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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981677


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effectiveness of single Taylor external fixator combined with biplanar osteotomy on correction of tibial multiplanar deformities.@*METHODS@#Between October 2016 and December 2021, 11 patients with tibial multiplanar deformities (20 sides) were treated with single Taylor external fixator and biplanar osteotomy. Of them, 4 were male and 7 were female; the average age ranged from 13 to 33 years (mean, 21.9 years). Diagnosis included rickets severe genu varum deformity (7 cases, 14 sides), rickets severe genu valgum deformity (2 cases, 4 sides), multiple osteochondromatosis calf deformity (1 case, 1 side), neurofibromatosis medial lower leg anterior arch deformity with short of leg (1 case, 1 side). After fibular osteotomy and tibial multiplanar osteotomy, a Taylor external fixator was installed. After operation, the deformities were corrected successively and fixed completely. The osteotomy healed, then the external fixator was removed. Before operation and at 12 months after operation, the full-length X-ray films were taken. The leg-length discrepancy, medial proximal tibial angle (MPTA), lateral distal tibial angle (LDTA), posterior proximal tibial angle (PPTA), anterior distal tibial angle (ADTA), and tibial rotation angle were measured. The degree of lower limb deformity was scored with reference to a customized tibial mechanical axis scoring table.@*RESULTS@#Osteotomy was successfully completed without neurovascular injury and other complications. The external fixator was adjusted for 28-46 days, with an average of 37 days, and the external fixator was worn for 136-292 days, with an average of 169 days. Mild needle infection during the fixation period occurred in 3 sides, refracture at the distal tibial osteotomy in 1 side after removing the external fixator, and nonunion of the distal fibular osteotomy in 1 side. All patients were followed up 369-397 days (mean, 375 days). At 12 months after operation, the lower limb discrepancy decreased, but there was no significant difference ( P>0.05). MPTA, LDTA, PPTA, ADTA, and tibial rotation angle improved, and the differences in LDTA, ADTA, and tibial rotation angle were significant ( P<0.05). The score of lower limb deformity was significantly higher than that before operation ( P<0.05), and the results were excellent in 9 sides, good in 8 sides, fair in 3 sides, with the excellent and good rate of 85%.@*CONCLUSION@#Single Taylor external fixator combined with biplanar osteotomy is effective in the correction of tibial multiplanar deformities.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Tibia/surgery , Osteotomy/methods , Rickets , External Fixators , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
Actual. osteol ; 18(3): 157-168, 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1452184


El año 2022 marca el primer centenario del descubrimiento de la vitamina D, hallazgo que recompensó la prolongada búsqueda de la causa del raquitismo, su prevención y tratamiento. Al mismo tiempo puso en marcha importantes investigaciones relaciona-das con su biotransformación y el mecanismo de su acción antirraquítica, además de estudios sobre diversos efectos biológicos sin relación directa con su papel en la salud ósea. Esta breve revisión se limitará a delinear la prehistoria de la vitamina D y los diversos estudios, básicos y clínicos, que condujeron a su descubrimiento y caracterización química. (AU)

The year 2022 marks the centenary of the discovery of vitamin D, a breakthrough that rewarded the long search for the cause of rickets, its prevention and treatment. At the same time, it launched important investigations related to its biotransformation and the mechanism of its antirachitic action, as well as studies on various biological effects without direct relation to its role in bone health. This brief review will be limited to an outline of the prehistory of vitamin D and the various basic and clinical studies that led to its discovery and chemical characterization. (AU)

Humans , Rickets/history , Vitamin D/history , Ultraviolet Rays , Cod Liver Oil
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 14(1): 40-42, 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146472


Las enfermedades han sido representadas en el arte desde tiempos remotos. Las obras pictóricas muchas veces nos muestran trastornos que aún no se constituían como una entidad. Observar estos cuadros a la luz de la historia de las enfermedades nos da una perspectiva enriquecedora que nos ayuda a entender mejor dichas patologías. Se comenta un caso clínico endocrinológico pediátrico, la historia probable y su descripción física. Se revisa la historia de cómo se llegó a dilucidar la enfermedad y las claves de su tratamiento.

Diseases have been represented in art since ancient times. Paintings often show us disorders that had not yet been described as a pathological entity. Looking at these pictures in the light of the history of the diseases gives us an enriching perspective that helps us to better understand those pathologies. On this background a pediatric endocrinological clinical case, the most probable history and the features of the physical examination are discussed. The history of how the disease was uncovered and the keys of its treatment are reviewed.

Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , History, 17th Century , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Rickets/history , Endocrinology/history , Medicine in the Arts
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(10): 814-817, Oct. 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1143414


Two young opossums were necropsied and diagnosed with rickets. This study aims to describe the clinical-pathological aspects of rickets in Didelphis albiventris. Macroscopically, the opossums presented kyphosis and scoliosis, lateral deviation of the limbs in varus, locomotion difficulty, and enlargement with softening of costochondral junctions (rickety rosary). Samples of bones and joints were processed for hematoxylin and eosin staining and Masson's trichrome. Microscopically, we observed thickening of the epiphyseal plate, characterized by irregular and multifocal proliferation of serialized and hypertrophic cartilage zones, which formed circular groups of large, dysplastic chondrocytes towards the spongy zone, often surrounded by non-mineralized osteoid tissue. In the cortical bone, there were pale eosinophilic zones around the Havers channels consistent with non-mineralized osteoid. The staining of Masson's trichrome evidenced the accumulation of osteoid tissue in cortical and trabecular bones. It is possible that a mixed cause of absorption deficiency of vitamin D3 associated with an unbalanced Ca:P diet based on lactose-free milk and fruits may have triggered the disease.(AU)

Dois gambás jovens foram necropsiados e diagnosticados com raquitismo. O objetivo do trabalho é descrever os aspectos clínico-patológicos de raquitismo em Didelphis albiventris. Macroscopicamente os gambás apresentaram cifose e escoliose, desvio lateral dos membros em varus, dificuldade de locomoção e alargamento com amolecimento das junções costocondrais (rosário raquítico). Amostras dos ossos e articulações foram processadas para coloração de hematoxilina e eosina e Tricrômico de Masson. Microscopicamente havia espessamento da placa epifisária, caracterizada pela proliferação irregular e multifocal das zonas de cartilagem seriada e hipertrófica, que formavam grupos circulares de condrócitos grandes, displásicos em direção a zona esponjosa frequentemente cercados por tecido osteoide não mineralizado. No osso cortical haviam zonas eosinofílicas pálidas ao redor dos canais de Havers consistentes com osteoide não mineralizado. A coloração de Tricrômico de Masson evidenciou o acúmulo de tecido osteoide no nosso cortical e trabecular. Acredita-se que uma causa mista de déficit de absorção de vitamina D3 associada a uma dieta desbalanceada em Ca:P a base de leite sem lactose e frutas tenha desencadeado a doença.(AU)

Animals , Phosphorus , Rickets/veterinary , Vitamin D Deficiency/veterinary , Calcium , Didelphis
J. bras. nefrol ; 42(2): 238-244, Apr.-June 2020. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134823


Abstract Fortification of food products with vitamin D was central to the eradication of rickets in the early parts of the 20th century in the United States. In the subsequent almost 100 years since, accumulating evidence has linked vitamin D deficiency to a variety of outcomes, and this has paralleled greater public interest and awareness of the health benefits of vitamin D. Supplements containing vitamin D are now widely available in both industrialized and developing countries, and many are in the form of unregulated formulations sold to the public with little guidance for safe administration. Together, this has contributed to a transition whereby a dramatic global increase in cases of vitamin D toxicity has been reported. Clinicians are now faced with the challenge of managing this condition that can present on a spectrum from asymptomatic to acute life-threatening complications. This article considers contemporary data on vitamin D toxicity, and diagnostic and management strategies relevant to clinical practice.

Resumo A suplementação de produtos alimentares com vitamina D foi fundamental para a erradicação do raquitismo no início do século XX nos Estados Unidos. Nos quase 100 anos subsequentes, o acúmulo de evidências vinculou a deficiência de vitamina D a uma variedade de desfechos, e isso tem levantado grande interesse público e conscientização dos benefícios à saúde da vitamina D. Os suplementos que contêm vitamina D estão agora amplamente disponíveis tanto nos países desenvolvidos quanto naqueles em desenvolvimento, e muitos estão na forma de formulações não regulamentadas, vendidas ao público com poucas orientações para uma administração segura. Juntos, isso contribuiu para uma transição na qual um aumento global dramático nos casos de toxicidade da vitamina D tem sido relatado. Médicos agora enfrentam o desafio de tratar essa condição que pode apresentar um espectro de complicações assintomáticas a agudas, com risco de vida. Este artigo considera dados atualizados sobre a toxicidade da vitamina D e estratégias de diagnóstico e manejo relevantes para a prática clínica.

Humans , Male , Aged , Rickets/prevention & control , Vitamin D/toxicity , Dietary Supplements/toxicity , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Rickets/epidemiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome , Dietary Supplements/supply & distribution , Withholding Treatment , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Hypercalcemia/complications , Hypercalcemia/diagnosis , Hypercalcemia/chemically induced , Hypercalcemia/therapy
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876099


@#Objective. We aim to study the prevalence and risk factors of hypovitaminosis D among healthy adolescents in Kota Bharu, Kelantan based on the most recent Paediatric Consensus guideline. Methodology. Ten public schools were selected from Kota Bharu, Kelantan. We analysed their demography (age, gender, ethnicity, income), measured their anthropometry (height, weight, BMI) and finally analysed their vitamin D and intact- Parathyroid hormone levels. Results. The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D was 16.9% among healthy teenagers with mean age of 15.9±1.39 years. Multivariate analysis showed female gender (adjusted OR, 95% CI): 23.7 (5.64, 100.3) and Chinese 0.24 (0.07, 0.84) were the significant predictors for hypovitaminosis D. Conclusion. The prevalence of healthy adolescents with hypovitaminosis D in Kota Bharu, Kelantan was 16.9% using the most recent cut off value of 30 nmol/L from the global consensus 2016. Female and Malay were the significant risk factors associated with hypovitaminosis D. Higher cut off value would result in overestimation of prevalence rate of hypovitaminosis D.

Vitamin D Deficiency , Rickets , Adolescent
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(3): 433-435, July-Sept. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040252


ABSTRACT This report describes the oral manifestations of renal tubular acidosis (RTA) associated with secondary rickets and discusses the biological plausibility of these findings. The characteristic electrolyte changes during RTA or genetic mutations that trigger RTA may be responsible for impaired amelogenesis, dental malocclusion, impacted teeth, and absent lamina dura. This report reinforces the possibility of an association between RTA and the oral manifestations described.

RESUMO Este relato de caso descreve as manifestações bucais da acidose tubular renal (ATR) associada ao raquitismo secundário e discute a plausibilidade biológica desses achados. As alterações eletrolíticas características da ATR ou as mutações genéticas que a desencadeiam podem ser responsáveis pela amelogênese imperfeita, maloclusão dentária, dentes impactados e ausência de lâmina dura. Este relato reforça a possibilidade de uma associação entre ATR e as manifestações bucais descritas.

Humans , Female , Adolescent , Rickets/complications , Rickets/etiology , Tooth, Impacted/etiology , Acidosis, Renal Tubular/pathology , Open Bite/etiology , Dental Enamel Hypoplasia/etiology , Acidosis, Renal Tubular/complications , Radiography, Panoramic , Amelogenesis
Childhood Kidney Diseases ; : 111-115, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785575


Vitamin D dependent rickets type 1A (VDDR1A) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in CYP27B1 . Clinical findings are growth retardation, hypotonia, muscle weakness, hypocalcemic seizures, and radiological features of rickets. We aimed to present the VDDR1A case with a genetic study of CYP27B1 . The 14-month-old boy was admitted to the hospital due to a seizure. Serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25(OH) vitamin D, and 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D values were 5.1 mg/dL, 3.7 mg/dL, 705 IU/L, 429 pg/mL, 24.9 ng/mL, and 8.8 pg/mL, respectively. Radiological study showed cupping and fraying of the distal ulna and radius. The molecular genetic study revealed that the patient had a compound heterozygous mutation, Phe443Profs*24 and c.589+1G>A, in CYP27B1 . Genetic analysis of the family members presented that the mother was heterozygous for the mutation c.589+1G>A, and that the father was heterozygous for Phe443Profs*24. The patient was treated with calcium lactate and calcitriol. Until now, six Korean patients with VDDR1A have been studied. Including this case, Korean patients with VDDR1A were found to have only three different mutations in 14 alleles, indicating that the mutation in the CYP27B1 gene is homogeneous in the Korean population.

Humans , Infant , Male , 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-Hydroxylase , Alkaline Phosphatase , Alleles , Calcitriol , Calcium , Fathers , Lactic Acid , Molecular Biology , Mothers , Muscle Hypotonia , Parathyroid Hormone , Phosphorus , Radius , Rickets , Seizures , Ulna , Vitamin D , Vitamins
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785411


Skeletal mineralization is initiated in matrix vesicles (MVs), the small extracellular vesicles derived from osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Calcium and inorganic phosphate (Pi) taken up by MVs form hydroxyapatite crystals, which propagate on collagen fibrils to mineralize the extracellular matrix. Insufficient calcium or phosphate impairs skeletal mineralization. Because active vitamin D is necessary for intestinal calcium absorption, vitamin D deficiency is a significant cause of rickets/osteomalacia. Chronic hypophosphatemia also results in rickets/osteomalacia. Excessive action of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a key regulator of Pi metabolism, leads to renal Pi wasting and impairs vitamin D activation. X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH) is the most common form of hereditary FGF23-related hypophosphatemia, and enhanced FGF receptor (FGFR) signaling in osteocytes may be involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. Increased extracellular Pi triggers signal transduction via FGFR to regulate gene expression, implying a close relationship between Pi metabolism and FGFR. An anti-FGF23 antibody, burosumab, has recently been developed as a new treatment for XLH. In addition to various forms of rickets/osteomalacia, hypophosphatasia (HPP) is characterized by impaired skeletal mineralization. HPP is caused by inactivating mutations in tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase, an enzyme rich in MVs. The recent development of enzyme replacement therapy using bone-targeting recombinant alkaline phosphatase has improved the prognosis, motor function, and quality of life in patients with HPP. This links impaired skeletal mineralization with various conditions, and unraveling its pathogenesis will lead to more precise diagnoses and effective treatments.

Humans , Absorption , Alkaline Phosphatase , Calcium , Chondrocytes , Collagen , Diagnosis , Durapatite , Enzyme Replacement Therapy , Extracellular Matrix , Extracellular Vesicles , Familial Hypophosphatemic Rickets , Fibroblast Growth Factors , Gene Expression , Hypophosphatasia , Hypophosphatemia , Metabolism , Miners , Osteoblasts , Osteocytes , Prognosis , Quality of Life , Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor , Rickets , Signal Transduction , Vitamin D , Vitamin D Deficiency
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1441-1453, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760251


Identification of certain abnormalities of the chest wall can be extremely helpful in correctly diagnosing a number of syndromic conditions and systemic diseases. Additionally, chest wall abnormalities may sometimes constitute diagnoses by themselves. In the present pictorial essay, we review a number of such conditions and provide illustrative cases that were retrospectively identified from our clinical imaging database. These include pentalogy of Cantrell, Klippel-Feil syndrome, cleidocranial dysplasia, Poland syndrome, osteopetrosis, neurofibromatosis type 1, Marfan syndrome, Gardner syndrome, systemic sclerosis, relapsing polychondritis, polymyositis/dermatomyositis, ankylosing spondylitis, hyperparathyroidism, rickets, sickle cell anemia, thalassemia, tuberculosis, septic arthritis of the sternoclavicular joint, elastofibroma dorsi, and sternal dehiscence.

Anemia, Sickle Cell , Arthritis, Infectious , Cleidocranial Dysplasia , Diagnosis , Gardner Syndrome , Hyperparathyroidism , Klippel-Feil Syndrome , Marfan Syndrome , Neurofibromatosis 1 , Osteopetrosis , Pentalogy of Cantrell , Poland Syndrome , Polychondritis, Relapsing , Retrospective Studies , Rickets , Scleroderma, Systemic , Spondylitis, Ankylosing , Sternoclavicular Joint , Thalassemia , Thoracic Wall , Tuberculosis
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762598


Vitamin D hydroxylation-deficient rickets type 1A (VDDR1A, OMIM 264700) is a rare autosomal recessive inherited disorder. Pathogenic variants in the CYP27B1 gene lead to loss of 1α-hydroxylase activity. We report the case of a 22-month-old toddler who presented with growth retardation and delayed development. The patient exhibited the typical laboratory findings of VDDR1A, including hypocalcemia (calcium: 5.2 mg/dL), elevated serum level of alkaline phosphatase (2,600 U/L), elevated serum level of intact-parathyroid hormone (238 pg/mL), low 1,25(OH)₂D₃ level (11.2 pg/mL), and normal 25(OH)D₃ level (40.7 ng/mL). His height and weight were 76.5 cm and 9.5 kg, respectively (both <3rd percentile). The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development II indicated significantly delayed development (mental development index <50, psychomotor development index <50). The patient was a compound heterozygous for two novel pathogenic variants in the CYP27B1 gene: c.57_69del (p.Glu20Profs*2) and c.171dupG (p.Leu58Alafs*275), inherited from his mother and father, respectively. The patient showed remarkable improvement after treatment with calcitriol and calcium carbonate.

Humans , Infant , 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-Hydroxylase , Alkaline Phosphatase , Calcitriol , Calcium Carbonate , Databases, Genetic , Fathers , Hypocalcemia , Mothers , Rickets , Vitamin D , Vitamins , Weights and Measures
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763512


Hepatic osteodystrophy is frequent complication in patients with chronic liver disease, particularly with chronic cholestasis. We report a male infant with congenital hepatoblastoma, who had osteodystrophy complicated by multiple bone fractures despite adequate supplementation of fat-soluble vitamins including vitamin D. He was born by Caesarean section because of a 7 cm–sized abdominal mass detected by prenatal ultrasonography. The pathologic diagnosis was hepatoblastoma, PRETEXT staging III or IV. Whole body bone scan at the time of diagnosis showed no abnormal uptake. Oral vitamin D3 of 2,000 IU/day was administered with other fat-soluble vitamins. Serum direct bilirubin level gradually increased up to 28.9 mg/dL at postnatal 6 days and was above 5 mg/dL until 110 days of age. Bony changes consistent with rickets became apparent in left proximal humerus since 48 days of age, and multiple bone fractures developed thereafter. With resolving cholestasis by chemotherapy, his bony lesions improved gradually after add-on treatment of bisphosphonate and parenteral administration of vitamin D with calcium. High level of suspicion and prevention of osteodystrophy is needed in patients with hepatoblastoma, especially when cholestasis persists.

Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Pregnancy , Bilirubin , Calcium , Cesarean Section , Cholecalciferol , Cholestasis , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Fractures, Bone , Hepatoblastoma , Humerus , Liver Diseases , Rickets , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Vitamin D , Vitamins
Actual. osteol ; 14(3): 190-204, sept. - dic. 2018. ilus., graf., tab.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1052625


Mole rats live in permanent darkness, in networks of underground tunnels (which extend up to 1 km in the subsoil), excavated with their incisors, in warm and semi-arid areas of South Africa. Mole rats have an unusually impoverished vitamin D3 status with undetectable and low plasma concentrations of 25- hydroxyvitamin D3 and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, respectively. They express 25-hydroxylase in the liver and 1-hydroxylase and 24-hydroxylase in their kidneys. The presence of specific receptors (VDR) was confirmed in the intestine, kidney, Harderʼs glands and skin. In spite of their poor vitamin D3 status, the apparent fractional intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium and phosphate was high, always greater than 90%. Oral supplementation with cholecalciferol to mole rats did not improve the efficiency of gastrointestinal absorption of these minerals. Mole ratsdo not display the typical lesion of rickets: hypertrophic and radiolucent growth cartilages. Histological studies reported normal parameters of trabecular and cortical bone quality. Marmosets (monkeys of the New World) are not hypercalcaemic, eventhough they exhibit much higher levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and parathyroid hormonethan that of rhesus monkeys and humans. Fed a high vitamin D3 intake (110 IU/day/100 g of body weight), a fraction of the experimental group was found to display osteomalacic changes in their bones: distinct increases in osteoid surface, relative osteoid volume, and active osteoclastic bone resorption. These findings suggest that some marmosets appears to suffer vitamin D-dependent rickets, type II. The maximum binding capacity of the VDR or the dissociation constant of VDR1α,25(OH)2D3 complex of mole rats and New World monkeys are distinctly different of VDR isolated from human cells. Health status of those species appears to be adaptations to the mutations of their VDR. Though rare, as mutations may occur at any time in any patient, the overall message of this review to clinicians may be: recent clinical studies strongly suggests that the normality of physiological functions might be a better indicator of the health status than the serum levels of vitamin D metabolites. (AU)

Las ratas topo viven en la oscuridad permanente, en redes de túneles subterráneos excavadas con sus incisivos (que se extienden hasta 1 km en el subsuelo), en áreas cálidas y semiáridas de Sudáfrica. Las ratas topo tienen un estatus de vitamina D3 inusualmente empobrecido con concentraciones plasmáticas indetectables de 25-hidroxivitamina D3 y bajas de 1α, 25-dihidroxivitamina D3. Poseen 25-hidroxilasa en el hígado y 1-hidroxilasa y 24-hidroxilasa en sus riñones. La presencia de receptores específicos (VDR) ha sido confirmada en el intestino, el riñón, las glándulas de Harder y la piel. A pesar de su pobre estatus de vitamina D3,la absorción fraccional intestinal aparente de calcio, magnesio y fosfato fue alta, siempre superior al 90%. La suplementación oral con colecalciferol a las ratas topo no mejoró la eficacia de la absorción gastrointestinal de estos minerales. No muestran la lesión típica del raquitismo: cartílagos de crecimiento hipertróficos y radiolúcidos. Varios estudios histológicos confirman los hallazgos radiológicos y se informan parámetros normales de la calidad ósea trabecular y cortical. Los titíes (monos del Nuevo Mundo) exhiben calcemias normales con niveles más elevados de 25-hidroxivitamina D3, 1α,25-dihidroxivitamina D3 y hormona paratiroidea que los monos rhesus y los seres humanos. Un tercio de un grupo de titíes alimentados con una alta ingesta de vitamina D3 (110 I/día/100 g de peso corporal) exhibió cambios osteomalácicos en sus huesos: aumento en la superficie osteoide, volumen osteoide y activa reabsorción osteoclástica. Estos hallazgos sugieren que una fracción de la población de titíes padece raquitismo dependiente de vitamina D, tipo II. Debido a mutaciones ocurridas hace millones de años, las máximas capacidades de ligamiento del VDR o los valores de la constante de disociación del complejo VDR-1α,25(OH)2D3 de las ratas topo o monos del Nuevo Mundo son muy diferentes de los verificables en receptores aislados de células humanas actuales. El mensaje de esta revisión a los médicos clínicos podría ser: varios estudios clínicos recientes indican que la normalidad de las funciones fisiológicas de un paciente es un mejor indicador de su salud que los niveles séricos de los metabolitos de la vitamina D. (AU)

Humans , Animals , Mole Rats/physiology , Platyrrhini/physiology , Rickets/veterinary , Vitamin D/blood , Cholecalciferol/administration & dosage , Mole Rats/anatomy & histology , Platyrrhini/anatomy & histology , Vitamin D3 24-Hydroxylase/blood , 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-Hydroxylase/blood , Hydroxycholecalciferols/blood
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741799


Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO), also known as oncogenic osteomalacia, is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome characterized by hypophosphatemia resulting from decreased tubular phosphate reabsorption, with a low or inappropriately normal level of active vitamin D. The culprit tumors of TIO could produce fibroblast growth factor 23 which plays a role in regulating renal Pi handling and 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1α-hydroxylase activity. Chronic hypophosphatemia could eventually lead to inadequate bone mineralization, presenting as osteomalacia. The diagnosis should be considered when patients manifest as hypophosphatemia and osteomalacia, or rickets and needs to be differentiated from other disorders of phosphate metabolism, such as the inhereditary diseases like X-linked hypophosphataemic rickets, autosomal dominant hypophosphataemic rickets, autosomal recessive hypophosphataemic rickets and acquired diseases like vitamin D deficiency. Localization of responsible tumors could be rather difficult since the vast majority are very small and could be everywhere in the body. A combination of thorough physical examination, laboratory tests and imaging techniques should be applied and sometimes a venous sampling may come into handy. The technology of somatostatin-receptor functional scintigraphy markedly facilitates the localization of TIO tumor. Patients undergoing complete removal of the causative neoplasm generally have favorable prognoses while a few have been reported to suffer from recurrence and metastasis. For those undetectable or unresectable cases, phosphate supplements and active vitamin D should be administrated and curative intended radiotherapy or ablation is optional.

Humans , Calcification, Physiologic , Diagnosis , Fibroblast Growth Factors , Hypophosphatemia , Metabolism , Neoplasm Metastasis , Osteomalacia , Paraneoplastic Syndromes , Physical Examination , Prognosis , Radionuclide Imaging , Radiotherapy , Recurrence , Rickets , Vitamin D , Vitamin D Deficiency
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713704


Primary distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) caused by mutations of the SLC4A1 gene, which encodes for erythroid and kidney isoforms of anion exchanger, shows marked difference in inheritance patterns and clinical features in different parts of the world. While the disease shows autosomal dominant inheritance without any red cell morphological abnormalities in the temperate countries, it is almost invariably recessive, and often accompanies red cell morphological abnormalities or hemolytic anemia in the tropics, especially in Southeast Asia. Here, we report three patients with autosomal recessive (AR) dRTA, presenting with typical findings of failure to thrive and rickets, from two unrelated Lao families. The mutational analyses revealed that all three patients harbored the same homozygous SLC4A1 mutation, p.Gly701Asp. Adequate supplementation of alkali and potassium resulted in remarkable improvement of growth retardation and skeletal deformities of the patients. This is the first case report of Lao patients with AR dRTA caused by SLC4A1 mutations.

Humans , Acidosis, Renal Tubular , Alkalies , Anemia, Hemolytic , Asia, Southeastern , Congenital Abnormalities , Failure to Thrive , Inheritance Patterns , Kidney , Laos , Potassium , Protein Isoforms , Rickets , Wills
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 88(1): 148-152, 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-844591


El tenofovir (TDF) es un inhibidor de la transcriptasa reversa análogo de nucleótidos, aunque tiene buena tolerabilidad y alta actividad antirretroviral, su efecto sobre el riñón ha sido un motivo de preocupación. Objetivo: Describir el caso de una niña infectada por VIH que presenta síntomas y hallazgos de laboratorio compatibles con un síndrome de Fanconi durante el tratamiento con TDF como parte de su terapia antirretroviral. Caso clínico: Niña infectada por el VIH-1, que después de 18 meses con el tratamiento con TDF presentó pérdida de fuerza y dolor de las extremidades inferiores con deterioro funcional. Los hallazgos de laboratorio fueron compatibles con el síndrome de Fanconi. Las radiografías mostraron fractura bilateral de cadera y muñecas. El síndrome de Fanconi se recuperó por completo cuatro meses después del cambio de terapia antirretroviral. Conclusiones: Los médicos que prescriben TDF deben estar preparados para detectar signos y síntomas indicativos de disfunción renal y considerar de inmediato el cambio del fármaco a otro antirretroviral.

Tenofovir (TDF) is an inhibitor of reverse transcriptase nucleotide analogue, although it has good tolerability and high anti-retroviral activity, its effect on the kidney has been a concern. Objective: To describe a girl infected with HIV who presented Fanconi syndrome during antiretroviral therapy with TDF. Clinical case: We describe a HIV-1-infected girl, who after 18 months treatment with TDF presented loss of strength and pain of the lower extremities with functional impairment. Laboratory findings were consistent with Fanconi syndrome. Radiographs showed bilateral hip fracture and wrists. Full recovery of Fanconi syndrome was achieved four months after changing antiretroviral therapy. Conclusions: TDF-prescribing physicians must be prepared to detect signs and symptoms of renal dysfunction and immediately consider switching to another antiviral drug.

Humans , Female , Child , Rickets/chemically induced , Anti-HIV Agents/adverse effects , Fanconi Syndrome/chemically induced , Tenofovir/adverse effects , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Anti-HIV Agents/administration & dosage , Fanconi Syndrome/diagnosis , Tenofovir/administration & dosage
Journal of Bone Metabolism ; : 135-139, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-96444


Wilson's disease (WD) is a rare inherited disorder of copper metabolism. It chiefly has hepatic, neurological and ophthalmic manifestations. Although osteoporosis, rickets and early arthritis are common features of WD, they are under-recognized. Musculoskeletal manifestations very rarely lead to diagnosis of the disease. Here we present a case of a 12-year-old girl who presented with a 3-month-old pathological fracture of neck of femur. WD was diagnosed on investigating the cause of the pathological fracture, which was managed by performing a conventional McMurray's intertrochanteric osteotomy. At 6 months follow up, fracture had united and patient was able to ambulate with support. WD can be a rare cause of pathological fracture. A high index of suspicion must be maintained in patients of pathological fracture presenting with associated neuropsychiatric or hepatic manifestations.

Child , Female , Humans , Infant , Arthritis , Copper , Diagnosis , Femur , Femur Neck , Follow-Up Studies , Fractures, Spontaneous , Hepatolenticular Degeneration , Metabolism , Neck , Osteoporosis , Osteotomy , Rickets