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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257969, 2024. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364513

ABSTRACT

In this study, we evaluated variation in vegetative and reproductive phenological events of four phylogenetically related plant species subjected to a seasonal environment. To this aim, we sampled 15 individuals of each plant species every fortnight for one year, between January and December of 2017. To assess when a given phenophase occurred more intensely in the population, the Fournier intensity index was used and the synchrony of individuals of the sample in a given phenological event was estimated using the activity index. The Rayleigh (Z) test was used to determine whether the phenological events have seasonal distribution. The relationship of abiotic factors (photoperiod, precipitation, relative humidity and temperature) with the intensity of phenophases was evaluated for each plant species using generalized linear models (GLMs). The phenophases of all plants showed a seasonal distribution pattern, as well as variation in synchrony of phenophases and specific sets of abiotic factors significantly influenced their phenophases. New leaves, for example, were produced throughout the seasons, with intense leaf fall in the dry season. Flowering periods, on the other hand, did not overlap. Indeed, species exhibited sequential flowering and asynchronous flowering among individuals. Our results suggest that the phenological patterns of four sympatric plant species are directly linked to climatic variables, but different abiotic factors affected different phenophases.


Neste estudo, avaliamos a variação nos eventos fenológicos vegetativos e reprodutivos de quatro espécies de plantas filogeneticamente relacionadas submetidas a um ambiente sazonal. Para isso, amostramos 15 indivíduos de cada espécie quinzenalmente, pelo período de um ano, entre janeiro e dezembro de 2017. Para avaliar quando uma determinada fenofase ocorreu de modo mais intenso na população foi utilizado o índice de intensidade de Fournier e a sincronia dos indivíduos da amostra em determinado evento fenológico foi estimada utilizando-se o índice de atividade. O teste de Rayleigh (Z) foi usado para determinar se os eventos fenológicos têm distribuição sazonal. A relação dos fatores abióticos (fotoperíodo, precipitação, temperatura e umidade relativa) com a intensidade das fenofases foi avaliada para cada espécie de planta usando modelos lineares generalizados (GLMs). As fenofases de todas as plantas apresentaram um padrão de distribuição sazonal, bem como variação na sincronia das fenofases e conjuntos específicos de fatores abióticos influenciaram significativamente suas fenofases. Folhas novas, por exemplo, foram produzidas ao longo das estações, com intensa queda de folhas na estação seca. Os períodos de floração, por outro lado, não se sobrepuseram. De fato, as espécies exibiram floração sequencial e floração assíncrona entre os indivíduos. Nossos resultados sugerem que os padrões fenológicos das quatro espécies de plantas simpátricas estão diretamente ligados às variáveis climáticas, mas diferentes fatores abióticos afetaram diferentes fenofases.


Subject(s)
Plants , Seasons , Growth and Development , Environment , Sympatry/physiology
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254174, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360213

ABSTRACT

Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis is a vine species native to Brazil that is considered an unconventional food plant and a medicinal species whose phenolic compounds exert antioxidant activity. Since the production of metabolites is determined by environmental factors and leaf maturity, it is important to track these changes in order to determine the best time to harvest. This study aimed to verify whether leaf phenology and seasonality cause variations in the amount of phenolic compounds and in the antioxidant activity of this species. The leaves were collected in different seasons between September 2018 and April 2019, and separated according to maturity: young, mature, and senescent. Daily atmospheric temperature and rainfall data were used to characterize the collection period. The total phenolic content (TPC), determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method, was significantly higher in the young leaves collected in winter, a season of lower temperatures. These leaves showed 54.4 mg of gallic acid equivalents per 100 g of dry matter (mg GAE 100 g-1DM). Other results averaged 25.6 mg GAE 100 g-1DM. The highest antioxidant activity, assessed via the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method, regardless of leaf phenology, was observed in leaves harvested in autumn (73.7%) and winter (71.1%), seasons with lower rainfall. Leaves harvested in summer and spring had lower antioxidant action rates (54.3 e 37.5%, respectively). There was no significant correlation between the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Thus, the phenolic composition of A. cordifolia, and consequently its activity on free radicals, varies seasonally in response to temperature and rainfall, and may or may not interact with the age of the leaves.


Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis é uma trepadeira nativa do Brasil considerada uma planta alimentícia não convencional e uma espécie medicinal, cujos compostos fenólicos exercem ação antioxidante. Como a produção de metabólitos é determinada por fatores ambientais e pela maturidade das folhas, é importante acompanhar essas mudanças a fim de determinar a época de colheita. Neste estudo objetivou-se verificar se a fenologia foliar e a sazonalidade ocasionam variação na quantidade de compostos fenólicos e na ação antioxidante dessa espécie. As folhas foram coletadas em diferentes estações, entre setembro de 2018 e abril de 2019, e separadas conforme a maturidade: jovens, maduras e senescentes. Os dados diários de temperatura atmosférica e pluviosidade foram usados para caracterizar o período de coleta. O conteúdo de fenólicos totais (TPC), determinado pelo método Folin-Ciocalteu, foi significativamente maior nas folhas jovens coletadas no inverno, período caracterizado por temperaturas mais baixas. Estas folhas apresentaram 54,4 mg equivalentes de ácido gálico por 100 g de matéria seca (mg GAE 100 g-1DM) . A média dos outros resultados foi de 25,6 mg GAE 100 g-1DM. A maior ação antioxidante, avaliada pelo método do radical livre 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil (DPPH), foi observada em folhas colhidas no outono (73,7%) e inverno (71,1%), independentemente da fenologia foliar. Nestes períodos a pluviosidade foi menor. Folhas colhidas no verão e na primavera apresentaram menores percentuais de ação antioxidante (54,3 e 37,5%, respectivamente). Não houve correlação significativa entre o conteúdo de fenólicos totais e a atividade antioxidante. Conclui-se que a composição fenólica de A. cordifolia e, consequentemente, sua ação sobre radicais livres, varia sazonalmente em resposta à temperatura e pluviosidade, podendo ou não interagir com a idade das folhas.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/growth & development , Seasons , Phenolic Compounds , Antioxidants
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251438, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345560

ABSTRACT

Abstract The northwestern portion of the Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest ecoregion is one of the most disturbed and fragmented areas in the Atlantic Forest, and little is known about the local avifauna. In this study, we have described the composition and diversity of the aquatic avifauna of this region and analyzed the patterns of similarity with respect to the seasonal as well as spatial distribution. We used the line transect sampling technique in six distinct humid areas (including lentic and lotic water bodies) during the dry and rainy seasons of 2012 and 2013. A total of 52 species of waterfowl were recorded. The species richness of the studied areas was surprisingly distinct; only seven waterfowl species, namely Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758), Tigrisoma lineatum (Boddaert, 1783), Rosthramus sociabilis (Vieillot, 1817), Aramus guarauna (Linnaeus, 1766), Vanellus chilensis (Molina, 1782), Jacana jacana (Linnaeus, 1766), and Arundinicola leucocephala (Linnaeus, 1764), were common to these six studied areas. This indicated that the other bird species that were observed might be habitat selective. Moreover, the analysis of the composition of birds in the two seasons (dry and rainy) combined with their spatial distributions showed significant dissimilarities between the areas with lotic (river and constructed wetland) and lentic (lagoons) characteristics. Nevertheless, despite the small extent and low total richness of the entire study area, it was found to be home to 1/3 of all freshwater aquatic birds documented in the state of São Paulo, with the record of 5 migratory species and 11 new species added to the northwest of the state. The heterogeneity of local aquatic environments, habitat selection combined with seasonality, and the absence of other humid locations in the surroundings can explain the diversity and distribution of these birds in the water bodies of this uninvestigated Atlantic Forest ecoregion.


Resumo A porção noroeste da ecorregião Floresta Atlântica do Alto Paraná é uma das mais alteradas e fragmentadas da Mata Atlântica, da qual pouco se sabe sobre a avifauna local. Nosso objetivo foi descrever a diversidade e composição da avifauna aquática, bem como analisar os padrões de similaridade quanto a distribuição temporal e espacial destas aves nesta ecorregião. Utilizamos a transecção linear para amostragem em seis áreas úmidas (corpos d'água lênticos e lóticos), nos períodos de seca e chuva entre 2012 e 2013. Registramos 52 espécies de aves aquáticas e as riquezas das áreas mostraram-se distintas, pois apenas Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758), Tigrisoma lineatum (Boddaert, 1783), Rosthramus sociabilis (Vieillot, 1817), Aramus guarauna (Linnaeus, 1766), Vanellus chilensis (Molina, 1782), Jacana jacana (Linnaeus, 1766), and Arundinicola leucocephala (Linnaeus, 1764) foram comuns às seis áreas, o que indica seleção de habitat. Quando analisada a composição das aves nos dois períodos aliada à distribuição espacial, encontramos dissimilaridades temporais acentuadas entre os ambientes com características lóticas (rio e aterro) e lênticas (lagoas). Isto mostra que, além das diferentes épocas sazonais, é necessário analisar separadamente os diferentes tipos de áreas úmidas. Por fim, apesar da extensão pequena e baixa riqueza total, a área amostrada abrigou 1/3 das aves aquáticas de água doce para o estado de São Paulo, cinco espécies migratórias e 11 novas espécies para o noroeste do estado. A heterogeneidade de ambientes aquáticos locais, forte seleção de habitat aliada à sazonalidade e ausência de outros locais úmidos em seu entorno, explicam a diversidade e distribuição destas aves estreitamente relacionadas aos corpos d'água desta desconhecida ecorregião da Mata Atlântica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Birds , Biodiversity , Seasons , Brazil , Forests , Ecosystem
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257402, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355856

ABSTRACT

Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an infectious disease predominant in countries located in the tropics. The prediction of occurrence of infectious diseases through epidemiologic modeling has revealed to be an important tool in the understanding of its occurrence dynamic. The objective of this study was to develop a forecasting model for the incidence of VL in Maranhão using the Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average model (SARIMA). We collected monthly data regarding VL cases from the National Disease Notification System (SINAN) corresponding to the period between 2001 and 2018. The Box-Jenkins method was applied in order to adjust a SARIMA prediction model for VL general incidence and by sex (male or female) for the period between January 2019 and December 2013. For 216 months of this time series, 10,431 cases of VL were notified in Maranhão, with an average of 579 cases per year. With regard to age range, there was a higher incidence among the pediatric public (0 to 14 years of age). There was a predominance in male cases, 6437 (61.71%). The Box-Pierce test figures for overall, male and female genders supported by the results of the Ljung-Box test suggest that the autocorrelations of residual values act as white noise. Regarding monthly occurrences in general and by gender, the SARIMA models (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) and (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) were the ones that mostly adjusted to the data respectively. The model SARIMA has proven to be an adequate tool for predicting and analyzing the trends in VL incidence in Maranhão. The time variation determination and its prediction are decisive in providing guidance in health measure intervention.


Resumo A leishmaniose visceral (LV) é uma doença de natureza infecciosa, predominante em países de zonas tropicais. A predição de ocorrência de doenças infecciosas através da modelagem epidemiológica tem se revelado uma importante ferramenta no entendimento de sua dinâmica de ocorrência. O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um modelo de previsão da incidência da LV no Maranhão usando o modelo de Média Móvel Integrada Autocorrelacionada Sazonal (SARIMA). Foram coletados os dados mensais de casos de LV através do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN) correspondentes ao período de 2001 a 2018. O método de Box-Jenkins foi aplicado para ajustar um modelo de predição SARIMA para incidência geral e por sexo (masculino e feminino) de LV para o período de janeiro de 2019 a dezembro de 2023. Durante o período de 216 meses dessa série temporal, foram registrados 10.431 casos de LV no Maranhão, com uma média de 579 casos por ano. Em relação à faixa etária, houve maior registro no público pediátrico (0 a 14 anos). Houve predominância do sexo masculino, com 6437 casos (61,71%). Os valores do teste de Box-Pierce para incidência geral, sexo masculino e feminino reforçados pelos resultados do teste Ljung-Box sugerem que as autocorrelações de resíduos apresentam um comportamento de ruído branco. Para incidência mensal geral e por sexo masculino e feminino, os modelos SARIMA (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) e (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) foram os que mais se ajustaram aos dados, respectivamente. O modelo SARIMA se mostrou uma ferramenta adequada de previsão e análise da tendência de incidência da LV no Maranhão. A determinação da variação temporal e sua predição são determinantes no norteamento de medidas de intervenção em saúde.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Seasons , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Models, Statistical
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254095, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355860

ABSTRACT

Abstract In northern central Chile, ephemeral pools constitute shallow isolated water bodies with a favourable habitat for fauna adapted to seasonal changes. Based on the limited knowledge about the fauna—particularly insects—associated to these ecosystems, the objective of this study was to characterize the richness, composition, structure and similarity of the insect communities associated with ephemeral pools in Huentelauquén (29º S, Coquimbo Region, Chile). By using pitfall traps, 10,762 individuals were captured, represented by 7 orders, 27 families, and 51 species. Coleoptera and Hymenoptera were the best represented orders, with Neuroptera, Orthoptera and Plecoptera being poorly represented groups. The non-parametric estimators evaluated showed wealth values above those observed for all the studied pools, and their accumulation curves suggest the existence of an incomplete species inventory in the studied community. Additionally, the hierarchical and ordering analysis showed groupings of pools located in the northwest and southeast of Huentelauquén. Preliminarily we found a negative correlation between the area of the pools and the richness (species) and abundance of insects. Additional studies (on other arthropod groups and other seasons of the year) could provide a better understanding of the local processes of extinction and colonization of the species inhabiting these fragile coastal environments.


Resumo No norte central do Chile, lagoas efêmeras constituem corpos de água isolados e pouco profundos, com um habitat favorável para a fauna adaptada as mudanças sazonais que as zonas úmidas estão sujeitas. Com relação a estes ecossistemas, sabe-se pouco sobre sua fauna, principalmente a de insetos. O objetivo do presente estudo foi caracterizar a riqueza, composição, estrutura e similaridade das comunidades de insetos que habitam as lagoas temporárias de Huentelauquén (29º S, Região de Coquimbo, Chile). Usando armadilhas de interceptação, se capturou um total de 10.762 indivíduos, pertencentes a 7 ordens, 27 famílias e 51 espécies. Coleoptera e Hymenoptera foram as ordens mais representativas, enquanto Neuroptera, Orthoptera e Plecoptera foram grupos pouco representativos. Os estimadores não paramétricos avaliados mostraram valores de riqueza superiores ao observados para todas as lagoas estudadas, e suas curvas de acumulação parecem indicar que o inventario da comunidade estudada está incompleto. A análise hierárquica e de ordenamento revelou agrupamentos de lagoas correspondentes a zona nordeste e sudeste de Huentelauquén. Preliminarmente encontramos uma correlação negativa entre a área de lagoas efêmeras e a riqueza (espécies) e abundância de insetos. É necessário realizar estudos adicionais (sobre outros grupos de artrópodes e em outras estações do ano) para melhor compreensão dos processos locais de extinção e colonização das espécies que habitam estes frágeis ambientes costeiros estudados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Coleoptera , Ecosystem , Seasons , Chile , Biodiversity , Insecta
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250280, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355867

ABSTRACT

Abstract Endozoochory by waterbirds is particularly relevant to the dispersal of non-flying aquatic invertebrates. This ecological function exercised by birds has been demonstrated in different biogeographical regions, but there are no studies for the neotropical region. In this work, we identified propagules of invertebrates in faeces of 14 syntopic South American waterbird species representing six families, and hatched additional invertebrates from cultured faeces. We tested whether propagule abundance, species richness and composition varied among bird species, and between the cold and warm seasons. We found 164 invertebrate propagules in faecal samples from seven different waterbirds species, including eggs of the Temnocephalida and Notonectidae, statoblasts of bryozoans (Plumatella sp.) and ephippia of Cladocera. Ciliates (including Paramecium sp. and Litostomatea), nematodes and rotifers (Adineta sp. and Nottomatidae) hatched from cultured samples. Potential for endozoochory was confirmed for 12 of 14 waterbird species. Our statistical models suggest that richness and abundance of propagules are associated with bird species and not affected by seasonality. Dispersal by endozoochory is potentially important to a broad variety of invertebrates, being promoted by waterbirds with different ecological and morphological traits, which are likely to drive the dispersal of invertebrates in neotropical wetlands.


Resumo A endozoocoria promovida por aves aquáticas é particularmente relevante para a dispersão de invertebrados aquáticos não-voadores. Essa função ecológica exercida pelas aves tem sido demonstrada para diferentes regiões biogeográficas, porém, não existem estudos para a região neotropical. Neste trabalho nós identificamos propágulos de invertebrados encontrados em fezes de 14 espécies sintópicas de aves aquáticas da América do Sul, representando seis famílias de aves, e também invertebrados emergidos de amostras fecais cultivadas em laboratório. Testamos se a abundância, riqueza de espécies e composição de propágulos de invertebrados variavam entre as espécies de aves e entre estações. Nós encontramos 164 propágulos de invertebrados em amostras fecais de sete espécies de aves, incluindo ovos de Temnocephalida e Notonectidae, estatoblastos de briozoários (Plumatella sp.) e efípios de Cladocera. Ciliados (incluindo Paramecium sp. e Litostomatea), nematóides e rotíferos (Adineta sp. e Nottomatidae) eclodiram de amostras cultivadas. O potencial para endozoocoria foi confirmado para 12 das 14 espécies de aves aquáticas investigadas. Nossos modelos estatísticos sugerem que a riqueza e abundância de propágulos estão associadas às espécies de aves e não são afetadas pela sazonalidade. A dispersão por endozoocoria é importante para uma ampla variedade de invertebrados, sendo promovida por aves aquáticas com diferentes características ecológicas e morfológicas as quais provavelmente regulam a dispersão de invertebrados entre áreas úmidas neotropicais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Wetlands , Invertebrates , Seasons , Birds
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253852, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355905

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim objective of this study was to determine the trophic ecology of juvenile and adult Acestrorhynchus falcirostris during the rising and flood (high-water) period in six island lakes adjacent to the Solimões River. As such, we investigated: i) the trophic position, through the fractional trophic niche; ii) the niche breadth; iii) niche overlap and iv) the food strategy of the species. The specimens were collected during the years 2014 to 2017, using gillnets with mesh sizes ranging from 30 to 120mm between opposite knots. Through the analysis of stomach contents, the preference in the consumption of items of animal origin was observed. Juveniles consumed insects in greater proportions (IAi% = 50%), while adults consumed fish (IAi%=99,98%). Despite the large supply of food items available in the high-water period, juveniles were the only ones to consume items of allochthonous origin, such as insects. Juveniles presented a different dietary strategy and dietary composition to adults. Juveniles were omnivores with a generalist strategy, while adults were piscivores with a specialist strategy. Thus, the food composition, niche breadth, trophic position and feeding strategy of Acestrorhynchus falcirostris change due to the stage of development.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a ecologia trófica de juvenis e adultos de Acestrorhynchus falcirostris durante o período de enchente e cheia em seis lagos de ilha adjacentes ao rio Solimões. Assim, investigamos: i) a posição trófica, através do nicho trófico fracional; ii) a largura de nicho; iii) sobreposição de nicho; iv) a estratégia alimentar. Os espécimes foram coletados durante os anos de 2014 a 2017, utilizando redes de emalhar com malha variando de 30 a 120mm entre nós opostos. Por meio da análise do conteúdo estomacal, observamos a preferência no consumo de itens de origem animal. Os juvenis consumiram insetos em maiores proporções (IAi% = 50%), enquanto os adultos consumiram preferencialmente peixes (IAi% = 99,98%). Apesar da grande oferta de alimentos disponíveis no período da cheia, os juvenis eram os únicos a consumir itens de origem alóctone, como por exemplo, os insetos. Os juvenis apresentaram uma estratégia alimentar e composição alimentar diferente para os adultos. Os juvenis foram considerados onívoros com uma estratégia generalista, enquanto os adultos foram considerados piscívoros com uma estratégia alimentar mais especialista. Assim, a composição alimentar, amplitude do nicho, posição trófica e a estratégia alimentar de Acestrorhynchus falcirostris muda em função do estágio de desenvolvimento.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rivers , Characiformes , Seasons , Lakes , Ecosystem , Food Chain , Fishes , Gastrointestinal Contents
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247374, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285623

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study was conducted to evaluate the diversity, distribution (C) and relative abundance (RA) of the mosquito fauna (Diptera: Culicidae) of Malakand and Dir Lower, Pakistan. Collection of specimens (n = 1087) was made during September 2018 to July 2019 at six different habitats including freshwater bodies, rice fields, animal sheds, indoors, drains and sewage waters. Specimens were collected through light traps, pyrethrum spray, aspirators and nets and subsequently killed, preserved and then arranged in entomological boxes for identification. Three genera were identified namely Culex, Anopheles and Aedes. A total of fourteen species were identified namely: Cx. quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823), An. stephensi (Liston, 1901), Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (Giles, 1901), Ae. vittatus (Bigot, 1861), An. maculatus (Theobald, 1901), An. fluviatilis (James, 1902), Cx. vishnui (Theobald, 1901), Ae. aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) An. subpictus (Grassi, 1899), An. dthali (Patton, 1905), An. culicifascies (Giles, 1901), An. pallidus (Theobald, 1901), Ae. albopictus (Skuse, 1894) and An. annularis (van der Wulp, 1884). Cx. quinquefasciatus was found constantly distributed in the study area with RA = 16.5% and C = 100%. An. annularis was found as a satellite species, sporadically distributed in the study area having RA = 0.9% and C = 17%. Diversity indices of mosquitoes in the studied habitats were found as, Shannon-Wiener Index (2.415), Simpson Index (9.919), Fisher's Index (2.269) and Margalef's Index (1.859). A statistically significant difference was recorded in mosquito diversity in the six habitats (Kruskal-Wallis, chi-squared, H = 17.5, df = 5, P = 0.003 at α = 0.05). The present study encompasses mosquito fauna of Malakand, Pakistan with respect to diversity, relative abundance and distribution in diverse habitats and all seasons of the year. This will assist scientists working in various fields related with epidemiology, medical and veterinary entomology, ecology and allied areas of biological sciences.


Resumo O presente estudo foi conduzido para avaliar a diversidade, distribuição (C) e abundância relativa (RA) da fauna de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) de Malakand e Dir Lower, Paquistão. A coleta de espécimes (n = 1087) foi feita durante o período de setembro de 2018 a julho de 2019 em seis habitats diferentes, incluindo corpos d'água, campos de arroz, galpões de animais, ambientes internos, ralos e águas residuais. Os espécimes foram coletados por meio de armadilhas luminosas, spray de piretro, aspiradores e redes e posteriormente mortos, preservados e depois dispostos em caixas entomológicas para identificação. Três gêneros foram identificados, nomeadamente Culex, Anopheles e Aedes. Um total de 14 espécies foi identificado, a saber: Cx. quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823), An. stephensi (Liston, 1901), Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (Giles, 1901), Ae. vittatus (Bigot, 1861), An. maculatus (Theobald, 1901), An. fluviatilis (James, 1902), Cx. vishnui (Theobald, 1901), Ae. aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762), An. subpictus (Grassi, 1899), An. dthali (Patton, 1905), An. culicifascies (Giles, 1901), An. pallidus (Theobald, 1901), Ae. albopictus (Skuse, 1894) e An. annularis (Van der Wulp, 1884). Cx. quinquefasciatus foi encontrado constantemente distribuído na área de estudo com AR = 16,5% e C = 100%. A. annularis foi encontrada como espécie satélite, distribuída esporadicamente na área de estudo com RA = 0,9% e C = 17%. Os índices de diversidade de mosquitos nos habitats estudados foram encontrados como índice de Shannon-Wiener (2,415), índice de Simpson (9,919), índice de Fisher (2,269) e índice de Margalef (1,859). Uma diferença estatisticamente significativa foi registrada na diversidade de mosquitos nos seis habitats (Kruskal-Wallis, qui-quadrado, H = 17,5, df = 5, P = 0,003 em α = 0,05). O presente estudo abrange a fauna de mosquitos de Malakand, Paquistão, com respeito à diversidade, abundância relativa e distribuição em diversos habitats e em todas as estações do ano. Isso ajudará os cientistas que trabalham em vários campos relacionados com a epidemiologia, entomologia médica e veterinária, ecologia e áreas afins das ciências biológicas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Culicidae , Pakistan , Seasons , Ecosystem , Ecology
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e239642, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278543

ABSTRACT

Abstract The knowledge of ant assemblages that occurs in Conservation Units in the Atlantic Forest domain is a priority, considering the number of endemic species and the impacts that this biome has been suffering. The aim of this study was to evaluate ant assemblages in the Turvo State Park, which is the largest conservation unit in the State of Rio Grande do Sul and presents an important role on biodiversity protection. Two samplings were conducted in 2019, one in the summer (January) and the other in the spring (November and December), at five sites 2 km apart, with pitfall traps (soil and canopy), sardine baits, glucose, beating net, sweeping net and manual collection. We sampled 121 species in the summer and 120 in the spring, totaling 163 ant species. A total of 78 species (47.8%) occurred in both sampling seasons. The richest genera in the study were Camponotus (S = 30), Pheidole (S = 23) and Linepithema (S = 11). Seventeen species were recorded for the first time for Rio Grande do Sul state. The results indicate that this is one of the most species-rich assemblages of ants ever surveyed in a conservation unit in southern Brazil. The study highlights the importance of Conservation Units as protected environments against habitat loss for ant biodiversity. The results of this study contribute to myrmecofauna knowledge and serve as a basis for environmental impact studies, management plans and conservation of Atlantic Forest remnants.


Resumo O conhecimento das assembleias de formigas que ocorrem em Unidades de Conservação no domínio Mata Atlântica é prioritário, considerando-se o número de espécies endêmicas e os impactos que este bioma vem sofrendo. O objetivo desse trabalho foi caracterizar a assembleia de formigas que ocorre no Parque Estadual do Turvo, a maior unidade de conservação do Rio Grande do Sul que se destaca pelo seu papel na proteção da biodiversidade da Mata Atlântica austral. Foram realizadas duas amostragens no ano de 2019, uma no verão (janeiro) e a outra na primavera (novembro e dezembro), em cinco pontos distantes 2 km entre si, com armadilhas pitfall (solo e dossel), iscas de sardinha, iscas de glicose, guarda-chuva entomológico, rede de varredura e coleta manual. A riqueza amostrada no verão foi de 121 e na primavera de 120, totalizando 163 espécies. Ao todo, 78 espécies (47,8%) ocorreram concomitantemente nas duas amostragens. Os gêneros mais ricos foram Camponotus (S=30), Pheidole (S=23) e Linepithema (S=11). Dezessete espécies foram registradas pela primeira vez para o estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os resultados se constituem em uma das mais ricas assembleias de formigas já inventariadas em uma unidade de conservação na região sul do Brasil. O estudo destaca a importância das Unidades de Conservação como ambientes protegidos contra a perda de habitat para a biodiversidade de formigas. Os resultados deste estudo contribuem para o conhecimento da mirmecofauna e servem como base para estudos de impacto ambiental, planos de manejo e conservação de remanescentes da Mata Atlântica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ants , Seasons , Brazil , Ecosystem , Biodiversity
11.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3)set-dez. 2022. 832^c844
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1399478

ABSTRACT

A dengue é uma doença dolorosa e debilitante transmitida por insetos da espécie Aedes aegypti. Ela é definida como uma doença viral que, nos últimos anos, se espalhou vertiginosamente por todas as regiões tropicais e subtropicais do planeta. Este estudo teve como objetivo identificar e discutir o número e a taxa de incidência de casos de dengue no estado do Paraná utilizando-se dos boletins emitidos por semana epidemiológica nos anos de 2016 a 2021, considerando a sazonalidade da doença. Também se objetivou debater a incidência por macrorregional, as possíveis causas de períodos epidêmicos e ações de combate vetorial para redução dos casos da patologia. Foram utilizados como fonte de informações o banco de dados da Dengue/SVS/SESA, por meio de informes técnicos, disponibilizados pelo portal online de Boletins da Dengue Paraná da Secretaria de Estado de Saúde do Paraná. Conclui-se que o ano epidemiológico de 2019/2020 foi o de maior incidência e os anos epidemiológicos 2016/2017 e 2017/2018 apresentaram os menores casos durante todo período analisado. Dessa forma, a vigilância epidemiológica é muito importante para avaliação espacial da distribuição de casos para execução de ações estratégicas para redução da infestação do vetor. As políticas públicas e a disponibilização de inseticidas para aplicação também são essenciais para o combate da Dengue.


Dengue is a painful and debilitating disease transmitted by insects of the Aedes aegypti species. It is defined as a viral disease that, in recent years, has spread vertiginously throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the planet. This study aimed to identify and discuss the number and incidence rate of dengue cases in the state of Paraná using the bulletins issued by epidemiological week in the years 2016 to 2021, considering the seasonality of the disease. The aim was also to discuss the incidence per macro-region, the possible causes of epidemic periods, and vectorial combat actions to reduce the cases of the pathology. The Dengue/SVS/SESA database was used as a source of information, through technical reports, made available by the online portal of Dengue Paraná Bulletins of the Paraná State Health Department. It is concluded that the epidemiological year 2019/2020 was the one with the highest incidence and the epidemiological years 2016/2017 and 2017/2018 had the lowest cases during the entire period analyzed. Thus, epidemiological surveillance is very important for the spatial assessment of the distribution of cases to carry out strategic actions to reduce vector infestation. Public policies and the availability of insecticides for application are also essential to combat Dengue.


El dengue es una enfermedad dolorosa y debilitante transmitida por insectos de la especie Aedes aegypti. Se define como una enfermedad viral que, en los últimos años, se ha extendido vertiginosamente por las regiones tropicales y subtropicales del planeta. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar y discutir el número y la tasa de incidencia de los casos de dengue en el estado de Paraná utilizando los boletines emitidos por la semana epidemiológica en los años 2016 a 2021, considerando la estacionalidad de la enfermedad. También se pretendía discutir la incidencia por macrorregiones, las posibles causas de los periodos epidémicos y las acciones de control de vectores para la reducción de los casos de la enfermedad. Se utilizó como fuente de información la base de datos de Dengue/SVS/SESA, por medio de informes técnicos, puestos a disposición por el portal online de Boletines de Dengue Paraná de la Secretaría de Salud del Estado de Paraná. Se concluye que el año epidemiológico 2019/2020 fue el de mayor incidencia y los años epidemiológicos 2016/2017 y 2017/2018 presentaron los menores casos durante todo el periodo analizado. Por lo tanto, la vigilancia epidemiológica es muy importante para la evaluación espacial de la distribución de los casos para la implementación de acciones estratégicas para reducir la infestación del vector. Las políticas públicas y la disponibilidad de insecticidas para su aplicación también son esenciales para combatir el dengue.


Subject(s)
Incidence , Causality , Aedes/pathogenicity , Dengue/diagnosis , Dengue/transmission , Seasons , Aedes/growth & development , Vector Control of Diseases , Epidemics/prevention & control , Epidemics/statistics & numerical data , Vector Borne Diseases/epidemiology , Mediation Analysis , Health Services Research/statistics & numerical data
12.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 21(3): e3749, mayo.-jun. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1409480

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Actualmente existen aproximadamente 300 millones de personas a nivel mundial con diagnóstico de asma y con una mortalidad de 250 mil cada año. Cuba no está ajena a esta realidad. Objetivo: Describir las características clínicas y epidemiológicas de la exacerbación del asma, y su relación con la edad y la estacionalidad en niños asistidos en el Servicio de Urgencias del Hospital Pediátrico "Juan Manuel Márquez", desde enero a diciembre de 2018. Material y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, prospectivo y transversal en pacientes con exacerbación del asma bronquial atendidos en el Servicio de Urgencias del Hospital Pediátrico "Juan Manuel Márquez", desde enero a diciembre de 2018. Resultados: El mayor porciento se obtuvo en el sexo masculino con 53 por ciento, el grupo de edad de 5 a 9 años 46,3 por ciento. Dentro de los factores de riesgo que predominaron en el estudio fueron las infecciones virales 51,3 por ciento, los cambios de temperatura 58,2 por ciento y la no adherencia al tratamiento 45,5 por ciento . Las crisis de asma fueron frecuentes en los meses de octubre a diciembre 38,3 por ciento, con frecuencia entre 3 a 6 episodios por año 67,7 por ciento. El grado de severidad fue leve 82,0 por ciento. Conclusiones: Las exacerbaciones de asma bronquial son frecuentes en los servicios de urgencias pediátricos(AU)


Introduction: In these times, there are about 300 million people with the diagnosis of bronchial asthma worldwide and there is a mortality of 250 thousand per year. Cuba is not unaware of this reality. Objective: To describe the clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of the exacerbation of bronchial asthma in children assisted in the emergency service of "Juan Manuel Márquez" Pediatric University Hospital from January to December 2018. Material and Methods: A descriptive, prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted on 600 children from 1 to 18 years of age that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. These children were assisted in the emergency service of "Juan Manuel Márquez" Pediatric University Hospital from January to December 2018. Results: The highest percentage of patients were males (53 percent) and from the age group 5 to 9 years (46,3 percent). Among the risk factors that predominated in the study, viral infections (51,3 percent), weather changes (58,2 percent), and non-adherence to treatment (45,5 percent) were observed. The asthma crises were frequent from October to December (38,3 percent), and from 3 to 6 episodes occurred annually (67,7 percent). The degree of severity was mild (82,0 percent). Conclusions: Exacerbations of bronchial asthma are frequent in pediatric emergency services(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Seasons , Universities , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors
13.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(2): 275-281, March-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364959

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives: The purpose of our study was to assess the association between the winter season and desmopressin treatment failure in South Chinese children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (MNE). Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted to analyze the clinical data of children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis who have visited our urology clinic from January to December 2019. All patients received desmopressin treatment. Final treatment outcomes were categorized as successful (complete response) or failed (absent and partial response). The relationship between winter season and treatment response to desmopressin was evaluated. Additionally, associated risk factors were investigated with both univariate and multivariate regression analysis. Results: In total, 393 patients diagnosed with MNE were included in the present study. There were no statistically significant differences in pretreatment variables at first visit between patients who visited the clinic in winter and those who did so in other seasons. However, the treatment failure rate of MNE in the winter season was higher than that of other seasons (77.50% vs. 52.74%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the severity of symptoms and an initial clinic visit in the winter season were significantly related to desmopressin treatment failure in MNE patients. Conclusion: Winter season and severity of symptoms are two risk factors associated with desmopressin treatment failure in MNE patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Enuresis , Nocturnal Enuresis/drug therapy , Seasons , Pilot Projects , Retrospective Studies , Deamino Arginine Vasopressin/therapeutic use
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936230

ABSTRACT

Objective: Transcriptome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis were performed on the gene expression of nasal epithelial cells in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis (AR) and perennial AR, so as to obtain the differences in the gene expression of nasal epithelial cells between seasonal AR and perennial AR. Methods: The human nasal epithelial cell line(HNEpC) was cultured in vitro, treated with 100 μg/ml mugwort or house dust mite (HDM) extracts for 24 hours. Total cell RNA was extracted, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to detect the expression of cytokines, including IL-6, IL-8, IL-33 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP). From November 2019 to November 2020, 3 seasonal AR patients, 3 perennial AR patients, and 3 healthy controls who attended the Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University were analyzed. The patients' primary nasal epithelial cells were cultured in vitro, treated with corresponding allergens for 24 hours. Total RNA was extracted for transcriptome sequencing, and the sequencing results were analyzed by bioinformatics. Results: The qPCR results showed that the cytokines IL-6, IL-8, IL-33 and TSLP of HNEpC treated with mugworts extracts and HDM extracts had the same trend of change. After the nasal epithelial cells from patients with seasonal AR and perennial AR were treated with corresponding allergens, there were differences in biological processes and signal pathways between those and control. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis showed that the differentially expressed genes (DEG) in AR patients allergic to mugwort were mainly enriched in the oxidation-reduction process, the negative regulation of apoptosis process, and the cell adhesion; the DEG in AR patients allergic to HDM were mainly enriched in cell adhesion, the negative regulation of cell proliferation and the response to drug. Enrichment analysis of Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) signaling pathway showed that the DEG of AR patients allergic to mugwort were significantly enriched in arachidonic acid metabolism, p53 signaling pathway and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling pathway, while the DEG of AR patients allergic to HDM were mainly enriched in cells cycle, Fanconi anemia pathway and DNA replication. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) showed that the inflammatory response, TNF-α/NF-κB signaling pathway and IL-2/STAT5 signaling pathway were significantly up-regulated in AR patients allergic to mugwort, indicating the promotion of inflammatory response; and AR patients allergic to HDM had significant down-regulation of G2M, E2F, and MYC, indicating the inhibition of cell proliferation. The protein-protein interaction network showed that TNF and CDK1 were the most interacting proteins in mugwort and HDM allergic AR patients, respectively. Conclusion: Seasonal AR and perennial AR may affect the different biological processes and signal pathways of nasal epithelial cells, leading to differences in the occurrence and development of AR.


Subject(s)
Allergens , Animals , Computational Biology , Cytokines/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Gene Expression , Humans , Interleukin-33/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Interleukin-8 , Nasal Mucosa/metabolism , Plant Extracts/metabolism , Pyroglyphidae , RNA/metabolism , Rhinitis, Allergic/metabolism , Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial , Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal , Seasons
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936139

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the effects of ozone (O3) concentrations measured with different approaches across different seasons on the total number of childhood asthma-related clinical visits, as well as the differentiation of such effects across different groups of patients.@*METHODS@#The outpatient data of three grade A tertiary hospitals in Lanzhou City spanning from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2017, as well as air pollution and meteorological data during the same period were collected. Considering the nonlinear relationship between O3 concentrations and the total number of childhood asthma-related clinical visits and meteorological factors, a generalized additive temporal sequence model was employed to analyze the short-term association between changes in O3 concentrations and the total number of childhood asthma-related clinical visits. Taking into account of the variations in O3 concentrations within 1 day, this study adopted different measurement approaches to address the three types of O3 exposures, namely, the maximum 1 h daily concentration (O3max1h), the maximum 8 h daily concentration (O38h) and the mean 24 h daily concentration (O324h) as the short term exposure indicators to O3, followed by a model-based analysis.@*RESULTS@#The increase in short-term exposure levels to O3 in summer had a significant effect on the increase in the total number of childhood asthma-related clinical visits. With lag0 for the current day, every 10 μg/m3 increase in atmospheric concentration of O3max1h was associated with an increase in the total number of childhood asthma-related clinical visits by 3.351% (95%CI: 1.231%-5.516%); for every 10 μg/m3 increase in O38h concentration, the total number of childhood asthma-related clinical visits increased by 3.320% (95%CI: 0.197%-3.829%); for every 10 μg/m3increase in O324h concentration, the total number of childhood asthma-related clinical visits in summer increased by 6.600% (95%CI: 0.914%-12.607%); moreover, an increase in exposure to O3max1h also led to a significant rise in the total number of childhood asthma-related clinical visits among the males.@*CONCLUSION@#The increase in short-term exposure levels to O3 in summer in Lanzhou City has a significant effect on the increase in the total number of childhood asthma-related clinical visits; O3max1h is more closely correlated with the increase in the total number of childhood asthma-related clinical visits.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Asthma/etiology , China/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Outpatients , Ozone/analysis , Particulate Matter , Seasons , Tertiary Care Centers
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929575

ABSTRACT

Influenza is an infectious respiratory disease caused by the influenza viruses. Older people, infants and people with underlying medical conditions could have a higher risk of severe influenza symptoms and complications. The co-infection of Coronavirus Diseases 2019 (COVID-19) with influenza viruses could lead to the complication of prevention, diagnosis, control, treatment, and recovery of COVID-19. Influenza vaccine and COVID-19 vaccine overlapped in target populations, vaccination time, and inoculation units. Although there was insufficient evidence on the immunogenicity and safety of co-administration of influenza vaccine and COVID-19 vaccine, World Health Organization and some countries recommended co-administration of inactivated influenza vaccine and COVID-19 vaccine. This review summarized domestic and international vaccination policies and research progress, and put forward corresponding suggestions in order to provide scientific support for the formulation of vaccination strategy on seasonal influenza vaccine and COVID-19 vaccine.


Subject(s)
Aged , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , China , Humans , Infant , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Vaccination
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939819

ABSTRACT

Although the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic is still ongoing, vaccination rates are rising slowly and related treatments and drugs are being developed. At the same time, there is increasing evidence of preexisting immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in humans, mainly consisting of preexisting antibodies and immune cells (including T cells and B cells). The presence of these antibodies is mainly due to the seasonal prevalence of four common coronavirus types, especially OC43 and HKU1. The accumulated relevant evidence has suggested that the target of antibodies is mainly the S2 subunit of S protein, followed by evolutionary conservative regions such as the nucleocapsid (N) protein. Additionally, preexisting memory T and B cells are also present in the population. Preexisting antibodies can help the body protect against SARS-CoV-2 infection, reduce the severity of COVID-19, and rapidly increase the immune response post-infection. These multiple effects can directly affect disease progression and even the likelihood of death in certain individuals. Besides the positive effects, preexisting immunity may also have negative consequences, such as antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) and original antigenic sin (OAS), the prevalence of which needs to be further established. In the future, more research should be focused on evaluating the role of preexisting immunity in COVID-19 outcomes, adopting appropriate policies and strategies for fighting the pandemic, and vaccine development that considers preexisting immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927394

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effectiveness on exogenous fever and the characteristics of effective population, as well as the specialties of prescription of acupoint application.@*METHODS@#Using the internet electronic diagnosis and treatment platform (Spring Broadcast Wanxiangyun Clinic Database, and the main TCM suitable technology promoted by this platform is acupoint application therapy), from August 24, 2020 to November 5, 2020, the patients complained with fever and diagnosed as common cold, with a record of initial visit and at least one return visit, were included as the subjects. According to whether acupoint application therapy was received or not, the subjects were divided into an exposure group (with acupoint application therapy, 26 664 cases) and a non-exposure group (without acupoint application therapy, 515 cases). Using the propensity score, the mixed factors, e.g. age and sex, were matched between the two groups. The disappearance rate of fever (within 2 days) and the time for the first fever disappearance were taken as the effect indexes. The association rules extraction was adopted to analyze the characteristics of effective population and acupoint application prescription in treatment of exogenous fever.@*RESULTS@#After propensity score matching, there were 1 229 cases in the application group and 423 cases in the non-application group. The disappearance rate of fever in the application group was 1.82 times as high as that in the non-application group (P<0.05). The time for the first fever disappearance in the application group was shorter than the non-application group (P<0.01). A total of 5 370 cases were effective with acupoint application therapy, of which, the median age was 2 years old and the proportion of children patients under 6 years old was relatively high. In the effective crowd, the most commonly-used acupoints were Shenque (CV 8), Dazhui (GV 14), Yongquan (KI 1) and Tiantu (CV 22), etc. Shenque (CV 8) and Dazhui (GV 14) were highly associated and the support was 62.57%. The most common herbal materials in the acupoint application therapy included Radix et Rhizoma Rhei, Natrii Sulfas, Radix Scutellariae, Herba Ephedrae and Radix Bupleuri, etc. Radix et Rhizoma Rhei and Natrii Sulfas were most commonly used at Shenque (CV 8) and the supports were 57.49% and 57.21% respectively. Herba Ephedrae was most commonly applied to Shenque (CV 8) and Dazhui (GV 14) and the supports were 48.21% and 43.91% respectively. Radix Bupleuri was the most common herb at Dazhui (GV 14) with the support of 46.61%. Besides, the most commonly combined western drugs included cefixime and keteling in the acupoint application therapy and the supports were 13.07% and 12.72% respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#Acupoint application is effective on exogenous fever. The common therapy refers to Radix et Rhizoma Rhei and Natrii Sulfas plaster at Shenque (CV 8), while Herba Ephedrae and Radix Bupleuri at Dazhui (GV 14).


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Child , Child, Preschool , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Fever/therapy , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Seasons
19.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e227703, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285590

ABSTRACT

Abstract A research was conducted to evaluate the impact of various nitrogen and phosphorus levels along with beneficial microbes to enhance canola productivity. The research was carried out at Agronomy Research Farm, The University of Agriculture Peshawar in winter 2016-2017. The experiment was conducted in randomized complete block factorial design. The study was comprised of three factors including nitrogen (60, 120 and 180 kg ha-1), phosphorous (70, 100 and 130 kg ha-1) and beneficial microbes (with and without BM). A control treatment with no N, P and BM was also kept for comparison. Application of beneficial microbes significantly increased pods plant, seed pod, seed filling duration, 1000 seed weight, biological yield and seed yield as compared to control plots. Nitrogen applied at the rate of 180 kg ha-1 increased pods plant-1, seed pod, seed filling duration, seed weight, biological yield and seed yield. Maximum pods plant-1, seed pod, early seed filling, heavier seed weight, biological yield, seed yield, and harvest index were observed in plots treated with 130 kg.ha-1 phosphorous. As comparison, the combine treated plots have more pods plant-1, seeds pod-1, seed filling duration, heaviest seeds, biological yield, seed yield and harvest index as compared to control plots. It is concluded that application of beneficial microbes with N and P at the rate of 180 kg ha-1 and 130 kg ha-1, respectively, increased yield and its attributes for canola.


Resumo Uma pesquisa foi realizada para avaliar o impacto de vários níveis de nitrogênio e fósforo, juntamente com micróbios benéficos, para aumentar a produtividade da canola. A pesquisa foi realizada no inverno de 2016-17 no Agronomy Research Farm, Universidade de Agricultura do Peshawar. O experimento foi conduzido por planejamento fatorial aleatorizado em blocos. O estudo focou-se em três fatores, incluindo o teor de nitrogênio, N, (60, 120 e 180 kg.ha-1), o teor de fósforo, P, (70, 100 e 130 kg ha-1) e a presença de micróbios benéficos (com BM e sem BM). Para fins de comparação, um tratamento controle sem N, P e BM também foi incluído no estudo. A aplicação de micróbios benéficos aumentou significativamente as vagens das plantas e de sementes, a duração do enchimento das sementes, o peso de 1000 sementes, o rendimento biológico e o rendimento de sementes em comparação com os resultados do controle. O nitrogênio aplicado na taxa de 180 kg ha-1 aumentou as vagens por planta, vagem, duração do enchimento, peso da semente, rendimento biológico e rendimento de sementes. Vagens máximas por planta, vagem, enchimento precoce de sementes, peso maior de semente, rendimento biológico, rendimento de sementes e índice de colheita foram observados em parcelas tratadas com 130 kg.ha-1 de fósforo. Em comparação aos blocos cultivados de controle, os blocos cultivados tratados combinados têm mais vagens por planta e sementes por vagem, maior duração do enchimento das sementes, maior número de sementes mais pesadas e maior rendimento biológico, rendimento de sementes e índice de colheita. Conclui-se que a aplicação de micróbios benéficos junto com N e P nas doses de 180 kg ha-1 e 130 kg ha-1, respectivamente, aumentou a produtividade e atributos de produtividade para a canola.


Subject(s)
Phosphorus , Nitrogen , Seasons , Seeds , Agriculture
20.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e242334, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278515

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Microhabitat factors associated with the habitat of barking deer (Muntiacus vaginalis) were examined and compared between summer and winter seasons. Habitat characteristics and preferred habitat were measured by locating direct and indirect signs. To quantify the habitat utilization of barking deer, each selected study site was sampled for floral diversity from 2015 to 2017. Quadrats were deployed along transect lines to determine seasonal distribution. Barking deer were not evenly distributed across vegetation types in the study area; they occurred more often in the broad-leaved forest than in Chir pine forest, at an elevational range of 550-850 m, in thick vegetation on steep slopes. The most preferred habitat included trees and shrubs with 30% and 69% cover, respectively. Barking deer avoided thicker tree cover, possibly as it hinders movement and escape from predators. No significant difference (χ2 = 6.37, df = 3, p = 0.19) in seasonal vegetation cover was recorded.


RESUMO Fatores de micro-hábitat associados ao hábitat do veado (Muntiacus vaginalis) foram examinados e comparados entre as estações de verão e inverno. As características do hábitat e o hábitat preferido foram medidos, localizando sinais diretos e indiretos. Para quantificar a utilização do hábitat de cervos-latidos, cada local de estudo selecionado foi amostrado para a diversidade floral de 2015 a 2017. Quadrats foram implantados ao longo de linhas de transecto para determinar a distribuição sazonal., Veados-latidos não foram distribuídos uniformemente pelos tipos de vegetação na área de estudo; ocorreram com mais frequência na floresta de folhas largas do que na floresta de pinheiros Chir, em uma faixa de elevação de 550-850 m, em vegetação densa, em encostas íngremes. O hábitat mais preferido incluía árvores e arbustos com 30% e 69% de cobertura, respectivamente. O veado-latido evitou uma cobertura de árvores mais espessa, possivelmente porque impede o movimento e a fuga de predadores. Nenhuma diferença significativa (χ2 = 6,37; df = 3; p = 0,19) na cobertura vegetal sazonal foi registrada.


Subject(s)
Animals , Deer , Muntjacs , Pakistan , Seasons , Ecosystem , Parks, Recreational
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