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1.
In. Rodríguez Temesio, Gustavo Orlando; Olivera Pertusso, Eduardo Andrés; Berriel, Edgardo; Bentancor De Paula, Marisel Lilian; Cantileno Desevo, Pablo Gustavo; Chinelli Ramos, Javier; Guarnieri, Damián; Lapi, Silvana; Hernández Negrin, Rodrigo; Laguzzi Rosas, María Cecilia. Actualizaciones en clínica quirúrgica. Montevideo, Oficina del Libro-FEFMUR, 2024. p.131-142, ilus.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1553197
3.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1420055

ABSTRACT

La escisión mesorrectal transanal (TaTME: transanal total mesorectal escision) es la última de una larga lista de desarrollos técnicos y tecnológicos para el tratamiento del cáncer de recto medio y bajo. Incluso para los cirujanos colorrectales experimentados, lograr una escisión mesorrectal total (emt) de calidad en cirugía oncológica no siempre es sencillo, por la dificultad de obtener un adecuado acceso a la pelvis. Los estudios realizados han mostrado resultados comparables al abordaje laparoscópico, con tasas elevadas de escisiones mesorrectales completas y bajo porcentaje de margen circunferencial radial (CRM: circumferential radial margin) y distal positivos, con un adecuado número de ganglios resecados. Como toda técnica nueva, su implementación puede traer consecuencias no intencionales. La complejidad del abordaje, la dificultad en la identificación de nuevos repères y planos anatómicos, ha llevado a complicaciones graves como la lesión uretral o la siembra tumoral pelviana. Por ello, la comunidad quirúrgica ha retrasado la implementación masiva de la técnica y desarrollado estrategias de enseñanza y monitorización de este procedimiento para su realización en centros de alto volumen. El objetivo de esta publicación es presentar el primer caso de TaTME en un centro docente universitario y difundir en nuestra comunidad científica el fundamento de la técnica, sus indicaciones, describir los principales pasos técnicos, complicaciones, resultados oncológicos y funcionales.


Transanal total mesorectal excision (TaTME) is the last of a long list of technical and technological developments for treatment of middle and low rectal cancer. Even for skilled colorectal surgeons, achieving a good quality total mesorectal excision (TME) in oncology surgery is not always simple, due to the difficulty of obtaining optimal access to the pelvis. So far, studies have shown similar results to laparoscopic surgery, with high rates of complete mesorectal excisions and low rate of circumferential radial margin (CRM) and distal margin with an appropriate number of resected lymph nodes. Like every new technique, its implementation can bring unwanted consequences. The complexity of the approach, the difficulty in the identification of new landmarks and anatomic planes, has led to serious complications such as urethral injury or tumoral seeding. This has made slowdown the massive implementation of the technique among the surgical community, addressing the need of developing training programs and mentoring of this procedure that belongs to high volume centers. The aim of this publication is to present the first case of TaTME in a teaching tertiary center and spread, in our scientific community, the principles of the technique, its indications, main technical steps, complications and functional and oncologic results.


A excisão mesorretal transanal (TaTME: transanal total mesorectal escision) é o mais recente de uma longa linha de desenvolvimentos técnicos e tecnológicos para o tratamento do câncer retal inferior e médio. Mesmo para cirurgiões colorretais experientes, nem sempre é fácil obter uma excisão total do mesorreto (EMT) de qualidade em cirurgia de câncer, devido à dificuldade de obter acesso adequado à pelve. Os estudos realizados mostraram resultados comparáveis ​​à abordagem laparoscópica, com altas taxas de excisões completas do mesorreto e baixo percentual de margem radial circunferencial positiva (CRM: circumferential radial margin) e distal, com número adequado de linfonodos ressecados. Como qualquer nova técnica, sua implementação pode ter consequências não intencionais. A complexidade da abordagem, a dificuldade em identificar novos repères e planos anatômicos, levou a complicações graves, como lesão uretral ou semeadura de tumor pélvico. Por esse motivo, a comunidade cirúrgica atrasou a implementação massiva da técnica e desenvolveu estratégias de ensino e acompanhamento desse procedimento para sua realização em centros de alto volume. O objetivo desta publicação é apresentar o primeiro caso de TaTME em um centro de ensino universitário e divulgar em nossa comunidade científica as bases da técnica, suas indicações, descrever as principais etapas técnicas, complicações, resultados oncológicos e funcionais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Adenocarcinoma/surgery , Transanal Endoscopic Surgery/methods , Treatment Outcome
4.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 290-294, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971264

ABSTRACT

Locally advanced tumor with involvement of surrounding tissues and organs is a common situation in pelvic malignancies. Up to 10% of newly diagnosed rectal cancer cases infiltrate to adjacent tissues and organs. Satisfactory resection margins obtained by pelvic exenteration can achieve a 5-year survival rate similar to cases that without adjacent tissue invasion. The 5-year survival rate of patients with locally recurrent pelvic malignancies is almost zero if they are treated only with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. To obtain negative margins through pelvic exenteration is the only chance for a long-term survival of these patients. However, pelvic exenteration is a complicated procedure with higher morbidity and mortality. The development of fascia anatomy enables surgeons to have a deeper understanding and comprehensive application of pelvic fasciae. Meanwhile, the improvement of laparoscopic technology provides a clearer view for surgeons and enables the application of minimally invasive techniques in complex pelvic exenteration. The fascial space priority approach is based on the fascia anatomy of pelvis and giving priority to the separation of the pelvic avascular fascial spaces, which provides a reproducible surgical approach for complex pelvic exenteration.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pelvic Exenteration/methods , Pelvic Neoplasms , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/surgery , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Pelvis/pathology , Retrospective Studies
5.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 268-276, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971261

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the value of reconstruction of pelvic floor with biological products to prevent and treat empty pelvic syndrome after pelvic exenteration (PE) for locally advanced or recurrent rectal cancer. Methods: This was a descriptive study of data of 56 patients with locally advanced or locally recurrent rectal cancer without or with limited extra-pelvic metastases who had undergone PE and pelvic floor reconstruction using basement membrane biologic products to separate the abdominal and pelvic cavities in the Department of Anorectal Surgery of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Naval Military Medical University from November 2021 to May 2022. The extent of surgery was divided into two categories: mainly inside the pelvis (41 patients) and including pelvic wall resection (15 patients). In all procedures, basement membrane biologic products were used to reconstruct the pelvic floor and separate the abdominal and pelvic cavities. The procedures included a transperitoneal approach, in which biologic products were used to cover the retroperitoneal defect and the pelvic entrance from the Treitz ligament to the sacral promontory and sutured to the lateral peritoneum, the peritoneal margin of the retained organs in the anterior pelvis, or the pubic arch and pubic symphysis; and a sacrococcygeal approach in which biologic products were used to reconstruct the defect in the pelvic muscle-sacral plane. Variables assessed included patients' baseline information (including sex, age, history of preoperative radiotherapy, recurrence or primary, and extra-pelvic metastases), surgery-related variables (including extent of organ resection, operative time, intraoperative bleeding, and tissue restoration), post-operative recovery (time to recovery of bowel function and time to recovery from empty pelvic syndrome), complications, and findings on follow-up. Postoperative complications were graded using the Clavien-Dindo classification. Results: The median age of the 41 patients whose surgery was mainly inside the pelvis was 57 (31-82) years. The patients comprised 25 men and 16 women. Of these 41 patients, 23 had locally advanced disease and 18 had locally recurrent disease; 32 had a history of chemotherapy/immunotherapy/targeted therapy and 24 of radiation therapy. Among these patients, the median operative time, median intraoperative bleeding, median time to recovery of bowel function, and median time to resolution of empty pelvic syndrome were 440 (240-1020) minutes, 650 (200-4000) ml, 3 (1-9) days, and 14 (5-105) days, respectively. As for postoperative complications, 37 patients had Clavien-Dindo < grade III and four had ≥ grade III complications. One patient died of multiple organ failure 7 days after surgery, two underwent second surgeries because of massive bleeding from their pelvic floor wounds, and one was successfully resuscitated from respiratory failure. In contrast, the median age of the 15 patients whose procedure included combined pelvic and pelvic wall resection was 61 (43-76) years, they comprised eight men and seven women, four had locally advanced disease and 11 had locally recurrent disease. All had a history of chemotherapy/ immunotherapy and 13 had a history of radiation therapy. The median operative time, median intraoperative bleeding, median time to recovery of bowel function, and median time to relief of empty pelvic syndrome were 600 (360-960) minutes, 1600 (400-4000) ml, 3 (2-7) days, and 68 (7-120) days, respectively, in this subgroup of patients. Twelve of these patients had Clavien-Dindo < grade III and three had ≥ grade III postoperative complications. Follow-up was until 31 October 2022 or death; the median follow-up time was 9 (5-12) months. One patient in this group died 3 months after surgery because of rapid tumor progression. The remaining 54 patients have survived to date and no local recurrences have been detected at the surgical site. Conclusion: The use of basement membrane biologic products for pelvic floor reconstruction and separation of the abdominal and pelvic cavities during PE for locally advanced or recurrent rectal cancer is safe, effective, and feasible. It improves the perioperative safety of PE and warrants more implementation.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pelvic Exenteration , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Pelvic Floor/pathology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/surgery , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
6.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 253-259, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971259

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the feasibility, safety, and short- and long-term efficacy of laparoscopic pelvic exenteration (LPE) in treating locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods: The clinical data of 173 patients who had undergone pelvic exenteration (PE) for locally advanced rectal cancer that had been shown by preoperative imaging or intraoperative exploration to have invaded beyond the mesorectal excision plane and adjacent organs in the Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (n=64) and Peking University First Hospital (n=109) from 2010 January to 2021 December were collected retrospectively. Laparoscopic PE (LPE) had been performed on 82 of these patients and open PE (OPE) on 91. Short- and long-term outcomes (1-, 3-, and 5-year overall and disease-free survival and 1- and 3-year cumulative local recurrence rates) were compared between these groups. Results: The only statistically significant difference in baseline data between the two groups (P>0.05) was administration of neoadjuvant therapy. Compared with OPE, LPE had a significantly shorter operative time (319.3±129.3 minutes versus 417.3±155.0 minutes, t=4.531, P<0.001) and less intraoperative blood loss (175 [20-2000] ml vs. 500 [20-4500] ml, U=2206.500, P<0.001). The R0 resection rates were 98.8% and 94.5%, respectively (χ2=2.355, P=0.214). At 18.3% (15/82), and the incidence of perioperative complications was lower in the LPE group than in the OPE group (37.4% [34/91], χ2=7.727, P=0.005). The rates of surgical site infection were 7.3% (6/82) and 23.1% (21/91) in the LPE and OPE group, respectively (χ2=8.134, P=0.004). The rates of abdominal wound infection were 0 and 12.1% (11/91) (χ2=10.585, P=0.001), respectively, and of urinary tract infection 0 and 6.6% (6/91) (χ2=5.601, P=0.030), respectively. Postoperative hospital stay was shorter in the LPE than OPE group (12 [4-60] days vs. 15 [7-87] days, U=2498.000, P<0.001). The median follow-up time was 40 (2-88) months in the LPE group and 59 (1-130) months in the OPE group. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates were 91.3%, 76.0%, and 62.5%, respectively, in the LPE group, and 91.2%, 68.9%, and 57.6%, respectively, in the OPE group. The 1, 3, and 5-year disease-free survival rates were 82.8%, 64.9%, and 59.7%, respectively, in the LPE group and 76.9%, 57.8%, and 52.7%, respectively, in the OPE group. The 1- and 3-year cumulative local recurrence rates were 5.1% and 14.1%, respectively, in the LPE group and 8.0% and 15.1%, respectively, in the OPE group (both P>0.05). Conclusions: In locally advanced rectal cancer patients, LPE is associated with shorter operative time, less intraoperative blood loss, fewer perioperative complications, and shorter hospital stay compared with OPE. It is safe and feasible without compromising oncological effect.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pelvic Exenteration/methods , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Blood Loss, Surgical , Laparoscopy/methods , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery
7.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 222-226, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971255

ABSTRACT

The China PelvEx Collaborative, under the direction of Colorectal Cancer Committee of the Chinese Medical Doctor Association, Gastrointestinal Surgery Committee of China International Exchange and Promotive Association for Medical and Health, has formulated and issued the Chinese expert consensus for primary rectal cancer beyond total mesorectal excision planes and locally recurrent rectal cancer (2023 edition) , with the academic support of the Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery and Chinese Journal of Colorectal Disease (Electronic Edition). This Consensus refers to the expert consensus developed by the International PelvEx Collaboration, incorporates the latest international multi-center research results and combines the latest research results in China. The Consensus unifies some definitions, clarifies the surgical indications, and puts forward the definition and preventive measures of "empty pelvic syndrome" earlier. For the controversial classification of local recurrent rectal cancer, the Chinese classification was proposed for the first time in Consensus. At the same time, the definition of pelvic exenteration is controversial, and a more consistent cognition is proposed. It is believed that, with the in-depth research on complicated rectal cancer, C-PelvEx will gather more higher-level data from clinical research in several domestic centers, so as to further enrich the content of the updated Consensus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Consensus , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/surgery , Pelvic Exenteration , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery
8.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 215-221, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971254

ABSTRACT

In recent years, with advances in pelvic oncology and surgical techniques, surgeons have redefined the boundaries of pelvic surgery. Combined pelvic exenteration is now considered the treatment of choice for some patients with locally advanced and locally recurrent rectal cancer, but it is only performed in a few hospitals in China due to the complexity of the procedure and the large extent of resection, complications, and high perioperative mortality. Although there have been great advances in oncologic drugs and surgical techniques and equipment in recent years, there are still many controversies and challenges in the preoperative assessment of combined pelvic organ resection, neoadjuvant treatment selection and perioperative treatment strategies. Adequate understanding of the anatomical features of the pelvic organs, close collaboration of the clinical multidisciplinary team, objective assessment and standardized preoperative combination therapy creates the conditions for radical surgical resection of recurrent and complex locally advanced rectal cancer, while the need for rational and standardized R0 resection still has the potential to bring new hope to patients with locally advanced and recurrent rectal cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pelvic Exenteration/methods , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/surgery , Rectum/surgery , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Pelvis/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Retrospective Studies
9.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 75-83, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971236

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the factors influencing tumor-specific survival of early-onset locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods: All-age patients with primary locally advanced rectal cancer from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database (2010 to 2019) were included in this study. Early- and late-onset locally advanced rectal cancer was defined according to age of 50 years at diagnosis. Early-onset locally advanced rectal cancer was divided into five age groups for subgroup analyses. Age, sex, tumor-specific survival time and survival status of patients at diagnosis, pathological grade, TNM stage, perineural invasion, tumor deposits, tumor size, pretreatment CEA , radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and number of lymph node dissections were included. Progression-free survival (PFS) was analyzed and compared between patients with early- and late-onset rectal cancer. Results: A total of 5,048 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer were included in the study (aged 27-70 years): 1,290 (25.55%) patients with early-onset rectal cancer and 3,758 (74.45%) patients with late-onset rectal cancer. Patients with early-onset rectal cancer had a higher rate of perineural invasion (P<0.001), more positive lymph nodes dissected (P<0.001), higher positive lymph node ratios (P<0.001), and a higher proportion receiving preoperative radiotherapy (P=0.002). Patients with early-onset rectal cancer had slightly better short-term survival than those with late-onset rectal cancer (median (IQR ): 54 (33-83) vs 50 (31-79) months, χ2=5.192, P=0.023). Multivariate Cox regression for all patients with locally advanced rectal cancer showed that age (P=0.008), grade of tumor differentiation (P=0.002), pretreatment CEA (P=0.008), perineural invasion (P=0.021), positive number (P=0.004) and positive ratio (P=0.001) of dissected lymph nodes, and sequence of surgery and radiotherapy (P=0.005) influenced PFS. This suggests that the Cox regression results for all patients may not be applicable to patients with early-onset cancer. Cox analysis showed tumor differentiation grade (patients with low differentiation had a higher risk of death, P=0.027), TNM stage (stage III patients had a higher risk of death, P=0.025), T stage (higher risk of death in stage T4, P<0.001), pretreatment CEA (P=0.002), perineural invasion (P<0.001), tumor deposits (P=0.005), number of dissected lymph nodes (patients with removal of 12-20 lymph nodes had a lower risk of death, P<0.001), and positive number of dissected lymph nodes (P<0.001) were independent factors influencing PFS of patients with early-onset locally advanced rectal cancer. Conclusion: Patients with early-onset locally advanced rectal cancer were more likely to have adverse prognostic factors, but an adequate number of lymph node dissections (12-20) resulted in better survival outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Neoplasm Staging , Extranodal Extension/pathology , Survival Analysis , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Lymph Nodes/pathology
10.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 68-74, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971235

ABSTRACT

Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world, and surgery is the mainstage treatment. Urogenital and sexual dysfunction after radical resection of rectal cancer has become an important problem for patients, which seriously affects the quality of life. Some patients give up radical surgery for rectal cancer because of the concerns about sexual and urinary dysfunction. The cause of this problem is intraoperative of injury pelvic autonomic nerve. The preservation of the hypogastric nerve during the surgery is important for the male ejaculation. Pelvic splanchnic nerves are mainly responsible for the male erection. The anatomical origin, distribution, and urogenital function of these two nerves are detailed described in this article. At the same time, this article introduces the classification, key points of the operation and the evaluation of autonomic nerve preservation surgery. With the rapid development of minimally invasive surgery, performing radical surgery for rectal cancer is important, we also need to fully understand the anatomical concept of pelvic autonomic nerves, and apply modern minimally invasive surgical techniques to preserve the patient's pelvic autonomic nerves as well. It is an compulsory course and an important manifestation for the standardization of rectal cancer surgery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Clinical Relevance , Quality of Life , Autonomic Pathways/surgery , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Pelvis/innervation
11.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 51-57, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971233

ABSTRACT

After the implementation of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and total mesorectal excision, lateral local recurrence becomes the major type of local recurrence after surgery in rectal cancer. Most lateral recurrence develops from enlarged lateral lymph nodes on an initial imaging study. Evidence is accumulating to support the combined use of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and lateral lymph node dissection. The accuracy of diagnosing lateral lymph node metastasis remains poor. The size of lateral lymph nodes is still the most commonly used variable with the most consistent accuracy and the cut-off value ranging from 5 to 8 mm on short axis. The morphological features, differentiation of the primary tumor, circumferential margin, extramural venous invasion, and response to chemoradiotherapy are among other risk factors to predict lateral lymph node metastasis. Planning multiple disciplinary treatment strategies for patients with suspected nodes must consider both the risk of local recurrence and distant metastasis. Total neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy is the most promising regimen for patients with a high risk of recurrence. Simultaneous Integrated Boost Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy seemingly improves the local control of positive lateral nodes. However, its impact on the safety of surgery in patients with no response to the treatment or regrowth of lateral nodes remains unclear. For patients with smaller nodes below the cut-off value or shrunken nodes after treatment, a close follow-up strategy must be performed to detect the recurrence early and perform a salvage surgery. For patients with stratified lateral lymph node metastasis risks, plans containing different multiple disciplinary treatments must be carefully designed for long-term survival and better quality of life.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Quality of Life , Neoplasm Staging , Retrospective Studies , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Lymph Node Excision/methods , Neoadjuvant Therapy/methods , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/surgery
12.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 16-26, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971228

ABSTRACT

Pelvic exenteration is often required for primary rectal cancer beyond total mesorectal excision (PRC-bTME) and locally recurrent rectal cancer (LRRC). Some patients with radical resection can achieve long-term survival, but they need to face risks, such as huge surgical trauma, serious perioperative complications, permanent loss of organ function and decline in quality of life. Preoperative evaluation of PRC-bTME and LRRC should emphasize multidisciplinary collaboration, and develop individualized diagnosis and treatment strategies. The principles of function preservation and risk-benefit balance in surgery oncology should be followed, and R0 resection should be emphasized. Perioperative complications, surgical trauma and organ function loss should be minimized to achieve the best quality control and balance point. This consensus was formulated by the Colorectal Cancer Committee of the Chinese Medical Doctor Association and the Gastrointestinal Surgery Committee of China International Exchange and Promotive Association for Medical and Health Care. The draft was formed based on the summary of domestic and foreign research progress and expert experience. After discussion, review and modification by experts, an anonymous voting was conducted for each major opinion, and in-depth verification was carried out according to the principles of evidence-based medicine. Finally, the Chinese expert consensus on the pelvic exenteration with primary rectal cancer beyond total mesorectal excision planes and locally recurrent rectal cancer (2023 edition) was formed. This consensus mainly summarizes the indications and contraindications of PE for PRC-bTME and LRRC, preoperative diagnosis and evaluation, perioperative treatment, as well as the resection scope, surgical methods, reconstruction of related organs, safety and complications of PE, postoperative follow-up and other issues, in order to provide guidance for PE in patients with PRC-bTME and LRRC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Consensus , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/surgery , Pelvic Exenteration , Quality of Life , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Treatment Outcome , China
13.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 668-674, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986835

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate anatomical morphology and classification of persistent descending mesocolon (PDM) in patients with left-sided colorectal cancer, as well as the safety of laparoscopic radical surgery for these patients. Methods: This is a descriptive study of case series. Relevant clinical data of 995 patients with left colon and rectal cancer who had undergone radical surgery in Fujian Medical University Union Hospital from July 2021 to September 2022 were extracted from the colorectal surgery database of our institution and retrospectively analyzed. Twenty-four (2.4%) were identified as PDM and their imaging data and intra-operative videos were reviewed. We determined the distribution and morphology of the descending colon and mesocolon, and evaluated the feasibility and complications of laparoscopic surgery. We classified PDM according to its anatomical characteristics as follows: Type 0: PDM combined with malrotation of the midgut or persistent ascending mesocolon; Type 1: unfixed mesocolon at the junction between transverse and descending colon; Type 2: PDM with descending colon shifted medially (Type 2A) or to the right side (Type 2B) of the abdominal aorta at the level of the origin of the inferior mesentery artery (IMA); and Type 3: the mesocolon of the descending-sigmoid junction unfixed and the descending colon shifted medially and caudally to the origin of IMA. Results: The diagnosis of PDM was determined based on preoperative imaging findings in 9 of the 24 patients (37.5%) with left-sided colorectal cancer, while the remaining diagnoses were made during intraoperative assessment. Among 24 patients, 22 were male and 2 were female. The mean age was (63±9) years. We classified PDM as follows: Type 0 accounted for 4.2% (1/24); Type 1 for 8.3% (2/24); Types 2A and 2B for 37.5% (9/24) and 25.0% (6/24), respectively; and Type 3 accounted for 25.0% (6/24). All patients with PDM had adhesions of the mesocolon that required adhesiolysis. Additionally, 20 (83.3%) of them had adhesions between the mesentery of the ileum and colon. Twelve patients (50.0%) required mobilization of the splenic flexure. The inferior mesenteric artery branches had a common trunk in 14 patients (58.3%). Twenty-four patients underwent D3 surgery without conversion to laparotomy; the origin of the IMA being preserved in 22 (91.7%) of them. Proximal colon ischemia occurred intraoperatively in two patients (8.3%) who had undergone high ligation at the origin of the IMA. One of these patients had a juxta-anal low rectal cancer and underwent intersphincteric abdominoperineal resection because of poor preoperative anal function. Laparoscopic subtotal colectomy was considered necessary for the other patient. The duration of surgery was (260±100) minutes and the median estimated blood loss was 50 (20-200) mL. The median number of No. 253 lymph nodes harvested was 3 (0-20), and one patient (4.2%) had No.253 nodal metastases. The median postoperative hospital stay was 8 (4-23) days, and the incidence of complications 16.7% (4/24). There were no instances of postoperative colon ischemia or necrosis observed. One patient (4.2%) with stage IIA rectal cancer developed Grade B (Clavien-Dindo III) anastomotic leak and underwent elective ileostomy. The other complications were Grade I-II. Conclusions: PDM is frequently associated with mesenteric adhesions. Our proposed classification can assist surgeons in identifying the descending colon and mesocolon during adhesion lysis in laparoscopic surgery. It is crucial to protect the colorectal blood supply at the resection margin to minimize the need for unplanned extended colectomy, the Hartmann procedure, or permanent stomas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Mesocolon/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Laparoscopy/methods , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Colectomy/methods , Ischemia
14.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 650-655, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986834

ABSTRACT

The theory of membrane anatomy has been widely used in the field of colorectal surgery. The key point to perform high quality total mesorectal excision (TME) and complete mesocolic excision (CME) is to identify the correct anatomical plane. Intraoperative identification of the various fasciae and fascial spaces is the key to accessing the correct surgical plane and surgical success. The landmark vessels refer to the small vessels that originate from the original peritoneum on the surface of the abdominal viscera during embryonic development and are produced by the fusion of the fascial space. From the point of view of embryonic development, the abdominopelvic fascial structure is a continuous unit, and the landmark vessels on its surface do not change morphologically with the fusion of fasciae and have a specific pattern. Drawing on previous literature and clinical surgical observations, we believe that tiny vessels could be used to identify various fused fasciae and anatomical planes. This is a specific example of membrane anatomical surgery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mesentery/surgery , Colonic Neoplasms/surgery , Colorectal Surgery , Digestive System Surgical Procedures , Peritoneum/surgery , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Laparoscopy
15.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 607-613, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986827

ABSTRACT

Intersphincteric resection (ISR) has been performed as an ultimate sphincter-sparing strategy in selected patients with low rectal cancer. Accumulating evidence suggests that ISR may be an interesting alternative to abdominoperineal resection to avoid a permanent stoma without compromising oncological outcomes. However, bowel dysfunction is a most common consequence of ISR not to be neglected. To date, limited clinical research has reported functional and quality of life outcomes according to patient-reported outcome measures. Also, data concerning management of low anterior resection syndrome are scarce due to lack of quality evidence. Therefore, this review provides an up-to-date summary of systematic assessment (including function, quality of life, manometry and morphology) and bowel rehabilitation for ISR patients. Postoperative anal function is often assessed by a combination of scales, including the Incontinence Assessment Scale, the Gastrointestinal Function Questionnaire, the Specific LARS Assessment Scale and the Faecal Diary. The condition-specific Quality of Life Scale is more appropriate for Quality-of-life measures in fecal incontinence after ISR. Patients' physiological function after ISR can be assessed using water- or high-resolution solid-state anorectal manometry. Anatomical and morphological changes can be assessed using defecography and 3D endorectal ultrasound. Electrical stimulation and biofeedback, pelvic floor exercises, rectal balloon training, transanal irrigation and sacral neuromodulation are all options for post-operative rehabilitation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Postoperative Complications , Anal Canal/surgery , Quality of Life , Organ Sparing Treatments , Fecal Incontinence
16.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 603-606, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986826

ABSTRACT

Transanal total mesorectal resection (taTME) has come a long way since it was first used in the clinic in 2010.The learning curve of this procedure is long due to different surgical approaches, different perspectives and different anatomical positions. Many surgeons experience complications during this procedure. Although the advantages and problems of this procedure have been reported in much literature, the anatomy and operation methods of taTME introduced in literatures and training centers are too complicated, which makes many surgeons encounter difficulties in carrying out taTME surgery. According to the author's experience in learning and carrying out this operation, spatial expansion process of ultralow rectal cancer was divided into three stages. At each stage, according to different pulling forces, three different schemes of triangular stability mechanics model were adopted for separation. From point to line, from line to plane, the model can protect the safety of peripheral blood vessels and nerves while ensuring total mesorectal excision . This model simplifies the complex surgical process and is convenient for beginners to master taTME surgical separation skills.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rectum/surgery , Laparoscopy/methods , Transanal Endoscopic Surgery/methods , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Proctectomy/methods , Postoperative Complications , Treatment Outcome
17.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 578-587, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986823

ABSTRACT

Objective: To document the anatomical structure of the area anterior to the anorectum passing through the levator hiatus between the levator ani slings bilaterally. Methods: Three male hemipelvises were examined at the Laboratory of Clinical Applied Anatomy, Fujian Medical University. (1) The anatomical assessment was performed in three ways; namely, by abdominal followed by perineal dissection, by examining serial cross-sections, and by examining median sagittal sections. (2) The series was stained with hematoxylin and eosin to enable identification of nerves, vessels, and smooth and striated muscles. Results: (1) It was found that the rectourethralis muscle is closest to the deep transverse perineal muscle where the longitudinal muscle of the rectum extends into the posteroinferior area of the membranous urethra. The communicating branches of the neurovascular bundle (NVB) were identified at the posterior edge of the rectourethralis muscle on both sides. The rectum was found to be fixed to the membranous urethra through the rectourethral muscle, contributing to the anorectal angle of the anterior rectal wall. (2) Serial cross-sections from the anal to the oral side were examined. At the level of the external anal sphincter, the longitudinal muscle of the rectum was found to extend caudally and divide into two muscle bundles on the oral side of the external anal sphincter. One of these muscle bundles angled dorsally and caudally, forming the conjoined longitudinal muscle, which was found to insert into the intersphincteric space (between the internal and external anal sphincters). The other muscle bundle angled ventrally and caudally, filling the gap between the external anal sphincter and the bulbocavernosus muscle, forming the perineal body. At the level of the superficial transverse perineal muscle, this small muscle bundle headed laterally and intertwined with the longitudinal muscle in the region of the perineal body. At the level of the rectourethralis and deep transverse perineal muscle, the external urethral sphincter was found to occupy an almost completely circular space along the membranous part of the urethra. The dorsal part of the external urethral sphincter was found to be thin at the point of attachment of the rectourethralis muscle, the ventral part of the longitudinal muscle of the rectum. We identified a venous plexus from the NVB located close to the oral and ventral side of the deep transverse perineal muscle. Many vascular branches from the NVB were found to be penetrating the longitudinal muscle and the ventral part of rectourethralis muscle at the level of the apex of the prostate. The rectourethral muscle was wrapped ventrally around the membranous urethra and apex of the prostate. The boundary between the longitudinal muscle and prostate gradually became more distinct, being located at the anterior end of the transabdominal dissection plane. (3) Histological examination showed that the dorsal part of the external urethral sphincter (striated muscle) is thin adjacent to the striated muscle fibers from the deep transverse perineal muscle and the NVB dorsally and close by. The rectourethral muscle was found to fill the space created by the internal anal sphincter, deep transverse perineal muscle, and both levator ani muscles. Many tortuous vessels and tiny nerve fibers from the NVB were identified penetrating the muscle fibers of the deep transverse perineal and rectourethral muscles. The structure of the superficial transverse perineal muscle was typical of striated muscle. These findings were reconstructed three-dimensionally. Conclusions: In intersphincteric resection or abdominoperineal resection for very low rectal cancer, the anterior dissection plane behind Denonvilliers' fascia disappears at the level of the apex of the prostate. The prostate and both NVBs should be used as landmarks during transanal dissection of the non-surgical plane. The rectourethralis muscle should be divided near the rectum side unless tumor involvement is suspected. The superficial and deep transverse perineal muscles, as well as their supplied vessels and nerve fibers from the NVB. In addition, the cutting direction should be adjusted according to the anorectal angle to minimize urethral injury.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Rectum/surgery , Anal Canal/anatomy & histology , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Proctectomy , Urethra/surgery
18.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 562-566, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986821

ABSTRACT

The anatomical studies of intersphincteric resection (ISR) have made remarkable progress in recent years. The anatomy of internal, external sphincter and hiatal ligament has been further understood. In this paper, the generation and functional mechanism of ISR related anatomy are described from the embryonic development process, and then the influence of hiatal ligament and internal sphincter on ISR surgery is analyzed respectively according to the anatomical characteristics. Finally, the correlation analysis of anatomical factors on the common problems of mucosal bleeding and instrument anastomosis in ISR is carried out. The objective of this paper is to improve the safety of ISR surgery by providing detailed anatomical explanations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anal Canal/surgery , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Clinical Relevance , Anastomosis, Surgical
19.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 557-561, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986820

ABSTRACT

ISR is the most widely used anal-preserving operation for ultra-low rectal cancer. It can be divided into total ISR, subtotal ISR and partial ISR according to the resection range of internal sphincter. The advantage of ISR is that it can preserve the sphincter while ensuring the safety of oncology for ultra-low rectal cancer, representing the state of the art. However, it still needs to face the problem that the quality of life will decline due to poor postoperative anal function. The conformal sphincter-preserving operation (CSPO) is a functional anal-preserving surgery improved on the basis of ISR. It is superior to ISR in the postoperative anal function and patients' quality of life. So it can be a new choice for ultra-low rectal cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Quality of Life , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Anal Canal/surgery , Digestive System Surgical Procedures/methods , Anastomosis, Surgical , Treatment Outcome
20.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 357-364, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986798

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the feasibility of Cai tube-assisted natural orifice specimen extraction surgery (NOSES) in gastrointestinal surgery. Methods: This was a descriptive case-series study. Inclusion criteria: (1) colorectal or gastric cancer diagnosed by preoperative pathological examination or redundant sigmoid or transverse colon detected by barium enema; (2) indications for laparoscopic surgery; (3) body mass index <30 kg/m2 (transanal surgery) and 35 kg/m2 (transvaginal surgery); (4) no vaginal stenosis or adhesions in female patients undergoing transvaginal specimen extraction; and (5) patients with redundant colon aged 18-70 years and a history of intractable constipation for more than 10 years. Exclusion criteria: (1) colorectal cancer with intestinal perforation or obstruction, or gastric cancer with gastric perforation, gastric hemorrhage, or pyloric obstruction; (2) simultaneous resection of lung, bone, or liver metastases ; (3) history of major abdominal surgery or intestinal adhesions; and (4) incomplete clinical data. From January 2014 to October 2022, 209 patients with gastrointestinal tumors and 25 with redundant colons who met the above criteria were treated by NOSES utilizing a Cai tube (China invention patent number:ZL201410168748.2) in the Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Zhongshan Hospital, Xiamen University. The procedures included eversion and pull-out NOSES radical resection in 14 patients with middle and low rectal cancer, NOSES radical left hemicolectomy in 171 patients with left-sided colorectal cancer, NOSES radical right hemicolectomy in 12 patients with right-sided colon cancer, NOSES systematic mesogastric resection in 12 patients with gastric cancer, and NOSES subtotal colectomy in 25 patients with redundant colons. All specimens were collected by using an in-house-made anal cannula (Cai tube) with no auxiliary incisions. The primary outcomes included 1-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) and postoperative complications. Results: Among 234 patients, 116 were male and 118 were female. The mean age was (56.6±10.9) years. NOSES was successfully completed in all patients without conversion to open surgery or procedure-related death. The negative rate of circumferential resection margin was 98.8% (169/171) with both two positive cases having left-sided colorectal cancer. Postoperative complications occurred in 37 patients (15.8%), including 11 cases (4.7%) of anastomotic leakage, 3 cases(1.3%) of anastomotic bleeding, 2 cases (0.9%) of intraperitoneal bleeding, 4 cases (1.7%) of abdominal infection, and 8 cases (3.4%) of pulmonary infection. Reoperations were required in 7 patients (3.0%), all of whom consented to creation of an ileostomy after anastomotic leakage. The total readmission rate within 30 days after surgery was 0.9% (2/234). After a follow-up of (18.3±3.6) months, the 1-year RFS was 94.7%. Five of 209 patients (2.4%) with gastrointestinal tumors had local recurrence, all of which was anastomotic recurrence. Sixteen patients (7.7%) developed distant metastases, including liver metastases(n=8), lung metastases(n=6), and bone metastases (n=2). Conclusion: NOSES assisted by Cai tube is feasible and safe in radical resection of gastrointestinal tumors and subtotal colectomy for redundant colon.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Anastomotic Leak/surgery , Stomach Neoplasms/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Laparoscopy , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Colectomy , Postoperative Complications , Liver Neoplasms/surgery , Treatment Outcome
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