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1.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 6-20, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010785

ABSTRACT

Originating but free from chromosomal DNA, extrachromosomal circular DNAs (eccDNAs) are organized in circular form and have long been found in unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes. Their biogenesis and function are poorly understood as they are characterized by sequence homology with linear DNA, for which few detection methods are available. Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies have revealed that eccDNAs play crucial roles in tumor formation, evolution, and drug resistance as well as aging, genomic diversity, and other biological processes, bringing it back to the research hotspot. Several mechanisms of eccDNA formation have been proposed, including the breakage-fusion-bridge (BFB) and translocation-deletion-amplification models. Gynecologic tumors and disorders of embryonic and fetal development are major threats to human reproductive health. The roles of eccDNAs in these pathological processes have been partially elucidated since the first discovery of eccDNA in pig sperm and the double minutes in ovarian cancer ascites. The present review summarized the research history, biogenesis, and currently available detection and analytical methods for eccDNAs and clarified their functions in gynecologic tumors and reproduction. We also proposed the application of eccDNAs as drug targets and liquid biopsy markers for prenatal diagnosis and the early detection, prognosis, and treatment of gynecologic tumors. This review lays theoretical foundations for future investigations into the complex regulatory networks of eccDNAs in vital physiological and pathological processes.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Animals , Humans , Swine , DNA, Circular/genetics , Genital Neoplasms, Female , Semen , DNA , Reproduction
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e249169, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345546

ABSTRACT

Abstract The American Barn Owl (Tyto furcata) lives in urban, periurban and wild environments and feeds mainly on small rodents, meaning it has great importance in the biological control of pests. The aim of this work was to describe the reproductive, parental and eating habits of a pair of American barn owls naturally living outside a residence in the urban area of the municipality of Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. A wood box was installed on an outside wall of the home, monitored by a video camera. A spreadsheet was created to keep track of the observations recorded. The female laid four eggs, and after an incubation period of 30-32 days all the eggs hatched, but only two chicks survived after cannibalism among the chicks. Initially, the male provided the food to the chicks and the female remained in the nest caring for the brood. After approximately a month, the female also began to leave the nest and return with prey, which was offered to the chicks, with the male also continuing this behavior. The chicks left the nest in September, 2017. The data obtained show the existence of cooperation and division of tasks between male and female owls during the reproductive period.


Resumo A coruja-das-torres americana (Tyto furcata) vive em ambientes urbanos e se alimenta principalmente de pequenos roedores, sendo de grande importância no controle biológico de pragas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever os hábitos alimentares, parentais e reprodutivos de um casal de corujas-das-torres americanas, naturalmente vivendo fora de uma residência na zona urbana do município de Campos dos Goytacazes, estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Uma caixa de madeira foi instalada em uma parede externa da casa, monitorada por uma câmera de vídeo. Uma planilha foi criada para manter o controle das observações registradas. A fêmea pôs quatro ovos, e após período de incubação de 30-32 dias todos os ovos eclodiram, mas apenas dois filhotes sobreviveram após o canibalismo entre os filhotes. Inicialmente, o macho fornecia a comida aos filhotes e a fêmea permanecia no ninho cuidando da ninhada. Depois de cerca de um mês, a fêmea também começou a sair do ninho e voltar com a presa, que era oferecida aos filhotes, com o macho também continuando com esse comportamento. Os filhotes deixaram o ninho em setembro de 2017. Os dados obtidos mostram a existência de cooperação e divisão de tarefas entre corujas machos e fêmeas durante o período reprodutivo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Strigiformes , Reproduction , Brazil , Feeding Behavior
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254011, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355886

ABSTRACT

Abstract Livestock is a fundamental part of the agriculture industry in Pakistan and contributes more than 11.53% to GDP. Among livestock species, the buffaloes are regarded as the black gold of Pakistan. Being the highest milk producers globally, Nili-Ravi buffaloes are the most famous ones. Buffaloes are affected by many endemic diseases, and "Hemorrhagic septicemia" (HS) is one of them. This study was designed to ascertain the effects of experimental exposure ofP. multocida B:2 (oral) and its immunogens, i.e., LPS (oral and intravenous) and OMP (oral and subcutaneous) on reproductive hormonal profiles in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Repeated serum samples were collected from the jugular vein of experimental animals for 21 days (0, 02, 04, 08, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36, 48, 72, 120, 168, 216, 264, 360, 456 and 504 hours). Hormonal assays to determine the serum concentrations of Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH), Estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P4) were performed using (MyBioSource) commercial Elisa kits. The hormonal profile of all treatment groups of the buffalo heifers exhibited significant (P<0.05) variations as compared to the control group (G-1). These results indicate suppression in Nili-Ravi buffaloes' reproductive hormonal profile on exposure to P. multocida B:2 and its immunogens. This influence warrants that exposure to H.S may be a possible reason for delayed puberty and poor reproduction performance in Nili-Ravi buffaloes.


Resumo A pecuária é uma parte fundamental da indústria agrícola no Paquistão e contribui com 11,53% do PIB nacional. Entre as espécies de gado, os búfalos são considerados o ouro negro do Paquistão. Sendo os maiores produtores de leite em todo o mundo, os búfalos Nili-Ravi são os mais famosos. Os búfalos são afetados por muitas doenças endêmicas, entre as quais a "septicemia hemorrágica" (SH). Este estudo busca verificar os efeitos da exposição experimental de P. multocida B:2 (oral) e seus imunógenos, ou seja, LPS (oral e intravenoso) e OMP (oral e subcutâneo), nos perfis hormonais reprodutivos em búfalos Nili-Ravi. Amostras de soro repetidas foram coletadas da veia jugular de animais experimentais por 21 dias (0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36, 48, 72, 120, 168, 216, 264, 360, 456 e 504 horas). Os ensaios hormonais para determinar as concentrações séricas do hormônio liberador de gonadotrofina (GnRH), hormônio foliculoestimulante (FSH), hormônio luteinizante (LH), estrogênio (E2) e progesterona (P4) foram realizados usando kits comerciais Elisa (MyBioSource). O perfil hormonal de todos os grupos de tratamento das novilhas bubalinas apresentou variações significativas (P < 0,05) em relação ao grupo controle (G-1). Esses resultados indicam supressão no perfil hormonal reprodutivo de búfalos Nili-Ravi na exposição a P. multocida B:2 e seus imunógenos. Essa influência garante que a exposição à SH possa ser uma possível razão para o atraso da puberdade e o baixo desempenho reprodutivo em búfalos Nili-Ravi.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pasteurella Infections/veterinary , Reproduction , Gonadal Steroid Hormones/blood , Buffaloes , Progesterone , Cattle , Lipopolysaccharides , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone , Pasteurella multocida
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256354, 2024.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364518

ABSTRACT

Termites are known as social insects worldwide. Presently in China 473 species, 44 genera and 4 families of termites have been reported. Of them, 111 Reticulitermes species are widely spread in different zones of China. The dispersion flight season of these Chinese Reticulitermes species are usually started from February to June, but in some regions different species are distributed, sharing their boundaries and having overlapping flight seasons. These reasons become important sources of hybridization between two different heterospecific populations of termites. It was confirmed that the fertilized eggs and unfertilized eggs of some Reticulitermes termites have the capacity of cleavage. While the unfertilized eggs of R. aculabialis, R. chinensis and R. labralis cleaved normally and the only R. aculabialis unfertilized eggs develop in embryos. While, the R. flaviceps and R. chinensis were observed with their abnormal embryonic development, and not hatching of eggs parthenogenetically. They were reported more threatening to Chinese resources as they propagate with parthenogenesis, hybridization and sexual reproduction. Eggshell and macrophiles of eggs play important roles in species identification and control. Although, they are severe pests and cause a wide range of damages to wooden structures and products in homes, buildings, building materials, trees, crops, and forests in China's Mainland.


Os cupins são conhecidos como insetos sociais em todo o mundo. Atualmente na China foram relatadas 473 espécies, 44 gêneros e 4 famílias de cupins. Destas, 111 espécies de Reticulitermes estão amplamente distribuídas em diferentes zonas da China. A temporada de voo de dispersão dessas espécies chinesas de Reticulitermes geralmente começa de fevereiro a junho, mas em algumas regiões diferentes espécies são distribuídas, compartilhando seus limites e tendo temporadas de voo sobrepostas. Essas razões tornam-se importantes fontes de hibridização entre duas populações heteroespecíficas de cupins. Foi confirmado que os ovos fertilizados e não fertilizados de alguns cupins Reticulitermes possuem capacidade de clivagem. Já os ovos não fertilizados de R. aculabialis, R. chinensis e R. labralis clivaram normalmente, e os únicos ovos não fertilizados de R. aculabialis se desenvolvem em embriões. R. flaviceps e R. chinensis foram observados com desenvolvimento embrionário anormal, e não eclosão de ovos por partenogênese. Eles foram relatados como mais ameaçadores para os recursos chineses à medida que se propagam com partenogênese, hibridização e reprodução sexual. Casca de ovo e macrófilos de ovos desempenham papéis importantes na identificação e controle de espécies, embora sejam pragas graves e causem uma ampla gama de danos a estruturas e produtos de madeira em residências, edifícios, materiais de construção, árvores, plantações e florestas na China continental.


Subject(s)
Animals , Parthenogenesis , Reproduction , Isoptera/growth & development , China , Hybridization, Genetic
5.
Rev. cienc. salud (Bogotá) ; 21(1): 1-15, ene.-abr. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1427746

ABSTRACT

durante la adolescencia se adquieren conocimientos y se desarrollan actitudes hacia el sexo, la anticoncepción y la reproducción, aspectos que influirán en el comportamiento sexual que repercute directamente en la calidad de vida. Por tanto, el objetivo de este estudio fue determinar los factores sociales y emocionales asociados al inicio de la actividad sexual, así como sus consecuencias como el embarazo y las enfermedades de transmisión sexual en adolescentes y adultos jóvenes. Materiales y métodos: estudio descriptivo, transversal y correlacional de una muestra de 1191 estudiantes de secundaria que recibieron cuestionarios sobre factores socioemocionales e iniciación sexual. Los datos se procesaron mediante estadística descriptiva y la prueba chi-cuadrado de Pearson para determinar la asociación entre los factores evaluados. Resultados: la tasa de inicio de la actividad sexual entre los adolescentes fue del 45 %, de los cuales el 14 % utilizaba protección. El 88,8 % de los adolescentes dice recibir apoyo de los padres, el 39 % acepta tratos violentos en el hogar y el 47 % tuvo una madre adolescente embarazada, entre otros aspectos. Conclusiones: existe una relación significativa (con p < 0.05) entre los factores socioemocionales de género, proyectos de vida, actividades extracurriculares, apoyo de los padres, violencia intrafamiliar y maltrato, con respecto a las madres con antecedente de embarazo precoz e inicio de la actividad sexual en la adolescencia.


During adolescence, knowledge is acquired and attitudes toward sex, contraception, and reproduction are developed, aspects that will influence sexual behavior, which has a direct impact on quality of life. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the social and emotional factors associated with the onset of sexual activity and its consequences, such as pregnancy and sexually transmitted dis-eases, among adolescents and young adults. Materials and Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional, and cor-relational study involving 1,191 high school students was conducted. A questionnaire containing questions on socio-emotional factors and sexual initiation was administered. Data were processed using descriptive statistics and Pearson's chi-square test to determine the association between the evaluated factors. Results:The initiation rate of sexual activity among adolescents was 45%, of whom 14% used protection. However, 88.8% of the adolescents received parental support, 39% accepted violent treatment at home, and 47% had a pregnant adolescent mother, among other aspects. Conclusions: There is a significant relationship between the socio-emotional factors of sex, life projects, extracurricular activities, parental support, intra-family violence, and mistreatment. Having a mother with a history of early pregnancy is associated with the onset of sexual activity among adolescents.


durante a adolescência, são adquiridos conhecimentos e desenvolvidas atitudes em relação ao sexo, contracepção e reprodução, aspectos que irão influenciar o comportamento sexual que afeta diretamente a qualidade de vida. Portanto, o objetivo deste estudo foi determinar os fatores sociais e emocionais associados ao início da atividade sexual, bem como suas consequências, como a gravidez e doenças sexualmente transmissíveis em adolescentes e jovens adultos. Materiais e métodos: estudo descritivo, transversal e correlacional em uma amostra de 1191 estudantes do ensino médio que rece-beram questionários sobre fatores socioemocionais e iniciação sexual. Os dados foram processados por meio de estatística descritiva e teste qui-quadrado de Pearson para determinar a associação entre os fatores avaliados. Resultados: a taxa de início da atividade sexual entre os adolescentes foi de 45%, dos quais 14% utilizavam proteção. 88,8% dos adolescentes afirmaram receber apoio dos pais, 39% recebem tratamento violento em casa e 47% têm mãe adolescente grávida, entre outros aspectos. Conclusões: existe uma relação significativa com p < 0,05 entre os fatores socioemocionais de gênero, projetos de vida, atividades extracurriculares, apoio parental, violência doméstica e maus-tratos. Mães com histó-rico de gravidez precoce e início da atividade sexual na adolescência.


Subject(s)
Humans , Reproduction , Sex , Sexual Behavior , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Contraception , Education, Primary and Secondary , Gender Identity , Social Factors
6.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 760-767, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008129

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the relationship of menarche age,menopause age,and reproductive period with cognitive function in the female patients with hypertension.Methods Hypertension screening was carried out in Wuyuan county of Jiangxi province from July to August in 2018.Data were collected through a face-to-face questionnaire survey,physical measurement,and biochemical tests.The cognitive function was scored according to the mini-mental state examination(MMSE)scale.Multiple linear regression and Logistic regression were employed to analyze the effects of menarche age,menopause age,and reproductive period on cognitive function,and the penalized spline regression to fit the curves.Results A total of 4595 postmenopausal women with hypertension were included in the analysis,with the mean age of(65.1±8.4)years,mean menarche age of(16.6±2.2)years,mean menopause age of(48.2±5.0)years,mean reproductive period of(31.7±5.5)years,mean MMSE score of(19.0±6.3)points,and total cognitive impairment detection rate of 40.4%(1859/4595).The detection rates of cognitive impairment were 28.4%,39.1%,and 45.8% in the females with the menarche ages of <15,15-16,and ≥17 years,47.9%,39.7%,and 38.3% in the females with the menopausal ages of <45,45-49,and ≥50 years,and 56.0%,44.4%,40.6%,and 32.6% in the females with the reproductive periods of <25,25-29,30-34,and ≥35 years,respectively.Moreover,the detection rates of cognitive impairment among different age groups were statistically significant(all P<0.05).Compared with the group with the menarche age <15 years,the groups with the menarche ages of 15-16 years and ≥17 years showed increased detection rates of cognitive impairment(OR=1.45,95%CI=1.19-1.75,P<0.001;OR=1.65,95%CI=1.37-1.98,P<0.001).Compared with the group with the menopausal age <45 years,the groups with the menopausal ages of 45-49 years and ≥50 years showed decreased detection rates of cognitive impairment(OR=0.80,95%CI=0.66-0.95,P=0.013;OR=0.78,95%CI=0.65-0.93,P<0.001).Compared with the group with the reproductive period <25 years,the groups with the reproductive periods of 25-29,30-34,and ≥35 years showed decreased detection rates of cognitive impairment(OR=0.66,95%CI=0.52-0.84,P<0.001;OR=0.62,95%CI=0.50-0.76,P<0.001;OR=0.51,95%CI=0.41-0.63,P<0.001).Conclusion The detection rate of cognitive impairment had a positive correlation with menarche age and negative correlations with menopause age and reproductive period in the female patients with hypertension.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Adolescent , Menopause , Menarche , Reproduction , Hypertension , Cognition , Age Factors , Risk Factors
7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2829-2840, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981386

ABSTRACT

Natural Cordyceps sinensis as an insect-fungal complex, which is developed after Ophiocordyceps sinensis infects a larva of Hepialidae family. Seventeen genotypes of O. sinensis have been identified in natural C. sinensis. This paper summarized the literature reports and GenBank database regarding occurrence and transcription of the mating-type genes of MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 idiomorphs in natural C. sinensis, in Hirsutella sinensis(GC-biased Genotype #1 of O. sinensis), to infer the mating pattern of O. sinensis in the lifecycle of natural C. sinensis. The mating-type genes and transcripts of MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 idiomorphs were identified in the metagenomes and metatranscriptomes of natural C. sinensis. However, their fungal sources are unclear because of co-colonization of several genotypes of O. sinensis and multiple fungal species in natural C. sinensis. The mating-type genes of MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 idiomorphs were differentially present in 237 H. sinensis strains, constituting the genetic control of the O. sinensis reproduction. Transcriptional control of the O. sinensis reproduction includes: differential transcription or silencing of the mating-type genes of MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 idiomorphs, and the MAT1-2-1 transcript with unspliced intron I that contains 3 stop codons. Research on the H. sinensis transcriptome demonstrated differential and complementary transcriptions of the mating-type genes of MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 idiomorphs in Strains L0106 and 1229, which may become mating partners to accomplish physiological heterothallism. The differential occurrence and transcription of the mating-type genes in H. sinensis are inconsistent with the self-fertilization hypothesis under homothallism or pseudohomothallism, but instead indicate the need of mating partners of the same H. sinensis species, either monoecious or dioecious, for physiological heterothallism, or heterospecific species for hybridization. Multiple GC-and AT-biased genotypes of O. sinensis were identified in the stroma, stromal fertile portion(densely covered with numerous ascocarps) and ascospores of natural C. sinensis. It needs to be further explored if the genome-independent O. sinensis genotypes could become mating partners to accomplish sexual reproduction. S. hepiali Strain FENG experienced differential transcription of the mating-type genes with a pattern complementary to that of H. sinensis Strain L0106. Additional evidence is needed to explore a hybridization possibility between S. hepiali and H. sinensis, whether they are able to break the interspecific reproductive isolation. Genotypes #13~14 of O. sinensis feature large DNA segment reciprocal substitutions and genetic material recombination between 2 heterospecific parental fungi, H. sinensis and an AB067719-type fungus, indicating a possibility of hybridization or parasexuality. Our analysis provides important information at the genetic and transcriptional levels regarding the mating-type gene expression and reproduction physiology of O. sinensis in the sexual life of natural C. sinensis and offers crucial reproductive physiology evidence, to assist in the design of the artificial cultivation of C. sinensis to supplement the increasing scarcity of natural resource.


Subject(s)
Cordyceps/genetics , Genes, Mating Type, Fungal/genetics , Reproduction/genetics
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-5, 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468857

ABSTRACT

The agouti (Dasyprocta leporina) is a rodent that is found in the Neo-tropical region. This animal is hunted for its meat but has recently been reared in captivity as a source of meat protein in rural communities. A 20-month experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of an anthelmintic on the reproductive performance of the agouti (Dasyprocta leporina) reared in captivity. This experiment was conducted in the humid tropics of Trinidad and Tobago. Sixteen animals (15 females, 1 male) placed in each of the two treatment groups in a completely randomized study design. In treatment 1 (T1) animals were given subcutaneous injections of Endovet Ces® (Ivermectin/Praziquantel) at 0.2 mg/kg every three months. Treatment 2 (T2) was the negative control group where animals were not exposed to an anthelmintic. Reproductive data were collected at parturition which included birth weight, litter weight, litter size and gender of offspring. The results showed that there was no statistical difference (p > 0.05) between the treatment groups with respect to birth weight, litter weight, litter size and gender. However, agoutis that were dewormed had a higher birth weight (220.24 g vs 209.1 g) and litter weight (369.8 g vs 343 g). The same values were obtained for the litter size (1.7 vs 1.7) and animals that were dewormed had a higher female offspring to male offspring (2.41:1 vs 1.11:1). This experiment demonstrated that the use of an anthelmintic strategically in the management of captive reared agoutis had no statistical effect (p > 0.05) on the reproductive parameters. Therefore, these animals can be kept in captive conditions without being dewormed and produce efficiently with proper feeding and housing management.


A cutia (Dasyprocta leporina) é um roedor que se encontra na região neo-tropical. Esse animal é caçado por sua carne, mas recentemente foi criado em cativeiro como fonte de proteína de carne em comunidades rurais. Um experimento de 20 meses foi realizado para avaliar o efeito de um anti-helmíntico no desempenho reprodutivo de cutias (Dasyprocta leporina) criadas em cativeiro. Esse experimento foi conduzido nos trópicos úmidos de Trinidad e Tobago. Dezesseis animais (15 fêmeas, 1 macho) colocados em cada um dos dois grupos de tratamento em um desenho de estudo completamente randomizado. No tratamento 1 (T1) os animais receberam injeções subcutâneas de Endovet Ces® (Ivermectina / Praziquantel) na dose de 0,2 mg / kg a cada três meses. O tratamento 2 (T2) foi o grupo de controle negativo onde os animais não foram expostos a um anti-helmíntico. Os dados reprodutivos foram coletados no parto, incluindo peso ao nascer, peso da ninhada, tamanho da ninhada e sexo da prole. Os resultados mostraram que não houve diferença estatística (p > 0,05) entre os grupos de tratamento com relação ao peso ao nascer, peso da ninhada, tamanho da ninhada e sexo. No entanto, cutias desparasitadas tiveram maior peso ao nascer (220,24 g vs. 209,1 g) e peso da ninhada (369,8 g vs. 343 g). Os mesmos valores foram obtidos para o tamanho da ninhada (1,7 vs. 1,7) e os animais que foram desparasitados tiveram uma prole feminina maior do que a prole masculina (2,41: 1 vs. 1,11: 1). Esse experimento demonstrou que o uso de anti-helmíntico estrategicamente no manejo de cutias criadas em cativeiro não teve efeito estatístico (p > 0,05) sobre os parâmetros reprodutivos. Portanto, esses animais podem ser mantidos em cativeiro sem serem vermifugados e produzir de forma eficiente com alimentação adequada e manejo do alojamento.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Animals , Anthelmintics/administration & dosage , Dasyproctidae , Birth Weight/drug effects , Reproduction/drug effects , Clutch Size/drug effects
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246781, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285625

ABSTRACT

Abstract The agouti (Dasyprocta leporina) is a rodent that is found in the Neo-tropical region. This animal is hunted for its meat but has recently been reared in captivity as a source of meat protein in rural communities. A 20-month experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of an anthelmintic on the reproductive performance of the agouti (Dasyprocta leporina) reared in captivity. This experiment was conducted in the humid tropics of Trinidad and Tobago. Sixteen animals (15 females, 1 male) placed in each of the two treatment groups in a completely randomized study design. In treatment 1 (T1) animals were given subcutaneous injections of Endovet Ces® (Ivermectin/Praziquantel) at 0.2 mg/kg every three months. Treatment 2 (T2) was the negative control group where animals were not exposed to an anthelmintic. Reproductive data were collected at parturition which included birth weight, litter weight, litter size and gender of offspring. The results showed that there was no statistical difference (p > 0.05) between the treatment groups with respect to birth weight, litter weight, litter size and gender. However, agoutis that were dewormed had a higher birth weight (220.24 g vs 209.1 g) and litter weight (369.8 g vs 343 g). The same values were obtained for the litter size (1.7 vs 1.7) and animals that were dewormed had a higher female offspring to male offspring (2.41:1 vs 1.11:1). This experiment demonstrated that the use of an anthelmintic strategically in the management of captive reared agoutis had no statistical effect (p > 0.05) on the reproductive parameters. Therefore, these animals can be kept in captive conditions without being dewormed and produce efficiently with proper feeding and housing management.


Resumo A cutia (Dasyprocta leporina) é um roedor que se encontra na região neo-tropical. Esse animal é caçado por sua carne, mas recentemente foi criado em cativeiro como fonte de proteína de carne em comunidades rurais. Um experimento de 20 meses foi realizado para avaliar o efeito de um anti-helmíntico no desempenho reprodutivo de cutias (Dasyprocta leporina) criadas em cativeiro. Esse experimento foi conduzido nos trópicos úmidos de Trinidad e Tobago. Dezesseis animais (15 fêmeas, 1 macho) colocados em cada um dos dois grupos de tratamento em um desenho de estudo completamente randomizado. No tratamento 1 (T1) os animais receberam injeções subcutâneas de Endovet Ces® (Ivermectina / Praziquantel) na dose de 0,2 mg / kg a cada três meses. O tratamento 2 (T2) foi o grupo de controle negativo onde os animais não foram expostos a um anti-helmíntico. Os dados reprodutivos foram coletados no parto, incluindo peso ao nascer, peso da ninhada, tamanho da ninhada e sexo da prole. Os resultados mostraram que não houve diferença estatística (p > 0,05) entre os grupos de tratamento com relação ao peso ao nascer, peso da ninhada, tamanho da ninhada e sexo. No entanto, cutias desparasitadas tiveram maior peso ao nascer (220,24 g vs. 209,1 g) e peso da ninhada (369,8 g vs. 343 g). Os mesmos valores foram obtidos para o tamanho da ninhada (1,7 vs. 1,7) e os animais que foram desparasitados tiveram uma prole feminina maior do que a prole masculina (2,41: 1 vs. 1,11: 1). Esse experimento demonstrou que o uso de anti-helmíntico estrategicamente no manejo de cutias criadas em cativeiro não teve efeito estatístico (p > 0,05) sobre os parâmetros reprodutivos. Portanto, esses animais podem ser mantidos em cativeiro sem serem vermifugados e produzir de forma eficiente com alimentação adequada e manejo do alojamento.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Dasyproctidae , Anthelmintics , Reproduction , Rodentia , Trinidad and Tobago
10.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1511467

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is one of the most widely used pesticides in the world. There is evidence that this herbicide can induce deleterious effects in non-target organisms, including impairment of reproduction function. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproductive effects of the chronic consumption of contaminated feed with 2,4-D in rats using food environmental spraying simulation. Methods: Animals orally exposed received nebulized chow with 2,4-D solution in different concentrations for 180 days: 0 (control - CG), 20.69 (LCG), 34.63 (MCG), or 51.66 ppm day−1 (HCG). Results: Sperm quality was impaired to 2,4-D. The percentage of sperm with progressive movement, number of sperm in the testis and daily sperm production were decreased in all exposed groups to the herbicide compared to CG. Sperm counts in the caput/corpus and cauda epididymis were reduced in MCG and HCG, and sperm transit time was delayed in the epididymis of LCG. There was a negative impact on sperm morphology and plasma membrane integrity in MCG and HCG, respectively. Germ cell exfoliation within the lumen of the seminiferous tubules and epithelial vacuolization in epididymis were found in the HCG. Conclusion: This is the first study to describe the negative impact on male reproductive morphophysiology after chronic exposure to 2,4-D using food nebulization in environmentally relevant concentrations, based on agronomic use of the herbicide. The reproductive injuries identified raise concerns about the impacts of wide population exposure to 2,4-D (AU).


Introdução: O herbicida 2,4- ácido diclorofenoxiacético (2,4-D) é um dos agrotóxicos mais utilizados no mundo. Há evidências de que este herbicida pode induzir efeitos deletérios em organismos não-alvo, incluindo prejuízo na função reprodutiva. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos reprodutivos do consumo crônico de ração contaminada com 2,4-D em ratos, utilizando simulação de pulverização ambiental de alimentos. Métodos: Animais expostos oralmente receberam ração nebulizada com solução de 2,4-D em diferentes concentrações por 180 dias: 0 (controle - GC), 20,69 (LCG), 34,63 (MCG) ou 51,66 ppm dia−1 (HCG). Resultados: A qualidade espermática foi prejudicada pelo 2,4-D. A porcentagem de espermatozoides com movimento progressivo, número de espermatozoides no testículo e produção diária de espermatozoides foram menores em todos os grupos expostos ao herbicida, quando comparados ao GC. A contagem de espermatozoides na cabeça/corpo e cauda do epidídimo foi reduzida em MCG e HCG, e o tempo de trânsito espermático atrasou no epidídimo em LCG. Houve impacto negativo na morfologia espermática e na integridade da membrana plasmática em MCG e HCG, respectivamente. Esfoliação de células germinativas no lúmen dos túbulos seminíferos e vacuolização epitelial no epidídimo foram encontradas em HCG. Conclusão: Este é o primeiro estudo a descrever o impacto negativo na morfofisiologia reprodutiva masculina após exposição crônica ao 2,4-D, utilizando nebulização de alimentos em concentrações ambientalmente relevantes, com base no uso agronômico do herbicida. As lesões reprodutivas identificadas levantam preocupações sobre os impactos da ampla exposição da população ao 2,4-D (AU).


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Reproduction , Spermatozoa , Agrochemicals/toxicity , Pesticide Exposure , Environmental Exposure
11.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e252071, 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1440790

ABSTRACT

Este artigo analisou a percepção e os sentimentos de casais sobre o atendimento recebido nos serviços de saúde acessados em função de perda gestacional (óbito fetal ante e intraparto). O convite para a pesquisa foi divulgado em mídias sociais (Instagram e Facebook). Dos 66 casais que contataram a equipe, 12 participaram do estudo, cuja coleta de dados ocorreu em 2018. Os casais responderam conjuntamente a uma ficha de dados sociodemográficos e uma entrevista semiestruturada, realizada presencialmente (n=4) ou por videochamada (n=8). Os dados foram gravados em áudio e posteriormente transcritos. A Análise Temática indutiva das entrevistas identificou cinco temas: sentimento de impotência, iatrogenia vivida nos serviços, falta de cuidado em saúde mental, não reconhecimento da perda como evento com consequências emocionais negativas, e características do bom atendimento. Os achados demonstraram situações de violência, comunicação deficitária, desvalorização das perdas precoces, falta de suporte para contato com o bebê falecido e rotinas pouco humanizadas, especialmente durante a internação após a perda. Para aprimorar a assistência às famílias enlutadas, sugere-se qualificação profissional, ampliação da visibilidade do tema entre diferentes atores e reorganização dos serviços, considerando uma diretriz clínica para atenção ao luto perinatal, com destaque para o fortalecimento da inserção de equipes de saúde mental no contexto hospitalar.(AU)


This study analyzed couples' perceptions and feelings about pregnancy loss care (ante and intrapartum fetal death). A research invitation was published on social media (Instagram and Facebook) and data collection took place in 2018. Of the 66 couples who contacted the research team, 12 participated in the study by filling a sociodemographic questionnaire and answering a semi-structured interview in person (n=04) or by video call (n=08). All interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and examined by Inductive Thematic Analysis, which identified five themes: feelings of impotence, iatrogenic experiences in health services, lack of mental health care, not recognizing pregnancy loss as an emotionally overwhelming event, and aspects of good healthcare. Analysis showed experiences of violence, poor communication, devaluation of early losses, lack of support for contact with the deceased baby, and dehumanizing routines, especially during hospitalization after loss. Professional qualification, extended pregnancy loss visibility among different stakeholders, and reorganization of health services are needed to improve the care offered to grieving families, considering a clinical guideline for perinatal grief care with emphasis on strengthening the insertion of mental health teams in the hospital context.(AU)


Este estudio analizó las percepciones y sentimientos de parejas sobre la atención recibida en los servicios de salud a los que accedieron debido a la pérdida del embarazo (muerte fetal ante e intraparto). La invitación al estudio se publicó en las redes sociales (Instagram y Facebook). De las 66 parejas que se contactaron con el equipo, 12 participaron en el estudio, cuya recolección de datos se realizó en 2018. Las parejas respondieron un formulario de datos sociodemográficos y realizaron una entrevista semiestructurada presencialmente (n=4) o por videollamada (n=08). Los datos se grabaron en audio para su posterior transcripción. El análisis temático inductivo identificó cinco temas: Sentimiento de impotencia, experiencias iatrogénicas en los servicios, falta de atención a la salud mental, falta de reconocimiento de la pérdida como un evento con consecuencias emocionales negativas y características de buena atención. Los hallazgos evidenciaron situaciones de violencia, comunicación deficiente, desvalorización de las pérdidas tempranas, falta de apoyo para el contacto con el bebé fallecido y rutinas poco humanizadas, especialmente durante la hospitalización tras la pérdida. Para mejorar la atención a las familias en duelo, se sugiere capacitación profesional, ampliación de la visibilidad del tema entre los diferentes actores y reorganización de los servicios, teniendo en cuenta una guía clínica para la atención del duelo perinatal, enfocada en fortalecer la inserción de los equipos de salud mental en el contexto hospitalario.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Middle Aged , Child Health Services , Mental Health , Humanization of Assistance , Fetal Death , Pain , Parents , Pediatrics , Perinatology , Placenta Diseases , Prejudice , Prenatal Care , Psychology , Psychology, Medical , Public Policy , Quality of Health Care , Reproduction , Syndrome , Congenital Abnormalities , Torture , Uterine Contraction , Birth Injuries , Maternity Allocation , Labor, Obstetric , Trial of Labor , Adaptation, Psychological , Abortion, Spontaneous , Child Care , Maternal-Child Nursing , Refusal to Treat , Women's Health , Patient Satisfaction , Parenting , Parental Leave , Health Care Quality, Access, and Evaluation , Privacy , Depression, Postpartum , Credentialing , Affect , Crying , Curettage , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted , Access to Information , Ethics, Clinical , Humanizing Delivery , Abortion, Threatened , Denial, Psychological , Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Parturition , Labor Pain , Premature Birth , Prenatal Injuries , Fetal Mortality , Abruptio Placentae , Violence Against Women , Abortion , User Embracement , Ethics, Professional , Stillbirth , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Nuchal Cord , Resilience, Psychological , Reproductive Physiological Phenomena , Fear , Female Urogenital Diseases and Pregnancy Complications , Fertility , Fetal Diseases , Prescription Drug Misuse , Hope , Prenatal Education , Courage , Psychological Trauma , Professionalism , Psychosocial Support Systems , Frustration , Sadness , Respect , Psychological Distress , Obstetric Violence , Family Support , Obstetricians , Guilt , Health Services Accessibility , Hospitals, Maternity , Obstetric Labor Complications , Labor, Induced , Anger , Loneliness , Love , Midwifery , Mothers , Nursing Care
12.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e243741, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1431125

ABSTRACT

Este artigo reflete sobre os modos como a cisnormatividade, conceito impulsionado pelos transfeminismos, tem auxiliado na composição da psicologia de maneira histórica. Ao elaborar uma crítica sobre como a violência de gênero está expressivamente presente no território brasileiro, discute-se como tem sido pensada a saúde mental, esfera que, uma vez inserida nesse contexto mais amplo, está sendo convocada a produzir saídas criativas em relação aos sujeitos que são alvo de discriminações transfóbicas. Na busca de deslocar o olhar do indivíduo para o social, foi realizado um estudo bibliográfico para investigar os diferentes impactos que a cisnormatividade opera em nossos currículos psicológicos, gerando efeitos na prática e na própria profissão. A aposta está em reconhecer outras epistemologias como projetos éticos e políticos a uma psicologia contemporânea, e a contribuição transfeminista a "outra" clínica. É nesse sentido que este trabalho se destina a pensar um modo de cuidado que esteja baseado na singularidade, mas que, ao mesmo tempo, seja capaz de dedicar alguma atenção ao paradigma normativo que nos guia como terapeutas.(AU)


This article reflects on the ways that cisnormativity, a concept boosted by transfeminisms, has played a historical role in the composition of psychology. Elaborating a criticism on how gender violence is expressively present in the Brazilian territory, we discuss how mental health is conceived, a sphere that, inserted in this wider context, is invited to create creative solutions related to the subjects who are the target of transphobic discrimination. Trying to shift the focus from the individual to the collective, a bibliographical study was conducted to recognize the different impacts that cisnormativity has in our psychological curriculums, having effects on the practice and on the profession itself. The goal is to recognize other epistemologies as ethical and political projects for contemporary psychology and the transfeminist contribution to "another" clinic. It is in this sense that this work aims to think about a form of care that is based on singularity, but that can also pay attention to the normative paradigm that guides us as therapists.(AU)


Este artículo reflexiona sobre las formas en que la cisnormatividad, un concepto impulsado por los transfeminismos, ha tenido un papel en la composición de la psicología de manera histórica. Al elaborar una crítica sobre como la violencia de género está expresamente presente en el territorio brasileño, se discute cómo se ha pensado la salud mental, dominio que, una vez insertado en este contexto más amplio, es convocado a producir soluciones creativas con relación a los sujetos que son objeto de discriminación transfóbica. Al desviar el enfoque del individuo hacia lo social, se realizó un estudio bibliográfico para investigar los diferentes impactos que tiene la cisnormatividad en nuestros planes de estudios psicológicos, generando efectos en la práctica y en la propia profesión. El foco está en reconocer otras epistemologías como proyectos éticos y políticos para la psicología contemporánea y la contribución transfeminista a una "otra" clínica. En este sentido, este trabajo pretende pensar en una forma de cuidado que se basa en la singularidad, al mismo tiempo que sea capaz de dedicar cierta atención al paradigma normativo que a nosotras nos guía como terapeutas.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Psychology , Feminism , Sexism , Hospitals , Anxiety , Prejudice , Psychiatry , Psychoanalysis , Psychology, Social , Psychosexual Development , Religion , Reproduction , Reproductive and Urinary Physiological Phenomena , Science , Self Concept , Sex , Sexual Behavior , Sex Offenses , Social Adjustment , Social Change , Social Justice , Social Problems , Therapeutics , Transsexualism , Transvestism , Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms , Biology , Body Image , Adaptation, Psychological , Sex Characteristics , Civil Rights , Cultural Diversity , Sexuality , Address , Heterosexuality , Dehumanization , Aggression , Racial Groups , Sexual Development , Reproductive Rights , Gender and Health , Mental Health Assistance , Existentialism , Femininity , Masculinity , Sex Reassignment Procedures , Sex Reassignment Surgery , Sexual Health , Homophobia , Transgender Persons , Social Norms , Help-Seeking Behavior , Gender Dysphoria , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Social Construction of Gender , Cisgender Persons , Gender Binarism , Androcentrism , Gender Stereotyping , Gender Studies , Freedom , Respect , Psychological Distress , Empowerment , Intersex Persons , Psychosocial Intervention , Gender Equity , Gender Role , Genitalia , Health Disparate Minority and Vulnerable Populations , Citizenship , Guilt , Hate , Hostility , Identity Crisis , Individuation , Morale
13.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e264324, 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1529206

ABSTRACT

O estudo teve como objetivo identificar os argumentos da estratégia de persuasão dos discursos apresentados na audiência pública sobre a Arguição de Descumprimento de Preceito Fundamental-ADPF 442, realizada em 2018, cujo propósito era discutir sobre a interrupção voluntária da gravidez até a 12ª semana. Para tal, foi realizada uma pesquisa de abordagem qualitativa, analítico-descritiva e documental. O objeto de análise foi o registro da audiência, apresentado em vídeo, disponibilizado na plataforma digital YouTube, e em ata lavrada pelo STF, ambos de acesso público. A partir de uma análise do discurso, identificou-se os argumentos utilizados na estratégia de persuasão, que foram sistematizados em quatro categorias de argumentos para cada um dos dois grupos identificados: o grupo pró e o grupo contra a descriminalização do aborto. As três primeiras categorias, Saúde mental, Direito e Saúde pública, mesmo com diferenças na forma de apresentar o argumento, se repetem nos dois grupos. Todavia, a quarta categoria, Pressupostos, se diferenciou. No grupo pró descriminalização do aborto, apresentou-se como Pressupostos filosóficos e científicos, e no grupo contra, como Pressupostos morais. Por fim, a defesa da saúde mental das mulheres foi o principal argumento numa forma de humanizar o sofrimento vivido pelas que desejam abortar e não encontram o suporte do Estado para assegurar sua dignidade, cidadania e efetiva igualdade, garantidas constitucionalmente.(AU)


The study aimed to identify the arguments of the persuasion strategy of the speeches presented at the public hearing on the Action Against the Violation of Constitutional Fundamental Rights -ADPF 442, held in 2018, whose purpose was to discuss the voluntary interruption of pregnancy until the 12th week. To this end, a qualitative, analytical-descriptive, and documentary research was carried out. The object of analysis was the video recording of the hearing available on the YouTube platform, and in minutes drawn up by the STF, both of which are public. Based on a discourse analysis, the arguments used in the persuasion strategy were identified, which were systematized into four categories of arguments for each of the two identified groups: the group for and the group against the decriminalization of abortion. The first three categories, Mental Health, Law and Public Health, even with differences in the way of presenting the argument, are repeated in both groups. However, the fourth category, Assumptions, differed. In the group for the decriminalization of abortion, it was presented as Philosophical and Scientific Assumptions, whereas the group against, as Moral Assumptions. Finally, the defense of women's mental health was the main argument in a way of humanizing the suffering experienced by those who wish to have an abortion and do not find the support of the State to guarantee their dignity, citizenship, and effective equality, constitutionally guaranteed.(AU)


El estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar los argumentos de la estrategia de persuasión de los discursos presentados en la audiencia pública sobre el Argumento por Incumplimiento de un Percepto Fundamental -ADPF 442, realizada en 2018, con el objetivo de discutir la interrupción voluntaria del embarazo hasta la 12.ª semana. Para ello, se llevó a cabo una investigación cualitativa, analítico-descriptiva y documental. El objeto de análisis fue la grabación de la audiencia, que está disponible en la plataforma digital YouTube, y actas levantadas por el Supremo Tribunal Federal -STF, ambas de acceso público. A partir de un análisis del discurso se identificaron los argumentos utilizados en la estrategia de persuasión, los cuales se sistematizaron en cuatro categorías de argumentos para cada uno de los dos grupos identificados: el grupo pro y el grupo en contra de la despenalización del aborto. Las tres primeras categorías ("salud mental", "derecho" y "salud pública") aún con diferencias en la forma de presentar el argumento se repiten en ambos grupos. Pero difiere la cuarta categoría "supuestos". En el grupo a favor de la despenalización del aborto se presentó como "supuestos filosóficos y científicos", y en el grupo en contra, como "supuestos morales". Finalmente, la defensa de la salud mental de las mujeres fue el principal argumento en un intento por humanizar el sufrimiento que viven aquellas que desean abortar y no encuentran el apoyo del Estado para garantizar su dignidad, ciudadanía e igualdad efectiva, preconizadas por la Constitución.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Abortion, Criminal , Mental Health , Abortion , Anxiety , Pain , Parity , Pregnancy, Unwanted , Prejudice , Psychology , Public Policy , Rape , Religion , Reproduction , Safety , Audiovisual Aids , Sex , Sex Education , Sex Offenses , Social Behavior , Suicide , Obstetric Surgical Procedures , Torture , Violence , Public Administration , Unified Health System , Brazil , Pregnancy , Bereavement , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Abortion, Eugenic , Christianity , Women's Health , Patient Compliance , Civil Rights , Negotiating , Abortion, Induced , Condoms , Abortion, Legal , Communications Media , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Pregnancy Reduction, Multifetal , Contraceptive Devices , Contraceptive Devices, Male , Feminism , Life , Advertising , Crime , Personal Autonomy , Patient Rights , Legal Intervention , Death , Information Dissemination , Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Wedge Argument , Beginning of Human Life , Sexology , Depression , Reproductive Rights , Disease Prevention , Family Development Planning , Health of Specific Groups , Violence Against Women , Control and Sanitary Supervision of Equipment and Supplies , Cerebrum , Family Planning Services , Fertilization , Fetal Distress , Health Communication , Fetus , Social Networking , Reproductive Health , Sexual Health , Sexism , Social Discrimination , Help-Seeking Behavior , Public Service Announcements as Topic , Political Activism , Freedom , Sadness , Psychological Distress , Internet Use , Gender Equity , Citizenship , Document Analysis , Guilt , Human Rights , Anencephaly , Love , Mental Disorders , Morale
14.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e263877, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1529224

ABSTRACT

A violência sexual e o aborto legal são temas tabus em nossa sociedade. No campo da saúde, a(o) psicóloga(o) atua em fases distintas, seja na avaliação psicológica do pedido pelo aborto legal, que culminará ou não em sua aquiescência; seja no momento posterior à solicitação, no atendimento em enfermarias ou ambulatorial. Partindo de relato de experiência, este artigo tem como objetivo refletir sobre as possibilidades e desafios da atuação psicológica no atendimento em saúde para pessoas em situação de gestação decorrente de violência sexual e que buscam pelo aborto legal. Para tanto, dividimos o artigo em três momentos. No primeiro deles, será possível encontrar dados conceituais, estatísticos e históricos sobre ambos os temas, trazendo recortes nacionais e internacionais. No segundo, trazemos apontamentos sobre o que chamamos de "eixos norteadores", ou seja, dialogamos com aspectos fundamentais para o trabalho nesta seara, sendo eles gênero, família, sexualidade e trauma. Por fim, no terceiro, aprofundamos a reflexão sobre o atendimento psicológico atrelado aos conceitos já discutidos, analisando de forma crítica principalmente um dos pontos mais espinhosos da atuação: a avaliação para aprovação (ou recusa) do pedido pelo aborto. Apoiamo-nos no referencial psicanalítico e defendemos que esta atuação psicológica é primordialmente uma oferta de cuidado, comprometido com as demandas das pessoas atendidas e com a promoção de saúde mental, e consideramos que o papel da psicologia é essencial para o reconhecimento do sofrimento e dos efeitos do abandono socioinstitucional na vida do público atendido.(AU)


Sexual abuse and legal abortion are taboo subjects in our society. On the health area, the psychologist works on different fields, such as psychological evaluation from the request of legal abortion, that will end or not on its approval, and also in a further moment, either the care on wards or ambulatorial treatment. Relying on a case report, this article aims to contemplate the possibilities and challenges from psychological work on healthcare to pregnant women from sexual violence and seek legal abortion. For this purpose, we divide this article in three moments. On the first, it will find definitions, statistics, and historical data about both issues, including national and international information. On the second, we bring notes called 'guiding pillar,' that is, we interact with fundamental aspects from this area, such as gender, family, sexuality, and trauma. On the third one, in-depth discussions we dwell on psychological care tied to the concepts previously addressed, critically analyzing one of the hardest moments of working in this area: the evaluation to approve (or refuse) the request for abortion. We lean over psychoanalytic thoughts and argue that this psychological work is primarily an offer of care, committed to the needs from those who seek us and to promoting good mental health and, also, we consider that psychology is essential to acknowledge the suffering and the effects of social and institutional neglect on the lives of the people seen.(AU)


La violencia sexual y el aborto son temas tabús en nuestra sociedad. En el campo de la salud, el(la) psicólogo(a) actúa en diferentes fases: en la evaluación psicológica de la solicitud del aborto legal, que culminará o no en su obtención, y/o en el momento posterior a la solicitud en la atención en enfermería o ambulatorio. Desde un reporte de experiencia, este artículo pretende reflexionar sobre las posibilidades y los desafíos de la Psicología en la atención en salud para personas en estado de embarazo producto de violencia sexual y que buscan un aborto legal. Para ello, este artículo está dividido en tres momentos. En el primer, presenta datos conceptuales, estadísticos e históricos sobre los dos temas, trayendo recortes nacionales e internacionales. En el segundo, comenta los llamados "ejes temáticos", es decir, se establece un diálogo con aspectos fundamentales para el trabajo en este ámbito, como género, familia, sexualidad y trauma. Por último, en el tercer, profundiza en la reflexión sobre la atención psicológica asociada a los conceptos discutidos, analizando de forma crítica uno de los puntos más espinosos de la actuación: la evaluación para la aprobación (o negativa) de la solicitud de aborto. Se utilizó el referencial psicoanalítico y se argumenta que esta atención psicológica es sobre todo una forma de cuidado, comprometida con las demandas de las personas atendidas y la promoción de la salud mental, y el papel de la Psicología es esencial para reconocer el sufrimiento y los efectos del abandono socioinstitucional en la vida del público atendido.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Psychology , Sex Offenses , Health , Abortion, Legal , Patient Care Team , Pedophilia , Pleasure-Pain Principle , Poverty , Pregnancy Maintenance , Prejudice , Prisons , Psychoanalysis , Public Policy , Punishment , Rape , Rehabilitation , Religion , Reproduction , Safety , Sexual Behavior , Sex Education , Social Class , Social Environment , Social Identification , Social Problems , Social Sciences , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Obstetric Surgical Procedures , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Taboo , Violence , Unified Health System , Risk Groups , Brazil , Pregnancy , Sex Counseling , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Abortion, Criminal , Residence Characteristics , Maternal Mortality , Mental Health , Health Education , Vital Statistics , Women's Health , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Gestational Age , HIV , Intersectoral Collaboration , Practice Guideline , Coronavirus , Battered Women , Confidentiality , Sexuality , Feminism , Crime Victims , Crime , Criminology , Hazards , Disaster Vulnerability , Cultural Characteristics , Personal Autonomy , Dangerous Behavior , Judiciary , Criminal Liability , Public Defender Legal Services , Public Attorneys , Death , Stress Disorders, Traumatic, Acute , Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Parturition , Vulnerable Populations , Aggression , Sexology , Human Rights Abuses , Racial Groups , Fetal Mortality , Pregnancy, Unplanned , Reproductive Rights , Erotica , PAHO Ethics Review Committee , Violence Against Women , Fear , Pleasure , Embryonic and Fetal Development , Human Trafficking , Psychological Trauma , Psychosocial Support Systems , Social Construction of Ethnic Identity , Social Construction of Gender , Androcentrism , Embarrassment , Sexual Trauma , Developmental Disability Nursing , Emotional Abuse , Gender Equity , Homicide , Interpersonal Relations , Anencephaly , Jurisprudence , Life Change Events , Men , Age Groups
15.
Biol. Res ; 56: 19-19, 2023. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439486

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: AMBRA1 is an intrinsically disordered protein, working as a scaffold molecule to coordinate, by protein-protein interaction, many cellular processes, including autophagy, mitophagy, apoptosis and cell cycle progression. The zebrafish genome contains two ambra1 paralogous genes (a and b), both involved in development and expressed at high levels in the gonads. Characterization of the zebrafish paralogous genes mutant lines generated by CRISPR/Cas9 approach showed that ambra1b knockout leads to an all-male population. RESULTS: We demonstrated that the silencing of the ambra1b gene determines a reduction of primordial germ cells (PGCs), a condition that, in the zebrafish, leads to the development of all-male progeny. PGC reduction was confirmed by knockdown experiments and rescued by injection of ambra1b and human AMBRA1 mRNAs, but not ambra1a mRNA. Moreover, PGC loss was not rescued by injection with human AMBRA1 mRNA mutated in the CUL4-DDB1 binding region, thus suggesting that interaction with this complex is involved in PGC protection from loss. Results from zebrafish embryos injected with murine Stat3 mRNA and stat3 morpholino suggest that Ambra1b could indirectly regulate this protein through CUL4-DDB1 interaction. According to this, Ambra1+/- mice showed a reduced Stat3 expression in the ovary together with a low number of antral follicles and an increase of atretic follicles, indicating a function of Ambra1 in the ovary of mammals as well. Moreover, in agreement with the high expression of these genes in the testis and ovary, we found significant impairment of the reproductive process and pathological alterations, including tumors, mainly limited to the gonads. CONCLUSIONS: By exploiting ambra1a and ambra1b knockout zebrafish lines, we prove the sub-functionalization between the two paralogous zebrafish genes and uncover a novel function of Ambra1 in the protection from excessive PGC loss, which seems to require binding with the CUL4-DDB1 complex. Both genes seem to play a role in the regulation of reproductive physiology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Mice , Sex Differentiation , Zebrafish/genetics , Zebrafish/metabolism , Reproduction , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Zebrafish Proteins/genetics , Zebrafish Proteins/metabolism , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , Germ Cells/metabolism , Mammals/genetics , Mammals/metabolism
16.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e244244, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1448957

ABSTRACT

Com os avanços tecnológicos e o aprimoramento da prática médica via ultrassonografia, já é possível detectar possíveis problemas no feto desde a gestação. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a prática do psicólogo no contexto de gestações que envolvem riscos fetais. Trata-se de um estudo qualitativo sob formato de relato de experiência como psicólogo residente no Serviço de Medicina Fetal da Maternidade Escola da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). Os registros, feitos por observação participante e diário de campo, foram analisados em dois eixos temáticos: 1) intervenções psicológicas no trabalho em equipe em consulta de pré-natal, exame de ultrassonografia e procedimento de amniocentese; e 2) intervenções psicológicas em casos de bebês incompatíveis com a vida. Os resultados indicaram que o psicólogo nesse serviço é essencial para atuar de forma multiprofissional na assistência pré-natal para gravidezes de alto risco fetal. Ademais, a preceptoria do residente é relevante para sua formação e treinamento para atuação profissional no campo da psicologia perinatal.(AU)


Face to the technological advances and the improvement of medical practice via ultrasound, it is already possible to detect possible problems in the fetus since pregnancy. The objective of this study was to analyze the psychologist's practice in the context of pregnancies which involve fetal risks. It is a qualitative study based on an experience report as a psychologist trainee at the Fetal Medicine Service of the Maternity School of UFRJ. The records, based on the participant observation and field diary, were analyzed in two thematic axes: 1) psychological interventions in the teamwork in the prenatal attendance, ultrasound examination and amniocentesis procedure; and 2) psychological interventions in cases of babies incompatible to the life. The results indicated that the psychologist in this service is essential to work in a multidisciplinary way at the prenatal care for high fetal risk pregnancies. Furthermore, the resident's preceptorship is relevant to their education and training for professional performance in the field of Perinatal Psychology.(AU)


Con los avances tecnológicos y la mejora de la práctica médica a través de la ecografía, ya se puede detectar posibles problemas en el feto desde el embarazo. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la práctica del psicólogo en el contexto de embarazos de riesgos fetal. Es un estudio cualitativo basado en un relato de experiencia como residente de psicología en el Servicio de Medicina Fetal de la Escuela de Maternidad de la Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). Los registros, realizados en la observación participante y el diario de campo, se analizaron en dos ejes temáticos: 1) intervenciones psicológicas en el trabajo en equipo, en la consulta prenatal, ecografía y los procedimientos de amniocentesis; y 2) intervenciones psicológicas en casos de bebés incompatibles con la vida. Los resultados señalaron como fundamental la presencia del psicólogo en este servicio trabajando de forma multidisciplinar en la atención prenatal en el contexto de embarazos de alto riesgo fetal. Además, la tutela del residente es relevante para su educación y formación para el desempeño profesional en el campo de la Psicología Perinatal.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Prenatal Care , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Psychosocial Intervention , Heart Defects, Congenital , Anxiety , Orientation , Pain , Parent-Child Relations , Parents , Paternity , Patient Care Team , Patients , Pediatrics , Placenta , Placentation , Pregnancy Complications , Pregnancy Maintenance , Prognosis , Psychoanalytic Theory , Psychology , Puerperal Disorders , Quality of Life , Radiation , Religion , Reproduction , Reproductive and Urinary Physiological Phenomena , General Surgery , Syndrome , Congenital Abnormalities , Temperance , Therapeutics , Urogenital System , Bioethics , Physicians' Offices , Infant, Premature , Labor, Obstetric , Pregnancy , Pregnancy, Animal , Pregnancy Outcome , Adaptation, Psychological , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Echocardiography , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Family , Abortion, Spontaneous , Child Rearing , Child Welfare , Mental Health , Family Health , Survival Rate , Life Expectancy , Cause of Death , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Chromosome Mapping , Parental Leave , Mental Competency , Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Recessive , Down Syndrome , Perinatal Care , Comprehensive Health Care , Chemical Compounds , Depression, Postpartum , Neurobehavioral Manifestations , Disabled Children , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Gravidity , Crisis Intervention , Affect , Cytogenetic Analysis , Spirituality , Complicity , Value of Life , Humanizing Delivery , Death , Decision Making , Defense Mechanisms , Abortion, Threatened , Delivery of Health Care , Dementia , Uncertainty , Organogenesis , Qualitative Research , Pregnant Women , Early Diagnosis , Premature Birth , Nuchal Translucency Measurement , Child Mortality , Depression , Depressive Disorder , Postpartum Period , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Techniques, Obstetrical and Gynecological , Ethanol , Ego , Emotions , Empathy , Environment , Humanization of Assistance , User Embracement , Ethics, Professional , Cell Nucleus Shape , Prenatal Nutrition , Cervical Length Measurement , Family Conflict , Family Therapy , Resilience, Psychological , Reproductive Physiological Phenomena , Female Urogenital Diseases and Pregnancy Complications , Gestational Sac , Brief, Resolved, Unexplained Event , Fetal Death , Embryonic and Fetal Development , Multimodal Imaging , Mortality, Premature , Clinical Decision-Making , Pediatric Emergency Medicine , Child, Foster , Freedom , Burnout, Psychological , Birth Setting , Frustration , Sadness , Respect , Psychological Distress , Genetics , Psychological Well-Being , Obstetricians , Guilt , Happiness , Health Occupations , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Maternity , Hospitals, University , Human Development , Human Rights , Imagination , Infections , Infertility , Anencephaly , Jurisprudence , Obstetric Labor Complications , Licensure , Life Change Events , Life Support Care , Loneliness , Love , Medical Staff, Hospital , Intellectual Disability , Morals , Mothers , Narcissism , Congenital, Hereditary, and Neonatal Diseases and Abnormalities , Neonatology , Nervous System Malformations , Object Attachment
17.
Rev. bras. estud. popul ; 40: e0238, 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1431589

ABSTRACT

Resumo A literatura sobre intenções de fecundidade tem ganhado crescente relevância em estudos demográficos porque, sendo um determinante próximo da fecundidade, auxilia o entendimento do comportamento reprodutivo de diferentes populações. Contudo, esta literatura não foi ainda organizada segundo os principais e mais recorrentes aspectos dispersos na literatura. Estudos geralmente utilizam uma única característica acerca das intenções de fecundidade, seja por meio dos seus conceitos, das principais teorias ou de principais indicadores. Este trabalho possui, portanto, o objetivo de organizar e articular os principais e mais recorrentes aspectos presentes nos estudos sobre intenções de fecundidade. Ao longo da discussão, aprofunda-se na relação existente entre intenções de fecundidade e fecundidade observada. A princípio, foca-se nos países de renda alta, sobre e para os quais a literatura referente ao tema foi desenvolvida. Contudo, também são abordados países de renda média e fecundidade baixa, com ênfase no Brasil, para os quais a produção, especialmente a partir de uma abordagem teórica, ainda é incipiente.


Abstract The literature on fertility intentions has gained increasing relevance in demographic studies because, as a close determinant of fertility, it helps understand the reproductive behavior of different populations. However, this literature has not yet been organized according to the main and most recurrent aspects covered. Studies generally use one single aspect of fertility intentions, whether through its concepts, main theories or main indicators. Therefore, the goal of this work is to organize and articulate the main and most recurrent aspects present in studies on fertility intentions. It begins by presenting the main concepts. Then, it discusses important theoretical approaches on the formation of fertility intentions, as well as its main determinants. Finally, it contextualizes fertility intentions (and their levels) in different scenarios. Throughout the discussion, for each topic presented, the paper delves deeper into the relationship between fertility intentions and observed fertility. Its first focus is on high-income countries covered in the literature on the subject. However, it also discusses middle-income countries with low fertility, focusing on Brazil, for which academic production, especially from a theoretical approach, is still incipient.


Resumen La literatura sobre las intenciones de fecundidad ha ganado relevancia en los estudios demográficos porque, al ser estas determinantes próximos de la fecundidad, ayudan a entender el comportamiento reproductivo de diferentes poblaciones. Sin embargo, esta literatura no se ha organizado según sus aspectos principales y más recurrentes. Así, los estudios trabaja en general sobre un solo aspecto de las intenciones de fecundidad, sea a través de sus conceptos, de sus principales teorías o de sus principales indicadores. El objetivo de este artículo es, por lo tanto, organizar y articular los principales y más recurrentes aspectos presentes en los estudios sobre intenciones reproductivas. Así, comienza presentando sus conceptos principales. Luego, discute importantes corrientes teóricas sobre la formación de intenciones de fecundidad y también analiza sus principales determinantes. Finalmente, contextualiza las intenciones de fecundidad (y sus niveles) en diferentes escenarios. A través de cada tema presentado, se profundiza en la relación entre las intenciones de fecundidad y la fecundidad observada en las poblaciones. Es para ello que se centra, en un primer momento, en los países de ingresos altos, sobre y para los cuales se elaboró la literatura sobre el tema. Sin embargo, también se analizan los países de ingresos medios y de baja fecundidad, con énfasis en Brasil, cuya producción, especialmente desde un enfoque teórico, es aún incipiente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Reproduction , Fertility , Brazil , Demography , Contraception , Economics
18.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 39: e39030, 2023. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425196

ABSTRACT

Oxidative stress due to obesity plays a detrimental role in the testicular microenvironment and sperm parameters. We explored the impact of a hypercaloric diet in male BALB/c mice as a condition to trigger damage to the spermatogenic process and the antioxidant effect of Aspalathus linearis as well. We used a hypercaloric diet in animals divided into 3 groups: Control, Hypercaloric diet control (HC) and Hypercaloric diet and Rooibos infusion (HCR). Morphometric parameters, enzyme dosages, cell viability, and tubular histopathology were evaluated. Body weight increased in HCR animals at weeks 3, 4, and 8. We found a reduction in seminiferous epithelium height, with an increase in the tubular diameter of the HCR group. Catalase levels were lower in HC and HCR, while carbonyl protein was decreased in HC. We estimate that it induces oxidative stress (OS) capable of affecting the seminiferous epithelium and that the infusion of A. linearis does not demonstrate a potential benefit in cell preservation.


Subject(s)
Reproduction , Oxidative Stress , Diet, High-Fat , Mice, Inbred BALB C
19.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 39: e39031, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1428166

ABSTRACT

Broad-spectrum antimicrobial doxycycline acts as an inhibitor of protein synthesis and it is widely used in the clinical treatment of various infections by microorganisms that are sensitive to the drug, as well as in animal feed. Its liposolubility guarantees its high tissue bioavailability, being associated with several biochemical changes in the organism and potentially adverse effects on reproduction. This study aims to evaluate the effects of the action of doxycycline on spermatogenesis to provide a complete analysis of the tubular and interstitial compartments and to identify possible changes in the testicular parenchyma. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: one control (water), and two treated with doxycycline at the doses of 10mg/kg and 30mg/kg, for 30 days. After euthanasia and sample processing, the following parameters were evaluated: a) tubular diameter and height of the seminiferous epithelium; b) volumetric proportions (%) and volumes (mL) of the components of the testicular parenchyma; c) counting testicular germ cell populations; d) evaluation of cell viability. The results of the comparative evaluation between the experimental groups demonstrated a significant increase in the diameter and area of the tubular lumen and a reduction in the count of spermatogonia in the experimental group that received doxycycline hyclate at a dose of 30mg/kg. In the same experimental group, an increase in the overall yield of spermatogenesis was found as a consequence of the increase in the mitotic index.


Subject(s)
Reproduction , Spermatogenesis , Rats, Wistar , Doxycycline/adverse effects
20.
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