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1.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 152-162, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010329

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate whether electroacupuncture (EA) at sensitized acupoints could reduce sympathetic-sensory coupling (SSC) and neurogenic inflammatory response by interfering with 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)ergic neural pathways to relieve colitis and somatic referred pain, and explore the underlying mechanisms.@*METHODS@#Rats were treated with 5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) solution for 7 days to establish a colitis model. Twelve rats were randomly divided into the control and model groups according to a random number table (n=6). According to the "Research on Rat Acupoint Atlas", sensitized acupoints and non-sensitized acupoints were determined. Rats were randomly divided into the control, model, Zusanli-EA (ST 36), Dachangshu-EA (BL 25), and Xinshu (BL 15) groups (n=6), as well as the control, model, EA, and EA + GR113808 (a 5-HT inhibitor) groups (n=6). The rats in the control group received no treatment. Acupuncture was administered on 2 days after modeling using the stimulation pavameters: 1 mA, 2 Hz, for 30 min, with sparse and dense waves, for 14 consecutive days. GR113808 was injected into the tail vein at 5 mg/kg before EA for 10 min for 7 consecutive days. Mechanical sensitivity was assessed with von Frey filaments. Body weight and disease activity index (DAI) scores of rats were determined. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed to observe colon histopathology. SSC was analyzed by immunofluorescence staining. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to detect 5-HT and substance P (SP) expressions. The calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in skin tissue and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein levels in DRG were detected by Western blot. The levels of hyaluronic acid (HA), bradykinin (BK), prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) in skin tissue, 5-HT, tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1), serotonin transporters (SERT), 5-HT 3 receptor (5-HT3R), and 5-HT 4 receptor (5-HT4R) in colon tissue were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).@*RESULTS@#BL 25 and ST 36 acupoints were determined as sensitized acupoints, and BL 15 acupoint was used as a non-sensitized acupoint. EA at sensitized acupoints improved the DAI score, increased mechanical withdrawal thresholds, and alleviated colonic pathological damage of rats. EA at sensitized acupoints reduced SSC structures and decreased TH and CGRP expression levels (P<0.05). Furthermore, EA at sensitized acupoints reduced BK, PGI2, 5-HT, 5-HT3R and TPH1 levels, and increased HA, 5-HT4R and SERT levels in colitis rats (P<0.05). GR113808 treatment diminished the protective effect of EA at sensitized acupoints in colitis rats (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#EA at sensitized acupoints alleviated DSS-induced somatic referred pain in colitis rats by interfering with 5-HTergic neural pathway, and reducing SSC inflammatory response.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Electroacupuncture , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Serotonin , Acupuncture Points , Pain, Referred , Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide , Signal Transduction , Colitis/therapy , Indoles , Sulfonamides
2.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 23-37, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010595

ABSTRACT

5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) type 3 receptor (5-HT3R) is the only type of ligand-gated ion channel in the 5-HT receptor family. Through the high permeability of Na+, K+, and Ca2+ and activation of subsequent voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs), 5-HT3R induces a rapid increase of neuronal excitability or the release of neurotransmitters from axon terminals in the central nervous system (CNS). 5-HT3Rs are widely expressed in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), amygdala (AMYG), hippocampus (HIP), periaqueductal gray (PAG), and other brain regions closely associated with anxiety reactions. They have a bidirectional regulatory effect on anxiety reactions by acting on different types of cells in different brain regions. 5-HT3Rs mediate the activation of the cholecystokinin (CCK) system in the AMYG, and the γ‍-aminobutyric acid (GABA) "disinhibition" mechanism in the prelimbic area of the mPFC promotes anxiety by the activation of GABAergic intermediate inhibitory neurons (IINs). In contrast, a 5-HT3R-induced GABA "disinhibition" mechanism in the infralimbic area of the mPFC and the ventral HIP produces anxiolytic effects. 5-HT2R-mediated regulation of anxiety reactions are also activated by 5-HT3R-activated 5-HT release in the HIP and PAG. This provides a theoretical basis for the treatment of anxiety disorders or the production of anxiolytic drugs by targeting 5-HT3Rs. However, given the circuit specific modulation of 5-HT3Rs on emotion, systemic use of 5-HT3R agonism or antagonism alone seems unlikely to remedy anxiety, which deeply hinders the current clinical application of 5-HT3R drugs. Therefore, the exploitation of circuit targeting methods or a combined drug strategy might be a useful developmental approach in the future.


Subject(s)
Serotonin , Receptors, Serotonin, 5-HT3 , Anxiety , Neurons , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid
3.
Acta neurol. colomb ; 39(4)dic. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533514

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La migraña y el trastorno depresivo son patologías altamente prevalentes e incapacitantes, las cuales presentan relaciones bidireccionales de comorbilidad. En la literatura se han descrito factores de riesgo y mecanismos fisiopatológicos comunes para ambas enfermedades, así como asociaciones entre estas y su presentación clínica. Métodos: El presente texto es una revisión narrativa de la literatura. La búsqueda del material bibliográfico se hizo mediante distintas bases de datos especializadas en el área de la salud. Resultados: Algunos factores de riesgo están asociados con ambas patologías, y ambas comparten factores patogénicos, incluidos cambios funcionales, estructurales, genéticos, epigenéticos y hormonales, entre otros. Varios de los tratamientos preventivos que han demostrado eficacia en el tratamiento de la migraña son medicamentos o medidas con efecto antidepresivo. Discusión: Si se consideran las asociaciones y los factores comunes descritos en la literatura, se hace evidente que en el enfoque de pacientes diagnosticados con alguna de estas patologías es necesario tener en cuenta una posible comorbilidad entre migraña y depresión. Conclusión: Es importante promover el tamizaje de estas dos condiciones en pacientes diagnosticados con alguna de ellas, pues esto puede tener implicaciones terapéuticas e impacto en la calidad de vida.


Introduction: Migraine and depressive disorder are highly prevalent and disabling pathologies, which present bidirectional relationships of comorbidity. Common risk factors and pathophysiological mechanisms for both diseases have been described in the literature, as well as associations between them and their clinical presentation. Methods: This text is a narrative literature review. The bibliographical material was found through different databases specialized in health sciences. Results: Some risk factors are associated with both pathologies, and both share pathogenic factors, including functional, structural, genetic, epigenetic, hormonal changes, among others. Several of the preventive treatments that have shown efficacy in the treatment of migraine are medications or measures with an antidepressant effect. Discussion: Considering the associations and common factors described in the literature, it becomes evident that in the approach to patients diagnosed with any of these pathologies, it may be beneficial to consider a possible migraine-depression comorbidity. Conclusion: It is important to promote the screening of these two patients diagnosed with some, since it can have therapeutic implications and impact on quality of life.


Subject(s)
Comorbidity , Migraine with Aura , Depression , Serotonin , Mental Health , Chronic Pain
4.
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(5): 603-610, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520361

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Manipulation of carcinoid tumors during ablation or selective hepatic artery embolization (transarterial embolization, TAE) can release vasoactive mediators inducing hemodynamic instability. The main aim of our study was to review hemodynamics and complications related to minimally invasive treatments of liver carcinoids with TAE or ablation. Methods: Electronic medical records of all patients with metastatic liver carcinoid undergoing ablation or TAE from 2003 to 2019 were abstracted. Noted were severe hypotension (mean arterial pressure [MAP] ≤ 55 mmHg), severe hypertension (systolic blood pressure ≥ 180 mmHg), and perioperative complications. Associations of procedure type and pre-procedure octreotide use with intraprocedural hemodynamics were assessed using linear regression. A robust covariance approach using generalized estimating equation method was used to account for multiple observations. Results: A total of 161 patients underwent 98 ablations and 207 TAEs. Severe hypertension was observed in 24 (24.5%) vs. 15 (7.3%), severe hypotension in 56 (57.1%) vs. 6 (2.9%), and cutaneous flushing observed in 2 (2.0%) vs. 48 (23.2%) ablations and TAEs, respectively. After adjusting for preprocedural MAP, ablation was associated with lower intraprocedural MAP compared to TAE (estimate −27 mmHg, 95%CI −30 to −24 mmHg, p < 0.001). Intraprocedural declines in MAP were not affected by preprocedural use of octreotide (p = 0.7 for TAE and p = 0.4 for ablation). Conclusions: Ablation of liver carcinoids was associated with substantial hemodynamic instability, especially hypotension. In contrast, a higher number of TAE patients had cutaneous flushing. Preprocedural use of octreotide was not associated with attenuation of intraprocedural hypotension.


Subject(s)
Serotonin
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-10, 2023. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468816

ABSTRACT

The work aims were to describe the histological and histochemical structure of the gastroesophageal tube of Iguana iguana and verify the occurrence and distribution of immunoreactive serotonin (5-HT) and somatostatin (SS) cells. Fragments of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of five iguanas were which underwent standard histological and immunohistochemistry technique. Immunoreactive cells for 5-HT and SS were quantified using the STEPanizer. The oesophagus has ciliated columnar pseudostratified epithelium with staining Alcian blue (AB) + and goblet cells highly reactive to periodic acid Schiff (PAS). In the cervical oesophagus, the numerical density of 5-HT cells per unit area (QA [5-HT cells]/µm2) was 4.6x10-2 ± 2.0 and celomatic oesophagus presented QA = 4.0x10-2 ± 1.0. The epithelium of the stomach is simple columnar, PAS and AB +. The cranial and middle regions of the stomach presented (QA [5-HT cells]/µm2) = 6.18x10-2 ± 3.2 and the caudal region, QA = 0.6x10-2 ± 0.2. The SS cells were only observed in the caudal stomach, with numerical density (QA [SS cells]/µm2) = 1.4x10-2 ± 0.9 In I. iguana, variation was observed in terms of the distribution of mucus secretions and the pattern of occurrence of serotonin and somatostatin-secreting enteroendocrine cells in the TGI, which possibly will result in an interspecific adaptive response.


Os objetivos do trabalho foram descrever a estrutura histológica e histoquímica do tubo gastroesofágico da Iguana iguana e verificar a ocorrência e distribuição de células serotonina (5-HT) e somatostatina (SS) imunorreativas. Fragmentos do trato gastrointestinal (TGI) de cinco iguanas foram submetidos à técnica histológica e imunohistoquímica padrão. As células imunorreativas para 5-HT e SS foram quantificadas usando o STEPanizer. O esôfago apresenta epitélio pseudoestratificado colunar ciliado Alcian blue (AB) positivo, com células caliciformes altamente reativas ao ácido periódico de Schiff (PAS). No esôfago cervical, a densidade numérica de células 5-HT por unidade de área (QA [células 5-HT] / µm2) foi de 4.6x10-2 ± 2.0 e o esôfago celomático apresentou QA = 4.0x10-2 ± 1.0. O epitélio do estômago é colunar simples, PAS e AB positivo. As regiões cranial e média do estômago apresentaram (QA [células 5-HT] / µm2) = 6.18x10-2 ± 3.2 e a região caudal, QA = 0.6x10-2 ± 0.2. As células SS foram observadas apenas no estômago caudal, com densidade numérica (QA [células SS] / µm2) = 1.4x10-2 ± 0.9. Em I. iguana, foi observada variações em termos da distribuição das secreções de muco e padrão de ocorrência das células enteroendócrinas secretoras de serotonina e somatostatina no TGI, o que possivelmente reflete uma resposta adaptativa interespecifica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Stomach , Esophagus , Iguanas/anatomy & histology , Immunohistochemistry/veterinary , Serotonin/analysis , Somatostatin/analysis , Gastrointestinal Tract/anatomy & histology
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242086, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278530

ABSTRACT

Abstract The work aims were to describe the histological and histochemical structure of the gastroesophageal tube of Iguana iguana and verify the occurrence and distribution of immunoreactive serotonin (5-HT) and somatostatin (SS) cells. Fragments of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of five iguanas were which underwent standard histological and immunohistochemistry technique. Immunoreactive cells for 5-HT and SS were quantified using the STEPanizer. The oesophagus has ciliated columnar pseudostratified epithelium with staining Alcian blue (AB) + and goblet cells highly reactive to periodic acid Schiff (PAS). In the cervical oesophagus, the numerical density of 5-HT cells per unit area (QA [5-HT cells]/µm2) was 4.6x10-2 ± 2.0 and celomatic oesophagus presented QA = 4.0x10-2 ± 1.0. The epithelium of the stomach is simple columnar, PAS and AB +. The cranial and middle regions of the stomach presented (QA [5-HT cells]/µm2) = 6.18x10-2 ± 3.2 and the caudal region, QA = 0.6x10-2 ± 0.2. The SS cells were only observed in the caudal stomach, with numerical density (QA [SS cells]/µm2) = 1.4x10-2 ± 0.9 In I. iguana, variation was observed in terms of the distribution of mucus secretions and the pattern of occurrence of serotonin and somatostatin-secreting enteroendocrine cells in the TGI, which possibly will result in an interspecific adaptive response.


Resumo Os objetivos do trabalho foram descrever a estrutura histológica e histoquímica do tubo gastroesofágico da Iguana iguana e verificar a ocorrência e distribuição de células serotonina (5-HT) e somatostatina (SS) imunorreativas. Fragmentos do trato gastrointestinal (TGI) de cinco iguanas foram submetidos à técnica histológica e imunohistoquímica padrão. As células imunorreativas para 5-HT e SS foram quantificadas usando o STEPanizer. O esôfago apresenta epitélio pseudoestratificado colunar ciliado Alcian blue (AB) positivo, com células caliciformes altamente reativas ao ácido periódico de Schiff (PAS). No esôfago cervical, a densidade numérica de células 5-HT por unidade de área (QA [células 5-HT] / µm2) foi de 4.6x10-2 ± 2.0 e o esôfago celomático apresentou QA = 4.0x10-2 ± 1.0. O epitélio do estômago é colunar simples, PAS e AB positivo. As regiões cranial e média do estômago apresentaram (QA [células 5-HT] / µm2) = 6.18x10-2 ± 3.2 e a região caudal, QA = 0.6x10-2 ± 0.2. As células SS foram observadas apenas no estômago caudal, com densidade numérica (QA [células SS] / µm2) = 1.4x10-2 ± 0.9. Em I. iguana, foi observada variações em termos da distribuição das secreções de muco e padrão de ocorrência das células enteroendócrinas secretoras de serotonina e somatostatina no TGI, o que possivelmente reflete uma resposta adaptativa interespecifica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Serotonin , Iguanas , Stomach , Immunohistochemistry , Gastrointestinal Tract
7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6142-6153, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008813

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the intervention effect and mechanism of Tongxie Yaofang in regulating tumor-associated macrophage polarization on colorectal cancer under chronic stress. BALB/C mice were randomized into blank, control, model, mifepristone, and low-, medium-, and high-dose Tongxie Yaofang groups. The other groups except the blank and model groups were subjected to chronic restraint stress and subcutaneous implantation of colon cancer cells for the modeling of colon cancer under stress. Du-ring this period, the body mass and tumor size of each group of mice were recorded. The degree of depression in mice was assessed by behavioral changes. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was employed to determine the levels of cortisol(CORT), 5-hydroxytryptamine(5-HT), norepinephrine(NE), M1-associated inflammatory cytokines [interleukin(IL)-1β, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-α], and M2-associated inflammatory cytokines(IL-4 and IL-10) in the serum. The tumor growth of mice in each group was regularly monitored by in vivo imaging. The histopathological changes of tumors in each group of mice were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The proportions of CD86 and CD206 in the tumor tissue were detected by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence staining. Western blot was employed to determine the protein levels of Janus kinase(JAK)1, JAK2, JAK3, signal transducer and activator of transcription(STAT)3, and STAT6 in the tumor tissue. The results showed that chronic stress increased the immobility time of mice, elevated the serum levels of CORT, IL-4, and IL-10, lowered the levels of 5-HT, NE, IL-1β, IL-12, and TNF-α, and promoted the growth of subcutaneous tumors. The tumor cells in the tumor tissue grew actively, with obvious atypia and up-regulated protein levels of CD206, JAK1, JAK2, JAK3, STAT3, and STAT6, and down-regulated protein level of CD86. The treatment with Tongxie Yaofang shortened the immobility time of mice, lowered the serum levels of CORT, IL-4, and IL-10, elevated the serum levels of 5-HT, NE, IL-1β, IL-12, and TNF-α, and inhibited the growth of subcutaneous tumors in mice. Moreover, the treatment caused different degrees of necrosis in the tumor tissues, down-regulated the protein levels of CD206, JAK1, JAK2, JAK3, STAT3, and STAT6, and up-regulated the protein level of CD86. In summary, Tongxie Yaofang can promote the transformation of M2 macrophages to M1 macrophages and change the tumor microenvironment under chronic stress to inhibit the development of colorectal cancer, which may be related to the JAK/STAT signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Interleukin-10 , Tumor-Associated Macrophages/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Interleukin-4 , Serotonin , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Cytokines/metabolism , Interleukin-12 , Colonic Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms , Tumor Microenvironment
8.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5558-5564, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008752

ABSTRACT

The differences in dryness between raw Aurantii Fructus Immaturus(AFI) and bran-fried products were investigated based on a slow-transit constipation(STC) model. Seventy healthy SPF-grade rats were randomly divided into a blank group(K), a positive drug group(Y), a model group(M), low-and high-dose raw AFI groups(SD and SG), and low-and high-dose bran-fried AFI groups(FD and FG). During the experiment, it was found that compared with the K group, the groups with drug treatment had little effect on the daily body weight of the STC rats. The first defecation time of black stool in the M group was significantly higher than that in the K group, and the 24-hour fecal output significantly decreased starting from the 13th day, indicating successful modeling. The SG group showed a significant increase in the first defecation time, fecal water content, urine output, and water intake than other groups with drug treatment. The FG group had the highest fecal output than other groups with drug treatment. The FD group had the highest salivary secretion than other groups with drug treatment. The levels of cAMP/cGMP, VIP, 5-HT, AQP1, and AQP5 were measured in each group with drug treatment, and the expression of c-Kit and SCF mRNA in gastric antrum tissue and AQP3 mRNA in the kidney and colon were detected by RT-PCR. The results showed that the SD and SG groups had a more significant impact on AQP1, AQP5, and other water channel indexes in STC rats than the FD and FG groups. The FD and FG groups had a more significant impact on c-Kit, SCF, VIP, 5-HT, and other gastrointestinal motility indicators than the SD and SG groups. This study, through in vitro biological observations, immunological detection, and gene expression analysis, found that raw AFI had strong dryness property, while bran-fried AFI could alleviate its dryness property.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Serotonin , Constipation/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , RNA, Messenger
9.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 483-498, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982719

ABSTRACT

Insomnia is a common sleep disorder without effective therapy and can affect a person's life. The mechanism of the disease is not completely understood. Hence, there is a need to understand the targets related to insomnia, in order to develop innovative therapies and new compounds. Recently, increasing interest has been focused on complementary and alternative medicines for treating or preventing insomnia. Research into their molecular components has revealed that their sedative and sleep-promoting properties rely on the interactions with various neurotransmitter systems in the brain. In this review, the role of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in insomnia development is summarized, while a systematic analysis of studies is conducted to assess the mechanisms of herbal medicines on different 5-HT receptors subtypes, in order to provide reference for subsequent research.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/drug therapy , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal , Receptors, Serotonin , Serotonin
10.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 255-260, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969980

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of Shugan Tiaoshen acupuncture (acupuncture for soothing the liver and regulating the mentality) combined with western medication on depression and sleep quality in the patients with depression-insomnia comorbidity due to COVID-19 quarantine, and investigate the potential mechanism from the perspective of cortical excitability.@*METHODS@#Sixty patients with depression-insomnia comorbidity due to COVID-19 quarantine were randomly divided into an acupuncture group and a sham-acupuncture group, 30 cases in each one. The patients of both groups were treated with oral administration of sertraline hydrochloride tablets. In the acupuncture group, Shugan Tiaoshen acupuncture was supplemented. Body acupuncture was applied to Yintang (GV 24+), Baihui (GV 20), Hegu (LI 4), Zhaohai (KI 6), Qihai (CV 6), etc. The intradermal needling was used at Xin (CO15), Gan (CO12) and Shen (CO10). In the sham-acupuncture group, the sham-acupuncture was given at the same points as the acupuncture group. The compensatory treatment was provided at the end of follow-up for the patients in the sham-acupuncture group. In both groups, the treatment was given once every two days, 3 times a week, for consecutive 8 weeks. The self-rating depression scale (SDS) and insomnia severity index (ISI) scores were compared between the two groups before and after treatment and 1 month after the end of treatment (follow-up) separately. The cortical excitability indexes (resting motor threshold [rMT], motor evoked potential amplitude [MEP-A], cortical resting period [CSP]) and the level of serum 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) were measured before and after treatment in the two groups.@*RESULTS@#After treatment and in follow-up, SDS and ISI scores were decreased in both groups compared with those before treatment (P<0.05), and the scores in the acupuncture group were lower than those in the sham-acupuncture group (P<0.05), and the decrease range in the acupuncture group after treatment was larger than that in the sham-acupuncture group (P<0.05). After treatment, rMT was reduced (P<0.05), while MEP-A and CSP were increased (P<0.05) in the acupuncture group compared with that before treatment. The levels of serum 5-HT in both groups were increased compared with those before treatment (P<0.05). The rMT in the acupuncture group was lower than that in the sham-acupuncture group, while MEP-A and CSP, as well as the level of serum 5-HT were higher in the acupuncture group in comparison with the sham-acupuncture group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Shugan Tiaoshen acupuncture combined with western medication can relieve depression and improve sleep quality in the patients with depression-insomnia comorbidity due to COVID-19 quarantine, which is probably related to rectifying the imbalanced excitatory and inhibitory neuronal functions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Depression , Quarantine , Serotonin , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , COVID-19 , Acupuncture Therapy , Comorbidity
11.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 191-196, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969970

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of umbilical moxibustion therapy on phobic behavior and the contents of norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in different brain regions of the stress-model rats and explore the potential mechanism of umbilical moxibustion on phobic behavior.@*METHODS@#Among 50 Wistar male rats, 45 rates were selected and randomly divided into a control group, a model group and an umbilical moxibustion group, 15 rats in each one; and the rest 5 rats were used for preparing the model of electric shock. The bystander electroshock method was adopted to prepare phobic stress model in the model group and the umbilical moxibustion group. After modeling, the intervention with umbilical moxibustion started in the umbilical moxibustion group, in which, the ginger-isolated moxibustion was applied at "Shenque" (CV 8), once daily, 2 cones for 20 min each time, for consecutively 21 days. After modeling and intervention completed, the rats in each group were subjected to the open field test to evaluate the state of fear. After intervention, the Morris water maze test and fear conditioning test were performed to evaluate the changes in learning and memory ability and the state of fear. Using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the contents of NE, DA and 5-HT in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and hypothalamus were determined.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the horizontal and vertical activity scores were lower (P<0.01), the number of stool particles was increased (P<0.01), the escape latency was prolonged (P<0.01), the times of target quadrant were reduced (P<0.01), and the freezing time was prolonged (P<0.05) in the rats of the model group. The horizontal and vertical activity scores were increased (P<0.05), the number of stool particles was reduced (P<0.05), the escape latency was shortened (P<0.05, P<0.01), the times of target quadrant were increased (P<0.05), and the freezing time was shortened (P<0.05) in the rats of the umbilical moxibustion group when compared with the model group. The trend search strategy was adopted in the control group and the umbilical moxibustion group, while the random search strategy was used in rats of the model group. Compared with the control group, the contents of NE, DA and 5-HT in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and hypothalamus were reduced (P<0.01) in the model group. In the umbilical moxibustion group, the contents of NE, DA and 5-HT in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and hypothalamus were increased (P<0.05, P<0.01) when compared with the model group.@*CONCLUSION@#Umbilical moxibustion can effectively relieve the state of fear and learning and memory impairment of phobic stress model rats, which may be related to the up-regulation of contents of brain neurotransmitters, i.e. NE, DA, and 5-HT.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , Moxibustion , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Rats, Wistar , Serotonin , Hippocampus , Dopamine , Norepinephrine , Neurotransmitter Agents
12.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 610-616, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981907

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effects of formononetin (FMN) on cognitive behavior and inflammation in aging rats with chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Methods SD rats aged about 70 weeks were divided into healthy control group, CUMS model group, CUMS combined with 10 mg/kg FMN group, CUMS combined with 20 mg/kg FMN group and CUMS combined with 1.8 mg/kg fluoxetine hydrochloride (Flu) group. Except for healthy control group, other groups were stimulated with CUMS and administered drugs for 28 days. Sugar water preference, forced swimming experiment and open field experiment were used to observe the emotional behavior of rats in each group. HE staining was used to observe the pathological injury degree of brain equine area. The contents of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were detected by the kit. The apoptosis was tested by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) in the brain tissue. The levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in peripheral blood were measured by ELISA. Western blot analysis was used to detect Bcl2, Bcl2 associated X protein (BAX), cleaved caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), and phosphorylated nuclear factor κB p65 (p-NF-κB p65) in brain tissues. Results Compared with CUMS model group, sugar water consumption, open field activity time, open field travel distance and swimming activity time significantly increased in the CUMS combined with 20 mg/kg FMN group and the CUMS combined with 1.8 mg/kg Flu group. The number of new outarm entry increased significantly, while the number of initial arm entry and other arm entry decreased significantly. The pathological damage of brain equine area was alleviated, and the contents of 5-HT and 5-HIAA were significantly increased. The ratio of BAX/Bcl2 and the expression of cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-3 protein as well as the number of apoptotic cells were significantly decreased. The contents of TNF-α, iNOS and IL-6 were significantly decreased. The protein levels of TLR4, MyD88 and p-NF-κB p65 were significantly decreased. Conclusion FMN can inhibit the release of inflammatory factors by blocking NF-κB pathway and improve cognitive and behavioral ability of CUMS aged rats.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Horses , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Signal Transduction , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Caspase 3/metabolism , Caspase 9/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88 , Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid/pharmacology , Serotonin/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Hippocampus/metabolism , Cognition
13.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 1435-1440, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007507

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To observe the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) at "Neiguan" (PC 6) and "Zusanli"(ST 36) on the gastric emptying rate, the level of serotonin (5-HT) and the protein expression of motilin (MTL), ghrelin, substance P (SP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in the antral tissue of the rats with functional dyspepsia (FD) and explore the effect mechanism of EA in treatment of FD.@*METHODS@#A total of 21 SPF male SD rat pups were randomly divided into a normal group, a model group and an EA group, with 7 rats in each group. In the model group and the EA group, FD model was prepared by the gavage with 0.1% sucrose iodoacetamide solution combined with the modified small platform method. After the successful modeling, EA was applied to "Neiguan" (PC 6) and "Zusanli"(ST 36) in the rats of the EA group, with disperse-dense wave, 20 Hz/100 Hz in frequency, stimulated for 30 min, once daily, for 7 days consecutively. Before and after intervention, the general condition of the rats was observed in each group. After the completion of intervention, the gastric emptying rate was measured, the morphological changes of gastric antral tissue were observed using HE staining, the level of 5-HT was detected with ELISA method, and the protein expression of MTL, ghrelin, SP, and VIP was determined with Western blot method in the antral tissue of rats.@*RESULTS@#In the normal group, the rats were in a good mental state, with lustrous fur, flexible movement and the increase of food intake and body mass. In the model group, the rats were poor in mental state, lack of lustre in fur, preference for the body curled up, reduced activity and response; and a part of rats had loose stool, obviously enlarged gastric body and gastric food retention. In the EA group, the general condition of rats, e.g. the mental state, food intake and activity, were improved, the gastric body got smaller obviously and the gastric food retention was reduced when compared with the model group. The antral structure was intact, the glands were rich and no injury of the gastric mucosa was found, e.g. inflammatory reaction and edema in the rats of each group. Compared with the normal group, the gastric emptying rate was decreased (P<0.01), 5-HT level was increased (P<0.01), the protein expression of MTL and ghrelin was reduced (P<0.01) and that of VIP was elevated (P<0.01) in the rats of the model group. The gastric emptying rate was increased (P<0.01), 5-HT level was decreased (P<0.01), and the protein expression of MTL and ghrelin was elevated (P<0.05, P<0.01) in the rats of the EA group when compared with those in the model group.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Electroacupuncture at "Neiguan" (PC 6) and "Zusanli"(ST 36) may effectively relieve gastric dysfunction, strengthen gastric motility and promote gastric emptying so as to alleviate the symptoms of dyspepsia in FD rats, and its mechanism may be related to the regulation of gastrointestinal hormones in the antral tissue.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , Electroacupuncture , Dyspepsia/therapy , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Ghrelin , Gastrointestinal Hormones , Serotonin , Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide , Acupuncture Points
14.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 1004-1008, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010900

ABSTRACT

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and fatal interstitial lung disease, the cause is not yet clear. Pathological manifestations are abnormal repair changes resulting from sustained lung injury. Macrophages have been identified as playing a key role in IPF pathogenesis. In different local microenvironments, macrophages can exhibit either classically activated (M1) or alternately activated (M2) phenotypes. M1 plays a key role in promoting inflammatory response and is involved in the process of causing alveolar tissue injury. M2 is involved in wound healing and stopping lung inflammation. Previous studies have shown that activation of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) signaling is enhanced in pulmonary fibrosis and that 5-HT receptors play an important role in the observed pro-fibrotic effects. As a multifunctional signaling molecule, 5-HT is closely related to lung macrophage polarization, early lung tissue injury, abnormal proliferation and repair, and late extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. This article reviewed the role of 5-HT and M2 macrophages in the pathogenesis of IPF and the possible regulatory mechanism of 5-HT, in order to provide a reference for further research.


Subject(s)
Humans , Serotonin , Macrophages , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/pathology , Lung/pathology , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis , Fibrosis
15.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1807-1822, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010652

ABSTRACT

Itch is an unpleasant sensation that urges people and animals to scratch. Neuroimaging studies on itch have yielded extensive correlations with diverse cortical and subcortical regions, including the insular lobe. However, the role and functional specificity of the insular cortex (IC) and its subdivisions in itch mediation remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated by immunohistochemistry and fiber photometry tests, that neurons in both the anterior insular cortex (AIC) and the posterior insular cortex (PIC) are activated during acute itch processes. Pharmacogenetic experiments revealed that nonselective inhibition of global AIC neurons, or selective inhibition of the activity of glutaminergic neurons in the AIC, reduced the scratching behaviors induced by intradermal injection of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), but not those induced by compound 48/80. However, both nonselective inhibition of global PIC neurons and selective inhibition of glutaminergic neurons in the PIC failed to affect the itching-scratching behaviors induced by either 5-HT or compound 48/80. In addition, pharmacogenetic inhibition of AIC glutaminergic neurons effectively blocked itch-associated conditioned place aversion behavior, and inhibition of AIC glutaminergic neurons projecting to the prelimbic cortex significantly suppressed 5-HT-evoked scratching. These findings provide preliminary evidence that the AIC is involved, at least partially via aversive emotion mediation, in the regulation of 5-HT-, but not compound 48/80-induced itch.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Serotonin , Insular Cortex , Pruritus/chemically induced , Cerebral Cortex/physiology , Neurons
16.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1638-1654, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010645

ABSTRACT

We previously identified a unique nucleus, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-contacting nucleus. This study aims to understand its gene architecture and preliminarily suggest its functions. The results showed that there were about 19,666 genes in this nucleus, of which 913 were distinct from the dorsal raphe nucleus (non-CSF contacting). The top 40 highly-expressed genes are mainly related to energy metabolism, protein synthesis, transport, secretion, and hydrolysis. The main neurotransmitter is 5-HT. The receptors of 5-HT and GABA are abundant. The channels for Cl-, Na+, K+, and Ca2+ are routinely expressed. The signaling molecules associated with the CaMK, JAK, and MAPK pathways were identified accurately. In particular, the channels of transient receptor potential associated with nociceptors and the solute carrier superfamily members associated with cell membrane transport were significantly expressed. The relationship between the main genes of the nucleus and life activities is preliminarily verified.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Serotonin/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Cerebrospinal Fluid/metabolism
17.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2184-2192, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981349

ABSTRACT

To investigate the antidepressant mechanism of Shenling Kaixin Granules(SLKX) in treating chronic unpredictable mild stress(CUMS) model rats. Ninety male SD rats were randomly divided into control group, model group, Shugan Jieyu Capsules(110 mg·kg~(-1)) group and SLKX low-(90 mg·kg~(-1)), medium-(180 mg·kg~(-1)), and high-dose(360 mg·kg~(-1)) groups. Depression rat model was replicated by CUMS method. After treatment, the behavioral changes of rats were evaluated by sugar preference, open field, elevated cross maze and forced swimming experiments. The contents of interleukin 1 beta(IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor α(TNF-α), brain-derived neurotrophic factor(BDNF) and 5-hydroxytryptamine(5-HT) in serum were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA), and the activities of superoxide dismutase(SOD) and catalase(CAT) in hippocampal CA1 region were also detected. Pathological changes in hippocampal CA1 region were detected by hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining, and Western blot was used to determine the expression of nerve growth factor(NGF), BDNF, phospho-tyrosine kinase receptor(p-TrkB)/TrkB, phospho-cAMP-response element binding protein(p-CREB)/CREB, nuclear factor E2 related factor 2(Nrf2), heme oxygenase 1(HO-1), B-cell lymphoma-2(Bcl-2)/Bcl-2 associated X protein(Bax) and caspase-3 in hippocampal CA1 region. RESULTS:: showed that compared with the control group, the model group had decreased sugar preference, reduced number of entries and time spent in the center of open field and shortened total distance of movement, reduced number of entries and proportion of time spent in open arm, and increased number and time of immobility in forced swimming experiment. Additionally, the serum contents of IL-1β and TNF-α and the expression of caspase-3 were higher, while the contents of BDNF and 5-HT, the activities of SOD and CAT in hippocampal CA1 region, the expressions of NGF, BDNF, p-TrkB/TrkB, p-CREB/CREB, HO-1 and Bcl-2/Bax, and the Nrf2 nuclear translocation were lower in model group than in control group. Compared with the conditions in model group, the sugar preference, the number of entries and time spent in the center of open, total distance of movement, and the number of entries and proportion of time spent in open arm in treatment groups were increased while the number and time of immobility in forced swimming experiment were decreased; the serum contents of IL-1β and TNF-α and the expression of caspase-3 were down regulated, while the contents of BDNF and 5-HT, the activities of SOD and CAT in hippocampal CA1 region, the expressions of NGF, BDNF, p-TrkB/TrkB, p-CREB/CREB, HO-1, Bcl-2/Bax, and Nrf2 nuclear translocation were enhanced. In conclusion, SLKX might regulate the Nrf2 nucleus translocation by activating BDNF/TrkB/CREB pathway, lower oxidative stress damage in hippocampus, inhibit caspase-3 activity, and reduce apoptosis of hippocampal nerve cells, thereby playing an antidepressant role.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism , Caspase 3/metabolism , Nerve Growth Factor/metabolism , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Serotonin/metabolism , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Hippocampus/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Sugars/pharmacology , Depression/genetics , Stress, Psychological/metabolism
18.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 379-389, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981014

ABSTRACT

The present article was aimed to compare the effectiveness of different induction methods for depression models. Kunming mice were randomly divided into chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) group, corticosterone (CORT) group, and CUMS+CORT (CC) group. The CUMS group received CUMS stimulation for 4 weeks, and the CORT group received subcutaneous injection of 20 mg/kg CORT into the groin every day for 3 weeks. The CC group received both CUMS stimulation and CORT administration. Each group was assigned a control group. After modeling, forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and sucrose preference test (SPT) were used to detect the behavioral changes of mice, and the serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and CORT were detected with ELISA kits. Attenuated total refraction (ATR) spectra of mouse serum were collected and analyzed. HE staining was used to detect morphological changes in mouse brain tissue. The results showed that the weight of model mice from the CUMS and CC groups decreased significantly. There was no significant change in immobility time of model mice from the three groups in FST and TST, while the glucose preference of model mice from the CUMS and CC groups was significantly reduced (P < 0.05). The serum 5-HT levels of model mice from the CORT and CC groups were significantly reduced, while the serum BDNF and CORT levels of model mice from the CUMS, CORT, and CC groups showed no significant changes. Compared with their respective control groups, the three groups showed no significant difference in the one-dimensional spectrum of serum ATR. The difference spectrum analysis results of the first derivative of the spectrogram showed that the CORT group had the greatest difference from its respective control group, followed by the CUMS group. The structures of hippocampus in the model mice from the three groups were all destroyed. These results suggest that both CORT and CC treatments can successfully construct a depression model, and the CORT model is more effective than the CC model. Therefore, CORT induction can be used to establish a depression model in Kunming mice.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Depression/etiology , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Serotonin
19.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 800-806, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980798

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effects of moxa smoke through olfactory pathway on learning and memory ability in rapid aging (SAMP8) mice, and to explore the action pathway of moxa smoke.@*METHODS@#Forty-eight six-month-old male SAMP8 mice were randomly divided into a model group, an olfactory dysfunction group, a moxa smoke group and an olfactory dysfunction + moxa smoke group, with 12 mice in each group. Twelve age-matched male SAMR1 mice were used as the blank group. The olfactory dysfunction model was induced in the olfactory dysfunction group and the olfactory dysfunction + moxa smoke group by intraperitoneal injection of 3-methylindole (3-MI) with 300 mg/kg, and the moxa smoke group and the olfactory dysfunction + moxa smoke group were intervened with moxa smoke at a concentration of 10-15 mg/m3 for 30 min per day, with a total of 6 interventions per week. After 6 weeks, the emotion and cognitive function of mice was tested by open field test and Morris water maze test, and the neuronal morphology in the CAI area of the hippocampus was observed by HE staining. The contents of neurotransmitters (glutamic acid [Glu], gamma-aminobutyric acid [GABA], dopamine [DA], and 5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) in hippocampal tissue of mice were detected by ELISA.@*RESULTS@#The mice in the blank group, the model group and the moxa smoke group could find the buried food pellets within 300 s, while the mice in the olfactory dysfunction group and the olfactory dysfunction + moxa smoke group took more than 300 s to find them. Compared with the blank group, the model group had increased vertical and horizontal movements (P<0.05) and reduced central area residence time (P<0.05) in the open field test, prolonged mean escape latency on days 1-4 (P<0.05), and decreased search time, swimming distance and swimming distance ratio in the target quadrant of the Morris water maze test, and decreased GABA, DA and 5-HT contents (P<0.05, P<0.01) and increased Glu content (P<0.05) in hippocampal tissue. Compared with the model group, the olfactory dysfunction group had increased vertical movements (P<0.05), reduced central area residence time (P<0.05), and increased DA content in hippocampal tissue (P<0.05); the olfactory dysfunction + moxa smoke group had shortened mean escape latency on days 3 and 4 of the Morris water maze test (P<0.05) and increased DA content in hippocampal tissue (P<0.05); the moxa smoke group had prolonged search time in the target quadrant (P<0.05) and increased swimming distance ratio, and increased DA and 5-HT contents in hippocampal tissue (P<0.05, P<0.01) and decreased Glu content in hippocampal tissue (P<0.05). Compared with the olfactory dysfunction group, the olfactory dysfunction + moxa smoke group showed a shortened mean escape latency on day 4 of the Morris water maze test (P<0.05). Compared with the moxa smoke group, the olfactory dysfunction + moxa smoke group had a decreased 5-HT content in the hippocampus (P<0.05). Compared with the blank group, the model group showed a reduced number of neurons in the CA1 area of the hippocampus with a disordered arrangement; the olfactory dysfunction group had similar neuronal morphology in the CA1 area of the hippocampus to the model group. Compared with the model group, the moxa smoke group had an increased number of neurons in the CA1 area of the hippocampus that were more densely packed. Compared with the moxa smoke group, the olfactory dysfunction + moxa smoke group had a reduced number of neurons in the CA1 area of the hippocampus, with the extent between that of the moxa smoke group and the olfactory dysfunction group.@*CONCLUSION@#The moxa smoke could regulate the contents of neurotransmitters Glu, DA and 5-HT in hippocampal tissue through olfactory pathway to improve the learning and memory ability of SAMP8 mice, and the olfactory is not the only effective pathway.


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Mice , Olfactory Pathways , Smoke/adverse effects , Serotonin , Aging , Dopamine , Olfaction Disorders/etiology
20.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 545-551, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980758

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effects of electroacupuncture at "Siguan" points on behavior, colonic 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in rats with post-stroke depression (PSD), and explore the effect mechanism of electroacupuncture at Siguan points on PSD.@*METHODS@#Fifty SD rats were randomly divided into a sham-operation group, a stroke group, a PSD group, a drug group and an electroacupuncture group, with 10 rats in each one. The stroke model was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) method in the stroke group; except for the sham-operation group, the rats in the other groups were intervened with MCAO combined with solitary and chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) to establish PSD model. In the electroacupuncture group, electroacupuncture was delivered at "Hegu" (LI 4) and "Taichong" (LR 3), with disperse-dense wave, 2 Hz/10 Hz in frequency, for 30 min in each intervention, once daily, for consecutive 21 days. Simultaneously, distilled water (0.01 L•kg-1•d-1) was administrated intragastrically. Fluoxetine solution (2.33 mg•kg-1•d-1) was given by gavage , once a day and for 21 days in the drug group. The same procedure of fixation and gavage with distilled water were adopted in the sham-operation group, the stroke group and the PSD group. Separately, before stroke modeling, after PSD modeling and after 21-day intervention, the consumption of sugar water and the scores of horizontal movement and vertical movement in open-field test were observed. After 21-day intervention, the content of colonic 5-HT was detected by immunohistochemical method, and that of fecal SCFAs was determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry.@*RESULTS@#After PSD modeling, compared with the stroke group, the sugar water consumption, the horizontal movement scores and vertical movement scores of the open-field test were all reduced in the PSD group, the drug group and the electroacupuncture group (P<0.05). After 21-day intervention, the sugar water consumption and the scores of horizontal movement and vertical movement of the open-field test were increased in the drug group and the electroacupuncture group (P<0.05) when compared with the PSD group; and the horizontal movement score in the electroacupuncture group was lower than that of the drug group (P<0.05). Compared with the sham-operation group, the contents of total fecal SCFAs and acetic acid were lower in the stroke group (P<0.05), and the contents of colonic 5-HT and total fecal SCFAs, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid were reduced in the PSD group (P<0.05). In comparison with the PSD group, the contents of colonic 5-HT and total fecal SCFAs, acetic acid and propionic acid were increased in the drug group and the electroacupuncture group (P<0.05); and the content of colonic 5-HT in the electroacupuncture group was lower than that of the drug group (P<0.05). The level of colonic 5-HT was positively correlated with the contents of total fecal SCFAs and propionic acid (r=0.424, P=0.005; r=0.427, P=0.004).@*CONCLUSION@#Electroacupuncture at "Siguan" points can relieve the depression-like behavior of PSD rats, and its underlying mechanism may be related to the regulation of fecal SCFAs, which affects the release of colonic 5-HT.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Propionates , Serotonin , Depression/therapy , Electroacupuncture , Fatty Acids, Volatile , Stroke/complications , Acetic Acid , Butyric Acid , Water
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