Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 347
Filter
1.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 62-76, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971641

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#The current study evaluated various new colchicine analogs for their anticancer activity and to study the primary mechanism of apoptosis and in vivo antitumor activity of the analogs with selective anticancer properties and minimal toxicity to normal cells.@*METHODS@#Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay was used to screen various colchicine analogs for their in vitro cytotoxicity. The effect of N-[(7S)-1,2,3-trimethoxy-9-oxo-10-(pyrrolidine-1-yl)5,6,7,9-tetrahydrobenzo[a] heptalene-7-yl] acetamide (IIIM-067) on clonogenicity, apoptotic induction, and invasiveness of A549 cells was determined using a clonogenic assay, scratch assay, and staining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and annexin V/propidium iodide. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were observed using fluorescence microscopy. Western blot analysis was used to quantify expression of proteins involved in apoptosis, cell cycle, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. Pharmacokinetic and in vivo efficacy studies against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) and Ehrlich solid tumor models were conducted using Swiss albino mice.@*RESULTS@#IIIM-067 showed potent cytotoxicity and better selectivity than all other colchicine analogs screened in this study. The selective activity of IIIM-067 toward A549 cells was higher among other cancer cell lines, with a selectivity index (SI) value of 2.28. IIIM-067 demonstrated concentration- and time-dependent cytotoxicity against A549 cells with half-maximal inhibitory concentration values of 0.207, 0.150 and 0.106 μmol/L at 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. It also had reduced toxicity to normal cells (SI > 1) than the parent compound colchicine (SI = 1). IIIM-067 reduced the clonogenic ability of A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner. IIIM-067 enhanced ROS production from 24.6% at 0.05 μmol/L to 82.1% at 0.4 μmol/L and substantially decreased the MMP (100% in control to 5.6% at 0.4 μmol/L). The annexin V-FITC assay demonstrated 78% apoptosis at 0.4 μmol/L. IIIM-067 significantly (P < 0.5) induced the expression of various intrinsic apoptotic pathway proteins, and it differentially regulated the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Furthermore, IIIM-067 exhibited remarkable in vivo anticancer activity against the murine EAC model, with tumor growth inhibition (TGI) of 67.0% at a dose of 6 mg/kg (i.p.) and a reduced mortality compared to colchicine. IIIM-067 also effectively inhibited the tumor growth in the murine solid tumor model with TGI rates of 48.10%, 55.68% and 44.00% at doses of 5 mg/kg (i.p.), 6 mg/kg (i.p.) and 7 mg/kg (p.o.), respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#IIIM-067 exhibited significant anticancer activity with reduced toxicity both in vitro and in vivo and is a promising anticancer candidate. However, further studies are required in clinical settings to fully understand its potential.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Colchicine/pharmacology , Apoptosis , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Mammals/metabolism
2.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 232-247, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971483

ABSTRACT

Drastic surges in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) induce cell apoptosis, while most chemotherapy drugs lead to the accumulation of ROS. Here, we constructed an organic compound, arsenical N-‍(4-(1,3,2-dithiarsinan-2-yl)phenyl)acrylamide (AAZ2), which could prompt the ROS to trigger mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis in gastric cancer (GC). Mechanistically, by targeting pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1), AAZ2 caused metabolism alteration and the imbalance of redox homeostasis, followed by the inhibition of phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway and leading to the activation of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2)/Bcl2-associated X (Bax)/caspase-9 (Cas9)/Cas3 cascades. Importantly, our in vivo data demonstrated that AAZ2 could inhibit the growth of GC xenograft. Overall, our data suggested that AAZ2 could contribute to metabolic abnormalities, leading to mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis by targeting PDK1 in GC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Signal Transduction , Stomach Neoplasms/drug therapy , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Apoptosis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 , Cell Line, Tumor
3.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 32-49, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971467

ABSTRACT

Hypoxia, as an important hallmark of the tumor microenvironment, is a major cause of oxidative stress and plays a central role in various malignant tumors, including glioblastoma. Elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a hypoxic microenvironment promote glioblastoma progression; however, the underlying mechanism has not been clarified. Herein, we found that hypoxia promoted ROS production, and the proliferation, migration, and invasion of glioblastoma cells, while this promotion was restrained by ROS scavengers N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI). Hypoxia-induced ROS activated hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) signaling, which enhanced cell migration and invasion by epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Furthermore, the induction of serine protease inhibitor family E member 1 (SERPINE1) was ROS-dependent under hypoxia, and HIF-1α mediated SERPINE1 increase induced by ROS via binding to the SERPINE1 promoter region, thereby facilitating glioblastoma migration and invasion. Taken together, our data revealed that hypoxia-induced ROS reinforce the hypoxic adaptation of glioblastoma by driving the HIF-1α-SERPINE1 signaling pathway, and that targeting ROS may be a promising therapeutic strategy for glioblastoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cell Hypoxia , Cell Line, Tumor , Glioblastoma/pathology , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/metabolism , Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Tumor Microenvironment , Brain Neoplasms/pathology
4.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 127-136, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971337

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effects of Guizhi Fuling Capsule (GZFLC) on myeloma cells and explore the mechanisms.@*METHODS@#MM1S and RPMI 8226 cells were co-cultured with different concentrations of serum and the cell experiments were divided into negative (10%, 20% and 40%) groups, GZFLC (10%, 20%, and 40%) groups and a control group. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assays and flow cytometry were used to detect the viability and apoptosis levels of myeloma cells. The effects on mitochondria were examined by reactive oxygen specie (ROS) and tetrechloro-tetraethylbenzimidazol carbocyanine iodide (JC-1) assays. Western blot was used to detect the expression of B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X (Bax), cleaved caspase-3, -9, cytochrome C (Cytc) and apoptotic protease-activating factor 1 (Apaf-1). RPMI 8226 cells (2 × 107) were subcutaneously inoculated into 48 nude mice to study the in vivo antitumor effects of GZFLC. The mice were randomly divided into four groups using a completely randomized design, the high-, medium-, or low-dose GZFLC (840, 420, or 210 mg/kg per day, respectively) or an equal volume of distilled water, administered daily for 15 days. The tumor volume changes in and survival times of the mice in the GZFLC-administered groups and a control group were observed. Cytc and Apaf-1 expression levels were detected by immunohistochemistry.@*RESULTS@#GZFLC drug serum decreased the viability and increased the apoptosis of myeloam cells (P<0.05). In addition, this drug increased the ROS levels and decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential (P<0.01). Western blot showed that the Bcl-2/Bax ratios were decreased in the GZFLC drug serum-treated groups, whereas the expression levels of cleaved caspase-3, -9, Cytc and Apaf-1 were increased (all P<0.01). Over time, the myeloma tumor volumes of the mice in the GZFLC-administered groups decreased, and survival time of the mice in the GZFLC-administered groups were longer than that of the mice in the control group. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor tissues from the mice in the GZFLC-administered groups revealed that the Cytc and Apaf-1 expression levels were increased (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#GZFLC promoted apoptosis of myeloma cells through the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway and significantly reduced the tumor volumes in mice with myeloma, which prolonged the survival times of the mice.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Caspase 3/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Wolfiporia , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism , Mice, Nude , Apoptosis , Mitochondria/metabolism
5.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 213-223, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971328

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the apoptosis and cycle arrest effects of Oldenlandia diffusa flavonoids on human gastric cancer cells, determine the action mechanisms in association with the mitochondrial dependent signal transduction pathway that controls production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and evaluate the pharmacodynamics of a mouse xenotransplantation model to provide a reference for the use of flavonoids in prevention and treatment of gastric cancer.@*METHODS@#Flavonoids were extracted by an enzymatic-ultrasonic assisted method and purified with D-101 resin. Bioactive components were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography. Cell lines MKN-45, AGS, and GES-1 were treated with different concentrations of flavonoids (64, 96, 128, 160 µg/mL). The effect of flavonoids on cell viability was evaluated by MTT method, and cell nuclear morphology was observed by Hoechst staining. The apoptosis rate and cell cycle phases were measured by flow cytometry, the production of ROS was detected by laser confocal microscope, the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were observed by fluorescence microscope, and the expression of apoptotic proteins related to activation of mitochondrial pathway were measured by immunoblotting. MKN-45 cells were transplanted into BALB/c nude mice to establish a xenograft tumor model. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to reveal the subcutaneous tumor tissue. The tumor volume and tumor weight were measured, the expression levels of proliferation markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Ki-67 were detected by immunohistochemistry, and the expression levels of CA72-4 were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.@*RESULTS@#Oldenlandia diffusa flavonoids inhibited proliferation of MKN-45 and AGS human gastric cancer cells, arrested the cell cycle in G1/S phase, induced accumulation of ROS in the process of apoptosis, and altered MMP. In addition, flavonoids increased Apaf-1, Cleaved-Caspase-3, and Bax, and decreased Cyclin A, Cdk2, Bcl-2, Pro-Caspase-9, and Mitochondrial Cytochrome C (P<0.05). The MKN-45 cell mouse xenotransplantation model further clarified the growth inhibitory effect of flavonoids towards tumors. The expression levels of PCNA and Ki-67 decreased in each flavonoid dose group, the expression level of CA72-4 decreased (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Flavonoids derived from Oldenlandia diffusa can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of human gastric cancer cells by activating the mitochondrial controlled signal transduction pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Oldenlandia/metabolism , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen , Stomach Neoplasms , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Mice, Nude , Ki-67 Antigen , Cell Line, Tumor , Apoptosis , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Caspases , Cell Proliferation
6.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 552-559, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986961

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the regulatory effect of berberine on autophagy and apoptosis balance of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) from patients with in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and explore the mechanism.@*METHODS@#The inhibitory effect of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80 μmol/L berberine on RA-FLS proliferation was assessed using CCK-8 method. Annexin V/PI and JC-1 immunofluorescence staining was used to analyze the effect of berberine (30 μmol/L) on apoptosis of 25 ng/mL TNF-α- induced RA-FLSs, and Western blotting was performed to detect the changes in the expression levels of autophagy- and apoptosis-related proteins. The cells were further treated with the autophagy inducer RAPA and the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine to observe the changes in autophagic flow by laser confocal detection of mCherry-EGFP-LC3B. RA-FLSs were treated with the reactive oxygen species (ROS) mimic H2O2 or the ROS inhibitor NAC, and the effects of berberine on ROS, mTOR and p-mTOR levels were observed.@*RESULTS@#The results of CCK-8 assay showed that berberine significantly inhibited the proliferation of RA-FLSs in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Flow cytometry and JC-1 staining showed that berberine (30 μmol/L) significantly increased apoptosis rate (P < 0.01) and reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential of RA-FLSs (P < 0.05). Berberine treatment obviously decreased the ratios of Bcl-2/Bax (P < 0.05) and LC3B-II/I (P < 0.01) and increased the expression of p62 protein in the cells (P < 0.05). Detection of mCherry-EGFP-LC3B autophagy flow revealed obvious autophagy flow block in berberine-treated RA-FLSs. Berberine significantly reduced the level of ROS in TNF-α-induced RA-FLSs and upregulated the expression level of autophagy-related protein p-mTOR (P < 0.01); this effect was regulated by ROS level, and the combined use of RAPA significantly reduced the pro-apoptotic effect of berberine in RA-FLSs (P < 0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#Berberine can inhibit autophagy and promote apoptosis of RA-FLSs by regulating the ROS-mTOR pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Synoviocytes , Berberine/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Hydrogen Peroxide/metabolism , Sincalide/metabolism , Cell Proliferation , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/metabolism , Signal Transduction , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Apoptosis , Fibroblasts , Autophagy , Cells, Cultured
7.
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 681-689, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986945

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate whether tanshinone ⅡA can protect the apoptosis of mice cochlear pericytes induced by high glucose and its specific protective mechanism, so as to provide experimental evidence for the prevention and treatment of diabetic hearing loss. Methods: C57BL/6J male mice were used to prepare type 2 diabetes model, which were divided into normal (NG) group, diabetic (DM) group, diabetic+tanshinone ⅡA (HG+tanshinone ⅡA) group and tanshinone ⅡA group. Each group had 10 animals. Primary cochlear pericytes were divided into NG group, HG group (high glucose 35 mmol/L), HG+tanshinone ⅡA (1, 3, 5 μmol/L) group, HG+Tanshinone ⅡA+LY294002 (PI3K/AKT pathway inhibitor) group, LY294002 group, tanshinone ⅡA group and DMSO group. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) was used to measure hearing threshold. Evans blue was used to detect the permeability of blood labyrinth barrier in each group. TBA methods were used to detect oxidative stress levels in various organs of mice. Morphological changes of stria vascularis were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining (HE). Evans blue was used to detect the vascular labyrinth barrier permeability in cochlea. The expression of apoptosis protein in stria vascularis pericytes was observed by immunofluorescence. Pericytes apoptosis rate was observed by flow cytometry. DCFH-DA was combined with flow cytometry to detect intracellular ROS content, and Western blot was used to detect the expression of apoptotic proteins (Cleaved-caspase3, Bax), anti-apoptotic proteins (BCL-2) and pathway proteins (PI3K, p-PI3K, AKT, p-AKT). SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. Independent sample t test was performed, and P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Animal experiments: Tanshinone ⅡA decreased the hearing threshold of DM group [(35.0±3.5) dB SPL vs. (55.3±8.1) dB SPL] (t=4.899, P<0.01), decreased the oxidative stress level in cochlea (t=4.384, P<0.05), improved the structure disorder, atrophy of cochlea vascular lines, vacuole increased phenomenon. Tanshinone ⅡA alleviated the increased permeability of the blood labyrinth barrier [Evans blue leakage (6.84±0.27) AU vs. (8.59±0.85) AU] in the cochlea of DM mice (t=2.770, P<0.05), reversed the apoptotic protein: Caspase3 (t=4.956, P<0.01) and Bax (t=4.388, P<0.05) in cochlear vascularis. Cell experiments: Tanshinone ⅡA decreased intracellular ROS content in a concentration-dependent way (t=3.569, P<0.05; t=4.772, P<0.01; t=7.494, P<0.01); Tanshinone ⅡA decreased apoptosis rate and apoptotic protein, and increased the expression of anti-apoptotic protein, p-PI3K/PI3K and p-AKT/AKT in concentration-dependent manner (all P values<0.05); LY294002 reversed the protective effect of tanshinone ⅡA on pericytes apoptosis (all P values<0.05). Conclusion: Tanshinone ⅡA can inhibit the apoptosis of cochlear pericytes induced by high glucose by reducing oxidative stress level and activating PI3K/AKT signaling pathway under high glucose environment, thus playing a protective role in diabetic hearing loss.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Apoptosis , bcl-2-Associated X Protein , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Evans Blue , Glucose , Hearing Loss , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Pericytes/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Signal Transduction
8.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 922-932, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980843

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Pancreatic β-cells elevate insulin production and secretion through a compensatory mechanism to override insulin resistance under metabolic stress conditions. Deficits in β-cell compensatory capacity result in hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the mechanism in the regulation of β-cell compensative capacity remains elusive. Nuclear factor-Y (NF-Y) is critical for pancreatic islets' homeostasis under physiological conditions, but its role in β-cell compensatory response to insulin resistance in obesity is unclear.@*METHODS@#In this study, using obese ( ob/ob ) mice with an absence of NF-Y subunit A (NF-YA) in β-cells ( ob , Nf-ya βKO) as well as rat insulinoma cell line (INS1)-based models, we determined whether NF-Y-mediated apoptosis makes an essential contribution to β-cell compensation upon metabolic stress.@*RESULTS@#Obese animals had markedly augmented NF-Y expression in pancreatic islets. Deletion of β-cell Nf-ya in obese mice worsened glucose intolerance and resulted in β-cell dysfunction, which was attributable to augmented β-cell apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, primary pancreatic islets from Nf-ya βKO mice were sensitive to palmitate-induced β-cell apoptosis due to mitochondrial impairment and the attenuated antioxidant response, which resulted in the aggravation of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and cleaved caspase-3. These detrimental effects were completely relieved by ROS scavenger. Ultimately, forced overexpression of NF-Y in INS1 β-cell line could rescue palmitate-induced β-cell apoptosis, dysfunction, and mitochondrial impairment.@*CONCLUSION@#Pancreatic NF-Y might be an essential regulator of β-cell compensation under metabolic stress.


Subject(s)
Rats , Mice , Animals , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Insulin Resistance , Insulin , Insulin-Secreting Cells/metabolism , Apoptosis , Stress, Physiological , Transcription Factors/metabolism , Palmitates/pharmacology , Obesity/metabolism
9.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1927-1935, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981412

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the neuroprotective mechanism of ginsenoside Re(GS-Re) on drosophila model of Parkinson's disease(PD) induced by rotenone(Rot). To be specific, Rot was used to induce PD in drosophilas. Then the drosophilas were grouped and respectively treated(GS-Re: 0.1, 0.4, 1.6 mmol·L~(-1); L-dopa: 80 μmol·L~(-1)). Life span and crawling ability of drosophilas were determined. The brain antioxidant activity [content of catalase(CAT), malondialdehyde(MDA), reactive oxygen species(ROS), superoxide dismutase(SOD)], dopamine(DA) content, and mitochondrial function [content of adenosine triphosphate(ATP), NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase subunit B8(NDUFB8) Ⅰ activity, succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit B(SDHB) Ⅱ activity] were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). The number of DA neurons in the brains of drosophilas was measured with the immunofluorescence method. The levels of NDUFB8 Ⅰ, SDHB Ⅱ, cytochrome C(Cyt C), nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2(Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1(HO-1), B-cell lymphoma/leukemia 2(Bcl-2)/Bcl-2-assaciated X protein(Bax), and cleaved caspase-3/caspase-3 in the brain were detected by Western blot. The results showed that model group [475 μmol·L~(-1) Rot(IC_(50))] demonstrated significantly low survival rate, obvious dyskinesia, small number of neurons and low DA content in the brain, high ROS level and MDA content, low content of SOD and CAT, significantly low ATP content, NDUFB8 Ⅰ activity, and SDHB Ⅱ activity, significantly low expression of NDUFB8 Ⅰ, SDHB Ⅱ, and Bcl-2/Bax, large amount of Cyt C released from mitochondria to cytoplasm, low nuclear transfer of Nrf2, and significantly high expression of cleaved caspase-3/caspase-3 compared with the control group. GS-Re(0.1, 0.4, and 1.6 mmol·L~(-1)) significantly improved the survival rate of PD drosophilas, alleviated the dyskinesia, increased DA content, reduced the loss of DA neurons, ROS level, and MDA content in brain, improved content of SOD and CAT and antioxidant activity in brain, maintained mitochondrial homeostasis(significantly increased ATP content and activity of NDUFB8 Ⅰ and SDHB Ⅱ, significantly up-regulated expression of NDUFB8 Ⅰ, SDHB Ⅱ, and Bcl-2/Bax), significantly reduced the expression of Cyt C, increased the nuclear transfer of Nrf2, and down-regulated the expression of cleaved caspase-3/caspase-3. In conclusion, GS-Re can significantly relieve the Rot-induced cerebral neurotoxicity in drosophilas. The mechanism may be that GS-Re activates Keap1-Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway by maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis, improves antioxidant capacity of brain neurons, then inhibits mitochondria-mediated caspase-3 signaling pathway, and the apoptosis of neuronal cells, thereby exerting the neuroprotective effect.


Subject(s)
Animals , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Caspase 3/metabolism , Parkinson Disease/genetics , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/metabolism , Drosophila/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , Apoptosis , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Adenosine Triphosphate/pharmacology
10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2657-2666, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981370

ABSTRACT

Renal tubular injury in patients with diabetic kidney disease(DKD) may be accompanied by glomerular and microvascular diseases. It plays a critical role in the progression of renal damage in DKD, and is now known as diabetic tubulopathy(DT). To explore the multi-targeted therapeutic effects and pharmacological mechanisms in vivo of total flavones of Abelmoschus manihot(TFA), an extract from traditional Chinese medicine for treating kidney disease, in attenuating DT, the authors randomly divided all rats into four groups: a normal control group(normal group), a DT model group(model group), a DT model+TFA-treated group(TFA group) and a DT model+rosiglitazone(ROS)-treated group(ROS group). The DT rat model was established based on the DKD rat model by means of integrated measures. After successful modeling, the rats in the four groups were continuously given double-distilled water, TFA suspension, and ROS suspension, respectively by gavage every day. After 6 weeks of treatment, all rats were sacrificed, and the samples of their urine, blood, and kidneys were collected. The effects of TFA and ROS on various indicators related to urine and blood biochemistry, renal tubular injury, renal tubular epithelial cell apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress(ERS), as well as the activation of the protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase(PERK)-eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α(eIF2α)-activating transcription factor 4(ATF4)-C/EBP homologous protein(CHOP) signaling pathway in the kidney of the DT model rats were investigated. The results indicated that hypertrophy of renal tubular epithelial cells, renal tubular hyperplasia and occlusion, as well as interstitial extracellular matrix and collagen deposition occurred in the DT model rats. Moreover, significant changes were found in the expression degree and the protein expression level of renal tubular injury markers. In addition, there was an abnormal increase in tubular urine proteins. After TFA or ROS treatment, urine protein, the characteristics of renal tubular injury, renal tubular epithelial cell apoptosis and ERS, as well as the activation of the PERK-eIF2α-ATF4-CHOP signaling pathway in the kidney of the DT model rats were improved to varying degrees. Therein, TFA was superior to ROS in affecting the pathological changes in renal tubule/interstitium. In short, with the DT model rats, this study demonstrated that TFA could attenuate DT by multiple targets through inhibiting renal tubular ERS-induced cell apoptosis in vivo, and its effect and mechanism were related to suppressing the activation of the PERK-eIF2α-ATF4-CHOP signaling pathway in the kidney. These findings provided preliminary pharmacological evidence for the application of TFA in the clinical treatment of DT.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Abelmoschus , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Flavones/pharmacology , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Diabetic Nephropathies/drug therapy , Apoptosis , Diabetes Mellitus
11.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2176-2183, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981348

ABSTRACT

To investigate the protective effect and the potential mechanism of leonurine(Leo) against erastin-induced ferroptosis in human renal tubular epithelial cells(HK-2 cells), an in vitro erastin-induced ferroptosis model was constructed to detect the cell viability as well as the expressions of ferroptosis-related indexes and signaling pathway-related proteins. HK-2 cells were cultured in vitro, and the effects of Leo on the viability of HK-2 cells at 10, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 μmol·L~(-1) were examined by CCK-8 assay to determine the safe dose range of Leo administration. A ferroptosis cell model was induced by erastin, a common ferroptosis inducer, and the appropriate concentrations were screened. CCK-8 assay was used to detect the effects of Leo(20, 40, 80 μmol·L~(-1)) and positive drug ferrostatin-1(Fer-1, 1, 2 μmol·L~(-1)) on the viability of ferroptosis model cells, and the changes of cell morphology were observed by phase contrast microscopy. Then, the optimal concentration of Leo was obtained by Western blot for nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2(Nrf2) activation, and transmission electron microscope was further used to detect the characteristic microscopic morphological changes during ferroptosis. Flow cytometry was performed to detect reactive oxygen species(ROS), and the level of glutathione(GSH) was measured using a GSH assay kit. The expressions of glutathione peroxidase 4(GPX4), p62, and heme oxygenase 1(HO-1) in each group were quantified by Western blot. RESULTS:: showed that Leo had no side effects on the viability of normal HK-2 cells in the concentration range of 10-100 μmol·L~(-1). The viability of HK-2 cells decreased as the concentration of erastin increased, and 5 μmol·L~(-1) erastin significantly induced ferroptosis in the cells. Compared with the model group, Leo dose-dependently increased cell via-bility and improved cell morphology, and 80 μmol·L~(-1) Leo promoted the translocation of Nrf2 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Further studies revealed that Leo remarkably alleviated the characteristic microstructural damage of ferroptosis cells caused by erastin, inhibited the release of intracellular ROS, elevated GSH and GPX4, promoted the nuclear translocation of Nrf2, and significantly upregulated the expression of p62 and HO-1 proteins. In conclusion, Leo exerted a protective effect on erastin-induced ferroptosis in HK-2 cells, which might be associated with its anti-oxidative stress by activating p62/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ferroptosis , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Sincalide/pharmacology , Signal Transduction , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Glutathione
12.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 247-253, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971132

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the changes and roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) related antioxidases during erythroid development.@*METHODS@#Flow cytometry was used to detect the sensibility of peripheral red blood cells of wild-type mice to a strong oxidant hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Erythroid cells from different developmental stages in bone marrow (BM) were obtained using fluorescence-activated cell sorter and the ROS levels were detected by flow cytometry. RT-qPCR was used to detect the changes of expression levels of Nrf2 and related antioxidases in erythroid cells from different developmental stages in BM. The ROS levels of the peripheral blood and BM nucleated erythrocytes in Nrf2 knockout mice were further examined. The expression level of Nrf2 in erythroid precursors isolated from 14.5 d embryonic liver of wild-type mice during differentiation and culture in vitro was detected.@*RESULTS@#In the peripheral blood of wild-type mice, the ROS level of reticulocytes and mature erythrocytes treated with H2O2 increased about 4 times and 7 times, respectively (P<0.01). In BM erythrocytes, the ROS level gradually decreased as the cells matured (r=0.85), while the expression level of Nrf2 and its related anti-oxidative genes increased (r=0.99). The ROS levels in peripheral blood erythrocytes and BM nucleated erythrocytes of Nrf2 knockout mice were significantly increased compared with wild-type mice (P<0.01). The expression of Nrf2 increased during the early erythroid development after embryonic liver cell sorting (P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#The expression levels of Nrf2 and its related factors vary during erythropoiesis. Nrf2 at physiological level plays an important antioxidant role during the erythroid development.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Hydrogen Peroxide , Mice, Knockout , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism
13.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 2-7, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970702

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effect of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in the alteration of tight junction protein expression in choroid plexus epithelial cells created by lanthanum-activated matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) . Methods: In October 2020, immortalized rat choroid plexus epithelial cell line (Z310) cells were used as the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier in vitro, and were divided into control group and 0.125, 0.25, 0.5 mmol/L lanthanum chloride (LaCl(3)) treatment group. After treating Z310 cells with different concentrations of LaCl(3) for 24 hours, the morphological changes of Z310 cells were observed under inverted microscope, the protein expression levels of MMP9, occludin and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) were observed by cellular immunofluorescence method, and the protein expression levels of MMP9, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase1 (TIMP1) , occludin, ZO-1 and Nrf2 were detected by Western blotting. The level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells was detected by flow cytometry. Results: Compared with the control group, Z310 cells in the LaCl(3) treatment group were smaller in size, with fewer intercellular junctions, and more dead cells and cell fragments. The expression level of MMP9 protein in cells treated with 0.25 and 0.5 mmol/L LaCl(3) was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.05) , and the expression level of TIMP1 and tight junction proteins occudin and ZO-1 was significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.05) . Compared with the control group, the ROS production level in the 0.25, 0.5 mmol/L LaCl(3) treatment group was significantly increased (P<0.05) , and the Nrf2 protein expression level in the 0.125, 0.25, 0.5 mmol/L LaCl(3) treatment group was significantly decreased (P<0.05) . Conclusion: Lanthanum may increase the level of ROS in cells by down regulating the expression of Nrf2, thus activating MMP9 to reduce the expression level of intercellular tight junction proteins occludin and ZO-1.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Tight Junction Proteins/metabolism , Occludin/pharmacology , Choroid Plexus/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Lanthanum/pharmacology , Epithelial Cells , Zonula Occludens-1 Protein/metabolism , Phosphoproteins/pharmacology
14.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 499-515, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982720

ABSTRACT

Natural products exhibit substantial impacts in the field of anti-hypoxic traetment. Hypoxia can cause altitude sickness and other negative effect on the body. Headache, coma, exhaustion, vomiting and, in severe cases, death are some of the clinical signs. Currently, hypoxia is no longer just a concern in plateau regions; it is also one of the issues that can not be ignored by urban residents. This review covered polysaccharides, alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, peptides and traditional Chinese compound prescriptions as natural products to protect against hypoxia. The active ingredients, effectiveness and mechanisms were discussed. The related anti-hypoxic mechanisms involve increasing the hemoglobin (HB) content, glycogen content and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content, removing excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS), reducing lipid peroxidation, regulating the levels of related enzymes in cells, protecting the structural and functional integrity of the mitochondria and regulating the expression of apoptosis-related genes. These comprehensive summaries are beneficial to anti-hypoxic research and provide useful information for the development of anti-hypoxic products.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Hypoxia/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Alkaloids
15.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 279-291, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982699

ABSTRACT

Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in cadmium (Cd)-induced myocardial injury. Mitsugumin 53 (MG53) and its mediated reperfusion injury salvage kinase (RISK) pathway have been demonstrated to be closely related to myocardial oxidative damage. Potentilla anserina L. polysaccharide (PAP) is a polysaccharide with antioxidant capacity, which exerts protective effect on Cd-induced damage. However, it remains unknown whether PAP can prevent and treat Cd-induced cardiomyocyte damages. The present study was desgined to explore the effect of PAP on Cd-induced damage in H9c2 cells based on MG53 and the mediated RISK pathway. For in vitro evaluation, cell viability and apoptosis rate were analyzed by CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Furthermore, oxidative stress was assessed by 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) staining and using superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) kits. The mitochondrial function was measured by JC-10 staining and ATP detection assay. Western blot was performed to detect the expression of proteins related to MG53, the RISK pathway, and apoptosis. The results indicated that Cd increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in H9c2 cells. Cd decreased the activities of SOD and CAT and the ratio of GSH/GSSG, resulting in decreases in cell viability and increases in apoptosis. Interestingly, PAP reversed Cd-induced oxidative stress and cell apoptosis. Meanwhile, Cd reduced the expression of MG53 in H9c2 cells and inhibited the RISK pathway, which was mediated by decreasing the ratio of p-AktSer473/Akt, p-GSK3βSer9/GSK3β and p-ERK1/2/ERK1/2. In addition, Cd impaired mitochondrial function, which involved a reduction in ATP content and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and an increase in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, cytoplasmic cytochrome c/mitochondrial cytochrome c, and Cleaved-Caspase 3/Pro-Caspase 3. Importantly, PAP alleviated Cd-induced MG53 reduction, activated the RISK pathway, and reduced mitochondrial damage. Interestingly, knockdown of MG53 or inhibition of the RISK pathway attenuated the protective effect of PAP in Cd-induced H9c2 cells. In sum, PAP reduces Cd-induced damage in H9c2 cells, which is mediated by increasing MG53 expression and activating the RISK pathway.


Subject(s)
Cadmium/metabolism , Caspase 3/metabolism , Potentilla/metabolism , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta/pharmacology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Cytochromes c/metabolism , Glutathione Disulfide/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress , Myocytes, Cardiac , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Apoptosis , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism
16.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1157-1172, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982467

ABSTRACT

Hv1 is the only voltage-gated proton-selective channel in mammalian cells. It contains a conserved voltage-sensor domain, shared by a large class of voltage-gated ion channels, but lacks a pore domain. Its primary role is to extrude protons from the cytoplasm upon pH reduction and membrane depolarization. The best-known function of Hv1 is the regulation of cytosolic pH and the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase-dependent production of reactive oxygen species. Accumulating evidence indicates that Hv1 is expressed in nervous systems, in addition to immune cells and others. Here, we summarize the molecular properties, distribution, and physiological functions of Hv1 in the peripheral and central nervous systems. We describe the recently discovered functions of Hv1 in various neurological diseases, including brain or spinal cord injury, ischemic stroke, demyelinating diseases, and pain. We also summarize the current advances in the discovery and application of Hv1-targeted small molecules in neurological diseases. Finally, we discuss the current limitations of our understanding of Hv1 and suggest future research directions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Protons , Ion Channels/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Brain/metabolism , NADPH Oxidases , Mammals/metabolism
17.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences ; (6): 306-317, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982048

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the effect and mechanism of lipid nanoparticle (LNP) delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting Cyp2e1 gene on subacute alcoholic liver injury in mice.@*METHODS@#siRNA targeting Cyp2e1 gene was encapsulated in LNP (si-Cyp2e1 LNP) by microfluidic technique and the resulting LNPs were characterized. The optimal dose of si-Cyp2e1 LNP administration was screened. Forty female C57BL/6N mice were randomly divided into blank control group, model control group, si-Cyp2e1 LNP group, LNP control group and metadoxine group. The subacute alcoholic liver injury mouse model was induced by ethanol feeding for 10 d plus ethanol gavage for the last 3 d. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, and the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity as well as malondialdehyde, reactive oxygen species, glutathione, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol contents in liver tissue were measured in each group, and liver index was calculated. The expression of genes related to oxidative stress, lipid synthesis and inflammation in each group of mice were measured by realtime RT-PCR.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the model control group, the levels of liver index, serum ALT, AST activities, malondialdehyde, reactive oxygen species, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol contents in liver tissue decreased, but the SOD activity as well as glutathione increased in the si-Cyp2e1 LNP group (all P<0.01). Hematoxylin-eosin staining result showed disorganized hepatocytes with sparse cytoplasm and a large number of fat vacuoles and necrosis in the model control group, while the si-Cyp2e1 LNP group had uniformly sized and arranged hepatocytes with normal liver tissue morphology and structure. Oil red O staining result showed si-Cyp2e1 LNP group had lower fat content of the liver compared to the model control group (P<0.01), and no fat droplets accumulated. Anti-F4/80 monoclonal antibody fluorescence immunohistochemistry showed that the si-Cyp2e1 LNP group had lower cumulative optical density values compared to the model control group (P<0.01) and no significant inflammatory reaction. Compared with the model control group, the expression of catalytic genes P47phox, P67phox and Gp91phox were reduced (all P<0.01), while the expression of the antioxidant enzyme genes Sod1, Gsh-rd and Gsh-px were increased (all P<0.01). The mRNA expression of the lipid metabolism genes Pgc-1α and Cpt1 were increased (all P<0.01) and the lipid synthesis-related genes Srebp1c, Acc and Fasn were decreased (all P<0.01); the expression of liver inflammation-related genes Tgf-β, Tnf-α and Il-6 were decreased (all P<0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The si-Cyp2e1 LNP may attenuate subacute alcoholic liver injury in mice mainly by reducing reactive oxygen levels, increasing antioxidant activity, blocking oxidative stress pathways and reducing ethanol-induced steatosis and inflammation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Antioxidants/metabolism , Cholesterol/metabolism , Ethanol/pharmacology , Glutathione/pharmacology , Inflammation , Lipids/pharmacology , Liver , Malondialdehyde/pharmacology , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Oxidative Stress , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , RNA, Small Interfering/pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase , Triglycerides/metabolism , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1/metabolism
18.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 626-632, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981909

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effect of H2O2-induced oxidative stress on autophagy and apoptosis of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs). Methods hBMSCs were isolated and cultured. The cells were divided into control group, 3-MA group, H2O2 group, H2O2 combined with 3-MA group. DCFH-DA staining was used to analyze the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). hBMSCs were treated with 0, 50, 100, 200, 400 μmol/L H2O2, and then the cell viability was detected by CCK-8 assay. The level of autophagy was detected by monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining and LysoTracker Red staining. The cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry. Western blotting was used to detect the expression of beclin 1, mTOR, phosphorylated mTOR (p-mTOR), cleaved caspase-3(c-caspase-3) and caspase-3 proteins. Results Compared with the control group and 3-MA group, ROS level and autophagosomes were increased and the proliferation and apoptosis were decreased in H2O2 group. The protein expression of beclin 1, mTOR, c-caspase-3 was up-regulated, while the p-mTOR was down-regulated. Compared with the 3-MA group, the H2O2 combined with 3-MA group also had an increased ROS level and autophagosomes, but not with significantly increased apoptosis rate; The protein expression of beclin 1, mTOR, c-caspase-3 was up-regulated, and the p-mTOR was down-regulated. Conclusion H2O2 can induce hMSCs to trigger oxidative stress response. It enhances the autophagy and inhibits the proliferation and apoptosis of hBMSCs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Beclin-1/metabolism , Caspase 3/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Apoptosis , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Autophagy , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Cell Proliferation
19.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 318-324, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981871

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the effect and mechanism of blueberry on regulating the mitochondrial inner membrane protein mitofilin/Mic60 in an in vitro model of metabolic dysfunction-associated liver disease (MAFLD). Methods L02 human hepatocytes were induced by free fatty acids (FFA) to establish MAFLD cell model. A normal group, a model group, an 80 μg/mL blueberry treatment group, a Mic60 short hairpin RNA (Mic60 shRNA) transfection group, and Mic60 knockdown combined with an 80 μg/mL blueberry treatment group were established. The intracellular lipid deposition was observed by oil red O staining, and the effect of different concentrations of blueberry pulp on the survival rate of L02 cells treated with FFA was measured by MTT assay. The levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were measured by visible spectrophotometry. The expression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in hepatocytes was observed by fluorescence microscopy, and the mRNA and protein expression of Mic60 were detected by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. Results After 24 hours of FFA stimulation, a large number of red lipid droplets in the cytoplasm of L02 cells was observed, and the survival rate of L02 cells treated with 80 μg/mL blueberry was higher. The results of ALT, AST, TG, TC, MDA and the fluorescence intensity of ROS in blueberry treated group were lower than those in model group, while the levels of SOD, GSH, Mic60 mRNA and protein in blueberry treated group were higher than those in model group. Conclusion Blueberry promotes the expression of Mic60, increases the levels of SOD and GSH in hepatocytes, and reduces the production of ROS, thus alleviating the injury of MAFLD hepatocytes and regulating the disorder of lipid metabolism.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blueberry Plants/chemistry , Hepatocytes/metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Liver Diseases/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Superoxides/metabolism , Mitochondrial Membranes/metabolism , Mitochondrial Proteins/metabolism , Plant Extracts/pharmacology
20.
Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery ; (12): 748-757, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981664

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To summarize the role of chondrocyte mitochondrial homeostasis imbalance in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA) and analyze its application prospects.@*METHODS@#The recent literature at home and abroad was reviewed to summarize the mechanism of mitochondrial homeostasis imbalance, the relationship between mitochondrial homeostasis imbalance and the pathogenesis of OA, and the application prospect in the treatment of OA.@*RESULTS@#Recent studies have shown that mitochondrial homeostasis imbalance, which is caused by abnormal mitochondrial biogenesis, the imbalance of mitochondrial redox, the imbalance of mitochondrial dynamics, and damaged mitochondrial autophagy of chondrocytes, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of OA. Abnormal mitochondrial biogenesis can accelerate the catabolic reaction of OA chondrocytes and aggravate cartilage damage. The imbalance of mitochondrial redox can lead to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), inhibit the synthesis of extracellular matrix, induce ferroptosis and eventually leads to cartilage degradation. The imbalance of mitochondrial dynamics can lead to mitochondrial DNA mutation, decreased adenosine triphosphate production, ROS accumulation, and accelerated apoptosis of chondrocytes. When mitochondrial autophagy is damaged, dysfunctional mitochondria cannot be cleared in time, leading to ROS accumulation, which leads to chondrocyte apoptosis. It has been found that substances such as puerarin, safflower yellow, and astaxanthin can inhibit the development of OA by regulating mitochondrial homeostasis, which proves the potential to be used in the treatment of OA.@*CONCLUSION@#The mitochondrial homeostasis imbalance in chondrocytes is one of the most important pathogeneses of OA, and further exploration of the mechanisms of mitochondrial homeostasis imbalance is of great significance for the prevention and treatment of OA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Chondrocytes/metabolism , Osteoarthritis/metabolism , Homeostasis , Mitochondria/metabolism , Cartilage, Articular/metabolism
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL