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1.
São Paulo; s.n; 2023. 88 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1517899

ABSTRACT

A falta de acesso a sistemas água potável e esgotamento adequados afeta todos os aspectos da vida humana, tendo os maiores impactos sobre localidades menos desenvolvidas e comunidades marginalizadas. A proposição do ODS6 destacou a importância do desenvolvimento inclusivo e o compromisso, dos países membros da ONU no acesso universal e equitativo a esses serviços, segundo a premissa de "não deixar ninguém para trás". As condições e dados atuais de mensuração para o ODS 6, medindo apenas as taxas de cobertura desses serviços, projetam o Brasil, e especialmente São Paulo, em níveis de atendimento altos, mas não permitem demonstrar as desigualdades no acesso de determinados grupos, visando alcançar a redução progressiva e eliminação das desigualdades entre grupos populacionais. Diante deste cenário, este trabalho visou analisar a evolução temporal e dos déficits, no período de 2010 a 2019 dos indicadores de acesso a serviços adequados de água e esgoto para o Estado de São Paulo, coletados do Painel ODS6, elaborado pela equipe do NARA-FSP/USP, e identificar o perfil socioeconômico dos grupos mais afetados pela falta de acesso a esses serviços, por meio da relação com os dados autônomos do Censo Demográfico 2010. Os resultados permitiram observar que não obstante a evolução quantitativa dos indicadores de água e esgotamento sanitário, as regiões com maiores desigualdades de renda, com maior presença de comunidades tradicionais e de geografia naturalmente frágil são as que permanecem com menores índices de atendimento à população. Da mesma forma, os municípios com maior proporção de domicílios rurais, chefiados por mulheres e com rendimento mensal de até 2 salários-mínimos tem menor proporção de acesso a serviços adequados de abastecimento de água e coleta de esgoto. Regiões historicamente impactadas pela miséria e pobreza e grupos populacionais socialmente vulneráveis não são considerados nas principais bases de dados do país. Devido a esse viés, que não considera essa parcela da população, não há acesso a informações relevantes para a elaboração e monitoramento de políticas públicas. O acesso universal e equitativo, em 2030, apenas será possível se medidas afirmativas forem adotadas, dando preferência a certos grupos e indivíduos, a fim de corrigir a discriminação que se mantêm até os dias de hoje.


The lack of access to adequate water and sanitation systems affects all aspects of human life, having the greatest impacts on less developed localities and marginalized communities. The proposition of SDG6 highlighted the importance of inclusive development and the commitment of UN member countries to universal and equitable access to these services, according to the premise of "leaving no one behind". The current measurement conditions and data for SDG 6, measuring only the coverage rates of these services, indicate high service levels for Brazil, and mainly São Paulo, but it is not able to identify the inequalities in access of certain groups, in order to reach the progressive reduction and elimination of inequalities between population groups. In view of this scenario, this work aimed to analyze the evolution over time and the deficits, between 2010 and 2019, of the indicators of access to adequate water and sewage services for the State of São Paulo, collected from the SDG 6 Panel, prepared by the NARA- FSP/USP, and to identify the socioeconomic profile of the groups that are the most affected by the lack of access to these services, through the relation with the autonomous data from the 2010 Demographic Census. The results show that, despite the quantitative evolution of water and sanitation income indicators, regions with greater population inequalities, presence of traditional communities and naturally fragile geography remain with the lowest rates of these services. Likewise, municipalities with a higher proportion of rural households headed by women and with a monthly income of up to 2 minimum salaries have a lower proportion of access to adequate water supply and sewage collection services. Regions historically impacted by misery, poverty and socially considered population groups are not present in the country's main databases. Due to this bias, that does not consider this population portion, there is no access to relevant information for the development and monitoring of public policies. Universal and equitable access to these services, in 2030, will only be possible if affirmative measures are adopted, focusing on certain groups and individuals, in order to abolish the social discrimination that remains to the present days.


Subject(s)
Economic Indexes , Sanitation , Public Health , Social Indicators , Vulnerable Populations , Sustainable Development
2.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e250675, 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1448938

ABSTRACT

Em março de 2020 a situação causada pela covid-19 foi elevada à categoria de pandemia, impactando de inúmeras formas a vida em sociedade. O objetivo deste estudo foi compreender os impactos da pandemia na atuação e saúde mental do psicólogo hospitalar, profissional que atua nos espaços de saúde e tem experienciado mais de perto o sofrimento dos doentes e dos profissionais de saúde frente à covid-19. Trata-se de um estudo exploratório-descritivo com 131 psicólogos que atuam em hospitais. Os profissionais foram convidados a participar através de redes sociais e redes de contatos das pesquisadoras, utilizando-se a técnica Bola de Neve. Foram utilizados dois questionários, disponibilizados na plataforma Google Forms, um abordando os impactos da pandemia sentidos pelos profissionais e outro referente ao sofrimento psíquico. Os dados foram analisados a partir de estatísticas descritivas e inferenciais. Foram observados impactos na atuação de quase a totalidade dos participantes, constatada a necessidade de preparação dos profissionais para o novo cenário, a percepção de pouco apoio institucional e quase metade da população estudada referiu-se a sintomas de sofrimento psíquico considerável desde o início da pandemia. É fundamental dar atenção a sinais e sintomas de sofrimento psíquico, procurando evitar o adoecimento de uma categoria profissional que se encontra na linha de frente do combate aos danos psicológicos da pandemia e cuja própria saúde mental é pouco abordada na literatura.(AU)


In March 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic breakout hugely impacted life in society. This study analyzes how the pandemic impacted hospital psychologists' mental health and performance, professional who more closely experienced the suffering of patients and health professionals in this period. An exploratory and descriptive study was conducted with 131 hospital psychologists. Professionals were invited to participate through the researchers' social and contact networks using the Snowball technique. Data were collected by two questionnaires available on the Google Forms platform, one addressing the impacts felt by professionals and the other regarding psychic suffering, and analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics. Results showed that almost all participants had their performance affected by the need to prepare for the new scenario, the perceived little institutional support. Almost half of the study sample reported considerable psychological distress symptoms since the beginning of the pandemic. Paying attention to signs and symptoms of psychic suffering is fundamental to avoid compromising a professional category that is on the front line of combating the psychological damage caused by the pandemic and whose own mental health is little addressed by the literature.(AU)


En marzo de 2020, la situación provocada por el COVID-19 se caracterizó como pandemia e impactó el mundo de diversas maneras. El objetivo de este estudio fue comprender los impactos de la pandemia en la salud mental y la actuación del psicólogo en los hospitales, uno de los profesionales que trabaja en espacios sanitarios y que ha experimentado más de cerca el sufrimiento de pacientes y profesionales sanitarios frente al COVID-19. Este es un estudio exploratorio descriptivo, realizado con 131 psicólogos que trabajan en hospitales. Los profesionales recibieron la invitación a participar a través de las redes sociales y redes de contactos de las investigadoras, mediante la técnica snowball. Se utilizaron dos cuestionarios disponibles en la plataforma Google Forms: uno sobre los impactos de la pandemia en los profesionales y el otro sobre el sufrimiento psíquico. Los datos se analizaron a partir de estadísticas descriptivas e inferenciales. Se observaron impactos en el trabajo de casi todos los participantes, la necesidad de preparación de los profesionales para este nuevo escenario, la percepción de poco apoyo institucional, y casi la mitad de la población estudiada reportaron sentir síntomas de considerable angustia psicológica desde el inicio de la pandemia. Es esencial prestar atención a los signos y síntomas del sufrimiento psíquico, buscando evitar la enfermedad de una categoría profesional que está a la vanguardia de la lucha contra el daño psicológico de la pandemia y cuya propia salud mental se aborda poco en la literatura.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Psychology , Mental Health , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Anxiety , Orientation , Physicians , Protective Clothing , Respiration , Respiratory Tract Infections , Safety , Attention , Set, Psychology , Social Adjustment , Social Isolation , Stress, Physiological , Stress, Psychological , Awareness , Software , Immunoglobulin M , Adaptation, Psychological , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Irritable Mood , Family , Carrier State , Epidemiologic Factors , Public Health Practice , Quarantine , Sanitation , Hygiene , Public Health , Epidemiology , Risk , Disease Outbreaks , Data Collection , Survival Rate , Mortality , Transportation of Patients , Triage , Contact Tracing , Occupational Health , Immunization , Universal Precautions , Infection Control , Immunization Programs , Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Coronavirus , Comprehensive Health Care , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Remote Consultation , Containment of Biohazards , Pulmonary Ventilation , Emergency Plans , Disaster Vulnerability , Declaration of Emergency , Disaster Planning , Death , Trust , Air Pollution , Ethanol , Economics , Emergencies , Emergency Services, Psychiatric , Empathy , Ethics, Professional , Professional Training , Surveillance of the Workers Health , Family Relations , Family Therapy , Resilience, Psychological , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Fear , Epidemics , Social Networking , Binge Drinking , Epidemiological Monitoring , Personal Protective Equipment , Emotional Adjustment , Emergency Medical Dispatch , Survivorship , Family Separation , Posttraumatic Growth, Psychological , Embarrassment , Sadness , Teleworking , Physical Distancing , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , SARS-CoV-2 , Sociodemographic Factors , Suicide Prevention , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Health Services Research , Immune System , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Anger , Loneliness , Masks , Mass Media , Negativism , Nurses, Male , Nursing Assessment
3.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1507027

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the dynamic self-determination of self-care (DSDoSC) and positive deviance (PD) models in changing stunting prevention behavior. Material and Methods: This research is a quasi-experimental study with a sample of 90 mothers taken by purposive sampling. Thirty mothers were given the DSDoSC intervention, 30 were given the PD intervention, and another 30 were in the control group. This research was conducted in July - October 2019. The variables studied were feeding behavior, nurturing behavior, personal hygiene behavior, environmental cleanliness and air sanitation, and behavior seeking health services. To analyze the difference in mother behaviour before and after test, we used Paired t-test. Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was used to analyze the difference of mother behaviour among groups. The level of significance was p<0.05. Results: The PWD group showed that eating behavior, parenting behavior, personal hygiene behavior, environmental hygiene and water sanitation, and behavior seeking health services had significant numbers. In the DSDoSC group, eating behavior, parenting behavior, environmental hygiene, water sanitation and health service-seeking behavior were significantly (p<0.05). The results of the Manova test showed that there was an effect of PD and DSDoSC on stunting prevention behavior. Conclusion: Self-dynamic for self-care model and the positive deviance model both can change a mother's behavior for the better in feeding, parenting, environmental hygiene, and water sanitation, seeking health services, but not changing behavior about personal hygiene behavior.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Self Care/psychology , Sanitation , Dwarfism/pathology , Feeding Behavior , Health Services , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Indonesia/epidemiology
4.
Rev. baiana saúde pública ; 46(4): 267-284, 20221231.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425826

ABSTRACT

Os sistemas de informação do Ministério da Saúde são importantes ferramentas de planejamento das ações de saúde no território brasileiro. O Sistema de Informação de Vigilância da Qualidade da Água para Consumo Humano (Sisagua) oferece para toda a população dados sobre a situação do abastecimento de água para consumo humano, juntamente com eventuais problemas de qualidade que possam existir. É imprescindível para os gestores da área da saúde entender os maiores problemas de cada prestador de serviço de abastecimento a fim de oferecer água de boa qualidade para todas as pessoas, pois, uma vez que se trata de um bem público, todos têm direito à água de qualidade independentemente de sua condição social. Este trabalho averiguou os dados sobre a qualidade da água do estado da Bahia no período de janeiro de 2014 a março de 2022, com o objetivo de observar qual parâmetro de qualidade é responsável pela contaminações do recurso hídrico a ser consumido pelas pessoas, tornando-o fora de padrão conforme a Portaria nº 888/2021 do Ministério da Saúde. Através de gráficos de pizza gerados pelo Excel, foram averiguados os parâmetros que mais levaram a inconformidades. Foram observados, em porcentagem, os municípios que frequentemente ultrapassaram o padrão de potabilidade dentro da região. Dentro da região metropolitana de Salvador, o parâmetro cloro residual livre se destacou, seguido de cor e coliformes totais. A oferta de água doce limpa para a população é um dos pilares da saúde pública, sendo importante a constante evolução dos sistemas de abastecimento.


The information systems of the Ministry of Health are important tools for planning health actions in the Brazilian territory. The Drinking Water Quality Surveillance Information System (SISAGUA) provides the entire population with data on the situation of water supply for human consumption, alongside any water quality problems that may exist. It is essential for health managers to understand the biggest problems of each supply service provider to provide good quality water to all people, since, water being a public good, everyone has the right to quality water regardless of their social status. This work investigated the water quality data of the state of Bahia from January 2014 to March 2022, aiming to observe which quality parameter is most responsible for contaminating the water resource to be consumed by people, turning it non-standard according to Ordinance No. 888/2021 of the Ministry of Health. With pie charts generated by Excel, the parameters that most led to nonconformities were investigated. Municipalities that frequently exceed the standard of potability within the region were also observed in percentage. Within the metropolitan region of Salvador, the parameter free residual chlorine stood out, followed by color, and total coliforms. The supply of clean fresh water to the population is one of the pillars of public health, and the constant evolution of supply systems is important.


Los sistemas de información del Ministerio de Salud son herramientas importantes para planificar acciones de salud en Brasil. El Sistema de Información para la Vigilancia de la Calidad del Agua para Consumo Humano (Sisagua) proporciona a toda la población datos sobre el estado del suministro de agua para consumo humano y posibles problemas de calidad que puedan existir. Es fundamental que los responsables de las áreas de salud conozcan los problemas de cada red de suministro para poder ofrecer agua de buena calidad a todas las personas, ya que debido a este es un bien público, las personas tienen derecho al agua limpia de calidad, independientemente de su condición social. Este trabajo analizó los datos de calidad del agua en el estado de Bahía, en el período de enero de 2014 a marzo de 2022, con el objetivo de observar qué parámetro de calidad indica la contaminación del recurso hídrico a ser consumido por las personas, haciéndolo fuera del estándar desde la Ordenanza n.° 888/2021 del Ministerio de Salud. A partir de gráficos circulares en Excel, se analizaron los parámetros que más generaron las no conformidades. Se observó el porcentaje de los municipios que frecuentemente excedieron el estándar de potabilidad en la región. En la región metropolitana de Salvador destacó el parámetro cloro residual libre, seguido del color y coliformes totales. El suministro de agua dulce limpia a la población es uno de los elementos clave para la salud pública, y es importante la evolución de los sistemas de suministro.


Subject(s)
Water Microbiology , Water Supply , Water Quality , Water/analysis , Sanitation
5.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(6): 1386-1393, dic. 2022. tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1428308

ABSTRACT

Se estima que aproximadamente siete millones de personas mueren anualmente por la contaminación del aire ambiental y doméstico, debido a enfermedades no transmisibles, especialmente en zonas con servicios públicos precarios; además la infraestructura y condiciones de las viviendas o hacinamiento se han asociado a la aparición de enfermedades agudas y crónicas. En Ecuador, para el año 2010, se reportó más de 2,5 millones de personas en zonas de asentamientos irregulares con deficientes saneamiento ambiental. Se realizó un estudio experimental con la participación de 85 jefes de familia en las comunidades de La Unión, Nuestra señora de Lourdes, las Acacias y Brisa del mar, de la parroquia rural Posorja, del cantón Guayaquil, Ecuador, para evaluar el desarrollo de habilidades de saneamiento ambiental. Para ello, se identificaron los problemas y las prioridades en salud ambiental, posteriormente se implementó el plan de desarrollo de habilidades en salud ambiental. Se observó deficiencias en cuanto a la construcción de viviendas, acceso al agua potable, disposición de excretas y desechos sólidos. Además, posterior a las jornadas de capacitación hubo un incremento en las habilidades cognoscitivas y prácticas en salud ambiental, al comparar con las competencias previas, especialmente en aspectos relacionados con el abastecimiento de agua potable, disposición de residuos sólidos y control de fauna nociva. Se logró fortalecer el desarrollo de habilidades en saneamiento ambiental de los habitantes, lo que incide en el mejoramiento de la salud pública y calidad de vida de las comunidades en estudio(AU)


It is estimated that approximately seven million people die annually from environmental and domestic air pollution, due to non-communicable diseases, especially in areas with precarious public services; In addition, the infrastructure and conditions of the houses or overcrowding have been associated with the appearance of acute and chronic diseases. In Ecuador, for the year 2010, more than 2.5 million people were reported in areas of irregular settlements with deficient environmental sanitation. An experimental study was carried out with the participation of 85 heads of families in the communities of La Unión, Nuestra Señora de Lourdes, Las Acacias and Brisa del Mar, from the Posorja rural parish, from the Guayaquil canton, Ecuador, to evaluate the development of skills of environmental sanitation. In order to, environmental health problems and priorities were identified, and the environmental health skills development plan was subsequently implemented. Deficiencies were observed in terms of housing construction, access to drinking water, disposal of excreta and solid waste. In addition, after the training sessions, there was an increase in cognitive skills and practices in environmental health, when compared to previous skills, especially in aspects related to drinking water supply, solid waste disposal, and control of harmful fauna. It was possible to strengthen the development of skills in environmental sanitation of the inhabitants, which affects the improvement of public health and quality of life of the communities under study(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Sanitation , Environmental Health Education , Environmental Pollution/prevention & control , Ecuador
6.
J. Health NPEPS ; 7(2): 1-18, jul - dez, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1425082

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: compreender o processo de construção do Programa Nacional de Acesso à Água Potável em Terras Indígenas (PNATI), por meio de fatores socioepidemiológicos que impulsionaram sua institucionalização. Método: estudo descritivo e socioepidemiológico, baseado em dados secundários da Secretaria Especial de Saúde Indígena (SESAI), com recorte temporal pré-pandêmico e pandêmico. Aanálise dos dados seguiu os fundamentos da teoria do sistema político de David Easton. Resultados: o processo de construção do programa considerou o volume de notificações de doenças de veiculação hídrica, o baixo acesso à água potável e a dificuldade no controle da qualidade desta nas aldeias atendidas pela SESAI. Após a construção do PNATI, verificou-se a importância desse instrumento para planejamento, gerência e controle social na garantia do abastecimento de água potável nas terras indígenas e mudanças na realidade sanitária dos povos indígenas do Brasil.Conclusão: o PNATI preenche uma lacuna existente quanto ao amparo legal, com a oportunidade de reverter o panorama de insuficiências de saneamento ambiental, com vistas a universalizar o acesso à água, em quantidade e qualidade nas comunidades indígenas, e contribuir para a melhoria da saúde dessa população.


Objective:to understand the construction process of the National Program for Access to Potable Water in Indigenous Lands, through socio-epidemiological factors that drove its institutionalization. Method:descriptive and socioepidemiological study, based on secondary data from the Special Secretariat for Indigenous Health (SESAI), with a pre-pandemic and pandemic time frame. Data analysis followed the foundations of David Easton's political system theory. Results:the program's construction process considered the volume of notifications of waterborne diseases, the low access to potable water and the difficulty in controlling its quality in the villages served by SESAI. After the construction of the PNATI, the importance of this instrument for planning, management and social control in guaranteeing the supply of potable water in indigenous lands and changes in the health reality of the indigenous peoples of Brazil was verified. Conclusion:PNATI fills an existing gap in terms of legal support, with the opportunity to reverse the scenario of insufficient environmental sanitation, with a view to universalizing access to water, in quantity and quality in indigenous communities, and contributing to the improvement of the health of this population.


Objetivo:comprender el proceso de construcción del Programa Nacional de Acceso a Agua Potable en Tierras Indígenas, a través de los factores socioepidemiológicos que impulsaron su institucionalización. Método:estudio descriptivo y socioepidemiológico, con base en datos secundarios de la Secretaría Especial de Salud Indígena (SESAI), con marco temporal antes y durante la pandemia. El análisis de datos siguió los fundamentos de la teoría del sistema político de David Easton. Resultados:el proceso de construcción del programa consideró el volumen de notificaciones de enfermedades hídricas, el bajo acceso al agua potable y la dificultad para controlar su calidad en las localidades atendidas por SESAI. Luego de la construcción del PNATI, se constató la importancia de este instrumento de planificación, gestión y control social en la garantía del abastecimiento de agua potable en tierras indígenas y cambios en la realidad sanitaria de los pueblos indígenas de Brasil. Conclusión:el PNATI llena un vacío existente en materia de respaldo legal, con la oportunidad de revertir el escenario de insuficiente saneamiento ambiental, con miras a universalizar el acceso al agua, en cantidad y calidad en las comunidades indígenas, y contribuir al mejoramiento de la salud de estas población.


Subject(s)
Drinking Water , Sanitation , Health of Indigenous Peoples
7.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 29(3): 645-660, jul.-set. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405036

ABSTRACT

Resumo Discute o modelo de eugenia empregado pelo médico-sanitarista Belisário Penna durante a campanha do saneamento do Brasil nas décadas de 1920 e 1930. São abordados dois conceitos fundamentais para o seu pensamento: "raça brasileira" e eugenia "preventiva". A maneira como Penna avaliava a questão racial brasileira era fundamental para aderir à concepção eugênica aliada à medicina social e ao seu projeto de "consciência sanitária". O texto oferece uma perspectiva de como foi bordada a concepção eugênica de Penna e o diálogo estabelecido com o movimento eugênico brasileiro, em especial com o eugenista Renato Kehl. Assim, a defesa de uma eugenia classificada como "preventiva" estabelecia coerência para um projeto reformista social via o saneamento defendido por Penna.


Abstract The purpose of this article is to discuss the eugenics model used by the medical-sanitarist Belisário Penna during the sanitation campaign in Brazil in the 1920s and 1930s. The article addresses two fundamental concepts for his thinking: "Brazilian race" and "preventive" eugenics. The way in which Penna saw the Brazilian racial issue was fundamental to adhere to the eugenic conception combined with social medicine and its project of "health awareness." The text offers a perspective of how Penna's eugenics was conceived and the dialogue established with the Brazilian eugenic movement, especially with the eugenicist Renato Kehl. Thus, the defense of an eugenics classified as "preventive" established a coherence for a social reform project through the sanitation defended by Penna.


Subject(s)
Sanitation/history , Racial Groups , Eugenics , Health Promotion , Brazil , History, 20th Century
8.
Medicina UPB ; 41(2): 107-113, julio-diciembre 2022. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1392148

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: los parásitos son organismos que viven en el interior o sobre otra especie para su propio beneficio. Logran afectar plantas, animales y humanos. Los niños son más vulnerables a infectarse, pero la incidencia ha disminuido en Costa Rica gracias a la mejora en salubridad. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el conocimiento general que tiene la población costarricense con respecto a las parasitosis infantiles. Metodología: se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo de tipo transversal, a una muestra de 196 sujetos. Se presentó encuesta a costarricenses mayores de 18 años que tuvieran un dispositivo con acceso a internet. Se consultó sobre el conocimiento del cuadro clínico de las parasitosis infantiles en Costa Rica. Resultados: la mayoría de los participantes eran universitarios (68.3%). El 89.9% cree que los parásitos de las mascotas pueden infectar a los humanos. Los parásitos más conocidos fueron los piojos 173 (88.3%). La parte del cuerpo que se considera más afectada por los parásitos es el estómago (75.5%). La principal medida preventiva contra las parasitosis más conocidas es lavarse las manos (67.9%). Conclusión: muchos participantes creen que los humanos se pueden infectar por los mismos parásitos de los animales. Los piojos fueron los parásitos más conocidos y las garrapatas las menos conocidas. La mayoría considera el vómito o la diarrea como los síntomas principales de las parasitosis y creen que el estómago es el más afectado en una infección. Además, señalan que la principal medida preventiva para evitar el contagio es el lavado de manos.


Objective: parasites are organisms that live inside or on another species for their own benefit, managing to affect plants, animals, and humans. Children are more vulnerable to infection, but the incidence has decreased thanks to the improvement in Costa Rican sanitation. The aim was to evaluate the general knowledge that the Costa Rican population has regarding childhood parasitosis. Methodology: an observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of 196 subjects. A survey was conducted among Costa Ricans over 18 years of age who had a device with internet access. The participants were asked about their knowledge on the clinical picture of childhood parasitosis in Costa Rica. Results: most of the participants were college students (68.3%). 89.9% of them believe that pet parasites can infect humans. The best-known parasites were lice, marked by 173 (88.3%) people. The stomach is the part of the body considered most affected, with 148 (75.5%) responses. The main known preventive measure is washing hands with soap and water, answered by 133 participants (67.9%). Conclusion: Many participants believe that humans can be infected by the same parasites as animals. Lice were the best known and ticks the least. Most of the people consider vomiting and/or diarrhea as one of the main symptoms and believe that the stomach is the most affected part during the infection. In addition, they consider that the main preventive measure to avoid contagion is hand washing.


Objetivo: Parasitas são organismos que vivem em ou sobre outra espécie para seu próprio benefício. Eles conseguem afetar plantas, animais e humanos. As crianças são mais vulneráveis à infecção, mas a incidência diminuiu na Costa Rica graças a melhorias no saneamento. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o conhecimento geral que a população costarriquenha tem sobre parasitas infantis.Metodologia: estudo observacional, descritivo, transversal, com amostra de 196 sujeitos.Uma pesquisa foi apresentada a costarriquenhos maiores de 18 anos que possuíam um dispositivo com acesso à internet. O conhecimento do quadro clínico de parasitas infantis na Costa Rica foi consultado.Resultados:a maioria dos participantes era universitária (68.3%). 89.9% acreditam que parasitas de animais de estimação podem infectar humanos. Os parasitas mais conhecidos foram os piolhos 173 (88.3%). A parte do corpo considerada mais afetada pelos parasitas é o estômago (75.5%). A principal medida preventiva contra os parasitas mais conhecidos é a lavagem das mãos (67.9%).Conclusão: muitos participantes acreditam que humanos podem ser infectados pelos mesmos parasitas de animais. Os piolhos foram os parasitas mais conhecidos e os carrapatos os menos conhecidos. A maioria considera vômito ou diarreia como os principais sintomas dos parasitas e acredita que o estômago é o mais afetado em uma infecção. Além disso, apontam que a principal medida preventiva para evitar o contágio é a lavagem das mãos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Cats , Cattle , Dogs , Parasitic Diseases , Parasites , Ticks , Water , Sanitation , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Knowledge , Diarrhea , Pets
9.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 22(1): 125-146, abr. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1435478

ABSTRACT

As políticas de saneamento têm como objetivo a melhoria e manutenção do bem-estar na sociedade. No Brasil, o trabalho em empresas deste contexto pode incluir a educação ambiental, oportunidade para sensibilização da população quanto à preservação dos recursos hídricos. O presente estudo teve por objetivo caracterizar a educação ambiental para o saneamento e compreender a atuação dos educadores à luz do modelo emancipatório. Trata-se de um estudo exploratório e qualitativo. Realizou-se o acompanhamento de atividades de educação ambiental realizadas na Companhia Catarinense de Águas e Saneamento e entrevistas com 19 trabalhadores denominados multiplicadores ambientais. As características das atividades foram registradas através de diário de campo e analisadas por meio de estatística descritiva. As entrevistas foram gravadas e os dados submetidos à análise de conteúdo através do software Atlas.ti, versão 7.5.7. Os resultados permitiram conhecer as características das atividades de educação ambiental realizadas, dos visitantes e dos participantes. As categorias identificadas demonstraram que a atuação dos multiplicadores ambientais é compreendida por seu desenvolvimento, relação com atividades principais, competências, impactos aos visitantes e avaliação da educação ambiental realizada. Tal atuação é parcialmente congruente com a educação ambiental crítica e emancipatória. Identificaram-se oportunidades para o engajamento de trabalhadores em atividades ambientalmente responsáveis.


Sanitation policies aim to improve and maintain well-being in society. In Brazil, work in companies within this context may include environmental education as an opportunity to raise populational awareness about the preservation of water resources. Thus, this research aimed to characterize environmental education for sanitation and to understand the role of educators in the light of the emancipatory model. It is an exploratory and qualitative study performed at Santa Catarina's Water and Sanitation State Company. Environmental education activities were accompanied and interviews were carried with 19 workers responsible for these activities, called environmental multipliers. The characteristics of the activities were recorded through a field diary and analyzed using descriptive statistics. The interviews were recorded and the data were submitted to content analysis through the Atlas.ti software, version 7.5.7. Results led to identify characteristics from activities, visitors and participants. The identified categories demonstrated that the performance of environmental multipliers is understood by their development, relationship with main activities, competences, impacts on visitors and evaluation of the environmental education carried out. Such performance is partially congruent with critical and emancipatory environmental education. Opportunities were identified for the engagement of workers in environmentally responsible activities.


Las políticas de saneamiento tienen como objetivo mejorar y mantener el bienestar de la sociedad. En Brasil, el trabajo en empresas en este contexto puede incluir la educación ambiental, una oportunidad para sensibilizar a la población sobre la preservación de los recursos hídricos. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo caracterizar la educación ambiental para el saneamiento y comprender el rol de los educadores a la luz del modelo emancipatorio. Este es un estudio exploratorio y cualitativo. Se monitorearon actividades de educación ambiental en la Compañía Estatal de Agua y Saneamiento de Santa Catarina, Brasil, y se realizaron entrevistas con 19 trabajadores denominados multiplicadores ambientales. Las características de las actividades se registraron a través de un diario de campo y se analizaron mediante estadística descriptiva. Las entrevistas fueron grabadas y los datos sometidos a análisis de contenido utilizando el software Atlas.ti, versión 7.5.7. Los resultados permitieron conocer las características de las actividades de educación ambiental realizadas, por los visitantes y los participantes. Las categorías identificadas demostraron que el desempeño de los multiplicadores ambientales se entiende por su desarrollo, relación con las principales actividades, competencias, impactos en los visitantes y evaluación de la educación ambiental realizada. Tal desempeño es parcialmente congruente con la educación ambiental crítica y emancipadora. Se identificaron oportunidades para la participación de los trabajadores en actividades ambientalmente responsables.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sanitation , Environmental Health Education , Qualitative Research
10.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(3): 360-368, 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1395352

ABSTRACT

La Ingeniería Sanitaria surge como una rama de la ingeniería que involucra tanto materias propias de la ingeniería tales como: matemáticas, física, química hidráulica o mecánica, como aquellas relacionada con la medicina y la higiene, tales como la microbiología y conservación. Tiene como función principal crear y fomentar condiciones de salubridad en las poblaciones siendo vigilante de las aguas, el aire y la tierra, evitando que la contaminación alcance a los seres humanos. En Perú, la ingeniería sanitaria se creó como un apéndice de la ingeniería civil, pero pronto tomó el lugar merecido, declarándose una carrera de ingeniería independiente. Actualmente, la Ingeniería sanitaria es la encargada de llevar agua potabilizada a la población, y tratar las aguas servidas. Por otra parte, con la llegada del SARS-CoV-2, el mundo fue sacudido, y una situación de pandemia emergió, lo que hizo que los diferentes países tomasen las acciones necesarias, tal como sucedió con el Perú. Allí, la Ingeniería Sanitaria, accionó sus funciones, buscando la potabilización del agua de consumo. En estos tiempos de pandemia, también determinaron el resguardo de la población, lo que fomentó la educación remota. En el caso de la Ingeniería Sanitaria, los laboratorios presenciales y convencionales fueron sustituidos por laboratorios virtuales y remotos, lo cual permitió que la educación continuase sin contratiempos(AU)


Sanitary Engineering emerges as a branch of engineering that involves both engineering subjects such as: mathematics, physics, hydraulic or mechanical chemistry, as well as those related to medicine and hygiene, such as microbiology and conservation. Its main function is to create and promote healthy conditions in the populations, being vigilant of the waters, the air and the land, preventing contamination from reaching human beings. In Peru, sanitary engineering was created as an appendix to civil engineering, but it soon took its deserved place, declaring itself an independent engineering career. Currently, Sanitary Engineering is in charge of bringing drinking water to the population, and treating wastewater. On the other hand, with the arrival of SARS-CoV-2, the world was shaken, and a pandemic situation emerged, which made the different countries take the necessary actions, as happened with Peru. Over there, the Sanitary Engineering, activated its functions, seeking the potabilization of drinking water. In these times of pandemic, they also determined the protection of the population, which promoted remote education. In the case of Sanitary Engineering, face-to-face and conventional laboratories were replaced by virtual and remote laboratories, which allowed education to continue without setbacks(AU)


Subject(s)
Sanitary Engineering , Education, Distance , COVID-19 , Sanitation , Water Purification , Environmental Pollution , Pandemics , Access to Essential Medicines and Health Technologies
11.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(3): 591-598, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1398794

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Angiostrongylus cantonensis es reconocido como uno de los principales patógenos causantes de la meningoencefalitis eosinofílica, fue identificado en Ecuador por primera vez en 2008. Métodos: se recolectaron 1476 ejemplares de Achatina fulica con el método de captura por unidad de esfuerzo durante 30 minutos, en 3 cantones de la provincia del Napo, con el fin de establecer la prevalencia de infección por A. cantonensis Resultados: el porcentaje total de caracoles infectados fue de 46,5% (687/1476). Conclusiones: Los resultados revelan una amplia distribución de A. fulica infectado con A. cantonensis, lo que, sumado a la gran cantidad de hospederos definitivos presentes, indica que un número considerable de personas tiene riesgo de adquirir angiostrongiliasis. Se necesita intervenciones educativas comunitaria orientadas a formación sanitaria, recalcando el riesgo de adquirir la infección parasitaria, principalmente por el consumo de A. fulica, crudos y/o con cocción inadecuada, principal forma de contagio. Además, se recomienda vigilancia rigurosa y control de los hospedadores involucrados, saneamiento ambiental, haciendo insistencia en factores relacionados con los hábitos biológico del caracol gigante africano, entre ello alimentos (vegetales), suelos y derivados del caracol de uso artesanal; para prevenir la aparición de casos esporádicos y de brotes de la enfermedad(AU)


Introduction: Angiostrongylus cantonensis is recognized as one of the main pathogens that cause eosinophilic meningoencephalitis, it was identified in Ecuador for the first time in 2008. Methods: 1476 specimens of Achatina fulica were collected using the capture method per unit of effort for 30 minutes, in 3 cantons of the Napo province, in order to establish the prevalence of infection by A. cantonensis Results: the total percentage of infected snails was 46.5% (687/1476). Conclusions: The results reveal a wide distribution of A. fulica infected with A. cantonensis, which, added to the large number of definitive hosts present, indicates that a considerable number of people are at risk of acquiring angiostrongyliasis. Community educational interventions aimed at health training are needed, emphasizing the risk of acquiring parasitic infection, mainly due to the consumption of A. fulica, raw and/or inadequately cooked, the main form of contagion. In addition, rigorous surveillance and control of the hosts involved, environmental sanitation, insisting on factors related to the biological habits of the giant African snail, including food (vegetables), soil and snail derivatives for artisanal use; to prevent the appearance of sporadic cases and outbreaks of the disease(AU)


Subject(s)
Snails , Angiostrongylus cantonensis , Meningoencephalitis , Parasitic Diseases , Sanitation , Disease Outbreaks
12.
Saúde Soc ; 31(2): e190667pt, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1390332

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este artigo investiga relações entre a incidência de câncer de colo de útero (ICC) e os componentes e indicadores de qualidade da água nos municípios do Mato Grosso do Sul, entre 2014 e 2017, por correlação estatística (Determinante de Pearson) e espacial (agrupamentos por k-médias). Houve maior resposta estatística de ICC em relação à tarifa média dos serviços de abastecimento praticado (-36,28%) e de água (-34,15%); à quantidade de suas interrupções sistemáticas (28,3%) e paralizações (22,28%); ao consumo médio per capita de água (20,74%) e à quantidade de serviços executados (-17,98%), todas as respostas sob p-valor ≤ 0,001. Em Costa Rica, cidade sob maior ICC média, os agrupamentos espaciais identificaram maior efeito daquelas interrupções (z-valor = 8,741) e das paralizações (z = 7,6097); enquanto em Rochedo, também sob alta ICC, houve maior efeito à incidência de análises com resultados fora do padrão para coliformes totais (z = 8,6803) e turbidez (z = 5,7427), sob correlação estatística de 12,05% (p-valor = 0,032) e 15,18% (p-valor = 0,007), respectivamente. Dados do SISAGUA revelaram a presença de coliformes e de altos níveis de turbidez, por exemplo, em Antônio João e Tacuru, cidades sob altas ICC médias. Recomenda-se maiores investigações sobre as relações aqui apresentadas entre ICC e água.


Abstratct This article investigates relationships between the incidence of cervical cancer (CCI) and the water components and quality indicators, in the municipalities of Mato Grosso do Sul, between 2014 and 2017, by statistical (Pearson's Determinant) and spatial (k-means Clustering) correlation. There was a greater statistical response of CCI in relation to the average tariff of the practiced supply (−36.28%) and water (−34.15%) services; the number of their systematic interruptions (28.3%) and outages (22.28%); the average per capita consumption of water (20.74%); and the number of services performed (−17.98%), all answers under p-value ≤ 0.001. In Costa Rica, city with the highest average CCI, the spatial clustering identified a greater effect of those interruptions (z-value = 8.741) and outages (z = 7.6097); whereas, in Rochedo, also under high CCI, the analyses showed greater effect with non-standard results for total coliforms (z = 8.6803) and turbidity (z = 5.7427), under a statistical correlation of 12.05% (p-value = 0.032) and 15.18% (p-value = 0.007), respectively. Data from SISAGUA revealed the presence of coliforms and high levels of turbidity, for example, in Antônio João and Tacuru, cities with high average ICC. We recommend further investigation into the relationships presented here between CCI and water.


Subject(s)
Water Quality , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Sanitation , Public Health , Cities , Correlation of Data
13.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(2): 335-342, 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1391353

ABSTRACT

El Perú se considera un país potencia en cuanto a la exportación textil de la alpaca, cuya fibra natural es muy fina, ligera y con alto valor a nivel mundial. Para el año 2019, la exportación total de fibra de alpaca en Perú llegó a un total de 23 países, incluyendo mercados en Europa, Asia y Norteamérica. La tendencia en el comercio exterior incluyendo las empresas textiles de alpaca, se ha dirigido a garantizar el cuidado del medio ambiente y la inocuidad de los productos respecto a la salud humana. Se realizó un estudio desde el paradigma post-positivista, con enfoque cualitativo y el método hermenéutico, para interpretar la situación de exportación y sanitación internacional en empresas peruanas productoras de prendas de alpaca en Huancayo y Lima. Se obtuvo información a partir de cuatro informantes voluntarios de cada empresa acerca de aspectos relacionados con exportación de las prendas de alpaca: competitividad, promoción, proveedores, producción, calidad de producto, valor agregado, calidad de servicio, mercados destino, demanda y herramientas de inteligencia comercial, entre otros. Asimismo, se indagó sobre la concepción y cumplimiento del Reglamento Sanitario Internacional. Las empresas evaluadas, emplean excelente materia prima, garantizan un control de calidad de sus productos ofreciendo textiles competitivos que se distribuyen en diversos mercados internacionales, emplean herramientas de comercialización que favorecen la identificación de regulaciones arancelarias y la capacitación de su personal. No obstante, muestran carencias en el cumplimiento del RSI, requiriendo adoptar medidas que garanticen la salud pública al comercializar sus productos(AU)


Peru is considered a powerful country in terms of alpaca textile exports, whose natural fiber is very fine, light and highly valued worldwide. For the year 2019, the total export of alpaca fiber in Peru reached a total of 23 countries, including markets in Europe, Asia and North America. The trend in foreign trade, including alpaca textile companies, has been aimed at guaranteeing care for the environment and the safety of products with respect to human health. A study was carried out from the post-positivist paradigm, with a qualitative approach and the hermeneutical method, to interpret the export situation and international sanitation in Peruvian companies that produce alpaca garments in Huancayo and Lima. Information was obtained from four volunteer informants from each company about aspects related to the export of alpaca garments: competitiveness, promotion, suppliers, production, product quality, added value, service quality, destination markets, demand and marketing tools. commercial intelligence, among others. Likewise, the conception and compliance with the International Health Regulations were inquired about. The evaluated companies use excellent raw material, guarantee quality control of their products by offering competitive textiles that are distributed in various international markets, use marketing tools that favor the identification of tariff regulations and the training of their personnel. However, they show deficiencies in compliance with the RSI, requiring the adoption of measures that guarantee public health when marketing their products(AU)


Subject(s)
Textiles , Camelids, New World , Exportation of Products , International Health Regulations , Peru , Sanitation , Clothing , Manufacturing Industry
14.
São Paulo; s.n; 2022. 130 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1392244

ABSTRACT

Como resultado do crescimento desordenado dos centros urbanos no país, surgiram regiões nas cidades com déficits de infraestruturas básicas, incluindo as sanitárias, desencadeando consequências ambientais como a poluição dos córregos, e socias com a formação dos aglomerados subnormais, com perda da qualidade de vida e prejuízos à saúde. Visando solucionar em parte os problemas de poluição dos corpos hídricos no município de São Paulo, a Sabesp em conjunto com parceiros institucionais lançou o Programa Córrego Limpo, com ações focadas em instalação de infraestruturas físicas e ações educacionais, de modo a envolver a sociedade com a problemática, conscientizando-a quanto ao seu papel. Neste contexto, a pesquisa visa avaliar a efetividade da educação ambiental na eficácia das ações de saneamento em aglomerados subnormais, utilizando os resultados obtidos com o Programa Córrego Limpo para uma amostra de três córregos (Charles de Gaulle, Novo Mundo/Biquinha e Adão Ferraris). Mediante análise dos dados, conclui-se que o nível de envolvimento social nos córregos Charles de Gaulle e Novo Mundo/Biquinha foram mais elevados, culminando em melhores condições de qualidade das águas dos corpos hídricos ao longo dos anos de monitoramento realizados, cujos fatores identificados como influenciadores no engajamento da população foram a presença de fortes lideranças locais, elaboração de projeto de educação ambiental, atuação junto à ONGs locais, realização de eventos com chamamento público e atividades informativas e de comunicação. Assim, constata-se que o envolvimento da população é fator determinante para o sucesso de projetos de despoluição de córregos. Complementarmente, comparando as ações do Programa Córrego Limpo com as do Projeto Novo Rio Pinheiros, em implantação, tem-se como perspectiva e expectativa que os resultados de despoluição desejados neste segundo tendam a ser alcançados, já que possui em suas diretrizes exigências em comum com os fatores positivos identificados no primeiro programa, e melhoria quanto aos menos eficientes. Logo, o caminho a ser seguido para que as ações de saneamento atuem como barreiras sanitárias em regiões de vulnerabilidade social requer estruturação e planejamento de atividades de educação ambiental abrangentes, além de intensa informação e comunicação junto à sociedade.


As a result of the disorderly growth of urban centers in the country, some city regions emerged with deficit in basic infrastructure, including sanitation. It triggered serious environmental consequences such as water pollution, and also social issues with the formation of subnormal agglomerates, which resulted in reduced quality of life and damage to health. Aiming to partially solve the problems of water bodies pollution in the city of São Paulo, Sabesp, together with institutional partners, launched the Clean Stream Program, with actions focused on the installation of physical infrastructure and education actions. The idea is to engage the society with the problematic scenario, making them aware of their role in it. In this context, the research aims to evaluate the effectiveness of environmental education in the efficiency of sanitation actions in subnormal agglomerates, using the results obtained from the Clean Stream Program for a sample of three streams (Charles de Gaulle, Novo Mundo/Biquinha and Adão Ferraris). Through data analysis, it is concluded that the level of social engagement in the Charles de Gaulle and Novo Mundo/Biquinha streams were higher, culminating in better water quality conditions in water bodies over the monitored years. In this case, the main factors that influenced the population engagement were the presence of strong local leaders, the elaboration of an environmental education project, working with local NGOs, holding public call events, and performing information/communication activities. This way, it appears that the involvement of the population is a determining factor for the success of stream clean-up projects. In addition, comparing the actions of the Clean Stream Program with those of the New Pinheiros River Project (which is currently being implemented), the perspective and expectation is that the desired depollution results of the latter tend to be achieved, since it has guidelines requirements in common with the positive factors identified in the first program, while also improving the less efficient ones. Therefore, in order to form real sanitary barriers in regions of social vulnerability through sanitation actions, it requires the structuring and planning of comprehensive environmental education activities, in addition to intense information and society communication.


Subject(s)
Sanitation , Water Purification , Environmental Health Education , Community Participation , Rivers
15.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 56: 1-16, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1377243

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Propose an Índice de salubridade ambiental (ISARural - environmental salubrity index) that expresses the conditions experienced in rural agglomerations, including indicators and subindicators for its subsequent application in rural communities in the state of Goiás. METHODS We developed the research in three phases: 1) previous analysis for the proposition of an ISARural, with the participation of seven specialists; 2) proposition of the ISARural by means of the Delphi method, starting with 168 specialists from 26 federative units of Brazil and Distrito Federal; and 3) application of the ISARural in 43 rural communities in the state of Goiás. RESULTS The proposed ISARural resulted in the composition of eight indicators, four of which related to basic sanitation, and the others to health, socioeconomic conditions, public services offered, and housing conditions. The weight assigned to each indicator ranged from 22.82% for the water supply indicator to 6.35% for the service indicator, it is possible to apply the ISARural fully or to evaluate each indicator individually. The application of ISARural in communities of Goiás classified 86% of them with low salubrity, highlighting the worst conditions for quilombola communities. The sanitary sewage had the lowest score among the ISARural indicators, requiring greater attention from public authorities. CONCLUSIONS This study contributed to the proposition of an index in line with the concept of environmental salubrity, useful in the scope of public policies as a conditioner for the prioritization of actions needed to improve the salubrity conditions identified. The proposed ISARural can be fully applied or used in the individual evaluation of each indicator of its composition. The results of its application made it possible to identify the communities with the worst environmental salubrity conditions and the indicators that require greater priority attention in the communities studied.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Propor um índice de salubridade ambiental que expresse as condições vividas em aglomerados rurais (ISARural), englobando indicadores e subindicadores para sua posterior aplicação em comunidades rurais do estado de Goiás. MÉTODOS A pesquisa foi desenvolvida em três fases: 1) análise prévia para proposição de um ISARural, contando com a participação de sete especialistas; 2) proposição do ISARuralpor meio do método Delphi, iniciando com 168 especialistas das 26 unidades federativas do Brasil e do Distrito Federal; e 3) aplicação do ISARuralem 43 comunidades rurais do estado de Goiás. RESULTADOS O ISARuralproposto resultou na composição de oito indicadores, sendo quatro relacionados ao saneamento básico, e os demais à saúde, às condições socioeconômicas, aos serviços públicos ofertados e às condições de moradia. O peso atribuído para cada indicador variou de 22,82%, para indicador de abastecimento de água, a 6,35%, para o indicador de serviços, podendo o ISARuralser aplicado na sua totalidade ou para avaliação de cada indicador individualmente. A aplicação do ISARuralem comunidades de Goiás evidenciou que 86% se classificam com baixa salubridade, destacando as piores condições para as comunidades quilombolas. Dentre os indicadores do ISARural, o de esgotamento sanitário foi caracterizado com a menor pontuação, o que demanda uma maior atenção do poder público. CONCLUSÕES Esse estudo cumpriu o papel de contribuir com a proposição de um índice em consonância com o conceito de salubridade ambiental, podendo ser empregado no âmbito das políticas públicas como um condicionante para a priorização das ações necessárias à melhoria das condições de salubridade identificadas. O ISARuralproposto pode ser aplicado na sua totalidade ou ainda na avaliação individual de cada indicador de sua composição. Os resultados da sua aplicação possibilitaram identificar as comunidades com piores condições de salubridade ambiental e os indicadores que requerem maior atenção prioritária nas comunidades estudadas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rural Population , Sanitation/methods , Water Supply , Brazil
16.
Textos contextos (Porto Alegre) ; 21(1): 42176, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411247

ABSTRACT

A questão da água vem ganhando espaço nos debates mundiais sobre o desenvolvimento socioambiental tematizada, em geral, a partir das preocupações com a "crise hídrica", que se aprofunda na medida em que os interesses da acumulação capitalista se sobrepõem à defesa do meio ambiente e em que o Estado se desresponsabiliza da provisão dos serviços de saneamento, repassando-os ao mercado em processos de privatização. Com enfoque metodológico centrado na análise da literatura especializada e nos marcos normativos da política de saneamento, analisa-se a mercantilização da água e dos serviços de saneamento e a política pública para esse setor no Brasil, recentemente marcados pela presença das parcerias público-privado que buscam conciliar objetivos de mercado com a retórica da democracia formal, embora firmemente articuladas ao neoliberalismo transnacional. Sustentamos que os novos arranjos políticos de expansão do setor privado no controle dos recursos hídricos e na prestação dos serviços de abastecimento de água e esgotamento sanitário, integram o projeto neoliberal em sua face mais recente, quadro que reitera os velhos problemas sociais e ambientais que produzem relações desiguais no acesso a serviços de saneamento no Brasil


The issue of water has been gaining ground in global debates on socio-environmental development, in general themed based on concerns about the "water crisis", which deepens as the interests of capitalist accumulation overlap with the defense of the environment and in that the State assumes no responsibility for the provision of sanitation services, transferring them to the market in privatization processes. With a methodological focus centered on the analysis of specialized literature and on the normative frameworks of sanitation policy, it analyzes the commodification of water and sanitation services and the public policy for this sector in Brazil, recently marked by the presence of public-private partnerships that seek reconciling market objectives with the rhetoric of formal democracy, although firmly articulated with transnational neoliberalism. We argue that the new political arrangements for the expansion of the private sector in the control of water resources and in the provision of water supply and sanitation services are part of the neoliberal project in its most recent face, a framework that reiterates the old social and environmental problems that produce unequal relationships in access to sanitation services in Brazil


Subject(s)
Water Supply , Water , Sanitation , Social Problems , Sanitation Policy
17.
Rev. patol. trop ; 51(1): 51-61, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411450

ABSTRACT

The metropolitan region of Belém-PA suffers human fecal pollution in the local water supply system favoring the increase in cases of water circulating diseases in the population, especially the most socioeconomically vulnerable. Therefore, it is necessary to compile information on cases of these diseases over the years in this region, in order to better define public health policies. Thus, this work aims to contribute to the gathering of this information through a literature review selecting articles found in the SciELO, Pubmed and Google Academic databases with publications between 2005 and 2021 in Portuguese and English. The neighborhoods most affected by water circulation diseases proved were Guamá, Marco, Jurunas, Tapanã, Telegrafo and Terra Firme, located close to hydrographic basins, rivers and canals and are subject to flooding due to high tides and overflowing canals. In addition, the population in these neighborhoods is considered underprivileged. The most cited diseases and symptoms were leptospirosis, worms and diarrhea, which are easily prevented. Total and thermotolerant coliforms were also widely described, being the main indicators of fecal water contamination. The importance of sanitary measures is evidenced, as these reduce cases of water supply diseases in urban centers and improve population health. The quality of the water in the supply network is also important to mitigate the prevalence of these diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Water Pollution , Water Supply , Sanitation , Coliforms , Population Health , Health Policy , Leptospirosis
18.
Abudja; Federal Ministry of Health; 2022. figures, tables.
Non-conventional in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1512034
19.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 6-6, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928824

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#To protect the health and safety of healthcare workers (HCWs), it is essential to ensure the provision of sustainable water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) services and standard precautions in healthcare facilities (HCF). The objectives of this short communication were 1) to assess the availability of WASH services and standard precautions in HCFs in seven provinces in Afghanistan before the COVID-19 pandemic, and 2) to elucidate the relevance of these patterns with the number of reported HCW infections from COVID-19 in the mentioned provinces.@*METHODS@#We analyzed secondary data from the 2018-19 Afghanistan Service Provision Assessment survey, which included 142 public and private HCFs in seven major provinces in Afghanistan. Data on COVID-19 cases were obtained from the Afghanistan Ministry of Public Health Data Warehouse. Weighted prevalence of WASH services and standard precautions were calculated using frequencies and percentages. ArcGIS maps were used to visualize the distribution of COVID-19 cases, and scatter plots were created to visualize the relevance of WASH services and standard precautions to COVID-19 cases in provinces.@*RESULTS@#Of the 142 facilities surveyed, about 97% had improved water sources, and over 94% had improved toilet for clients. Overall, HCFs had limited availability of hygiene services and standard precautions, which was lower in private than public facilities. More than half of the facilities had safe final disposal and appropriate storage of sharps and medical waste. Of the seven provinces, Herat province had the highest cumulative COVID-19 case rate among HCWs per 100,000 population and reported lower availability of WASH services and standard precautions in HCFs compared to other provinces.@*CONCLUSION@#Our findings show disparities in the availability of WASH services and standard precautions in public and private facilities. Private facilities had a lower availability of hygiene services and standard precautions than public facilities. Provinces with higher availability of WASH services and standard precautions in HCFs had a lower cumulative COVID-19 case rate among HCWs per 100,000 population. Pre-pandemic preparation of adequate WASH services and standard precautions in HCFs could be potentially important in combating infectious disease emergence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Afghanistan/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care , Hygiene , Pandemics/prevention & control , Sanitation , Water , Water Supply
20.
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 55-67, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-988599

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Since the effectiveness of the Zero Open Defecation (ZOD) program as a scaling-up approach in lowering the rates of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections has not yet been locally explored, this study aimed to (1) describe the association between environmental determinants and STH cumulative prevalence, and (2) to predict the 2020 STH cumulative prevalence. @*Methods@#A generalized linear regression (GLR) model was used to determine the association of 2014–2015 environmental determinants and observed 2015 STH cumulative prevalence, while a geographically weighted regression (GWR) model was used to produce predicted 2020 STH cumulative prevalence. @*Results@#ArcGIS’ GLR tool with R2 of 63% found that statistically significant environmental determinants include distance near to water bodies, forest land use, access to sanitary toilet, level one water source, and ZOD status, while the ArcGIS’ GWR tool found that barangays, Cabangcalan, Matalangtalang, Talabaan, and Talib in Aroroy hypothetically met the national target below 30% for 2020 STH cumulative prevalence. @*Conclusion@#This study showed that barangays with a moderately low percentage of area with freshwater bodies, a moderately high percentage of households with sanitary toilet and level one water source, and a 100% status of ZOD have lower rates of STH cumulative prevalence in preschool-aged children in the selected municipalities in Masbate.


Subject(s)
Mass Drug Administration , Hygiene , Sanitation , Geographic Information Systems
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