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Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 42(1): 67-84, ene.-mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374508


Introduction: Praziquantel (PZQ) is the only commercially available drug for schistosomiasis. The current shortage of alternative effective drugs and the lack of successful preventive measures enhance its value. The increase in the prevalence of PZQ resistance under sustained drug pressure is, therefore, an upcoming issue. Objective: To overcome the tolerance to PZQ using nanotechnology after laboratory induction of a Schistosoma mansoni isolate with reduced sensitivity to the drug during the intramolluscan phase. Materials and methods: Shedding snails were treated with PZQ doses of 200 mg/kg twice/ week followed by an interval of one week and then repeated twice in the same manner. The success of inducing reduced sensitivity was confirmed in vitro via the reduction of cercarial response to PZQ regarding their swimming activity and death percentage at different examination times. Results: Oral treatment with a single PZQ dose of 500 mg/kg in mice infected with cercariae with reduced sensitivity to PZQ revealed a non-significant reduction (35.1%) of total worm burden compared to non-treated control mice. Orally inoculated PZQ- encapsulated niosomes against S. mansoni with reduced sensitivity to PZQ successfully regained the pathogen's sensitivity to PZQ as evidenced by measuring different parameters in comparison to the non-treated infected animals with parasites with reduced sensitivity to PZQ. The mean total worm load was 1.33 ± 0.52 with a statistically significant reduction of 94.09% and complete eradication of male worms. We obtained a remarkable increase in the percentage reduction of tissue egg counts in the liver and intestine (97.68% and 98.56%, respectively) associated with a massive increase in dead eggs and the complete absence of immature stages. Conclusion: PZQ-encapsulated niosomes restored the drug sensitivity against laboratory- induced S. mansoni adult worms with reduced sensitivity to PZQ.

Introducción. El prazicuantel es el único fármaco disponible comercialmente para la esquistosomiasis. La escasez actual de medicamentos alternativos y la falta de medidas preventivas eficaces aumentan su valor. La creciente prevalencia de la resistencia al prazicuantel bajo una presión prolongada del fármaco es, por tanto, un tema emergente. Objetivos. Superar la tolerancia al prazicuantel mediante nanotecnología después de la inducción en laboratorio de un aislamiento de Schistosoma mansoni con sensibilidad reducida al fármaco durante la fase intramolusco. Materiales y métodos. Los caracoles que liberaban cercarias se trataron con prazicuantel en dosis de 200 mg/kg dos veces por semana, seguidas de un intervalo de una semana, y luego se repitieron dos veces de la misma manera. La inducción exitosa de la sensibilidad reducida se confirmó in vitro mediante la reducción de la reacción de las cercarias al prazicuantel con respecto a su actividad de natación y el porcentaje de muerte en diferentes momentos de examen. El éxito en inducir una menor sensibilidad se confirmó in vitro mediante la reducción de la reacción de las cercarias al prazicuantel. Resultados. El tratamiento oral con una dosis única de prazicuantel de 500 mg/kg en ratones infectados con cercarias con sensibilidad reducida al prazicuantel, reveló una reducción no significativa (35,1 %) de la carga total de gusanos en comparación con los ratones de control no tratados. Los niosomas encapsulados en prazicuantel inoculados por vía oral contra S. mansoni con sensibilidad reducida al prazicuantel, permitieron reestablecer con éxito la sensibilidad del patógeno al medicamento, como lo demostró la medición de diferentes parámetros en comparación con los animales infectados no tratados con parásitos con sensibilidad reducida a prazicuantel. La carga media total de gusanos fue de 1,33 ± 0,52, con una reducción estadísticamente significativa del 94,09 %, y la erradicación completa de los gusanos machos adultos. Se obtuvo un aumento notable en el porcentaje de reducción del recuento de huevos en el tejido del hígado y el intestino (97,68 % y 98,56 %, respectivamente), asociado con un aumento masivo de huevos muertos y ausencia total de estadios inmaduros. Conclusión. Los niosomas encapsulados en prazicuantel restauraron la sensibilidad al fármaco contra gusanos adultos de S. mansoni con sensibilidad reducida al prazicuantel inducida en el laboratorio.

Praziquantel , Schistosoma mansoni , Drug Resistance , Liposomes
Rev. patol. trop ; 50(3)2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292385


Information on areas colonized by snails that transmit Schistosoma mansoni is essential for planning schistosomiasis control measures. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to map the natural breeding sites of Biomphalaria spp. in the municipality of Peri Mirim, Maranhão, Brazil. The snails were manually collected and the breeding sites were geo-referenced (seven in the urban area and five in flooded fields), from November 2017 to March 2018. In the laboratory, the snails were examined for the presence of larval stages of S. mansoni identified by morphology and internal anatomy analysis. While no snails were found in the urban area, sixteen B. glabrata were collected in the flooded fields. No S. mansoni or other trematode infections were detected. Wild rodents, most likely Holochilus sciureus that could act as S. mansoni reservoirs, were also found in the flooded fields. These data indicate possible risk areas for further outbreaks of schistosomiasis transmission in the municipality of Peri Mirim.

Humans , Animals , Schistosoma mansoni , Snails , Biomphalaria , Spatial Analysis
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200326, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250363


BACKGROUND Schistosomiasis is a disease caused by Schistosoma. Due to its complex life cycle, evolutionary position and sexual dimorphism, schistosomes have several mechanisms of gene regulation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short endogenous RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by targeting mRNA transcripts. OBJECTIVES Here, we tested 12 miRNAs and identified their putative targets using a computational approach. METHODS We performed the expression profiles of a set of miRNAs and their putative targets during the parasite's life cycle by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). FINDINGS Our results showed differential expression patterns of the mature miRNAs sma-miR-250; sma-miR-92a; sma-miR-new_4-3p; sma-miR-new_4-5p; sma-miR-new_5-5p; sma-miR-new_12-5p; sma-miR-new_13-3p and sma-miR-new_13-5p. Interestingly, many of the putative target genes are linked to oxidative phosphorylation and are up-regulated in adult-worms, which led us to suggest that miRNAs might play important roles in the post-transcriptional regulation of genes related to energetic metabolism inversion during parasite development. It is noteworthy that the expression of sma-miR-new_13-3p exhibited a negative correlation on SmNADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase complex I. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Our analysis revealed putative miRNA genes related to important biological processes, such as transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling, proteasome regulation, glucose and lipid metabolism, immune system evasion and transcriptional regulation.

Animals , MicroRNAs/genetics , Schistosoma mansoni/genetics , Signal Transduction , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling , Life Cycle Stages/genetics
Rev. patol. trop ; 50(4)2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353272


Schistosomiasis is still a serious public health concern in Brazil and Sergipe State presents the highest prevalence rate of the disease. Brazil implemented the Schistosomiasis Control Program (PCE) with several strategies to control the disease, including health education actions in endemic areas. Herein, we assessed the impact of an educational intervention on knowledge concerning schistosomiasis in students from a riverside village of Sergipe, Northeastern Brazil. The study was carried out in 3 phases. 1) A questionnaire was applied to assess the students' knowledge about the biological, clinical, and epidemiological aspects of schistosomiasis mansoni (pre-test). 2) Next, an educational intervention was conducted. Pamphlets about schistosomiasis were distributed to the entire school community, who were then invited to a lecture. 3) A post-test was performed using the questionnaire to assess acquired knowledge. 151 elementary school students were interviewed. 2.6% of the pre-test students and 4.3% of the post-test group had already been diagnosed with schistosomiasis. In the pre-test, only 24.5% knew the cause of the disease and 48.3% the transmission sites. In the post-test, 74.3% (OR= 8.9; p-value<0.0001) knew the etiology and 77.1% the possible transmission sites (OR= 3.6; p-value<0.0001). There was also significant improvement in knowledge regarding signs, symptoms and prophylactic measures. Most students were unaware of the risk of reinfection by Schistosoma mansoni after treatment. The educational intervention proved quite effective in increasing information on schistosomiasis. These results reinforce the importance of health education as an auxiliary tool in the control of schistosomiasis.

Schistosoma mansoni , Schistosomiasis , Public Health , Health Education
Rev. patol. trop ; 50(1)2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223706


A single dose of simvastatin and of artesunate monotherapy cause damage to the reproductive system of schistosomes as well as severe tegumental damage in male worms recovered from mice fed high-fat chow. This study aims to investigate whether treatment with multipledose regimes may offer more antischistosomal activity advantages than single daily dosing in mice fed high-fat chow. For this purpose, nine weeks post-infection, Swiss Webster mice were gavaged with simvastatin (200 mg/kg) or artesunate (300 mg/kg) for five consecutive days and euthanized two weeks post-treatment. Adult worms were analyzed using brightfield microscopy, confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, presenting damages caused by simvastatin and artesunate to the reproductive system of males and females as well as tegument alterations, including peeling, sloughing areas, loss of tubercles, tegumental bubbles and tegument rupture exposing subtegumental tissue. The overall findings in this study revealed the potential antischistosomal activity of simvastatin and artesunate against Schistosoma mansoni adult worms, in addition to showing that multiple doses of either monotherapy caused severe damage to the tegument.

Una sola dosis de simvastatina y de artesunato en monoterapia causa daño al sistema reproductivo de los esquistosomas, así como daño tegumental severo en gusanos machos recuperados de ratones alimentados con comida rica en grasas. Este estudio tiene como objetivo investigar si el tratamiento con regímenes de dosis múltiples puede ofrecer más ventajas de actividad antiesquistosomal que la dosis única diaria en ratones alimentados con comida rica en grasas. Para este propósito, nueve semanas después de la infección, los ratones Swiss Webster se alimentaron por sonda con simvastatina (200 mg / kg) o artesunato (300 mg / kg) durante cinco días consecutivos y se sacrificaron dos semanas después del tratamiento. Los gusanos adultos se analizaron utilizando campo claro microscopía, microscopía confocal y microscopía electrónica de barrido, presentando daños causados ​​por simvastatina y artesunato en el sistema reproductivo de machos y hembras, así como alteraciones del tegumento, incluyendo descamación, desprendimiento, pérdida de tubérculos, burbujas tegumentales y rotura del tegumento exponiendo tejido subtegumental. Los hallazgos generales de este estudio revelaron la posible actividad antiesquistosomal de la simvastatina y el artesunato contra los gusanos adultos de Schistosoma mansoni, además de mostrar que dosis múltiples de cualquiera de las dos monoterapia causaron daños graves al tegumento.

Uma única dose de sinvastatina e de monoterapia com artesunato causa danos ao sistema reprodutivo dos esquistossomos, bem como danos graves ao tegumento em vermes machos recuperados de camundongos alimentados com ração rica em gordura. Este estudo tem como objetivo investigar se o tratamento com regimes de múltiplas doses pode oferecer mais vantagens da atividade anti-esquistossomótica do que uma única dose diária em ratos alimentados com ração rica em gordura. Para tanto, nove semanas após a infecção, camundongos Swiss Webster foram inoculados com sinvastatina (200 mg / kg) ou artesunato (300 mg / kg) por cinco dias consecutivos e sacrificados duas semanas após o tratamento. Vermes adultos foram analisados ​​usando campo claro microscopia, microscopia confocal e microscopia eletrônica de varredura, apresentando danos causados ​​pela sinvastatina e artesunato ao sistema reprodutivo de homens e mulheres, bem como alterações do tegumento, incluindo descamação, áreas de descamação, perda de tubérculos, bolhas tegumentais e ruptura do tegumento com exposição de tecido subtegumentar. Os achados gerais deste estudo revelaram a potencial atividade anti-esquistossomótica da sinvastatina e do artesunato contra vermes adultos do Schistosoma mansoni, além de mostrar que doses múltiplas de ambas as monoterapias causaram danos graves ao tegumento.

Animals , Mice , Schistosoma mansoni , Simvastatin , Hyperlipidemias , Mice , Microscopy
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e0744-2020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155546


Abstract INTRODUCTION Suckling by schistosomotic mice improves anti-ovalbumin (OA) antibody production, while delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) remains unaffected. This property of milk from schistosomotic mice was investigated in IL-12/IL-23-deficient mice (IL-12p40KO). METHODS We compared anti-OA DTH, IgG2a and cytokines in wild-type and IL-12p40KO mice suckled by infected (SIM) or non-infected (CONTROL) mothers. RESULTS SIM mice showed similar intensity and eosinophils in the DTH, which was abolished in IL-12p40KO and IL-12p40KO-SIM mice. In IL-12p40KO-SIM, IgG2a and TGF-β levels were higher, but IL-6 levels were lower. CONCLUSIONS Milk from schistosomotic mothers may evoke IgG2a without eliciting DTH in IL-12/IL-23 deficiencies, by changing TGF-β/IL-6 levels.

Humans , Animals , Female , Schistosoma mansoni , Interleukin-12 , Immunoglobulin G , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Interleukin-23 , Mice , Mothers
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e08512020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288085


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Ourinhos is a municipality located between the Pardo and Paranapanema rivers, and it has been characterized by the endemic transmission of schistosomiasis since 1952. We used geospatial analysis to identify areas prone to human schistosomiasis infections in Ourinhos. We studied the association between the sewage network, co-occurrence of Biomphalaria snails (identified as intermediate hosts [IHs] of Schistosoma mansoni), and autochthonous cases. METHODS: Gi spatial statistics, Ripley's K12-function, and kernel density estimation were used to evaluate the association between schistosomiasis data reported during 2007-2016 and the occurrence of IHs during 2015-2017. These data were superimposed on the municipality sewage network data. RESULTS: We used 20 points with reported IH; they were colonized predominantly by Biomphalaria glabrata, followed by B. tenagophila and B. straminea. Based on Gi statistics, a significant cluster of autochthonous cases was superimposed on the Christoni and Água da Veada water bodies, with distances of approximately 300 m and 2200 m from the points where B. glabrata and B. straminea were present, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The residence geographical location of autochthonous cases allied with the spatial analysis of IHs and the coverage of the sewage network provide important information for the detection of human-infection areas. Our results demonstrated that the tools used for direct surveillance, control, and elimination of schistosomiasis are appropriate.

Humans , Animals , Schistosomiasis/epidemiology , Biomphalaria , Schistosomiasis mansoni/epidemiology , Schistosoma mansoni , Sewage , Brazil/epidemiology , Geographic Information Systems , Disease Vectors
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 30(2): e2020520, 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249805


Objetivo: Analisar aspectos relacionados com a positividade para esquistossomose em área de baixa prevalência, no Brasil. Métodos: Estudo transversal, realizado no primeiro semestre de 2020, quando foram analisadas a proporção de positividade, em função do número de lâminas de Kato-Katz, o desempenho diagnóstico do teste e a estimação da positividade a partir dos dados do Sistema de Informação do Programa de Vigilância e Controle da Esquistossomose (SISPCE). Resultados: Foram analisadas 2.088 lâminas de 348 indivíduos, sendo a proporção de positividade de 11,8%, 26,7% e 31,0% para 1, 4 e 6 lâminas analisadas, respectivamente. Houve concordância excelente (índice Kappa = 0,91) na comparação entre as leituras de 4 e 6 lâminas. Foi estimada subnotificação de 2,1 vezes nos dados do SISPCE. Conclusão: Ampliar o número de lâminas aumentou a positividade do Kato-Katz, o que pode contribuir para maximizar o controle da doença enquanto problema de Saúde Pública.

Objetivo: Analizar aspectos relacionados con la positividad para esquistosomiasis en área de baja prevalencia en Brasil. Métodos: Estudio transversal, realizado en el primer semestre de 2020, donde se analizó la proporción de positividad según el número de portaobjetos de Kato-Katz, el rendimiento diagnóstico de la prueba y la creación de un factor de estimación de positividad a partir de los datos del Sistema de Información del Programa de Vigilancia y Control de la Esquistosomiasis (SISPCE). Resultados: Se analizaron 2.088 láminas de 348 individuos, con proporción de positividad del 11,8%, 26,7% y 31,0% para 1, 4 y 6 láminas analizadas, respectivamente. Hubo una excelente concordancia (Kappa = 0,91) en la comparación entre la lectura de 4 y 6 láminas. Se estimó un subregistro de 2,1 veces en los datos del SISPCE. Conclusión: Aumentar el número de muestras aumentó la positividad de Kato-Katz, lo que puede contribuir a maximizar el control de la enfermedad como problema de Salud Pública.

Objective: To analyze aspects related to schistosomiasis positivity in an area of low prevalence in Brazil. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, carried out in the first half of 2020, where we analyzed the proportion of positivity, according to the number of Kato-Katz slides, the diagnostic performance of the test and positivity estimates based on data from the Schistosomiasis Surveillance and Control Program Information System (SISPCE). Results: 2,088 slides from 348 individuals were analyzed, with proportion of positivity of 11.8%, 26.7% and 31.0% for 1, 4 and 6 slides analyzed, respectively. There was excellent agreement (Kappa = 0.91) between the readings of 4 and 6 slides. The SISPCE data was estimated to be underreported by up to 2.1 times. Conclusion: Increasing the number of slides increased Kato-Katz positivity, which can contribute to maximizing the control of the disease as a Public Health problem.

Humans , Animals , Child, Preschool , Schistosoma mansoni/isolation & purification , Schistosomiasis mansoni/diagnosis , Schistosomiasis mansoni/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests/methods , Neglected Diseases , Epidemiological Monitoring
Braz. j. biol ; 80(3): 582-588, July-Sept. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132410


Abstract Schistosomiasis treatment is dependent on a single drug, praziquantel (PZQ). The development of resistance of PZQ has drawn the attention of many researchers to alternative drugs. One viable and promising treatment is the study of medicinal plants as a new approach to the experimental treatment for Schistosomiasis. The present work aimed to evaluate in vivo antischistosomal activity of effect of Mentha x villosa Oil Essential (Mv-EO) and rotundifolone (ROT) against Schistosoma mansoni. Thirty-day-old female Swiss webster mice (Mus musculus) weighing 50 grams were used. Mice were infected with 80 cercariae of S. mansoni (BH strain) and orally administered Mv-EO (50, 100 and 200 mg/Kg) and ROT (35.9, 70.9 and 141.9 mg/Kg) at 45-days post infection for 5 consecutive days. All mice were euthanized 60 days after infection. Praziquantel was the positive control in the experiment. Doses of 200 mg/kg (Mv-EO) and ROT (141.9 mg/Kg) resulted in a significant reduction in fluke burden (72.44% and 74.48%, respectively). There was also marked reduction in liver, intestinal and faecal and changed oogram pattern, compared to infected untreated mice. Considering the results obtained, further biological studies are required in order to elucidate the mechanism of schistosomicidal action on against adult S. mansoni.

Resumo O tratamento da esquistossomose é dependente de uma única droga, praziquantel (PZQ). O desenvolvimento da resistência de PZQ tem atraído atenção de muitos pesquisadores por medicamentos alternativos. Um tratamento viável e promissor é o estudo das plantas medicinais como uma nova abordagem para o tratamento experimental para esquistossomose. O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a atividade esquistossomicida in vivo óleo essencial de Mentha x villosa (OE-Mv) e rotundifolona (ROT) contra Schistosoma mansoni. Foram utilizados camundongos Swiss webster (Mus musculus) fêmea de trinta dias de idade pesando 50 gramas. Os camundongos foram infectados com 80 cercárias de S. mansoni (cepa BH) e administrado por via oral OE-Mv (50, 100 e 200 mg/Kg) e ROT (35,9, 70,9 e 141,9 mg/Kg) apos 45 dias de infecção durante 5 dias consecutivos. Todos os animais foram eutanasiados 60 dias após a infecção. Praziquantel foi o controle positivo no experimento. O tratamento dos camundongos infectados com doses de 200 mg/kg (OE-Mv) e rotundifolona (141,9 mg/Kg) resultaram em redução significativa dos vermes (72.44% e 74.48%, respectivamente). Foi observado também redução no fígado, intestino e fecal e alteração no padrão do oograma, em comparação aos camundongos infectados e não tratados. Considerando os resultados obtidos, mais estudos biológicos são necessários a fim de elucidar o mecanismo de ação esquistossomicida contra adultos de S. mansoni.

Animals , Female , Rabbits , Schistosomiasis mansoni , Oils, Volatile , Mentha , Praziquantel , Schistosoma mansoni
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200335, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, ColecionaSUS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1136822


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Schistosomiasis, caused by infection from Schistosoma mansoni, is a disease that represents an important public health problem for Brazil, especially for states in the Northeast region. Thus, the aim of this study is to present a new epidemiological profile for the disease in a municipality with low prevalence in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted through a coproparasitological and malacological survey. A structured questionnaire was applied to the study participants to survey possible risk factors and a spatial analysis (kernel density) was used to measure the risk of infection. RESULTS: Of the 347 participants, 106 (30.5%) were infected by Schistosoma mansoni, most of them from the urban area of the municipality (68.9%; 73/106). A 3-fold risk of infection was found for individuals living in the urban area and a risk of 2.15 times for self-declared farmers. Biomphalaria glabrata and B. straminea were the species found in the municipality, but no animals were diagnosed as infected by the parasite. Spatial analysis showed a random distribution of vectors and human cases of the disease, and the formation of two clusters of human cases in the urban area was seen. CONCLUSIONS: A new epidemiological profile for schistosomiasis from S. mansoni infection was presented in a municipality of low endemicity: a high proportion of positive individuals in the urban area; presence of snails without positive diagnosis for S. mansoni infection; random distribution of vectors and human cases; and absence of association between classical risk factors and human infection.

Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Schistosomiasis mansoni/diagnosis , Schistosomiasis mansoni/transmission , Schistosomiasis mansoni/epidemiology , Schistosoma mansoni , Biomphalaria , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Vectors , Middle Aged
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200257, 2020. graf
Article in English | SES-SP, ColecionaSUS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1136878


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Biomphalaria snails may display varying levels of susceptibility to Schistosoma mansoni infection. We have been developing an in vitro model to study the interaction between the snail and the parasite, using tissue-derived cell cultures from Biomphalaria. METHODS: The digestive gland- and kidney-derived cells from primary cultures of resistant (B. tenagophila Taim) and susceptible (B. tenagophila HM and B. glabrata BH) strains of Biomphalaria were exposed to S. mansoni sporocysts. RESULTS: S. mansoni sporocysts were surrounded and encapsulated exclusively by cells derived from the digestive gland (DG) of B. tenagophila Taim. The process was followed by a marked decrease in the number of free sporocysts in the culture medium. The morphological characteristics of DG-derived cells in culture have been described. CONCLUSIONS: Cells derived from DG (but not SK) primary cultures of B. tenagophila Taim may participate in S. mansoni sporocyst control.

Animals , Biomphalaria , Schistosomiasis mansoni , Schistosoma mansoni , Oocysts , Host-Parasite Interactions
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190562, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, ColecionaSUS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1136886


Abstract INTRODUCTION Schistosomiasis is a poverty-related disease that affects people in 78 countries worldwide. This study aimed to evaluate the point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) test performance using sensitive parasitological methods as a reference standard (RS) in individuals before and after treatment. METHODS The RS was established by combining the results of 16 Kato-Katz slides and the Helmintex® method. Positivity rates of the POC-CCA test and Kato-Katz and Helmintex® methods were calculated before treatment and 30 days afterward. Furthermore, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and kappa coefficient before treatment were determined by comparing the methods. The cure rate was defined 30 days after treatment. RESULTS Among the 217 participants, the RS detected a total of 63 (29.0%) positive individuals. The POC-CCA test identified 79 (36.4%) infections. The evaluation of POC-CCA test performance in relation to the RS revealed a sensitivity of 61.9%, specificity of 74.0%, accuracy of 70.5%, and kappa coefficient of 0.33. Out of the 53 remaining participants after treatment, a total of 45 (81.1%) showed egg negative results, and 8 (18.9%) were egg positive according to the RS. A total of 5 (9.4%) egg-positive and 37 (69.8%) egg-negative individuals were positive by the POC-CCA test. CONCLUSIONS Our data show that the POC-CCA test has potential as an auxiliary tool for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infection, yielding better results than 16 Kato-Katz slides from three different stool samples. However, the immunochromatographic test lacks sufficient specificity and sensitivity for verifying the cure rate after treatment.

Humans , Animals , Schistosoma mansoni/isolation & purification , Schistosomiasis mansoni/diagnosis , Schistosoma mansoni/immunology , Schistosomiasis mansoni/urine , Sensitivity and Specificity , Antigens, Helminth/blood
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 36(supl.2): e00215720, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1132886


As doenças tropicais negligenciadas constituem um grupo heterogêneo de enfermidades que apresentam como característica comum afetarem populações pobres e desassistidas, com pouca capacidade de vocalização e de poder político. Em consequência, recebem pouca atenção da indústria farmacêutica e da academia. O presente estudo teve como propósito resumir o estado da arte quanto ao desenvolvimento de vacinas para três doenças tropicais negligenciadas de relevância no Brasil, a doença de Chagas, a esquistossomose mansoni e as leishmanioses. Para tanto, realizou-se uma revisão narrativa da literatura científica, na qual foram incluídas publicações que permitiram traçar um panorama atual do desenvolvimento de vacinas para as três doenças. Essas vacinas estão em estágios distintos de desenvolvimento. Os projetos de desenvolvimento de vacinas contra a tripanossomíase americana ainda não chegaram à fase clínica de avaliação. Já para a esquistossomose há candidatos à vacina em fase avançada de avaliação clínica. Para as leishmanioses já existem vacinas veterinárias licenciadas e produtos candidatos à vacina humana em etapa intermediária de avaliação clínica. O reduzido financiamento para esses projetos tem contribuído para retardar o desenvolvimento dos produtos.

Las enfermedades tropicales desatendidas constituyen un grupo heterogéneo de enfermedades, que presentan como característica común el hecho de que afectan a poblaciones pobres y desasistidas, con poca capacidad de interlocución y poder político. En consecuencia, reciben poca atención de la industria farmacéutica, así como de la academia. Este estudio tuvo como propósito resumir el estado de la cuestión, respecto al desarrollo de vacunas para tres enfermedades tropicales desatendidas relevantes en Brasil como son: la enfermedad de Chagas, la esquistosomiasis y leishmaniosis. Para ello, se realizó una revisión narrativa de la literatura científica, en la que se incluyeron publicaciones que permitieron trazar un panorama actual del desarrollo de vacunas para las tres enfermedades. Estas vacunas están en estadios distintos de desarrollo. Los proyectos de desarrollo de vacunas contra la tripanosomiasis americana todavía no llegaron a la fase clínica de evaluación. Ya en el caso de la esquistosomiasis hay candidatos a la vacuna en fase avanzada de evaluación clínica. Para las leishmaniosis ya existen vacunas veterinarias licenciadas y productos candidatos a la vacuna humana en etapa intermedia de evaluación clínica. La reducida financiación para esos proyectos ha contribuido al retraso en el desarrollo de los productos.

Neglected tropical diseases constitute a heterogeneous group of diseases that have as a common characteristic to affect poor and unassisted populations with little vocalization capacity and political power. As a result, they receive little attention from the pharmaceutical industry and academia. The present study aimed to summarize the state of the art regarding vaccine development for three relevant neglected tropical diseases in Brazil: Chagas disease, schistosomiasis (Schistosoma mansoni), and leishmaniasis. To this end, we conducted a narrative review of the scientific literature, including publications that allowed us to outline a current overview on the vaccine development for the three diseases. Vaccines against the three diseases are in different stages of development. Vaccine development projects against American trypanosomiasis have yet to reach the clinical evaluation phase. For schistosomiasis, we have candidates for the vaccine in the advanced phase of clinical evaluation. For leishmaniasis, there are already licensed veterinary vaccines, and product candidates for human vaccine in the intermediate stage of clinical evaluation. The reduced funding for these projects has contributed to slow product development.

Humans , Animals , Schistosomiasis/prevention & control , Vaccines , Schistosoma mansoni , Brazil , Neglected Diseases/prevention & control
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190498, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135282


BACKGROUND Biomphalaria glabrata snails are widely distributed in schistosomiasis endemic areas like America and Caribe, displaying high susceptibility to infection by Schistosoma mansoni. After the availability of B. glabrata genome and transcriptome data, studies focusing on genetic markers and small non-coding RNAs have become more relevant. The small RNAs have been considered important through their ability to finely regulate the gene expression in several organisms, thus controlling the functions like cell growth, metabolism, and susceptibility/resistance to infection. OBJECTIVE The present study aims on identification and characterisation of the repertoire of small non-coding RNAs in B. glabrata (Bgl-small RNAs). METHODS By using small RNA sequencing, bioinformatics tools and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), we identified, characterised, and validated the presence of small RNAs in B. glabrata. FINDINGS 89 mature miRNAs were identified and five of them were classified as Mollusk-specific. When compared to model organisms, sequences of B. glabrata miRNAs showed a high degree of conservation. In addition, several target genes were predicted for all the mature miRNAs identified. Furthermore, piRNAs were identified in the genome of B. glabrata for the first time. The B. glabrata piRNAs showed strong conservation of uridine as first nucleotide at 5' end, besides adenine at 10th position. Our results showed that B. glabrata has diverse repertoire of circulating ncRNAs, several which might be involved in mollusk susceptibility to infection, due to their potential roles in the regulation of S. mansoni development. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Further studies are necessary in order to confirm the role of the Bgl-small RNAs in the parasite/host relationship thus opening new perspectives on interference of small RNAs in the organism development and susceptibility to infection.

Animals , Schistosoma mansoni/physiology , Biomphalaria/genetics , Biomphalaria/parasitology , Schistosomiasis mansoni/physiopathology , Schistosomiasis mansoni/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Small Interfering , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Host-Parasite Interactions
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(5): 508-518, 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283650


The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of the essential oil (EO) from Ocotea pulchella leaves as an alternative in the control of schistosomiasis. It was tested O. pulchella EO nanoformulation to assess its activity against adult Biomphalaria glabrata, their spawning and Schistossoma mansoni cercariae. Additionally, the EO chemical composition was investigated by gas-chromatography. Nanoemulsion were elaborated by the low energy method. The adult mollusks, their spawning and cercariae were placed in contact with nanoemulsion to calculate lethal concentrations. Myristicin, bicyclogermacrene and α-Pinene were the main substances in the EO. Nanoemulsion caused mortality of adult B. glabrata, its egg embryos and S. mansoni. These results suggest the use of this nanoemulsion as an alternative in the control of the schistosomiasis cycle.

El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el potencial de los aceites esenciales (AE) de las hojas de Ocotea pulchellacomo una alternativa en el control de esquistosomiasis. Se probó una nanoformulación de AE de O. pulchellapara evaluar su actividad ante adultos de Biomphalaria glabrata, sus huevos y cercarías de Schistossoma mansoni. La nanoemulsión fue elaborada por el método de baja energía. Los moluscos adultos, sus huevos y cercarías se colocaron en contacto con la nanoemulsión para calcular concentraciones letales. Los compuestos mayoritarios en el AE fueron miristicina, biciclogermacreno y α-pineno. La nanoemulsión causó mortalidad en adultos de B. glabrata, sus huevos y a S. mansoni. Los resultados sugieren el uso de esta nanoemulsión como una alternativa en el control del ciclo de esquistosomiasis.

Animals , Schistosomiasis/prevention & control , Oils, Volatile/administration & dosage , Ocotea/chemistry , Emulsions/administration & dosage , Mollusca/drug effects , Schistosoma mansoni/drug effects , Biomphalaria/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Pest Control, Biological , Chromatography, Gas , Sesquiterpenes, Germacrane/analysis , Dioxolanes/analysis , Emulsions/pharmacology , Cercaria/drug effects , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Allylbenzene Derivatives/analysis , Bicyclic Monoterpenes/analysis
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057209


ABSTRACT Objective: To report a schistosomal myeloradiculopathy case in a non-endemic area. Case description: A previously healthy 11-year-old boy, stricken by an acute loss of strength on his lower limbs, followed by a loss of strength on his upper limbs and upper body, associated with altered sensitivity of the vesical globe formation. The patient's cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed eosinophilic meningitis, in addition to peripheral eosinophilia. The investigation resulted in a positive serology for Schistosoma mansoni. The treatment included steroids and praziquantel 60mg/kg, with a new dose after a month, as well as physical therapy for rehabilitation. The patient evolved with clinical improvement in the neurological exam, with a medullary section initially at C6, but now at T6. The patient is kept at prednisolone use (30mg/day) and longterm urinary catheter dependence. Comments: The schistosomiasis is endemic in many regions of Brazil; however, it has low incidence in the south of the country. Among its main manifestations, the schistosomal myeloradiculopathy is the most severe ectopic form of the disease, and should be suspected in patients with low back pain, strength and/or sensibility disorder of the lower limbs or urinary tract's disturbance. Early diagnosis and treatment should be done in order to reduce severe neurological sequelae. Treatment includes schistosomiasis drugs, corticosteroids and/or surgery.

RESUMO Objetivo: Relatar um caso de mielorradiculopatia esquistossomótica em área não endêmica. Descrição do caso: Paciente do sexo masculino, 11 anos, previamente hígido, com história aguda de paresia de membros inferiores, que evoluiu para membros superiores e tronco, associada à alteração de sensibilidade e formação de globo vesical. O exame do líquor demonstrava meningite eosinofílica, além de eosinofilia periférica. A investigação resultou em sorologia positiva para Schistosoma mansoni. O tratamento foi realizado com corticoterapia e praziquantel 60 mg/kg, com nova dose após um mês, além de fisioterapia para reabilitação. Evoluiu com melhora clínica no exame neurológico, com nível de secção medular que inicialmente correspondia a C6, encontrando-se atualmente em T6. Mantém uso de prednisolona 30 mg/dia e dependência de sonda vesical de demora. Comentários: A esquistossomose é uma doença endêmica em muitas regiões do Brasil, porém com pouca incidência no Sul do país. Dentre as principais manifestações, a mielorradiculopatia esquistossomótica é a forma ectópica mais grave e deve ser suspeitada na vigência de dor lombar, alteração de força e/ ou sensibilidade de membros inferiores e distúrbio urinário. O diagnóstico e o tratamento devem ser instituídos precocemente para diminuir o risco de sequelas neurológicas graves. O tratamento pode ser realizado com esquistossomicidas, corticosteroides e/ ou cirurgia.

Schistosoma mansoni/isolation & purification , Neuroschistosomiasis/diagnosis , Neuroschistosomiasis/parasitology , Praziquantel/administration & dosage , Praziquantel/therapeutic use , Schistosoma mansoni/immunology , Steroids/administration & dosage , Steroids/therapeutic use , Brazil/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome , Neuroschistosomiasis/drug therapy , Neuroschistosomiasis/rehabilitation , Drug Therapy, Combination , Eosinophilia/cerebrospinal fluid , Meningitis/immunology , Anthelmintics/administration & dosage , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use
Rev. patol. trop ; 49(3): 177-190, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151954


In Latin America 96% of the cases of schistosomiasis occur in Brazil in low-socioeconomic status populations. The epidemiological characteristics and occurrence predictors of Schistosoma mansoni infection were determined in the Bananeiras community, located in Capistrano, a town in Ceará state, Brazil. Sanitary, environmental, socioeconomic, and behavioral data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. An investigation to assess S. mansoni infection was conducted using the Kato-Katz and Point-of-Care Circulating Cathodic Antigen (POC-CCA) methods. From the 258 subjects were analyzed, 54.3% (n=140) were women, median age 30 years. Thirty-three (12.8%) individuals were positive by either egg- and/or CCA-positivity. The highest positivity rate was found in the 30-39 year old group. There was no piped water supply, sewage network or municipal refuse collection service. Most individuals were illiterate or had not finished elementary school (66.3%). About 29.1% of the families had a monthly income below one Brazilian minimum wage and 91.1% reported contact with natural water sources. We found an association between infection and age group of 20-40 years, illiteracy, household with 7 inhabitants or more, household with up to 3 rooms and an outhouse. Contrarily, being 40 years old or older and household with up to 6 inhabitants were not risk factors. Schistosomiasis remains a public health problem in this municipality, evidencing a strong association with low socioeconomic conditions and high vulnerability. These findings reinforce the importance of identifying the factors associated with the infection for more effective guidance in actions in control programs targeting schistosomiasis prevention and control.

Humans , Poverty , Schistosoma mansoni , Schistosomiasis , Epidemiology , Infections , Antigens
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 769-772, Oct.-Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057975


Abstract Schistosomiasis is a neglected disease that affects millions of people around the world, being common in the state of Maranhão. A total of 225 rodents of the Holochilus sciureus species from the Western Lowland Maranhão were studied, of which 144 animals (64%) exhibited Schistosoma eggs in their feces samples. Macroscopic lesions characterized as well-defined whitish areas on the liver and spleen surfaces were observed. Histopathological examination revealed multifocal granulomas in the esophagus, liver, spleen, pancreas and duodenum, with structures compatible with Schistosoma mansoni eggs, as well as severe hepatic micro-vacuolar degeneration, multifocal and coalescent, with proliferation of random bile ducts and associated epithelial hyperplasia to areas of fibrosis. Adult forms of the parasite were observed in the blood vessels of the portal space. The lungs exhibited moderate and diffuse interstitial pneumonia with intralesional S. mansoni eggs. In the kidneys, hyaline cylinders were observed in the pelvis and diffuse hemorrhage. In conclusion, H. sciureus displays a pathological picture similar to human being. This rodent plays a role as sentinel in Baixada Maranhense.

Resumo A esquistossomose é uma doença negligenciada que afeta milhões de pessoas em todo o mundo, sendo comum no estado do Maranhão. Um total de 225 roedores da espécie Holochilus sciureus da Planície Ocidental do Maranhão foram estudados, dos quais 144 animais (64%) apresentaram ovos de Schistosoma em suas fezes. Lesões macroscópicas caracterizadas como áreas esbranquiçadas bem definidas nas superfícies do fígado e baço foram observadas. O exame histopatológico revelou granulomas multifocais no esôfago, fígado, baço, pâncreas e duodeno, com estruturas compatíveis com ovos de Schistosoma mansoni, degeneração micro-vacuolar hepática grave, multifocal e coalescente, com proliferação de ductos biliares aleatórios e hiperplasia epitelial associada a áreas de fibrose. Formas adultas do parasito foram observadas nos vasos sanguíneos do espaço portal. Os pulmões exibiram pneumonia intersticial moderada e difusa com ovos de S. mansoni intralesionais. Nos rins, foram observados cilindros hialinos na pelve e hemorragia difusa. Em conclusão, H. sciureus apresenta um quadro patológico semelhante ao ser humano. Este roedor desempenha um papel de sentinela na Baixada Maranhense.

Animals , Schistosoma mansoni/isolation & purification , Schistosomiasis mansoni/veterinary , Sigmodontinae/parasitology , Parasite Egg Count , Schistosomiasis mansoni/parasitology , Schistosomiasis mansoni/pathology , Feces/parasitology