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In. Rodríguez Temesio, Gustavo Orlando; Olivera Pertusso, Eduardo Andrés; Berriel, Edgardo; Bentancor De Paula, Marisel Lilian; Cantileno Desevo, Pablo Gustavo; Chinelli Ramos, Javier; Guarnieri, Damián; Lapi, Silvana; Hernández Negrin, Rodrigo; Laguzzi Rosas, María Cecilia. Actualizaciones en clínica quirúrgica. Montevideo, Oficina del Libro-FEFMUR, 2024. p.131-142, ilus.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1553197
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 1-14, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010130


Lateral lymph node metastasis (LLNM) is common in mid-low rectal cancer and is also a major cause of postoperative local recurrence. Currently, there is still controversy regarding the diagnosis and treatment of LLNM in rectal cancer. This consensus, based on the "Chinese Consensus on Diagnosis and Treatment of Lateral Lymph Node Metastasis in Rectal Cancer (2019 edition)," incorporates the latest domestic and international research findings and revises aspects related to the diagnosis, treatment strategies, follow-up, and management of recurrence of LLNM in rectal cancer. A total of 42 domestic colorectal cancer experts participated in this consensus. It proposes 18 consensus statements on the diagnosis and treatment of LLNM, using the evaluation criteria of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force for grading recommendations. The aim is to standardize further the diagnostic criteria and treatment strategies for LLNM in rectal cancer. Unresolved issues in this consensus require further clinical practice and active engagement in high-quality clinical research to explore and address them progressively.

Humans , Lymphatic Metastasis , Consensus , Lymph Nodes , Rectal Neoplasms , China
Medisan ; 27(4)ago. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1514562


Introducción: La elastografía cualitativa por ecografía endoscópica es una técnica para examinar las propiedades elásticas de los tejidos, que puede distinguir la fibrosis del tumor mediante patrones de colores. Objetivo: Determinar el valor de la elastografía por patrones de colores en la reestadificación del cáncer de recto. Métodos: Se efectuó un estudio observacional y descriptivo (serie de casos) de 54 pacientes con cáncer de recto atendidos en el Centro Nacional de Cirugía de Mínimo Acceso, en La Habana, entre septiembre del 2018 y diciembre del 2022, a quienes se les realizó elastografía por ecografía endoscópica para la reevaluación del tumor. Para determinar el valor de dicha técnica se calculó la sensibilidad, la especificidad, los valores predictivos positivo y negativo, las razones de verosimilitud positiva y negativa, así como el índice de Youden. Se estableció la concordancia diagnóstica según el índice kappa y el estudio histológico de la muestra tomada fue el estándar de referencia. Resultados: La concordancia de la elastografía con el resultado anatomopatológico fue buena (κ=0,84). La especificidad y el índice de validez resultaron ser de 91,7 y 94,4 %, respectivamente; mientras que el valor predictivo negativo fue de 84,6 %. Los 16 pacientes con patrón elastográfico mixto (ye3) tenían tumor residual localizado en alguna de las capas de la pared del recto. El índice de Youden alcanzó valores cercanos a 1. Conclusiones: El valor de esta técnica radica en su especificidad diagnóstica y en el valor predictivo negativo al diferenciar la fibrosis del tumor residual en la pared rectal.

Introduction: The qualitative elastography by endoscopic echography is a technique to examine the elastic properties of tissues that can distinguish the fibrosis of the tumor by means of color patterns. Objective: To determine the value of elastography by color patterns in the reestadification of the rectum cancer. Methods: An observational and descriptive study (serial cases) of 54 patients with rectum cancer was carried out, who were assisted in the National Center of Minimum Access Surgery, in Havana, between September, 2018 and December, 2022 to whom elastography by endoscopic echography were carried out for the reevaluation of the tumor. To determine the value of this technique the sensibility, specificity, the predictive positive and negative values, the positive and negative true ratio, as well as the index of Youden were calculated. The diagnostic consistency was established according to the kappa index and the histologic study of the sample was the reference standard. Results: The elastography consistency with the pathologic result was good (ĸ=0.84). The specificity and the index of validity were 91.7 and 94.4%, respectively; while the negative predictive value was 84.6%. The 16 patients with mixed elastographic pattern (ye3) had residual tumor located in some of the layers of the rectum wall. The Youden index reached values close to 1. Conclusions: The value of this technique resides in its diagnostic specificity and negative predictive value when differentiating fibrosis from the residual tumor in the rectal wall.

Rectal Neoplasms , Elasticity Imaging Techniques
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 43(3): 208-214, July-sept. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521142


Objectives: To evaluate the complete response (CR) rate and surgeries performed in patients with rectal adenocarcinoma who underwent neoadjuvant therapy (NT) at Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo and at Hospital São Paulo, in Ribeirão Preto, from January 2007 to December 2017. Methods: We evaluated 166 medical records of patients with locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma (T3, T4 or N+) who underwent NT. The regimen consisted of performing conventional (2D) or conformational (three-dimensional-3D/ radiotherapy with modulated intensity - IMRT) at a dose of 45-50.4Gy associated with capecitabine 1650mg/m2 or 5-fluorouracil (5FU) and leucovorin (LV). The following variables were analyzed: gender, age, pretreatment stage, radiotherapy, CR index, local and distant recurrence rates. Surgical treatment and complications were also evaluated. Results: The CR index was 28.3%. Patients treated with 3D/IMRT radiotherapy had a higher rate of CR (36.3% x 4.8%; p < 0.001), higher rates of clinical follow-up (21% x 0%; p < 0.001), lower surgery rates (79% x 100%; p < 0.001), higher rates of transanal resection (37.1% x 9.5%; p = 0.001), lower rates of abdominal rectosigmoidectomy (25.8% x 50%; p = 0.007) and lower rates of abdominoperineal resection of the rectum (16.1% x 40.5%; p = 0.002), when compared to patients treated with 2D radiotherapy. Conclusion Modern radiotherapy techniques such as 3D conformal and IMRT, by offering greater adequacy and precision of treatment, could result in better local control and less toxicity in organs at risk, enabling organ preservation strategies and less invasive approaches in selected cases. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Rectal Neoplasms/therapy , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Neoplasm Staging
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 43(3): 224-226, July-sept. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521144


Introduction: McKittrick-Wheelock syndrome is a rare entity characterized by chronic diarrhea, acute kidney injury, and hydroelectrolytic imbalance associated with a large rectal tumor, frequently a villous adenoma. Case report: A 69-year-old male with chronic diarrhea with mucus. He underwent a colonoscopy with biopsies, reporting adenocarcinoma of the rectum in situ, and underwent a robot assisted intersphincteric resection with colo-anal anastomosis and a protecitive ileostomy. Discussion: Described in 1954, this syndrome is manifested by electrolyte imbalance and acute renal injury secondary to diarrhea associated with a rectal villous adenoma, often with long lasting symptoms. The most frequent symptom being watery diarrhea with mucus. The definitive treatment consists of surgical resection. Conclusion: Although this is a rare pathology, it should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cases of chronic diarrhea associated with water and electrolyte disorders. (AU)

Humans , Male , Aged , Rectal Neoplasms , Adenocarcinoma , Adenoma, Villous , Water-Electrolyte Imbalance , Diarrhea , Digestive System Diseases/diagnostic imaging
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 43(3): 171-178, July-sept. 2023. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521147


Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among the most diagnosed malignancies worldwide, and it is also the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Despite recent progress in screening programs, noninvasive accurate biomarkers are still needed in the CRC field. In this study, we evaluated and compared the urinary proteomic profiles of patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma and patients without cancer, aiming to identify potential biomarker proteins. Urine samples were collected from 9 patients with CRC and 9 patients with normal colonoscopy results. Mass spectrometry (label-free LC—MS/MS) was used to characterize the proteomic profile of the groups. Ten proteins that were differentially regulated were identified between patients in the experimental group and in the control group, with statistical significance with a p value ≤ 0.05. The only protein that presented upregulation in the CRC group was beta-2-microglobulin (B2M). Subsequent studies are needed to evaluate patients through different analysis approaches to independently verify and validate these biomarker candidates in a larger cohort sample. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Rectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Biomarkers, Tumor/urine , Colonic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Proteomics , Neoplasm Staging
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 43(2): 61-67, Apr.-June 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514429


Background: Many publications describe the advantages of the creation of ghost ileostomy (GI) to prevent the need for formal covering ileostomy in more than 80% of carcinoma rectum patients. However, none of the papers describes exactly how to ultimately remove the GI in these 80% of patients in whom it doesn't need formal maturation. Aim: To describe and evaluate the ghost ileostomy release down (GIRD) technique in terms of feasibility, complications, hospital stay, procedure time etc. in patients with low anterior resection/ultra-low anterior resection (LAR/uLAR) with GI for carcinoma rectum. Method: The present was a prospective cohort study of patients with restorative colorectal resections with GI for carcinoma rectum, Postoperatively the patients were studied with respect to ease and feasibility of the release down of GI and its complications. The data was collected, analyzed and inference drawn. Results: A total of 26 patients needed the GIRD and were included in the final statistical analysis of the study. The procedure was done between 7th to 16th postoperative days (POD) and was successful in all patients without the need of any additional surgical procedure. None of the patients required any local anesthetic injection or any extra analgesics. The average time taken for procedure was 5-minutes and none of the patients had any significant difficulty in GI release. There were no immediate postprocedure complications. Conclusion: The GIRD technique is a simple, safe, and quick procedure done around the 10th POD that can easily be performed by the bedside of patient without the need of any anesthesia or additional analgesics. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Rectal Neoplasms/therapy , Ileum/surgery , Anastomosis, Surgical , Ileostomy/methods
Rev. colomb. cir ; 38(2): 275-282, 20230303. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425200


Introducción. La cirugía es la base del tratamiento curativo del cáncer de recto. La escisión meso-rectal total ha permitido mejorar los desenlaces oncológicos, disminuyendo las tasas de recurrencia locorregional e impactando en la supervivencia global. El empleo de esta técnica en los tumores de recto medio o distal es un reto quirúrgico, en el que la vía trans anal, permite superar las dificultades técnicas. Método. Se realizó un estudio observacional retrospectivo, recolectando la información de los pacientes con cáncer de recto medio y distal llevados a cirugía con esta técnica, en dos instituciones de cuarto nivel en Medellín, Colombia, entre enero de 2017 y marzo de 2022. Se analizaron sus características demográficas, la morbilidad perioperatoria y la pieza quirúrgica. Resultados. Se incluyeron 28 pacientes sometidos al procedimiento trans anal y laparoscópico de forma simultánea; al 57 % se les realizó una ileostomía de protección. Hubo complicaciones en el 60,7 % de los pacientes; ocurrieron cuatro casos de fuga anastomótica. No se presentó ninguna mortalidad perioperatoria. Conclusiones. La tasa de morbilidad perioperatoria es acorde con lo reportado en la literatura. Se resalta la importancia de la curva de aprendizaje quirúrgica y de incluir la calificación de la integridad meso-rectal dentro del informe patológico. Se requiere seguimiento a largo plazo para determinar el impacto en desenlaces oncológicos, calidad de vida y morbilidad

Introduction. Surgery is the pillar of curative treatment for rectal cancer. Total meso-rectal excision has improved oncological outcomes, decreasing locoregional recurrence rates and impacting overall survival. The use of this technique in tumors of the middle or distal rectum is a surgical challenge, in which the trans anal route allows overcoming technical difficulties. Method. A retrospective observational study was carried out, collecting information from patients with middle and distal rectal cancer undergoing surgery with this technique, in two level 4 institutions in Medellín, Colombia, between January 2017 and March 2022. Results. Twenty-eight patients were included; their demographic characteristics, perioperative morbidity, and surgical specimen were analyzed. All patients underwent the trans anal and laparoscopic procedures simultaneously; 57% underwent a protective ileostomy. There was no perioperative mortality. Complications occurred in 60.7% of the patients. Only four cases of anastomotic leak occurred. Conclusions. The perioperative morbidity rate is consistent with that reported in the literature; the importance of the surgical curve and to include the qualification of the meso-rectal integrity within the pathological report is highlighted. Long-term follow-up is required to determine the impact on oncological outcomes, quality of life, and morbidity

Humans , Rectal Neoplasms , Colorectal Surgery , Adenocarcinoma , Laparoscopy , Intraoperative Complications
Cir. Urug ; 7(1): e307, 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1505953


Los lipomas colónicos son tumores benignos poco frecuentes, extremadamente raros a nivel rectal. A pesar de ello, ocupan el segundo lugar en frecuencia detrás de los pólipos adenomatosos. Aunque la mayoría de los lipomas colorrectales son asintomáticos y se descubren incidentalmente, en ocasiones pueden ser sintomáticos y determinar complicaciones agudas que requieren tratamiento quirúrgico de urgencia. Estas formas de presentación pueden confundirse con las del cáncer colorrectal, constituyendo un desafío diagnóstico y terapéutico. Presentamos el caso de una paciente que consultó en emergencia por una gran masa dolorosa de aparición aguda a nivel del ano, resultando ser un lipoma rectal prolapsado a través del canal anal.

Colonic lipomas are infrequent benign tumors, extremely rare at the rectum. Nevertheless, they follow in frequency polyp adenomas. Even though most colorectal lipomas are asymptomatic and incidental, they can occasionally be symptomatic and develop acute complications that require urgent surgical treatment. This form of presentation can be confounded with colorectal cancer, therefore impairing diagnosis and treatment. We present the case of a female patient who came to the emergency room with an acute painful mass through the anus, that resulted in a prolapsed rectal lipoma.

Os lipomas colônicos são tumores benignos pouco frequentes, extremamente raros no nível retal. Apesar disso, ocupam o segundo lugar em frequência atrás dos pólipos adenomatosos. Embora a maioria dos lipomas colorretais sejam assintomáticos e descobertos incidentalmente, às vezes eles podem ser sintomáticos e levar a complicações agudas que requerem tratamento cirúrgico de emergência. Essas formas de apresentação podem ser confundidas com as do câncer colorretal, constituindo um desafio diagnóstico e terapêutico. Apresentamos o caso de um paciente que consultou na sala de emergência por uma grande massa dolorosa de início agudo ao nível do ânus, que acabou por ser um lipoma retal prolapsado pelo canal anal.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Anal Canal/pathology , Rectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Rectal Prolapse/diagnosis , Lipoma/diagnosis , Anal Canal/surgery , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Rectal Prolapse/surgery , Cancer Pain , Lipoma/surgery
Rev. ANACEM (Impresa) ; 17(1): 70-76, 2023. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1525945


El cáncer colorrectal (CCR) es un problema de salud prevalente y significativo a nivel mundial, especialmente en países desarrollados. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar la tasa de mortalidad por CCR en Chile en los últimos 25 años. Se llevó a cabo un estudio descriptivo ecológico utilizando datos públicos de mortalidad desde 1997 hasta 2022, que incluyeron un total de 50.944 defunciones. Los resultados revelaron que el cáncer de colon representó la mayoría de los casos (72,15%) donde el colon sigmoide fue el sitio más afectado. La tasa de mortalidad promedio fue de 11,19 por cada 100.000 habitantes, mostrando un aumento significativo a lo largo del tiempo. El análisis por edad indicó una mayor carga de mortalidad en individuos de 75 a 90 años. Se observó disparidades de género, con predominio de muertes femeninas hasta el año 2019. El análisis de la tasa ajustada por región reveló diferencias no significativas en las tasas de mortalidad, siendo Valparaíso y Magallanes y Antártica Chilena las regiones con tasas más altas para el cáncer de colon y el cáncer de recto, respectivamente. Estos hallazgos contribuyen a nuestra comprensión de la epidemiología del CCR en Chile y enfatizan la necesidad de intervenciones específicas en prevención primaria y screening para reducir la mortalidad por esta enfermedad.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a prevalent and significant health problem worldwide, especially in developed countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the CRC mortality rate in Chile in the last 25 years. An ecological descriptive study was carried out using public mortality data from 1997 to 2022, which included a total of 50,944 deaths. The results revealed that colon cancer represented the majority of cases (72.15%) where the sigmoid colon was the most affected site. The average mortality rate was 11.19 per 100,000 individuals, showing a significant increase over time. The analysis by age showed a greater burden of mortality in individuals from 75 to 90 years. Gender disparities were observed, with a predominance of female deaths until 2019. The analysis of the rate configured by region revealed non-significant differences in mortality rates, with Valparaíso and Magallanes and Antártica Chilena being the regions with the highest rates for colon and rectal cancer, respectively. These findings contribute to our understanding of the epidemiology of CRC in Chile and emphasize the need for specific interventions in primary prevention and screening to reduce mortality from this disease.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Rectal Neoplasms/mortality , Rectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/mortality , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colonic Neoplasms/mortality , Colonic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2023. 177 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1538254


Pacientes com câncer de canal anal e reto em tratamento por radioterapia apresentam alta prevalência de radiodermatite com descamação úmida, desfecho que causa impactos clínicos, econômicos e sociais. Estudos sobre a efetividade de produtos na prevenção das radiodermatites representam uma lacuna de conhecimento na área oncológica, podendo o seu desenvolvimento contribuir para a diminuição dos impactos negativos desse evento, do tempo ocioso do equipamento pela interrupção do tratamento e da possibilidade de falha local da doença. Objetivou-se analisar a efetividade do protetor cutâneo em spray à base de terpolímero acrílico na prevenção da radiodermatite com descamação úmida nos pacientes com câncer de canal anal e reto em comparação com um hidratante padronizado na instituição à base de Calendula officinalis L. e Aloe barbadensis. Ensaio clínico randomizado, aberto, em instituição única, referência nacional no tratamento de doenças oncológicas, com amostra 63 pacientes que foram randomizados nos grupos: experimental, com uso do protetor cutâneo em spray, e controle, usando o hidratante Dnativ Revita Derm. Os pacientes foram acompanhados na consulta de enfermagem, com cegamento do avaliador da pele quanto ao uso da intervenção. A escala de avaliação de pele utilizada foi a da Radiation Therapy Oncology Group. A coleta de dados ocorreu por meio dos formulários de avaliação inicial e subsequente, sendo o desfecho principal medido a ocorrência de radiodermatite com descamação úmida, e os secundários a ocorrência de interrupção temporária da radioterapia por radiodermatite, de eventos adversos aos produtos e de severidade da radiodermatite. As análises se deram por Intenção de Tratar e Protocolo, sendo utilizadas as estatísticas descritiva, analítica e inferenciais no tratamento dos dados, com nível de significância de ≤ 0,10. Pesquisa aprovada pelo Comitê de Ética sob parecer nº 5.322.985 e registrado no Clinical Trials sob número: NCT04067310T. A regressão logística binária mostrou que os participantes expostos ao protetor cutâneo em spray tiveram menor chance de apresentar a radiodermatite com descamação úmida quando comparados ao grupo controle. A redução absoluta do risco de radiodermatite foi de 18% no grupo experimental. A incidência geral de radiodermatite foi de 100%, sendo 36,5% graus mais severos. A incidência de radiodermatite Grau 1 foi maior no grupo experimental, enquanto os graus mais severos (Graus 3 e 4) tiveram maior incidência no grupo controle; 17,5% dos participantes tiveram interrupção da radioterapia por radiodermatite, variando de 3 a 15 dias, com média de seis dias interrompidos. Apesar de relevantes clinicamente, esses resultados sobre a interrupção temporária do tratamento e a severidade da radiodermatite não tiveram significância estatística. Foram considerados fatores de risco para a descamação úmida: sexo feminino, diagnóstico C.21 e C.21.8, altas doses de radioterapia (5400-6000cGy), tipo histológico carcinoma espinocelular, umidade antes e durante a radioterapia e uso de proteção íntima. Concluiu-se que o protetor cutâneo em spray é um produto efetivo na prevenção da radiodermatite com descamação úmida nos pacientes com câncer de canal anal e reto, afirmação que sustenta a tese defendida. Nesse sentido, os resultados podem orientar a revisão dos protocolos assistenciais de prevenção da radiodermatite utilizados pelo enfermeiro no âmbito da consulta de enfermagem em radioterapia, com vistas a reduzir os impactos no seguimento terapêutico e na qualidade de vida dos pacientes com câncer de canal anal e reto.

Patients' ongoing anal and rectal cancer radiotherapy exhibit a high prevalence of radiodermatitis with moist desquamation, impairing clinical, economic, and social outcomes. Clinical trials targeting product efficacy in preventing radiodermatitis are lacking in the current literature. These products could contribute to diminishing adverse effects, reducing equipment idle time by therapy interruption, and increasing the cure rate. Our goal is to evaluate the effectiveness of cutaneous spray based on acrylic terpolymers in preventing radiodermatitis with moist desquamation in patients with rectal or anal cancer. Spray effectiveness was defied against a standardized moisturizer in the institution made of Calendula officinalis L. and Aloe barbadensis extracts. An open, single-blind, randomized clinical study was conducted in a single institution, reference in national treatment in oncological diseases, with a sample size (n) of 63 patients. Patients were randomized into two groups: (i) experimental, using cutaneous protector spray; and (ii) control, using moisturizer Dnativ Revita Derm. RTOC's scale was used for evaluating skin condition. Data was collected in forms, which considered: (i) the primary outcome of radiodermatitis with moist desquamation occurrence; and (ii) the secondary outcome of radiotherapy interruption caused by radiodermatitis occurrence and severity, and product adverse effects. Analyses were performed by intention to treat and per protocol, using descriptive, analytical, and inferential statistics, with a significance level of ≤ 0.10 (α). Research was approved by the Ethics committee under approval nº 5.322.985 and registered in Clinical Trials under number NCT04067310T. Binary logistic regression demonstrated that patients exposed to cutaneous spray protector were less prone to develop radiodermatitis with moist desquamation compared to the control group. Absolute reduction in radiodermatitis risk was 18% in the experimental group. The radiodermatitis overall incidence was 100%, with 36.5% of higher severity. The incidence of grade 1 radiodermatitis was higher in the experimental group, while the more severe grades (3 and 4) had a higher incidence in the control group; 17.5% of the participants had an interruption of radiotherapy due to radiodermatitis, ranging from 3 to 15 days, with an average of six interrupted days. Despite being clinically relevant, these results regarding the temporary interruption of treatment and the severity of radiodermatitis were not statistically significant. Risk factors for moist desquamation were considered: female gender, diagnosis of C.21 and C.21.8, high radiation doses (5400 to 6000 cGy), histological type squamous cell carcinoma, humidity before and during radiotherapy, and use of intimate protection. In conclusion, the skin protector spray is an effective product in the prevention of radiodermatitis with moist desquamation in patients with anal and rectal cancer. In this sense, the results can guide the review of care protocols for the prevention of radiodermatitis used by nurses in the context of nursing consultations in radiotherapy to reduce the impacts on therapeutic follow-up and the quality of life of patients with cancer of the anal canal and straight.

Los pacientes con cáncer de canal anal y recto en tratamiento con radioterapia tienen una alta prevalencia de radiodermatitis con descamación húmeda, desenlace que genera impactos clínicos, económicos y sociales. Los estudios sobre la efectividad de los productos en la prevención de la radiodermatitis representan un vacío de conocimiento en el área de oncología y pueden contribuir para la reducción de los impactos negativos, el tiempo de inactividad de los equipos por interrupción del tratamiento y la posibilidad de falla local de la enfermedad. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la eficacia de un protector cutáneo en spray a base de terpolímero acrílico en la prevención de la radiodermatitis con descamación húmeda en pacientes con cáncer anal y rectal frente a una crema hidratante estandarizada de la institución a base de Calendula officinalis L. y Aloe barbadensis. Ensayo clínico aleatorizado, abierto, en una sola institución, referente nacional en el tratamiento de enfermedades oncológicas, con una muestra de 63 pacientes que fueron aleatorizados en grupos: experimental, utilizando spray protector para la piel, y control, utilizando Dnativ Revita Derm hidratante. Los pacientes fueron seguidos en la consulta de enfermería, cegándose el evaluador de piel en cuanto al uso de la intervención. La escala de valoración de la piel utilizada fue la del RTOC. Los datos se recopilaron mediante formularios de evaluación inicial y posterior, siendo el resultado principal medido la aparición de radiodermatitis con descamación húmeda y los resultados secundarios la interrupción temporal de la radioterapia debido a la radiodermatitis, los eventos adversos de los productos y la gravedad de la radiodermatitis. Los análisis fueron realizados por Intención de Tratar y Protocolo, utilizando estadística descriptiva, analítica e inferencial en el procesamiento de datos, con nivel de significación ≤ 0,10. Investigación aprobada por el Comité de Ética con dictamen nº 5.322.985 y registrada en Ensayos Clínicos con el número: NCT04067310T. La regresión logística binaria mostró que los participantes expuestos al protector de piel en aerosol tenían menos probabilidades de tener radiodermatitis con descamación húmeda en comparación con el grupo de control. La reducción absoluta del riesgo de radiodermatitis fue del 18 % en el grupo experimental. La incidencia global de radiodermatitis fue del 100%, siendo el 36,5% grados más graves. La incidencia de radiodermatitis Grado 1 fue mayor en el grupo experimental, mientras que los grados más severos (3 y 4) tuvieron mayor incidencia en el grupo control; El 17,5% de los participantes tuvo interrupción de la radioterapia por radiodermatitis, variando de 3 a 15 días, con un promedio de seis días de interrupción. A pesar de ser clínicamente relevantes, estos resultados en cuanto a la interrupción temporal del tratamiento y la gravedad de la radiodermatitis no fueron estadísticamente significativos. Se consideraron factores de riesgo para descamación húmeda: sexo femenino, diagnóstico C.21 y C.21.8, dosis altas (5400-6000cGy), carcinoma epidermoide de tipo histológico, humedad antes y durante la radioterapia y uso de protección íntima. Se concluyó que el spray protector de piel es un producto eficaz en la prevención de la radiodermatitis con descamación húmeda en pacientes con cáncer anal y rectal, afirmación que sustenta la tesis defendida. En ese sentido, los resultados pueden orientar la revisión de los protocolos de atención para la prevención de la radiodermitis utilizados por los enfermeros en el contexto de las consultas de enfermería en radioterapia, con el objetivo de reducir los impactos en el seguimiento terapéutico y en la calidad de vida de los pacientes con cáncer del canal anal y recto.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Anus Neoplasms , Radiodermatitis/prevention & control , Rectal Neoplasms , Anus Neoplasms/diagnosis , Radiodermatitis/complications , Radiodermatitis/nursing , Radiotherapy/adverse effects , Rectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Comorbidity , Withholding Treatment/statistics & numerical data
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1420055


La escisión mesorrectal transanal (TaTME: transanal total mesorectal escision) es la última de una larga lista de desarrollos técnicos y tecnológicos para el tratamiento del cáncer de recto medio y bajo. Incluso para los cirujanos colorrectales experimentados, lograr una escisión mesorrectal total (emt) de calidad en cirugía oncológica no siempre es sencillo, por la dificultad de obtener un adecuado acceso a la pelvis. Los estudios realizados han mostrado resultados comparables al abordaje laparoscópico, con tasas elevadas de escisiones mesorrectales completas y bajo porcentaje de margen circunferencial radial (CRM: circumferential radial margin) y distal positivos, con un adecuado número de ganglios resecados. Como toda técnica nueva, su implementación puede traer consecuencias no intencionales. La complejidad del abordaje, la dificultad en la identificación de nuevos repères y planos anatómicos, ha llevado a complicaciones graves como la lesión uretral o la siembra tumoral pelviana. Por ello, la comunidad quirúrgica ha retrasado la implementación masiva de la técnica y desarrollado estrategias de enseñanza y monitorización de este procedimiento para su realización en centros de alto volumen. El objetivo de esta publicación es presentar el primer caso de TaTME en un centro docente universitario y difundir en nuestra comunidad científica el fundamento de la técnica, sus indicaciones, describir los principales pasos técnicos, complicaciones, resultados oncológicos y funcionales.

Transanal total mesorectal excision (TaTME) is the last of a long list of technical and technological developments for treatment of middle and low rectal cancer. Even for skilled colorectal surgeons, achieving a good quality total mesorectal excision (TME) in oncology surgery is not always simple, due to the difficulty of obtaining optimal access to the pelvis. So far, studies have shown similar results to laparoscopic surgery, with high rates of complete mesorectal excisions and low rate of circumferential radial margin (CRM) and distal margin with an appropriate number of resected lymph nodes. Like every new technique, its implementation can bring unwanted consequences. The complexity of the approach, the difficulty in the identification of new landmarks and anatomic planes, has led to serious complications such as urethral injury or tumoral seeding. This has made slowdown the massive implementation of the technique among the surgical community, addressing the need of developing training programs and mentoring of this procedure that belongs to high volume centers. The aim of this publication is to present the first case of TaTME in a teaching tertiary center and spread, in our scientific community, the principles of the technique, its indications, main technical steps, complications and functional and oncologic results.

A excisão mesorretal transanal (TaTME: transanal total mesorectal escision) é o mais recente de uma longa linha de desenvolvimentos técnicos e tecnológicos para o tratamento do câncer retal inferior e médio. Mesmo para cirurgiões colorretais experientes, nem sempre é fácil obter uma excisão total do mesorreto (EMT) de qualidade em cirurgia de câncer, devido à dificuldade de obter acesso adequado à pelve. Os estudos realizados mostraram resultados comparáveis ​​à abordagem laparoscópica, com altas taxas de excisões completas do mesorreto e baixo percentual de margem radial circunferencial positiva (CRM: circumferential radial margin) e distal, com número adequado de linfonodos ressecados. Como qualquer nova técnica, sua implementação pode ter consequências não intencionais. A complexidade da abordagem, a dificuldade em identificar novos repères e planos anatômicos, levou a complicações graves, como lesão uretral ou semeadura de tumor pélvico. Por esse motivo, a comunidade cirúrgica atrasou a implementação massiva da técnica e desenvolveu estratégias de ensino e acompanhamento desse procedimento para sua realização em centros de alto volume. O objetivo desta publicação é apresentar o primeiro caso de TaTME em um centro de ensino universitário e divulgar em nossa comunidade científica as bases da técnica, suas indicações, descrever as principais etapas técnicas, complicações, resultados oncológicos e funcionais.

Humans , Female , Aged , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Adenocarcinoma/surgery , Transanal Endoscopic Surgery/methods , Treatment Outcome
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 907-914, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010123


Conformal sphincter-preservation operation (CSPO) is considered the effective surgical technique for preserving the sphincter in cases of low rectal cancer. Accurate preoperative diagnosis and staging, reasonable selection of surgical approaches and technique, standardized perioperative management, and postoperative rehabilitation are the keys to ensuring the oncological clearance and functional preservation of CSPO. However, there is currently a lack of standardized surgical procedure for implementing CSPO in China. Therefore, the Colorectal Surgery Group of Surgery Branch of the Chinese Medical Association,along with the Colorectal Cancer Committee of the Chinese Medical Doctor Association and the Anorectal Branch of Chinese Medical Doctor Association, gathered experts in colorectal surgery to discuss and establish this standardized surgical procedure of CSPO. This standard, based on the latest evidence from literature, expert experiences, and China national condition, focuses on the definition, classification, pelvic anatomy, surgical techniques, postoperative complications, and perioperative care of CSPO. It aims to guide the standardized clinical practice of CSPO in China.

Humans , Anal Canal/surgery , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Digestive System Surgical Procedures/methods , Pelvis , Postoperative Complications
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 729-739, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010122


Although transanal endoscopic surgery has been developed for more than 40 years, it remains relatively unknown to most domestic colleagues. In 2019, the Chinese Society of Transanal Total Mesorectal Excision (CSTa) and the Chinese Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons (CSCRS) organized domestic experts to write and publish the "Chinese Expert Consensus on Transanal Endoscopic Surgery (2019 Edition)", which elaborated on the definition, surgical methods, indications, contraindications, basic principles, key issues and complications of transanal endoscopic surgery, and provided a certain theoretical foundation for the development of transanal endoscopic surgery in China. In the past four years, the scope of application of transanal endoscopic techniques has been expanded, and many prospective and retrospective clinical research have provided more evidence-based medical evidence. Therefore, the Chinese Society of Transanal Total Mesorectal Excision (CSTa) once again organized domestic experts to write the "Expert Consensus and Operation Guidelines for Transanal Endoscopic Surgery in China (2023 Edition)", updating the expert consensus opinions on the definition, indications, complications and learning curve of transanal endoscopic surgery and adding operation guidelines. The aim is to promote the standardized practices in transanal endoscopic surgery and facilitate a shorter learning curve for surgeons.

Humans , Rectum/surgery , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Consensus , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Transanal Endoscopic Surgery/methods
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 302-306, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971266


Neoadjuvant therapy has been widely applied in the treatment of rectal cancer, which can shrink tumor size, lower tumor staging and improve the prognosis. It has been the standard preoperative treatment for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. The efficacy of neoadjuvant therapy for rectal cancer patients varies between individuals, and the results of tumor regression are obviously different. Some patients with good tumor regression even achieve pathological complete response (pCR). Tumor regression is of great significance for the selection of surgical regimes and the determination of distal resection margin. However, few studies focus on tumor regression patterns. Controversies on the safe distance of distal resection margin after neoadjuvant treatment still exist. Therefore, based on the current research progress, this review summarized the main tumor regression patterns after neoadjuvant therapy for rectal cancer, and classified them into three types: tumor shrinkage, tumor fragmentation, and mucin pool formation. And macroscopic regression and microscopic regression of tumors were compared to describe the phenomenon of non-synchronous regression. Then, the safety of non-surgical treatment for patients with clinical complete response (cCR) was analyzed to elaborate the necessity of surgical treatment. Finally, the review studied the safe surgical resection range to explore the safe distance of distal resection margin.

Humans , Neoadjuvant Therapy/methods , Margins of Excision , Treatment Outcome , Rectal Neoplasms/pathology , Rectum/pathology , Neoplasm Staging , Retrospective Studies
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 295-301, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971265


Rectal cancer is the most common tumor of digestive tract. For female patients, ovarian metastasis ranks the second place in intraperitoneal organ metastasis. Its symptoms are occult, easily missed and insensitive to systemic treatment, so the prognosis is poor. Surgery is the treatment of choice for patients with rectal ovarian metastases, whether R0 resection is possible or not, and reducing tumor load is associated with better prognosis. With the continuous development of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), tumor reduction can reach the cellular level, which can significantly improve survival. Prophylactic ovariectomy remains a controversial issue in patients at high risk of ovarian metastasis. In this review, we summarize the diagnosis, treatment and prevention strategies of rectal cancer ovarian metastases, hoping to provide some reference for clinical practice.

Humans , Female , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Hyperthermia, Induced , Peritoneal Neoplasms/secondary , Rectal Neoplasms/therapy , Ovarian Neoplasms/therapy , Combined Modality Therapy , Cytoreduction Surgical Procedures
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 290-294, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971264


Locally advanced tumor with involvement of surrounding tissues and organs is a common situation in pelvic malignancies. Up to 10% of newly diagnosed rectal cancer cases infiltrate to adjacent tissues and organs. Satisfactory resection margins obtained by pelvic exenteration can achieve a 5-year survival rate similar to cases that without adjacent tissue invasion. The 5-year survival rate of patients with locally recurrent pelvic malignancies is almost zero if they are treated only with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. To obtain negative margins through pelvic exenteration is the only chance for a long-term survival of these patients. However, pelvic exenteration is a complicated procedure with higher morbidity and mortality. The development of fascia anatomy enables surgeons to have a deeper understanding and comprehensive application of pelvic fasciae. Meanwhile, the improvement of laparoscopic technology provides a clearer view for surgeons and enables the application of minimally invasive techniques in complex pelvic exenteration. The fascial space priority approach is based on the fascia anatomy of pelvis and giving priority to the separation of the pelvic avascular fascial spaces, which provides a reproducible surgical approach for complex pelvic exenteration.

Humans , Pelvic Exenteration/methods , Pelvic Neoplasms , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/surgery , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Pelvis/pathology , Retrospective Studies
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 283-289, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971263


Objective: In this study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of low anterior resection syndrome (LARS) in patients who had survived for more than 5 years after sphincter-preserving surgery for rectal cancer and to analyze its relationship with postoperative time. Methods: This was a single-center, retrospective, cross-sectional study. The study cohort comprised patients who had survived for at least 5 years (60 months) after undergoing sphincter- preserving radical resection of pathologically diagnosed rectal adenocarcinoma within 15 cm of the anal verge in the Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Peking University People's Hospital from January 2005 to May 2016. Patients who had undergone local resection, had permanent stomas, recurrent intestinal infection, local recurrence, history of previous anorectal surgery, or long- term preoperative defecation disorders were excluded. A LARS questionnaire was administered by telephone interview, points being allocated for incontinence for flatus (0-7 points), incontinence for liquid stools (0-3 points), frequency of bowel movements (0-5 points), clustering of stools (0-11 points), and urgency (0-16 points). The patients were allocated to three groups based on these scores: no LARS (0-20 points), minor LARS (21-29 points), and major LARS (30-42 points). The prevalence of LARS and major LARS in patients who had survived more than 5 years after surgery, correlation between postoperative time and LARS score, and whether postoperative time was a risk factor for major LARS and LARS symptoms were analyzed. Results: The median follow-up time of the 160 patients who completed the telephone interview was 97 (60-193) months; 81 (50.6%) of them had LARS, comprising 34 (21.3%) with minor LARS and 47 (29.4%) with major LARS. Spearman correlation analysis showed no significant correlation between LARS score and postoperative time (correlation coefficient α=-0.016, P=0.832). Multivariate analysis identified anastomotic height (RR=0.850, P=0.022) and radiotherapy (RR=5.760, P<0.001) as independent risk factors for major LARS; whereas the postoperative time was not a significant risk factor (RR=1.003, P=0.598). The postoperative time was also not associated with LARS score rank and frequency of bowel movements, clustering, or urgency (P>0.05). However, the rates of incontinence for flatus (3/31, P=0.003) and incontinence for liquid stools (8/31, P=0.005) were lower in patients who had survived more than 10 years after surgery. Conclusions: Patients with rectal cancer who have survived more than 5 years after sphincter-preserving surgery still have a high prevalence of LARS. We found no evidence of major LARS symptoms resolving over time.

Humans , Rectal Neoplasms/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Low Anterior Resection Syndrome , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Flatulence/complications , Anal Canal/pathology , Diarrhea , Quality of Life
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 277-282, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971262


Objective: To propose a new staging system for presacral recurrence of rectal cancer and explore the factors influencing radical resection of such recurrences based on this staging system. Methods: In this retrospective observational study, clinical data of 51 patients with presacral recurrence of rectal cancer who had undergone surgical treatment in the Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Peking University People's Hospital between January 2008 and September 2022 were collected. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) primary rectal cancer without distant metastasis that had been radically resected; (2) pre-sacral recurrence of rectal cancer confirmed by multi-disciplinary team assessment based on CT, MRI, positron emission tomography, physical examination, surgical exploration, and pathological examination of biopsy tissue in some cases; and (3) complete inpatient, outpatient and follow-up data. The patients were allocated to radical resection and non-radical resection groups according to postoperative pathological findings. The study included: (1) classification of pre-sacral recurrence of rectal cancer according to its anatomical characteristics as follows: Type I: no involvement of the sacrum; Type II: involvement of the low sacrum, but no other sites; Type III: involvement of the high sacrum, but no other sites; and Type IV: involvement of the sacrum and other sites. (2) Assessment of postoperative presacral recurrence, overall survival from surgery to recurrence, and duration of disease-free survival. (3) Analysis of factors affecting radical resection of pre-sacral recurrence of rectal cancer. Non-normally distributed measures are expressed as median (range). The Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison between groups. Results: The median follow-up was 25 (2-96) months with a 100% follow-up rate. The rate of metachronic distant metastasis was significantly lower in the radical resection than in the non-radical resection group (24.1% [7/29] vs. 54.5% [12/22], χ2=8.333, P=0.026). Postoperative disease-free survival was longer in the radical resection group (32.7 months [3.0-63.0] vs. 16.1 [1.0-41.0], Z=8.907, P=0.005). Overall survival was longer in the radical resection group (39.2 [3.0-66.0] months vs. 28.1 [1.0-52.0] months, Z=1.042, P=0.354). According to univariate analysis, age, sex, distance between the tumor and anal verge, primary tumor pT stage, and primary tumor grading were not associated with achieving R0 resection of presacral recurrences of rectal cancer (all P>0.05), whereas primary tumor pN stage, anatomic staging of presacral recurrence, and procedure for managing presacral recurrence were associated with rate of R0 resection (all P<0.05). According to multifactorial analysis, the pathological stage of the primary tumor pN1-2 (OR=3.506, 95% CI: 1.089-11.291, P=0.035), type of procedure (transabdominal resection: OR=29.250, 95% CI: 2.789 - 306.811, P=0.005; combined abdominal perineal resection: OR=26.000, 95% CI: 2.219-304.702, P=0.009), and anatomical stage of presacral recurrence (Type III: OR=16.000, 95% CI: 1.542 - 166.305, P = 0.020; type IV: OR= 36.667, 95% CI: 3.261 - 412.258, P = 0.004) were all independent risk factors for achieving radical resection of anterior sacral recurrence after rectal cancer surgery. Conclusion: Stage of presacral recurrences of rectal cancer is an independent predictor of achieving R0 resection. It is possible to predict whether radical resection can be achieved on the basis of the patient's medical history.

Humans , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/diagnosis , Rectal Neoplasms/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Pelvis/pathology , Recurrence , Treatment Outcome