoptotic and autophagic proteins, demonstrating that QLQX reduced the apoptosis and autophagy in the H/R-induced injury model via inhibiting the AMPK/mTOR pathway. Moreover, ROS scavenger, N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, at 2.5 mmol/L), significantly reduced H/R-triggered cell apoptosis and autophagy (P < 0.01). Meanwhile, NAC treatment down-regulated the ratio of phosphorylation of AMPK/AMPK (P < 0.01), which showed a similar effect to QLQX.@*CONCLUSION@#QLQX plays a cardioprotective role by alleviating apoptotic and autophagic cell death through inhibition of the ROS/AMPK/mTOR signalling pathway.


Subject(s)
AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Apoptosis , Autophagic Cell Death , Autophagy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Herbal Medicine , Humans , Hypoxia/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939831

ABSTRACT

Neutrophils are predominant leukocytes in the circulation, which are essential for killing invading pathogens via the activation of effector responses and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), also named as "oxidative burst." When infected, activated neutrophils fight bacteria, fungi, and viruses through oxidative burst, phagocytosis, degranulation, and the production of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in a neutrophil death process named as "NETosis" (Mutua and Gershwin, 2021). NETs, consisting of DNA fibers decorated with modified histones and numerous antimicrobial proteins from cytoplasmic granules and the nucleus, can either be beneficial or detrimental (Mutua and Gershwin, 2021). Several pathways can lead to this death process. In response to various stimuli, NETosis traps and clears pathogens, facilitating phagocytosis by other neutrophils and phagocytes. However, excessive NETosis often results in disease due to increasing the pro-inflammatory response and perpetuating the inflammatory condition (Hellebrekers et al., 2018; Hidalgo et al., 2019; Klopf et al., 2021). Accordingly, inhibiting aberrant NETosis may alleviate the severity of various autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.


Subject(s)
DNA , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Neutrophils/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Respiratory Burst
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939821

ABSTRACT

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic and recurrent inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that has become a major gastroenterologic problem during recent decades. Numerous complicating factors are involved in UC development such as oxidative stress, inflammation, and microbiota disorder. These factors exacerbate damage to the intestinal mucosal barrier. Spirulina platensis is a commercial alga with various biological activity that is widely used as a functional ingredient in food and beverage products. However, there have been few studies on the treatment of UC using S. platensis aqueous extracts (SP), and the underlying mechanism of action of SP against UC has not yet been elucidated. Herein, we aimed to investigate the modulatory effect of SP on microbiota disorders in UC mice and clarify the underlying mechanisms by which SP alleviates damage to the intestinal mucosal barrier. Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) was used to establish a normal human colonic epithelial cell (NCM460) injury model and UC animal model. The mitochondrial membrane potential assay 3-‍‍(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,‍5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and staining with Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)/propidium iodide (PI) and Hoechst 33258 were carried out to determine the effects of SP on the NCM460 cell injury model. Moreover, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), western blot, and 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing were used to explore the effects and underlying mechanisms of action of SP on UC in C57BL/6 mice. In vitro studies showed that SP alleviated DSS-induced NCM460 cell injury. SP also significantly reduced the excessive generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and prevented mitochondrial membrane potential reduction after DSS challenge. In vivo studies indicated that SP administration could alleviate the severity of DSS-induced colonic mucosal damage compared with the control group. Inhibition of inflammation and oxidative stress was associated with increases in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the expression of tight junction proteins (TJs) post-SP treatment. SP improved gut microbiota disorder mainly by increasing antioxidant enzyme activity and the expression of TJs in the colon. Our findings demonstrate that the protective effect of SP against UC is based on its inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine overproduction, inhibition of DSS-induced ROS production, and enhanced expression of antioxidant enzymes and TJs in the colonic mucosal barrier.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Colitis/prevention & control , Colitis, Ulcerative/metabolism , Colon/metabolism , Dextran Sulfate/toxicity , Disease Models, Animal , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Inflammation/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Oxidative Stress , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Spirulina
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939787

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the protective effects of Schisandra chinensis oil (SCEO) against aristolochic acid I (AA I)-induced nephrotoxicity in vivo and in vitro and elucidate the underlying mechanism.@*METHODS@#C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into 5 groups according to a random number table, including control group, AA I group, and AA I +SCEO (0.25, 0.5 and 1 g/kg) groups (n=5 per group). Pretreatment with SCEO was done for 2 days by oral administration, while the control and AA I groups were treated with sodium carboxymethyl cellulose. Mice of all groups except for the control group were injected intraperitoneally with AA I (5 mg/kg) from day 3 until day 7. Histopathological examination and apoptosis of kidney tissue were observed by hematoxylin and eosin and TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining, respectively. The levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and serum creatinine (SCr), as well as renal malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione, r-glutamyl cysteingl+glycine (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Expressions of hepatic cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), CYP1A2, and nad(p)hquinonedehydrogenase1 (NQO1) were analyzed using ELISA, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and Western blot, respectively. In vitro, SCEO (40 µ g/mL) was added 12 h before treatment with AA I (40 µ mol/mL for 48 h) in human renal proximal tubule cell line (HK-2), then apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were analyzed by flow cytometry.@*RESULTS@#SCEO 0.5 and 1 g/kg ameliorated histopathological changes and TUNEL+ staining in the kidney tissues of mice with AA I-induced nephrotoxicity, and reduced serum levels of ALT, AST, BUN and SCr (P<0.01 or P<0.05). SCEO 0.5 and 1 g/kg alleviated the ROS generation in kidney, containing MDA, GSH and SOD (P<0.01 or P<0.05). SCEO 1 g/kg increased the expressions of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 and decreased NQO1 level in the liver tissues (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Besides, in vitro studies also demonstrated that SCEO 40 µ g/mL inhibited apoptosis and ROS generation (P<0.05 or P<0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#SCEO can alleviate AA I-induced kidney damage both in vivo and in vitro. The protective mechanism may be closely related to the regulation of metabolic enzymes, thereby inhibiting apoptosis and ROS production.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Aristolochic Acids/toxicity , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1/metabolism , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2/metabolism , Glutathione/metabolism , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney Diseases/drug therapy , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Oxidative Stress , Plant Oils/therapeutic use , Protective Agents/therapeutic use , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Schisandra , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939606

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the neurotoxicity induced by trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and the possible protective mechanisms of boron (B). Mouse BV2 cells were treated with TCA (0, 0.39, 0.78, 1.56, 3.12, 6.25, or 12.5 mmol/L) and B (0, 7.8, 15.6, 31.25, 62.5, 125, 500, or 1,000 mmol/L) for 3 h and 24 h, respectively. Then, reactive oxygen species, and supernatant proinflammatory cytokine and protein levels were analyzed after 24 h of combined exposure. Beyond the dose-dependent decrease in the cellular viability, it clearly increased after B supplementation ( P < 0.05). Moreover, B decreased oxidative damage, and significantly down-regulated IL-6 levels and up-regulated TNF-β production ( P < 0.05). B also decreased apoptosis via the p53 pathway. The present findings indicated that TCA may induce oxidative damage, whereas B mitigates these adverse effects by decreasing cell apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Boron/toxicity , Mice , Oxidative Stress , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Trichloroacetic Acid/toxicity , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/metabolism
14.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 447-451, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935965

ABSTRACT

Mitochondrial DNA is the mitochondria's own genetic material located within the mitochondrial matrix and is involved in cellular metabolism and energy supply. Mitochondrial DNA damage exacerbates oxidative stress by increasing the release of reactive oxygen species, while mitochondrial DNA release also triggers apoptosis and activates immune inflammatory responses through damage-related molecular patterns. Mitochondrial autophagy regulates mitochondrial DNA damage and release through a negative feedback mechanism to maintain intracellular homeostasis. Recent studies have shown that the occurrence and development of chronic liver disease are closely related to mitochondrial DNA-mediated immune inflammatory responses and oxidative stress.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Autophagy , DNA, Mitochondrial/metabolism , Humans , Liver Diseases , Mitochondria , Oxidative Stress , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935785

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the mechanism of reactive oxygen species/thioredoxin-interacting protein/nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor 3 (ROS/TXNIP/NLRP3) pathway in the skin injury of trichloroethylene (TCE) sensitized mice. Methods: In August 2020, 40 female BALB/c mice were randomly divided into control group (n=5) , solvent control group (n=5) , TCE treatment group (n=15) and TCE+(2-(2, 2, 6, 6-Tetrameyhylpiperidin-1-oxyl-4-ylamino)-2-oxoethyl) triphenylphosphonium chloride (Mito TEMPO) treatment group (n=15) . The TCE sensitization model was established. Mice in the TCE treatment group and TCE+Mito TEMPO treatment group were divided into the sensitized positive group and the sensitized negative group according to the skin erythema and edema reactions on the back of the mice 24 h after the last stimulation. The mice were sacrificed 72 h after the last stimulation, the back skin of the mice was taken, and the skin lesions were observed. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to detect the expression level of NLRP3, and the Western Blot was performed to detect the expression levels of NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) , cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase 1 (Caspase 1) , Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and TXNIP proteins in the skin of the mice, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) kit was used to detect the level of intracellular ROS in the back skin tissue. Results: The sensitization rates of TCE treatment group and TCE+Mito TEMPO treatment group were 40.0% (6/15) and 33.3% (5/15) , respectively, and there was no significant difference between the two groups (P>0.05) . The back skin of the mice in the TCE sensitized positive group was thickened and infiltrated by a large number of inflammatory cells. The number of mitochondria in the epidermis cells was significantly reduced, the mitochondrial crest disappeared and vacuolar degeneration occurred. TCE+Mito TEMPO sensitized positive group had less damage, more mitochondria and relatively normal cell structure. Compared with the solvent control group and corresponding sensitized negative groups, the expression levels of NLRP3, ASC, Caspase 1, IL-1β, TXNIP proteins and the content of ROS in the TCE sensitized positive group and TCE+Mito TEMPO sensitized positive group were significantly increased (P<0.05) . Compared with TCE sensitized positive group, the expression levels of NLRP3, ASC, Caspase 1, IL-1β, TXNIP proteins and the content of ROS in the TCE+Mito TEMPO sensitized positive group were significantly decreased (P<0.05) . Conclusion: ROS/TXNIP/NLRP3 pathway was activated and then encouraged the release of IL-1β, finally aggravated the TCE-induced skin injury.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carrier Proteins , Caspase 1/metabolism , Female , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Solvents , Thioredoxins/metabolism , Trichloroethylene/toxicity
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935769

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effect and underlying mechanism of paeoniflorin on hippocampal neuron apoptosis induced by lead acetate. Methods: In September 2020, primary hippocampal neuronal cells were isolated and cultured from fetal rats, and identified using cellular immunofluorescent. MTT assay was used to measure the cell viability to determine the concentration and time of lead acetate-induced hippocampal neuron apoptosis. MTT was also used to evaluate the effect of paeoniflorin concentration on the apoptosis of hippocampal neurons induced by lead acetate. According to the results, different concentrations of paeoniflorin were selected to intervene hippocampal neuron cells, after 24 h, lead acetate was added to the cells, meanwhile, blank and model groups were set up, the content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) , superoxide dismutase (SOD) , lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) , malondialdehyde (MDA) and Caspase-3 were measured. Extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) , phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK) , p38 mitogen -activated protein kinases (p38MAPK) , phosphorylated p38MAPK (p-p38MAPK) , c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and phosphorylated JNK (p-JNK) protein expression in hippocampal neuronal cells were determined by Western blotting. Results: The isolated and cultured hippocampal neurons were identified by immunofluorescence chemical staining and then treated with lead acetate, MTT results showed that lead acetate had the best toxicity effect when treated for 24 h at a concentration of 25 μmol/L. Paeoniflorin showed no cytotoxic effect on hippocampal neuronal cells when the concentrations below 80 μmol/L. Compared with the model group, the activity of hippocampal neuronal cells was significantly increased after treating with 20, 40 or 80 μmol/L paeoniflorin (P<0.05) . Compared with the blank group, the ROS activity, LDH release level, MDA content and caspase-3 content were significantly increased (P<0.01) , and the SOD activity was significantly decreased (P< 0.01) in the hippocampal neuronal cells of the model group. Compared with the model group, the ROS activity, LDH release level, MDA content and caspase-3 content were obviously decreased (P<0.05) , SOD activity was significantly increased (P <0.01) after hippocampal neuronal cells were treated with 40 or 80 μmol/L paeoniflorin. Relative to the model group, the ratio of p-ERK/ERK were significantly up-regulated (P<0.01) , while the ratios of p-p38MAPK/p38MAPK and p-JNK/JNK were significantly down-regulated after hippocampal neuronal cells were treated with 40 or 80 μmol/L paeoniflorin (P<0.05) . Conclusion: Paeoniflorin may down-regulate the expression of p-p38MAPK and p-JNK protein, up-regulate the expression of p-ERK protein, and inhibit the apoptosis of hippocampal neurons induced by lead acetate through the MAPK signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Acetates/pharmacology , Animals , Apoptosis , Caspase 3/metabolism , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/metabolism , Glucosides , Hippocampus/metabolism , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/pharmacology , Lead , Monoterpenes , Neurons/metabolism , Rats , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism
17.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 373-385, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929118

ABSTRACT

Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) that are overproduced by mitochondrial dysfunction are linked to pathological conditions including sensory abnormalities. Here, we explored whether mROS overproduction induces itch through transient receptor potential canonical 3 (TRPC3), which is sensitive to ROS. Intradermal injection of antimycin A (AA), a selective inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport chain complex III for mROS overproduction, produced robust scratching behavior in naïve mice, which was suppressed by MitoTEMPO, a mitochondria-selective ROS scavenger, and Pyr10, a TRPC3-specific blocker, but not by blockers of TRPA1 or TRPV1. AA activated subsets of trigeminal ganglion neurons and also induced inward currents, which were blocked by MitoTEMPO and Pyr10. Besides, dry skin-induced chronic scratching was relieved by MitoTEMPO and Pyr10, and also by resveratrol, an antioxidant. Taken together, our results suggest that mROS elicit itch through TRPC3, which may underlie chronic itch, representing a potential therapeutic target for chronic itch.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Mice , Mitochondria , Pruritus/chemically induced , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , TRPA1 Cation Channel
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928188

ABSTRACT

This study explored whether Sagittaria sagittifolia polysaccharides(SSP) activates the nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor2(Nrf2)/heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) signaling pathway to protect against liver damage jointly induced by multiple heavy metals. First, based on the proportion of dietary intake of six heavy metals in rice available in Beijing market, a heavy metal mixture was prepared for inducing mouse liver injury and HepG2 cell injury. Forty male Kunming mice were divided into five groups: control group, model group, glutathione positive control group, and low-and high-dose SSP groups, with eight mice in each group. After 30 days of intragastric administration, the liver injury in mice was observed by HE staining. In the in vitro experiment, MTT assay was conducted to detect the effects of SSP at 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg·mL~(-1) on HepG2 cell survival at different time points. The content of alanine transaminase(ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase(AST) in the 48-h cell culture fluid was measured using micro-plate cultivation method, followed by the detection of the change in reactive oxygen species(ROS) content by flow cytometry. The mRNA expression levels of Nrf2 and HO-1 in cells were determined by RT-PCR, and their protein expression by Western blot. HE staining results showed that compared with the model group, the SSP administration groups exhibited significantly alleviated inflammatory cell infiltration and fatty infiltration in the liver, with better outcomes observed in the high-dose SSP group. In the in vitro MTT assay, compared with the model group, SSP at four concentrations all significantly increased the cell survival rate, decreased the ALT, AST, and ROS content(P<0.05), and down-regulated Nrf2 and HO-1 mRNA and protein expression(P<0.05). SSP significantly improves inflammatory infiltration in the liver tissue of mice exposed to a variety of heavy metals and corrects the liver fat degeneration, which may be related to its regulation of the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway, reduction of ROS, and alleviation of oxidative damage.


Subject(s)
Animals , Heme Oxygenase-1/metabolism , Liver , Male , Metals, Heavy/metabolism , Mice , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Sagittaria/metabolism
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928186

ABSTRACT

Mitochondrion, as the main energy-supply organelle, is the key target region that determines neuronal survival and death during ischemia. When an ischemic stroke occurs, timely removal of damaged mitochondria is very important for improving mitochondrial function and repairing nerve damage. This study investigated the effect of ligustilide(LIG), an active ingredient of Chinese medicine, on mitochondrial function and mitophagy based on the oxygen and glucose deprivation/reperfusion(OGD/R)-induced injury model in HT22 cells. By OGD/R-induced injury model was induced in vitro, HT22 cells were pre-treated with LIG for 3 h, and the cell viability was detected by the CCK-8 assay. Immunofluorescence and flow cytometry were used to detect indicators related to mitochondrial function, such as mitochondrial membrane potential, calcium overload, and reactive oxygen species(ROS). Western blot was used to detect the expression of dynamin-related protein 1(Drp1, mitochondrial fission protein) and cleaved caspase-3(apoptotic protein). Immunofluorescence was used to observe the co-localization of the translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 20(TOMM20, mitochondrial marker) and lysosome-associated membrane protein 2(LAMP2, autophagy marker). The results showed that LIG increased the cell viability of HT22 cells as compared with the conditions in the model group. Furthermore, LIG also inhibited the ROS release, calcium overload, and the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential in HT22 cells after OGD/R-induced injury, facilitated Drp1 expression, and promoted the co-localization of TOMM20 and LAMP2. The findings indicate that LIG can improve the mitochondrial function after OGD/R-induced injury and promote mitophagy. When mitophagy inhibitor mdivi-1 was administered, the expression of apoptotic protein increased, suggesting that the neuroprotective effect of LIG may be related to the promotion of mitophagy.


Subject(s)
4-Butyrolactone/analogs & derivatives , Apoptosis , Calcium/pharmacology , Glucose/metabolism , Humans , Mitochondrial Proteins , Mitophagy , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Reperfusion Injury/genetics
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928131

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the effect of butyl alcohol extract of Baitouweng Decoction(BAEB) on vulvovaginal candidiasis(VVC) in mice and to clarify the mechanism from Toll-like receptors(TLRs)/MyD88 and Dectin-1/Syk signal pathways and NLRP3 inflammasome. To be specific, female KM mice were randomized into control group(i.g., normal saline), model group, fluco-nazole group(i.g., 20 mg·kg~(-1)), and low-dose, medium-dose, and high-dose BAEB groups(i.g., 20, 40, and 80 mg·kg~(-1), respectively). VVC was induced in mice except the control group. After the modeling, administration began and lasted 7 days. The ge-neral conditions and body weight of mice were recorded every day. On the 1 st, 3 rd, 7 th, and 14 th after vaginal infection by Candida albicans, the fungal load in the vaginal lavage fluid of the mice was measured with the plate method, and the morphology of C. albicans in vaginal lavage fluid was observed based on Gram staining. After the mice were killed, vaginal tissues were subjected to hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining and periodic acid-Schiff(PAS) staining for vaginal histopathological analysis. The content of cytokines in vaginal lavage fluid, such as interleukin(IL)-1β, IL-18, tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), IL-6, and S100 a8, was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA), and content of reactive oxygen species(ROS) in vaginal tissues by tissue ROS detection kit. The protein expression of NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, Dectin-1, Syk, MyD88, TLR2, TLR4, and nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB) in vaginal tissues was detected by Western blot, and the levels and distribution of NLRP3, Dectin-1, Syk, MyD88, TLR2, and TLR4 in vaginal tissues were determined with the immunohistochemical method. The results show that BAEB can improve the general conditions of VVC mice, reduce the fungal load and C. albicans hyphae in vaginal secretion, decrease ROS content in vaginal tissues and content of cytokines in vaginal lavage fluid, and down-regulate the expression of NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, Dectin-1, Syk, MyD88, TLR2, TLR4, and NF-κB in vaginal tissues. The above results indicate that BAEB exerts therapeutic effect on VVC mice by down-regulating the key proteins in the TLRs/MyD88 and Dectin-1/Syk signal pathways and NLRP3 inflammasome.


Subject(s)
1-Butanol/therapeutic use , Animals , Candida albicans , Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal/drug therapy , Caspase 1/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Mice , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Toll-Like Receptor 2/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
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