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1.
rev.cuid. (Bucaramanga.2010) ; 13(1): 1-14, 20221213.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1369115

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las Infecciones Asociadas a la Atención en Salud (IAAS) son un grave problema de salud pública, que puede ser prevenidas al identificar los factores de riesgo con el uso de escalas. Objetivo: Adaptar transculturalmente y realizar la validación de contenido y de face de la escala Rodríguez-Almeida-Cañon (RAC) de evaluación del riesgo de infección en adultos hospitalizados. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio metodológico de adaptación transcultural. La recolección de datos se realizó de junio a noviembre de 2020. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 11 especialistas. La escala RAC se evaluó en su conjunto, determinando su alcance, los ítems fueron evaluados individualmente, verificando su claridad, relevancia y pertinencia. Para evaluar cada ítem se utilizó una escala tipo Likert de cuatro niveles. La validez de contenido fue evaluada a través del índice de validez de contenido (IVC). Resultados: Por medio de la evaluación del comité de especialistas fue posible determinar que la escala RAC es apta para uso en el contexto cultural colombiano. Se realizaron ajustes para mejorar la interpretación de algunos ítems. El IVC de los ítems estuvo entre 0.90 a 1.0 y el IVC promedio de la escala fue de 0.98. Discusión: Esta escala permite medir el riesgo de IAAS a un bajo costo, con el fin de poder planear y ejecutar intervenciones por parte del equipo multidisciplinario que tiene a cargo la salud y el cuidado del paciente. Conclusiones: La escala RAC en su versión en español es un instrumento apropiado para la evaluación del riesgo de IAAS en el adulto hospitalizado en Colombia.


Introduction: Health care­associated infections (HAI) are a serious public health problem, which can be prevented by identifying risk factors with the use of scales. Objective: To adapt cross-culturally and perform content and face validation of the Rodríguez-Almeida-Cañon (RAC) scale for assessing the risk of infection in hospitalized adults. Materials and Methods: Methodological study of cross-cultural adaptation. Data collection was carried out from June to November 2020. The sample consisted of 11 specialists. The RAC scale was evaluated as a whole, determining its scope, the items were evaluated individually, verifying their clarity, relevance and pertinence. To evaluate each item, a four-level Likert-type scale was used. The content validity was evaluated through the content validity index (CVI). Results: Through the evaluation of the committee of specialists it was possible to determine that the RAC scale is suitable for use in the Colombian cultural context. Adjustments were made to improve the interpretation of some items. The CVI of the items was between 0.90 to 1.0 and the average CVI of the scale was 0.98. Discusión: This scale makes it possible to measure the HAI risk at a low cost, in order to be able to plan and execute interventions by the multidisciplinary team in charge of the health and care of the patient. Conclusions: The RAC scale in its Spanish version is an appropriate instrument for assessing the risk of HAI in hospitalized adults in Colombia.


Introdução: As infecções associadas à assistência à saúde (IAAS) são um grave problema de saúde pública, que pode ser prevenido por meio da identificação de fatores de risco com o uso de escalas. Objetivo: Adaptar transculturalmente e realizar a validação de conteúdo e de face da escala Rodríguez-Almeida-Cañon (RAC), de avaliação do risco de infecção em adultos hospitalizados. Materiais e Métodos: Estudo metodológico de adaptação transcultural. A coleta de dados foi realizada no período de junho a novembro de 2020. A amostra foi composta por 11 especialistas. A escala RAC foi avaliada como um todo, determinando seu escopo, os itens foram avaliados individualmente, verificando sua clareza, relevância e pertinência. Para avaliar cada item, foi utilizada uma escala do tipo Likert de quatro níveis. A validade de conteúdo foi avaliada por meio do índice de validade de conteúdo (IVC). Resultados: Por meio da avaliação do comitê de especialistas, foi possível constatar que a escala RAC é adequada para uso no contexto cultural colombiano. Ajustes foram feitos para melhorar a interpretação de alguns itens. O IVC dos itens ficou entre 0,90 a 1,0 e o IVC médio da escala foi de 0,98. Discussão: Esta escala permite mensurar o risco de IAAS a baixo custo, de forma a poder planejar e executar intervenções da equipe multiprofissional responsável pela saúde e cuidado do paciente. Conclusões: A escala RAC em sua versão em espanhol é um instrumento adequado para a avaliação do risco de IAAS em adultos hospitalizados na Colômbia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Infection Control , Risk Assessment , Validation Study , Patient Safety
2.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(4): 546-551, Jul.-Aug. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394874

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The present study aims to understand the perceptions of orthopedists and traumatologists regarding the risk of exposure to ionizing radiation in fluoroscopy procedures. Methods An objective, structured, self-administered questionnaire with sociodemographic, professional, and occupational variables was developed, available through an invitation sent to orthopedist physicians whose contacts were made publicly available. Results A total of 141 questionnaires were answered and analyzed. Most respondents (99%) use fluoroscopy in their surgeries, and only 34.8% of the participants feel safe with the use of the equipment. It was observed that the knowledge about ionizing radiation is inadequate, because 22.6% of the participants are unaware of the type of radiation emitted in fluoroscopy and its biological effects. In addition, 52% of the participants did not know or do not understand the principles of radiological protection and their relationship with surgical practices. Conclusion We concluded that the radiological protection of most orthopedists in surgical procedures is inadequate, and initial and continued training programs of professionals are necessary, bringing health benefits to orthopedists and their patients.


Resumo Objetivo Este estudo visa compreender as percepções dos médicos ortopedistas e traumatologistas em relação ao risco da exposição à radiação ionizante nos procedimentos de fluoroscopia. Métodos Desenvolveu-se um questionário objetivo, estruturado, autoaplicável e com variáveis sociodemográficas, profissionais e ocupacionais, disponibilizado através de convite enviado a médicos ortopedistas cujos contatos estavam disponibilizados publicamente. Resultados Foram respondidos e analisados 141 questionários. A maioria dos respondentes (99%) utilizam a fluoroscopia em suas cirurgias, e apenas 34,8% dos participantes se sentem seguros com o uso do equipamento. Observou-se que o conhecimento sobre radiação ionizante é inadequado, pois 22,6% dos respondentes desconhecem o tipo de radiação emitida na fluoroscopia e seus efeitos biológicos. Além disso, 52% dos respondentes não conhecem ou não compreendem os princípios de proteção radiológica e suas relações com as práticas cirúrgicas. Conclusão Conclui-se que a proteção radiológica da maioria dos ortopedistas nos procedimentos cirúrgicos é inadequada e são necessários programas de formação inicial e continuada dos profissionais, trazendo benefícios para a saúde dos ortopedistas e de seus pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Radiation, Ionizing , X-Rays , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Assessment , Radiation Exposure
3.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud. Dirección General de Intervenciones Estratégicas en Salud Pública. Dirección de Salud Mental; 1 ed; Ago. 2022. 34 p. ilus.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS, MINSAPERU | ID: biblio-1392066

ABSTRACT

La presente publicación describe los parámetros técnicos estandarizados, para la evaluación de la afectación psicológica de personas, en caso de haber sido víctimas de violencia contra las mujeres y los integrantes del grupo familiar y para contribuir a la recuperación integral y oportuna de las personas víctimas de violencia contra las mujeres e integrantes del grupo familiar que acuden a las Instituciones Prestadoras de Servicios de Salud (IPRESS)


Subject(s)
Reference Standards , Stress, Psychological , Mental Health , Domestic Violence , Risk Assessment , Victims Identification , Psychosocial Impact , Violence Against Women
4.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 42(2): 146-151, Apr.-June 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394414

ABSTRACT

Objective: Colonoscopy is increasingly performed in octogenarians for the detection of colorectal cancer (CRC), but its benefits may be outweighed by its risks. The aim of the present study was to identify the risk factors for CRC in octogenarians presenting for colonoscopy to help stratify the need for this procedure. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 434 patients aged ≥ 80 years referred for a colonoscopy between January 2018 and December 2019. Comparisons were made between those with and without CRC and advanced adenoma (AA). The primary endpoint was to identify the clinical variables predictive of CRC and AA, and the secondary endpoints were complications and death 30 days after the procedure. Results: Colonoscopy was performed in 434 octogenarians, predominantly for symptoms, with CRC in 65 (15.0%) patients. Iron deficiency was associated with a higher risk of having CRC identified on colonoscopy (odds ratio [OR]: 2.33; 95% confidence interval [95%CI] = 1.36-4.00), but not symptoms such as bleeding, weight loss, or diarrhea. A colonoscopy in the last 10 years was protective, with a lower risk of CRC (OR: 0.45; 95% CI = 0.22-0.93). Patients with both normal iron stores and a colonoscopy within 10 years had a 92.5% chance of not having CRC. No variables were predictive of AA. Patients with complications, including death, were older and more likely to have underlying cardiorespiratory disease. Conclusion: Iron status and colonoscopy within 10 years can be used to predict the risk of CRC in octogenarians. Those with low predicted risk, especially if older and with cardiorespiratory disease, should be considered for non-invasive tests, such as computed tomography (CT) colonography, over colonoscopy. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Rectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colonoscopy/adverse effects , Colonic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Risk Assessment , Adenoma , Comorbidity , Case Management
5.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 93(1): e602, jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1383638

ABSTRACT

Las dietas vegetarianas han alcanzado en los últimos tiempos un gran protagonismo como modalidad de alimentación de nuestra población, incluyendo la población pediátrica. Constituyen una opción de alimentación válida si se planifican adecuadamente. Los padres que optan ofrecer a sus hijos este tipo de dietas deben conocer sus riesgos y potenciales beneficios. El médico del primer nivel de atención que asiste a niños, niñas y adolescentes (NNA) tiene una formación limitada sobre nutrición, sin embargo debe supervisar que la alimentación de esta población sea la adecuada. Es necesario conocer los alimentos que integran las dietas vegetarianas, así como las necesidades calóricas, de nutrientes críticos y suplementación de estos NNA según su edad. Realizar una adecuada planificación, es el gold standard para mantener un adecuado estado nutricional, crecimiento y desarrollo. El objetivo de esta publicación es revisar los principios de este tipo de dietas, sus beneficios y riesgos, y se establecen algunas consideraciones y recomendaciones prácticas para su abordaje desde la Atención Primaria de la Salud.


Vegetarian diets have recently reached a great protagonism as a way of feeding our population, including the pediatric population. They are a valid feeding option if properly planned. Parents who choose to offer their children this type of diet should know its risks and potential benefits. The primary care physician who assists children and adolescents (NNA) has limited training in nutrition; however, you must supervise that the diet of this population is adequate. It is necessary to know the foods that make up vegetarian diets, as well as the caloric needs, of critical nutrients and supplementation of these children according to their age. Carrying out adequate planning is the gold standard to maintain adequate nutritional, growth and development status. The objective of this publication is to review the principles of this type of diet, its benefits and risks, and establish some practical considerations and recommendations for its approach from Primary Health Care.


A alimentação vegetariana tem atingido recentemente um grande protagonismo como forma de alimentação de nossa população, inclusive a pediátrica. Ela é uma opção de alimentação válida se devidamente planejada. Os pais que optam por oferecer a seus filhos esse tipo de dieta devem estar conscientes de seus riscos e potenciais benefícios. O médico de atenção primária que assiste crianças e adolescentes (NNA) tem treinamento limitado em nutrição; no entanto, deve-se supervisionar se a alimentação dessa população é adequada. É necessário conhecer os alimentos que compõem a dieta vegetariana, bem como as necessidades calóricas, de nutrientes críticos e de suplementação dessas crianças de acordo com a sua idade. Realizar um planejamento adequado é fundamental para manter o estado nutricional, de crescimento e de desenvolvimento adequado. O objetivo deste paper é revisar os princípios desse tipo de dieta, seus benefícios e riscos, e estabelecer algumas considerações práticas e recomendações para sua abordagem desde a perspectiva da Atenção Primária à Saúde.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Diet, Vegetarian , Micronutrients/administration & dosage , Micronutrients/deficiency , Risk Assessment , Micronutrients/blood , Dietary Supplements
6.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 29(2): 1-12, 2022-05-19. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1393169

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 pandemic situation made the pharmaceutical companies develop the vaccine with different formulations in a short period. Objectives: The main objective of the review is to focus on different types of vaccine formulations available globally and the importance of technology transfer in vaccine development associated with potential risks. Results: Research on vaccine development led to various types of vaccines, such as Inactivated vaccines, Live Attenuated vaccines, Ribonucleic acid (RNA) and Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) vaccines, viral vector vaccines, and Protein Subunit Vaccines for COVID-19. But the process of vaccine development and technology transfer is lined with various risks and challenges. Through risk assessment, we found some major potential risks involved in product development; this leads to a smoother and more efficient method to develop safe vaccines available for public health. Conclusions: This review will explain the significance of technology collaboration for the faster development of various formulations of vaccines globally


Antecedentes: La situación de pandemia de COVID-19 hizo que las empresas farmacéuticas desarrollaran la vacuna con diferentes formulaciones en un corto período. Objetivos: El objetivo principal de la revisión es centrarse en los diferentes tipos de formulaciones de vacunas disponibles a nivel mundial y la importancia de la transferencia de tecnología en el desarrollo de vacunas asociado con los riesgos potenciales. Resultados: La investigación sobre el desarrollo de vacunas condujo al desarrollo de varios tipos de vacunas, como vacunas inactivadas, vacunas vivas atenuadas, vacunas de ácido ribonucleico (ARN) y ácido desoxirribonucleico (ADN), vacunas de vectores virales y vacunas de subunidades de proteínas para COVID-19. Pero el proceso de desarrollo de vacunas y transferencia de tecnología está lleno de varios riesgos y desafíos. A través de la evaluación de riesgos, encontramos algunos riesgos potenciales importantes involucrados en el desarrollo de productos, lo que conduce a un método más fluido y eficiente para desarrollar vacunas seguras disponibles para la salud pública. Conclusiones: Esta revisión dará una idea de la importancia de la colaboración tecnológica para el desarrollo más rápido de varias formulaciones de vacunas a nivel mundial


Subject(s)
Humans , Technology Transfer , COVID-19 Vaccines , Vaccine Development , Risk Assessment
7.
Rev. Méd. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 60(2): 164-170, abr. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1367405

ABSTRACT

Introducción: a pesar de que la técnica de papanicolaou es el método más eficaz para la prevención y detección del cáncer cervicouterino, la precisión de esta herramienta sigue siendo controversial; debido a esto, existen esfuerzos médicos y científicos para mejorar la calidad del procedimiento. Objetivo: comparar la calidad en la toma de muestra entre la técnica convencional y la modificada. Material y métodos: estudio observacional descriptivo y comparativo en 150 muestras de citología cervical (75 muestras técnica convencional y 75 en técnica modificada) en mujeres de 25 a 64 años. Se analizaron variables emográficas, características del cérvix y calidad de la muestra. Se realizó estadística descriptiva y medidas de asociación. Estudio con riesgo mayor que el mínimo. Todas las participantes firmaron consentimiento informado. Resultados: la calidad de la muestra fue satisfactoria en el 92% para la técnica convencional frente al 89.3% para la técnica modificada. La causa principal de muestras insatisfactorias fue la celularidad insuficiente, la cual se presentó en el 6.7% de las muestras con técnica convencional frente al 12% de la técnica modificada, sin diferencia significativa entre ambas técnicas p = 0.575 (1.37; 0.45-4.1), hallazgos que rechazan la hipótesis de trabajo. Conclusiones: no hubo diferencia significativa al utilizar ambas pruebas, las muestras con calidad satisfactoria fueron similares entre ambas técnicas.


Background: Despite the fact that the Papanicolaou technique is the most effective method of prevention and detection of cervical cancer, the precision of this tool remains controversial; Because of this, there are medical and scientific efforts to improve the quality of the procedure. Objective: Compare the quality of sampling between the conventional and modified technique. Material and methods: Descriptive and comparative observational study in 150 cervical cytology samples (75 conventional technique samples and 75 in modified technique) in women aged 25 to 64 years. Demographic variables, characteristics of the cervix and quality of the sample were analyzed. Descriptive statistics and association measures were performed. Study with risk greater than the minimum. All participants signed an informed consent. Results: The quality of the sample was satisfactory in 92.0% for the conventional technique vs 89.3% for the modified technique. The main cause of unsatisfactory samples was insufficient cellularity 6.7% in conventional technique vs 12% of the modified technique, with no significant difference between both techniques p = 0.575 (1.37; 0.45-4.1), findings that reject the working hypothesis. Conclusions: There was no significant difference when using both tests, the samples with satisfactory quality were similar between both techniques.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Papanicolaou Test/methods , Quality Control , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Saline Solution
8.
ABCS health sci ; 47: e022305, 06 abr. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391922

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is known as a flavor-enhancing compound and also the fifth basic taste (umami). About the safety of using MSG as a food additive, some studies show indications that there is no threat and others showthe opposite. There is no consensus about the advantages and disadvantages of using MSG. Objective: To systematically review studies in the international literature on the knowledge of the pros and cons of using glutamate in food. Methods: Systematic review of studies published in journals indexed in ScienceDirect and PubMed databases. Articles published until 2020 were included. The aspects involving the advantages and disadvantages were discussed, as well as the health risks related to the MSG intake from diet. Results: The revised studies showed that MSG can reduce the amount of sodium in foods without modifying flavor. Although authorities indicate that MSG is safe for human consumption, some studies highlight that health risk is real. The use of MSG is still controversial because there are some misunderstandings in the applied amounts of MSG absorption and metabolism. Conclusion: MSG is widely applied in industrial and homemade food. The need for further studies is crucial, and aspects such as metabolism and amounts of MSG effectively consumed must be better evaluated.


Subject(s)
Sodium Glutamate , Flavoring Agents , Food Preservatives , Risk Assessment
9.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(2): 174-180, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364980

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background The wide range of clinical presentations of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) makes it indispensible to use tools for risk stratification and for appropriate risks management; thus, the use of prognosis scores is recommended in the immediat clinical decision-making. Objective To validate the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) score as a predictor of in-hospital and 6-month post-discharge mortality in a population diagnosed with ACS. Methods This is a prospective cohort study of consecutive patients diagnosed with ACS between May and December 2018. GRACE scores were calculated, as well as their predictive value for in-hospital and 6-month post-discharge mortality. The validity of the model was assessed by two techniques: discriminative power using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and goodness-of-fit, using the Hosmer-Lemeshow (HL) test, at the 5% level of significance. Results A total of 160 patients were included, mean age 64 (±10.9) years; of which 60% were men. The risk model showed to have satisfactory ability to predict both in-hospital mortality, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.76 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57-0.95; p = 0.014), and 6-month post-discharge mortality, with AUC of 0.78 (95%CI, 0.62-0.94), p = 0.002. The HL test indicated good-fit for both models of the GRACE score. Conclusion In this study, the GRACE risk score for predicting mortality was appropriately validated in patients with ACS, with good discriminative power and goodness-of-fit. The results suggest that the GRACE score is appropriate for clinical use in our setting.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Risk Assessment/methods , Acute Coronary Syndrome/mortality , Prognosis , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , ROC Curve , Follow-Up Studies , Hospital Mortality , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnosis
11.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(1): 1-10, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356319

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background The lower frequency of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors observed in vegetarians compared to omnivores may be due to more appropriate nutrient intake according to recommendations for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Objective To compare the dietary adequacy according to the recommendations of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) in apparently healthy vegetarian (VEG) and omnivorous (OMN) men. Methods This was a cross-sectional study, conducted with apparently healthy men (44 omnivorous and 44 vegetarians, ≥ 35 years), who were assessed for daily food consumption, anthropometric data, physical exercise status, and clinical data. Multiple logistic regression was used to test the association between the type of diet and the dietary adequacy. Significant values were considered for p<0.05. Results Several clinical CV risk markers were significantly lower in VEG when compared to OMN: body mass index (BMI) (23.1 vs. 27.3 kg/m2), systolic blood pressure (119.5 vs. 129.2 mmHg), and diastolic blood pressure (75.7 vs. 83.9 mmHg). VEG presented significant lower values of blood lipids and glucose. No significant difference was observed in caloric intake; however, VEG consumed significantly more carbohydrates, dietary fibers, and polyunsaturated fats. VEG presented an adequate consumption of dietary cholesterol and saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, regardless of caloric intake and age. Conclusion VEG were more likely to consume saturated fatty acids, dietary cholesterol, and fibers according to the recommendations of NCEP, factors that may contribute to lower levels of CV risk markers than OMN.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Diet, Vegetarian , Recommended Dietary Allowances , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Assessment , Eating , Fatty Acids , Life Style
12.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(1): 14-24, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356322

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: The risk of sports-related sudden cardiac arrest after COVID-19 infection can be a serious problem. There is an urgent need for evidence-based criteria to ensure patient safety before resuming exercise. Objective: To estimate the pooled prevalence of acute myocardial injury caused by COVID-19 and to provide an easy-to-use cardiovascular risk assessment toolkit prior to resuming sports activities after COVID-19 infection. Methods: We searched the Medline and Cochrane databases for articles on the prevalence of acute myocardial injury associated with COVID-19 infection. The pooled prevalence of acute myocardial injury was calculated for hospitalized patients treated in different settings (non-intensive care unit [ICU], ICU, overall hospitalization, and non-survivors). Statistical significance was accepted for p values <0.05. We propose a practical flowchart to assess the cardiovascular risk of individuals who recovered from COVID-19 before resuming sports activities. Results: A total of 20 studies (6,573 patients) were included. The overall pooled prevalence of acute myocardial injury in hospitalized patients was 21.7% (95% CI 17.3-26.5%). The non-ICU setting had the lowest prevalence (9.5%, 95% CI 1.5-23.4%), followed by the ICU setting (44.9%, 95% CI 27.7-62.8%), and the cohort of non-survivors (57.7% with 95% CI 38.5-75.7%). We provide an approach to assess cardiovascular risk based on the prevalence of acute myocardial injury in each setting. Conclusions: Acute myocardial injury is frequent and associated with more severe disease and hospital admissions. Cardiac involvement could be a potential trigger for exercise-induced clinical complications after COVID-19 infection. We created a toolkit to assist with clinical decision-making prior to resuming sports activities after COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Sports , Heart Disease Risk Factors , COVID-19/complications , Myocarditis/complications , Death, Sudden, Cardiac , Risk Assessment/methods , Evidence-Based Practice/methods , Athletes
14.
Rev. SOBECC (Online) ; 27: 1-9, 01-01-2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1399720

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Descrever a implantação da escala Munro de avaliação de risco de lesão por pressão em pacientes no período perioperatório no prontuário eletrônico. Método: Relato de experiência do processo de implantação em sistema eletrônico da escala Munro em um hospital filantrópico de grande porte localizado no município de São Paulo, com 40 enfermeiros. Resultados: Foi implantada a escala Munro no prontuário eletrônico, com visualização rápida do seu resultado em alertas de segurança em painel do mapa cirúrgico. Para utilizar a técnica, 40 enfermeiros foram treinados em duas etapas: na modalidade ensino a distância e presencialmente, quando acompanharam sua aplicação. Três desses profissionais necessitaram de mais um dia de acompanhamento e cinco apresentaram dúvidas quanto aos critérios de aplicabilidade após o treinamento. Conclusão: A implantação da escala Munro foi concluída na unidade primária proposta, a determinação de risco sistematizada e a implementação de medidas preventivas contribuiu para evitar lesões por pressão no perioperatório. O sistema eletrônico proporcionou agilidade para implantação, e os alertas e a visualização em mapa cirúrgico melhoraram a comunicação com a equipe na identificação do risco; poucas foram as dúvidas sobre o processo ou itens da escala.


Objective: To describe the implementation of the Munro scale in electronic medical records to assess the risk of pressure injury in patients in the perioperative period. Method: Experience report on the process of implementing the Munro scale electronic system in a large philanthropic hospital located in the city of São Paulo, with 40 nurses. Results: The Munro scale was implemented in the electronic medical record, with a quick view of its result in safety alerts on the surgical map panel. To use the technique, 40 nurses were trained in two stages: in the distance learning modality and in person, when they followed its application. Three of these professionals required one more day of follow-up and five had queries about the applicability criteria after training. Conclusion: The implementation of the Munro scale was completed in the proposed primary unit, and the systematic risk determination and implementation of preventive measures contributed to avoid perioperative pressure injuries. The electronic system provided agility for implementation, and the alerts and visualization on a surgical map improved communication with the team in the identification of risk; there were few queries about the process or any items of the scale.


Objetivo: Describir la implementación de la escala de evaluación de riesgo de lesión por presión de Munro para pacientes perioperatorios en la historia clínica electrónica. Método: Relato de experiencia del proceso de implementación del sistema electrónico escala Munro en un gran hospital filantrópico de la ciudad de São Paulo, con 40 enfermeros. Resultados: Inserción de la escala Munro en la historia clínica electrónica con visualización rápida del resultado de la escala en alertas de seguridad y panel de visualización del mapa quirúrgico. En el proceso de implementación de la escala se capacitaron 40 enfermeras en la modalidad a distancia y posterior seguimiento de la aplicación con capacitación presencial. De los 40 enfermeros, tres necesitaron undía más de seguimiento y cinco tenían dudas sobre los criterios después de la capacitación. Conclusión: Se completó la implementación de la escala de Munro en la unidad primaria propuesta. La determinación sistematizada del riesgo y la implementación de medidas preventivas contribuyen a la prevención de las lesiones por presión perioperatorias. El sistema electrónico proporcionó agilidad para la implementación, las alertas y la visualización en un mapa quirúrgico mejoran la comunicación con el equipo en la identificación del riesgo y se presentan pocas dudas sobre el proceso o los ítems de la escala. Palabras clave: Medición de riesgo. Enfermería perioperatoria. Úlcera por presión. Registros electrónicos de salud.


Subject(s)
Humans , Wounds and Injuries , Equipment and Supplies , Nurses , Safety , Risk Assessment , Electronic Health Records
15.
Psico USF ; 27(1): 61-72, jan.-mar. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1376040

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to verify the extent to which the levels of quality of life are related to and influence suicide risk indices. A descriptive, correlational, quantitative research was performed. A non-probabilistic sample was used which was composed of 11,863 Brazilian participants all over 18 years old, who responded to the Risk Assessment Suicide Scale (RASS) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life BREF Instrument (WHOQOL-BREF), and whose data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics, the Spearman correlation and multiple linear regression using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The results identify negative, moderate and significant correlations between the constructs, and that the domains of quality of life influence 47.8% of the variations in the suicide risk indices, confirming that the psychological domain is the most relevant within the explanatory model created. The conclusion is that there is a the need for public policies to improve the quality of life and prevent suicide (AU).


Este estudo objetivou verificar em que medida os níveis de qualidade de vida se relacionam e influenciam os índices de risco de suicídio. Realizou-se uma pesquisa descritiva, correlacional, de abordagem quantitativa. Contou-se com uma amostra não probabilística composta por 11.863 participantes - brasileiros e maiores de 18 anos, que responderam à Risk Assessment Suicide Scale (RASS) e ao Word Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument Bref(WHOQOL-bref), cujos dados foram analisados por meio de estatística descritiva, correlação de Spearman e regressão linear multivariada pormeio do Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). Os resultados identificam correlações negativas, moderadas e significativas entre os construtos; e que os domínios de qualidade de vida influenciam em 47,8% as variações nos índices de risco de suicídio, constatando que o domínio psicológico é o mais relevante dentro do modelo explicativo criado. Conclui-se a necessidade de políticas públicas para melhoria da qualidade de vida e prevenção de suicídio (AU).


Este estudio objetivó comprobar hasta qué medida los niveles de calidad de vida se relacionan e influyen en las tasas de riesgo de suicidio. Se realizó una investigación descriptiva, correlacional y cuantitativa. Hubo una muestra no probabilística compuesta por 11.863 participantes brasileños mayores de 18 años, que respondieron a la Risk Assessment Suicide Scale (RASS) y al Word Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument Bref(WHOQOL-bref), cuyos datos fueron analizados mediante estadística descriptiva, correlación de Spearman y regresión lineal multivariante en Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). Los resultados identifican correlaciones negativas, moderadas y significativas entre los constructos; y que los dominios de calidad de vida influyen en un 47,8% en las variaciones de los índices de riesgo de suicidio, encontrando que el dominio psicológico es el más relevante dentro del modelo explicativo creado. Estos hallazgos revelan la necesidad de políticas públicas para mejorar la calidad de vida y prevenir el suicidio (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Quality of Life/psychology , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Health Promotion , Surveys and Questionnaires , Statistics, Nonparametric , Risk Assessment
16.
Rev. Méd. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 60(1): 67-74, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361391

ABSTRACT

Se presenta un modelo departamental para la atención integral de pacientes con hipertensión pulmonar. Se resume el conocimiento actual de la hipertensión pulmonar, su mortalidad, pronóstico y la estratificación de su severidad que justifican la propuesta de la estructura y la función departamental.


A departmental model for the comprehensive care of patients with pulmonary hypertension is presented. The current knowledge of pulmonary hypertension, its mortality, prognosis and the stratification of its severity that justify the proposal of the departmental structure and function are summarized.


Subject(s)
Humans , Comprehensive Health Care/organization & administration , Hospital Departments/organization & administration , Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Hypertension, Pulmonary/therapy , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index , Risk Assessment , Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension/diagnosis , Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension/mortality , Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension/therapy , Hypertension, Pulmonary/epidemiology
17.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 35: eAPE039014234, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1374040

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Analisar os danos à saúde relacionados ao trabalho de enfermeiros em um hospital universitário. Métodos Estudo transversal, quantitativo realizado com 135 enfermeiros de um hospital universitário localizado na região Sudeste do Brasil, entre os meses de dezembro de 2018 e fevereiro de 2019, com aplicação de questionários para caracterização pessoal e laboral e a Escala de Avaliação de Danos Relacionados ao Trabalho. Utilizou-se estatística descritiva e inferencial para a análise dos dados. Resultados Prevaleceu entre os enfermeiros o adoecimento físico. A avaliação para os danos psicológicos e sociais foi suportável. Os itens "distúrbios digestivos" (2,35±1,18), "mau-humor" (2,41±1,12), "dor de cabeça" (2,58±1,11), "dores no corpo" (2,81±1,15), "dores nas costas" (2,90±1,29), "alterações no sono" (2,96±1,28) e "dores nas pernas" (3,00±1,25) tiveram avaliação crítica pelos enfermeiros, o que representa risco para adoecimento. Não se identificaram associações significativas entre as variáveis pesquisadas e o adoecimento. Conclusão Os enfermeiros estão sujeitos a riscos de adoecimento relacionado ao trabalho no hospital universitário em estudo que deflagram adoecimento físico; sendo o suporte social uma provável explicação para o não adoecimento psicológico e social.


Resumen Objetivo Analizar los daños a la salud relacionados con el trabajo de enfermeros en un hospital universitario. Métodos Estudio transversal, cuantitativo realizado con 135 enfermeros de un hospital universitario ubicado en la región Sureste de Brasil, entre los meses de diciembre de 2018 y febrero de 2019, con la utilización de cuestionarios para caracterización personal y laboral y la Escala de Evaluación de Daños Relacionados con el Trabajo. Se utilizó una estadística descriptiva e inferencial para el análisis de los datos. Resultados Prevaleció entre los enfermeros la dolencia física. La evaluación para los daños psicológicos y sociales fue soportable. Los ítems "disturbios digestivos" (2,35±1,18), "malhumor" (2,41±1,12), "dolor de cabeza" (2,58±1,11), "dolores por el cuerpo" (2,81±1,15), "dolores en la espalda" (2,90±1,29), "alteraciones del sueño" (2,96±1,28) y "dolores en las piernas" (3,00±1,25) tuvieron una evaluación crítica de los enfermeros, lo que representa riesgo para la dolencia. No se identificaron asociaciones significativas entre las variables investigadas y la dolencia. Conclusión Los enfermeros están sujetos a riesgos de dolencia relacionados con el trabajo en el hospital universitario en un estudio que ocasionan dolencia física; el soporte social es una probable explicación para la no dolencia psicológica y social.


Abstract Objective To analyze the work-related health damage of nurses in a university hospital. Methods Cross-sectional, quantitative study conducted with 135 nurses from a university hospital located in the southeast region of Brazil between December 2018 and February 2019 with the application of questionnaires for personal and occupational characterization and the Work-Related Damage Assessment Scale. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. Results Physical illness prevailed among nurses. Psychological and social damage were evaluated as bearable. The items "digestive disorders" (2.35±1.18), "bad mood" (2.41±1.12), "headache" (2.58±1.11), "body pain" (2.81±1.15), "back pain" (2.90±1.29), "sleep disorders" (2.96±1.28) and "leg pain" (3.00 ±1.25) had a critical evaluation by nurses, which represents a risk for illness. No significant associations between the studied variables and illness were identified. Conclusion Nurses are subject to risks for illness related to work in the university hospital under study that trigger physical illness. Social support is a likely explanation for not getting psychologically and socially ill.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Working Conditions , Occupational Health , Nurses , Occupational Diseases/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Assessment , Absenteeism , Social Factors , Hospitals, University , Occupational Diseases/classification
18.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 49: e20223124, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365398

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The number of surgical procedures in the world is large and in Brazil it has been expressing a growth trend higher than the population growth. In this context, perioperative risk assessment safeguards the optimization of the outcomes sought by the procedures. For this evaluation, anamnesis and physical examination constitute an irreplaceable initial stage which may or may not be followed by complementary exams, interventions for clinical stabilization and application of risk estimation tools. The use of these tools can be very useful in order to obtain objective data for decision making by weighing surgical risk and benefit. Global and cardiovascular risk assessments are of greatest interest in the preoperative period, however information about their methods is scattered in the literature. Some tools such as the American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status (ASA PS) and the Revised Cardiac Risk Index (RCRI) are more widely known, while others are less known but can provide valuable information. Here, the main indices, scores and calculators that address general and cardiovascular perioperative risk were detailed.


RESUMO O número de procedimentos cirúrgicos no mundo é amplo e no Brasil vem expressando tendência de crescimento superior ao crescimento populacional. Nesse contexto, a avaliação de risco perioperatório resguarda a otimização dos desfechos buscados pelos procedimentos. Para a realização dessa avaliação, a anamnese e exame físico constituem etapa inicial insubstituível, a qual pode ou não ser seguida de exames complementares, intervenções para estabilização clínica e aplicação de ferramentas de estimativa de risco. A utilização destas ferramentas pode ser bastante útil a fim de se obter um dado objetivo para a tomada de decisão pesando-se risco e benefício cirúrgico. As avaliações de risco global e cardiovascular são as de maior interesse no pré-operatório, entretanto informações sobre seus métodos encontram-se dispersas na literatura. Algumas ferramentas como o American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status (ASA PS) e Índice de Risco Cardíaco Revisado (RCRI) são mais amplamente conhecidos, enquanto outros são menos conhecidos em nosso meio mas podem fornecer informações valiosas. Aqui detalhou-se os principais índices, escores e calculadoras que abordam risco perioperatório geral e cardiovascular.


Subject(s)
Physical Examination , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Brazil , Risk Assessment/methods
19.
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 35: e200148, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360809

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective Dietary supplements use is increasing. Dietary supplements may contain high doses of substances or dangerous ingredient combinations. This article aims to investigate, by analyzing dietary supplements labels, if there are any doping substances or dangerous amounts of any other component in the reviewed dietary supplements. Methods Several brands which possessed their supplements sorted in pre-workout and post-workout were analyzed. 40 dietary supplements with all ingredients described were included. The minimum and maximum dosages of dietary supplements were statistically described as Mean±SD. Results Citrus aurantium extract, Yohimbe extract, Garcinia cambogia extract and Maca root extract were reported in some of the analyzed dietary supplements. Regarding caffeine, the pre-workout group displayed higher mean caffeine (241±86mg) than the post-workout group (183±68mg), and the minimal mean dose was 226±84mg; meanwhile, the maximal mean dose was 242±88mg. Concerning creatine, the pre-workout group displayed lower mean creatine (3106±1079mg) than the post-workout group (4137±4177mg), and the minimal mean dose was 3167±1728mg; meanwhile, the maximal mean dose was 3917±3643mg. The salt content in the post-workout group displayed a much higher mean (2155±4486mg) than the pre-workout group (464±605mg), and the minimal mean dose was 1635±3930mg; meanwhile, the maximal mean dose was 1708±3926g. Conclusions No doping substances were reported in the dietary supplements, but consumption recommendations on the label could lead to excessive consumption of some not yet fully tested ingredients.


RESUMO Objetivo O uso de suplementos alimentares está a aumentar. Estes podem conter altas doses de substâncias ou combinações de ingredientes perigosas. Este artigo procura encontrar, analisando os rótulos dos produtos, se existem substâncias dopantes ou nocivas. Métodos Foram analisadas várias marcas cujos respectivos suplementos foram classificados em pré e pós-treino. Foram incluídos 40 suplementos com todos os ingredientes descritos. A respectiva dose mínima e máxima foi descrita estatisticamente como média ± DP. Resultados Extratos de Citrus aurantium, Yohimbe, Garcinia cambogia e raiz de Maca foram encontrados nos suplementos analisados. O grupo pré-treino apresentou maior média de cafeína (241±86mg) do que o grupo pós-treino (183±68mg), e a dose média mínima foi de 226±84mg, enquanto a dose média máxima foi de 242±88 mg. O grupo pré-treino apresentou menor média de creatina (3106±1079mg) do que o grupo pós-treino (4137±4177mg), e a dose média mínima foi de 3167±1728mg, enquanto a dose média máxima foi de 3917±3643mg. O grupo pós-treino apresentou uma maior média de sal (2155±4486mg) do que o grupo pré-treino (464±605mg), e a dose média mínima foi 1635±3930mg, enquanto a dose média máxima foi de 1708±3926mg. Conclusão Não foram encontradas substâncias dopantes nos suplementos, mas algumas recomendações de consumo nos rótulos poderão levar à sobredose de certos ingredientes menos testados.


Subject(s)
Dietary Supplements/analysis , Dietary Supplements/toxicity , Dosage , Performance-Enhancing Substances , Risk Assessment
20.
Rev. Investig. Salud. Univ. Boyacá ; 9(1): 115-132, 20220000. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1400937

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los factores psicosociales son condiciones presentes en el medio laboral y fuera de este que, al no ser identificados y controlados, afectan la integridad física y psicológica de los trabajadores, así como el rendimiento y la satisfacción laboral. Objetivo: Analizar y sintetizar información reportada en literatura científica sobre la aplicabilidad de diversos instrumentos que evalúan el riesgo psicosocial en trabajadores de diferentes sectores laborales. Metodología: Se desarrolló a través de revisión narrativa descriptiva con investigaciones originales, publicadas en las bases de datos Pubmed, Proquest, Scopus, Science Direct, Redalyc, SciELO, Dialnet, VirtualPro, escritas en idioma español, inglés y portugués, publicados entre 2007 y 2021, tomando como referente la fecha de implementación de la Batería de Riesgo Psicosocial en Colombia. Resultados: Se identificaron 27 investigaciones que emplearon instrumentos de medición y valoración de los factores de riesgo psicosocial. En el ámbito internacional se encontró la batería Unipsico, el Cuestionario Psicosocial de Conpenhagen, el Cuestionario de Evaluación de Factores Psicosociales, el Psychosocial Risk Management-Excellence Framework, el Cuestionario Naqre y la Batería MCMutual-UB; mientras que en Colombia se encontró la Batería de Instrumentos para la Evaluación de Factores de Riesgo Psicosocial, el Cuestionario Psicosocial de Conpenhagen, un instrumento de medición de riesgos psicosociales y cuestionarios elaborados. Conclusiones: Los instrumentos han sido adaptados transculturalmente y proporcionan una perspectiva abreviada de las herramientas de evaluación de los factores de riesgo psicosocial empleadas en personas que se encuentran activas laboralmente para identificar riesgos presentes en los ámbitos intralaboral y extralaboral.


Introduction: Psychosocial factors are conditions present in the work environment and outside it, which, when not identified and controlled, affect the physical and psychological integrity of workers, as well as performance and job satisfaction. Objective: To analyze and synthesize information reported in the literature on the applicability of various instruments that evaluate psychosocial risk in workers in different occupational sectors. Methodology: It was developed through a descriptive narrative review with original research published in the databases Pubmed, Proquest, Scopus, Science Direct, Redalyc, SciELO, Dialnet, VirtualPro, written in Spanish, English and Portuguese, published between 2007 and 2021, taking as reference the date of implementation of the Psycho Risk Battery. Social in Colombia. Results: 27 research projects were identified which used instruments to measure and assess psychosocial risk factors. The Unipsico battery, the Conpenhagen psychosocial questionnaire, the Psychoso- cial Factors Assessment Questionnaire, the Psychosocial Risk Management-Excellence Framework, the Naqre Questionnaire and the MCMutual Battery were found internationally. UB and at the national level the Toolkit for the Assessment of Psychosocial Risk Factors, the Conpenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire, a psychosocial risk measurement tool and questionnaires developed. Conclusions: The instruments have been adapted cross-culturally and provide a shortened perspective of the tools for assessing psychosocial risk factors used in people who are active at work to identify risks present in the workplace and outside of the workplace.


Introdução: Os fatores psicossociais são condições presentes dentro e fora do ambiente de trabalho que, quando não identificadas e controladas, afetam a integridade física e psicológica dos trabalha- dores, bem como o desempenho e a satisfação no trabalho. Objetivo: Analisar e sintetizar a informação relatada na literatura científica sobre a aplicabilidade de vários instrumentos que avaliam o risco psicossocial em trabalhadores de diferentes sectores de trabalho. Metodologia: Foi desenvolvida através de uma revisão narrativa descritiva com pesquisas originais, publicada nas bases de dados Pubmed, Proquest, Scopus, Science Direct, Redalyc, SciELO, Dialnet, VirtualPro, escrita em espanhol, inglês e português, publicada entre 2007 e 2021, tomando como referência a data de implementação do questionário de Risco Psicossocial na Colômbia. Resultados: Foram identificados 27 estudos de investigação que utilizaram instrumentos para medir e avaliar fatores de risco psicossocial. A nível internacional, foram encontrados o Questionário Unip- sico, o Questionário Psicossocial Conpenhagen, o Questionário de Avaliação de Fatores Psicossociais, o Quadro de Gestão de Risco Psicossocial-Excelência, o Questionário Naqre e o Questionário MCMutual-UB; enquanto na Colômbia foram encontrados os Instrumentos para a Avaliação de Fatores de Risco Psicossociais, o Questionário Psicossocial Conpenhagen, um instrumento de medição de risco psicossocial e questionários elaborados. Conclusões: Os instrumentos foram adaptados de forma inter-cultural e fornecem uma visão geral abreviada dos instrumentos de avaliação do fator de risco psicossocial utilizados em pessoas ativas no trabalho para identificar riscos presentes nos domínios intra e extra-ocupacionais.


Subject(s)
Psychosocial Impact , Risk , Risk Factors , Risk Assessment
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