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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(4): 1066-1070, ago. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514352

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: This study investigates the relationship between the second and fourth finger ratio (2D:4D), physicians' propensity to choose an internal or surgical branch, and sex differences. On a voluntary basis, 177 physicians working in Elazig, 122 men and 55 women were enrolled in the study. Their hands were measured for 2D and 4D lengths, and the 2D:4D ratio was computed. In female doctors, the left hand's 2D:4D ratio is 1.01, compared to the right hand's 1.00. Male doctors' right 2D:4D ratio is 0.99, while their left 2D:4D ratio is 1.00. Male physicians' 2D:4D ratios were different from those of men in the general population, whereas female physicians' 2D:4D ratios were comparable to those of women in the general population. As a result, this study was the first to examine the relationship between the ratio of the second and fourth fingers (2D:4D), physicians' tendency to choose an internal medicine or surgical branch, and sex differences. While the 2D:4D ratio was higher than 0.98 in all physicians, it was low in women who disliked their profession and branch. Since there aren't many studies on this subject, data from in-depth studies that will be conducted in the future will help physicians who choose internal medicine and surgery make more informed decisions.


Este estudio investiga la relación entre la proporción de los dedos segundo y cuarto (2D:4D), la propensión de los médicos a elegir una rama interna o quirúrgica y las diferencias de género. De forma voluntaria, se inscribieron en el estudio 177 médicos que trabajaban en Elazig, 122 hombres y 55 mujeres. Sus manos se midieron en longitudes 2D y 4D, y se calculó la relación 2D:4D. En las médicos mujeres, la relación 2D:4D de la mano izquierda es 1,01, en comparación con 1,00 de la mano derecha. La relación 2D:4D derecha de los médicos hombres fue 0,99, mientras que la relación 2D:4D izquierda fye 1,00. Las proporciones 2D:4D de los médicos hombres fueron diferentes de las de los hombres en la población general, mientras que las proporciones 2D:4D de las mujeres médicas fueron comparables a las de las mujeres en la población general. Como resultado, este estudio fue el primero en examinar la relación entre la proporción del segundo y cuarto dedo (2D:4D), la tendencia de los médicos a elegir una rama de medicina interna o quirúrgica y las diferencias de sexo. Mientras que la relación 2D:4D fue superior a 0,98 en todos los médicos, fue baja en las mujeres que no les gustaba su profesión y rama. Dado que no hay muchos estudios sobre este tema, los datos de estudios en profundidad que se realizarán en el futuro ayudarán a los médicos que eligen medicina interna y cirugía a tomar decisiones más informadas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Physicians/psychology , Choice Behavior , Fingers/anatomy & histology , Digit Ratios , General Surgery , Sex Factors , Anthropometry , Sex Characteristics , Internal Medicine
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(4): 1171-1176, ago. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514356

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Volumetric assessment of brain structures is an important tool in neuroscience research and clinical practice. The volumetric measurement of normally functioning human brain helps detect age-related changes in some regions, which can be observed at varying degrees. This study aims to estimate the insular volume in the normally functioning human brain in both genders, different age groups, and side variations. A cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted on 42 adult Sudanese participants in Al-Amal Hospital, Sudan, between May to August 2022, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and automatic brain segmentation through a software program (BrainSuite). The statistical difference in total insular volume on both sides of the cerebral hemisphere was small. The insular volume on the right side was greater in males, while the left side showed no difference between both genders. A statistically significant difference between males and females was found (p > 0.05), and no statistical difference in different age groups was found according to the one-way ANOVA test (p>0.05). Adult Sudanese males showed a larger insular volume than females. MRI can be used to morphometrically assess the insula to detect any pathological variations based on volume changes.


La evaluación volumétrica de las estructuras cerebrales es una herramienta importante en la investigación y la práctica clínica de la neurociencia. La medición volumétrica del cerebro humano, que funciona normalmente, ayuda a detectar cambios relacionados con la edad en algunas regiones, las cuales se pueden observar en diversos grados. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo estimar el volumen insular en el cerebro humano que funciona normalmente, en ambos sexos, de diferentes grupos de edad y sus variaciones laterales. Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo transversal en 42 participantes sudaneses adultos en el Hospital Al-Amal, Sudán, entre mayo y agosto de 2022, utilizando imágenes de resonancia magnética y segmentación automática del cerebro a través de un software (BrainSuite). Fue pequeña la diferencia estadística en el volumen insular total, en los hemisferios cerebrales. El volumen insular del lado derecho fue mayor en los hombres, mientras que el lado izquierdo no mostró diferencia entre ambos sexos. Se encontró una diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre hombres y mujeres (p > 0,05), y no se encontró diferencia estadística en los diferentes grupos de edad, según la prueba de ANOVA de una vía (p> 0,05). Los hombres sudaneses adultos mostraron un mayor volumen insular que las mujeres. La resonancia magnética se puede utilizar para evaluar morfométricamente la ínsula y para detectar cualquier variación patológica basada en cambios de volumen.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Software , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Cerebral Cortex/diagnostic imaging , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Cerebral Cortex/anatomy & histology , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 401-409, abr. 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440294

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Hyoid bone measurements have been proposed to vary between different genders and age groups. The aim of the study is to study hyoid morphometrics among Jordanian patients. 3D-CT scans of 637 patients were analyzed. Ten parameters of hyoid bone were measures, including the anteroposterior length, length of greater horns (right and left), height of greater horns (right and left), width of hyoid body, height of hyoid body, the distance between the midpoints of the posterior ends of the greater horns of the hyoid bone, the angle between right and left greater horns, and the distance of the hyoid bone to the vertebral column. Also, vertebral level, fusion rank, morphology of hyoid body lingula, and shape of hyoid bone were documented. All hyoid dimensions were longer in males, but greater horns angle was wider in females. In patients younger than 30 years, the parameters are the smallest with the widest angle. The distance from hyoid to vertebral column is higher in males (30-49) years of age. No fusion between hyoid body and greater horns was observed in patients younger than 10 years, but fusion (unilateral or bilateral) was found in only 73.2 % of patients ≥ 70 years. The hyoid was mostly at vertebra C3 level and "U" shaped. The lingula shape was mostly "Scar" in males (especially ≥ 50 years) and "Nothing" in females (especially < 50 years). The maximum growth of hyoid dimensions is before age of 30 years. Fusion between hyoid body and greater horns was not seen in patients younger than 10 years. Otherwise, the hyoid features failed to predict age or gender in our sample. Furthermore, 3D-CT scan is an excellent tool to assess the anatomy of head and neck region.


Se ha propuesto que las medidas del hueso hioides varían entre los diferentes sexos y grupos de edad. El objetivo del estudio fur estudiar la morfometría del hueso hioides en pacientes jordanos. Se analizaron tomografías computarizadas en 3D de 637 pacientes. Se midieron diez parámetros del hueso hioides, incluyendo la longitud anteroposterior, la longitud de los cuernos mayores (derecho e izquierdo), la altura de los cuernos mayores (derecho e izquierdo), el ancho del cuerpo hioides, la altura del cuerpo hioides, la distancia entre los puntos medios de los extremos posteriores de los cuernos mayores del hueso hioides, el ángulo entre los cuernos mayores derecho e izquierdo, y la distancia del hueso hioides a la columna vertebral. Además, se documentaron el nivel vertebral, el rango de fusión, la morfología de la língula del cuerpo hioides y la forma del hueso hioides. Todas las dimensiones del hioides fueron más largas en los hombres, pero el mayor ángulo de los cuernos fue más ancho en las mujeres. En pacientes menores de 30 años, los parámetros son los más pequeños con el ángulo más amplio. La distancia del hioides a la columna vertebral es mayor en el sexo masculino (30-49) años. No se observó fusión entre el cuerpo hioides y los cuernos mayores en pacientes menores de 10 años, pero se encontró fusión (unilateral o bilateral) en solo el 73,2 % de los pacientes ≥ 70 años. El hioides estaba mayormente al nivel de la vértebra C3 y en forma de "U". La forma de la língula era mayoritariamente "Cicatriz" en los hombres (especialmente ≥ 50 años) y "Nada" en las mujeres (especialmente < 50 años). El máximo crecimiento de las dimensiones del hioides es antes de los 30 años. La fusión entre el cuerpo hioides y los cuernos mayores no se observó en pacientes menores de 10 años. No obstante, las características del hueso hioides no pudieron predecir la edad o el sexo en nuestra muestra. Además, la tomografía computarizada 3D es una herramienta excelente para evaluar la anatomía de la región de la cabeza y el cuello.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Hyoid Bone/diagnostic imaging , Sex Factors , Age Factors , Hyoid Bone/anatomy & histology
4.
Rev. bras. ativ. fís. saúde ; 28: 1-8, mar. 2023. tab, fig
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1437626

ABSTRACT

This study investigates the relationship between social support and moderate to vigorous physical activity, as well as the possible relationships between social support and socioeconomic status, gender and body mass index. Cross-sectional study with a non-randomized sample of 71 students (boys and girls) aged 7 to 12 and their parents or legal guardians. Social support and socioeconomic status were assessed using validated questionnaires. Height and body mass measurements were used for the body mass index equation. Moderate to vigorous physical activity was measured by accelerometers. The associations between all variables were tested by a network analysis. Moderate to vigorous physical activity is negatively correlated with socioeconomic status, body mass index and a question from the social support questionnaire: "How many times in the last week have you watched your child be physically active?". We observed a positive correlation between moderate to vigorous physical activity with gender and a question from the social support questionnaire: "How many times in the last week did you provide transport for your child's physical activity?". Thus, moderate to vigorous physical ac-tivity has a negative correlation with socioeconomic status, body mass index and the variable "parents sometimes observe their child to be physically active", and parents who provide transportation for the child to practice physical activity. In future, it is import to consider the network analysis in the intervention studies to promote adolescents' physical activity


Este estudo investiga a relação entre suporte social e atividade física moderada-vigorosa, bem como as possíveis relações entre suporte social e nível socioeconômico, gênero e índice de massa corporal. Estudo transversal com amostra não randomizada de 71 escolares (meninos e meninas) de 7 a 12 anos e seus pais ou responsáveis. Apoio social e nível socioeconômico foram avaliados por meio de questionários validados. Medidas de altura e massa corporal foram usadas para a equação do índice de massa corporal. Atividade física moderada-vigorosa foi medida por acelerômetros. As associações entre todas as variáveis foram testadas por uma análise de rede. A atividade física moderada a vigorosa está negativamente correlacionada com o nível socioeconômico, índice de massa corporal e uma questão do questionário de apoio social: "Quantas vezes na última semana você observou seu filho ser fisicamente ativo?". Observou-se correlação positiva entre atividade física moderada-vigorosa com o gênero e uma questão do questionário de apoio social: "Quantas vezes na última semana você forneceu transporte para a atividade física de seu filho?". Assim, a atividade física moderada-vigorosa tem correlação negativa com o nível socioeconômico, índice de massa corporal e a variável "os pais às vezes observam que seu filho é fisicamente ativo, e pais que fornecem transporte para a criança praticar atividade física. No futuro, é importante considerar a análise de rede nos estudos de intervenção para promover a atividade física em adolescentes


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Social Support , Students/statistics & numerical data , Exercise , Health Promotion , Socioeconomic Factors , Body Mass Index , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Rev. bras. ativ. fís. saúde ; 28: 1-8, mar. 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1437624

ABSTRACT

O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar a associação entre níveis de atividade física e sintomas de ansiedade e depressão. Foi elaborado um questionário online no Google Forms® com questões objetivas e abertas para avaliar as questões relacionadas à prática de atividade física e saúde mental durante o período da pandemia da COVID-19. O formulário incluiu perguntas relacionadas a aspectos sociodemográficos, nível de atividade física (IPAQ ­versão curta) e análise da saúde mental dos participantes com as escalas de Ansiedade e Depressão de Beck. A associação entre atividade física e saúde mental foi estimada por meio de modelos de regressão. Cento e noventa e três pessoas responderam ao questionário (59% do sexo feminino). As mulheres apresentaram maiores níveis de ansiedade e depressão quando comparadas aos homens (p < 0,001 para todos os domínios). O risco de ter sintomas graves de ansiedade e depressivos aumentou respectivamente (OR = 4,20; IC95%: 1,25 - 14,11), e (OR = 3,16; IC95%: 1,12 - 8,91) nos participantes classificados com nível baixo de atividade física quando comparados aos quem mantêm o nível mais alto. Os homens têm menos chances de terem sintomas de ansiedade (OR= 0,23; IC95%: 0,10 - 0,55 p < 0,001) e depressão (OR = 0,33 IC95%: 0,12 - 0,88). Em suma, pode-se concluir que, durante a pandemia de COVID-19, os participantes que obtiveram alto nível de atividade física têm menos chances de apresentar sintomas graves de ansiedade e moderado de depressão


he aim of the present study was to investigate the cross-sectional association between levels of physical activity and symptoms of anxiety and depression. An online questionnaire was prepared on Google Forms® with objective and open questions to evaluate the issues related to physical activity and mental health during the period of the COVID-19 pandemic. The form included questions related to sociodemographic aspects, physical activity level (IPAQ ­ short version) and analysis of the participants' mental health using the Beck Anxiety and Depression scales. The association between physical activity and mental health was estimated using regression models. One hundred and ninety-three people responded to the questionnaire (59% female). Women had higher levels of anxiety and depression when compared to men (p < 0.001 for all domains). The risk of having severe anxiety and depressive symptoms increased respectively (OR = 4.20; 95%CI: 1.25 - 14.11), and (OR = 3.16; 95%CI: 1.12 - 8.91) in participants classified as having a low level of physical ac-tivity when compared to those who maintain the highest level. Men are less likely to have anxiety symptoms (OR = 0.23; 95%CI: 0.10 - 0.55) and depression (OR = 0.33; 95%CI: 0.12 - 0.88). In summary, it can be concluded that participants who achieved a high level of physical activity are less likely to have symptoms of severe anxiety and moderate symptoms of depression


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Exercise/physiology , Depression/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Sex Factors , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
6.
São Paulo; s.n; 20230301. 67 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1416917

ABSTRACT

A estimativa de aparência da face de uma pessoa, partindo de um crânio seco, é chamada de Reconstrução Facial Forense (RFF). Pode ser realizada de maneira digital ou manual, a partir da marcação de pontos cranianos, que possuem diferentes médias de espessura de tecido mole sobreposto. Nas reconstruções digitais o uso de tomografias computadorizadas de feixe cônico (TCFC), que nos permite obter o volume de pacientes sentados, possibilitou um avanço significativo na mensuração das médias de volume dos tecidos moles faciais. Foi desenvolvido um protocolo para medições de tecidos moles a partir de 32 pontos craniométricos (10 sagitais e 11 bilaterais). Este trabalho propõe a inserção de cinco novos pontos cranianos ao protocolo, com medidas a partir dos pontos Mentual (Ml), Supra Canino (sC), Fronto-zigomático (Fz), Ptério (Pt) e Posterior do Ramo Mandibular (prM), com o intuito de aumentar a acurácia das reconstruções. As TCFC foram manipuladas no software Horus® (LGPL 3.0) e mensuradas conforme protocolo adaptado de Beaini et al. (1), obtidas as espessuras de tecido mole a partir dos pontos craniométricos propostos. Foram estudadas 100 TCFC de brasileiros adultos (maiores de 18 anos) que disponibilizaram seus exames para utilização em pesquisas de maneira anônima e que compõe um banco de dados já estruturado e utilizado em pesquisas anteriores. Esse banco de dados contém exames de 50 indivíduos do sexo feminino e 50 do sexo masculino, separados em grupos por sexo e idade. Estatisticamente, foram aplicados testes de normalidade e a diferença entre cada grupo foi testada para obtenção das espessuras médias referentes a cada ponto craniano. Para o ponto Fz, as médias de espessura de tecidos moles foram de 4.56mm para mulheres e 5.14mm para homens. Para o ponto Ml, as médias de ETMF foram de 12.88mm para mulheres e 14.74mm para homens. No ponto prM, as médias de ETMF foram de 18.30mm para homens e 19.69mm para mulheres. No ponto Pt, as médias de ETMF foram de 11.01mm para mulheres e 13.09mm para homens. No ponto sC, as médias de ETMF foram de 10.99mm para mulheres e 12.71mm para homens. A divisão de ETMFs por sexo é justificada, concordando com parcela significativa da literatura, uma vez que quatro 10 dos cinco pontos estudados apresentaram diferenças estatísticas significativas, com as espessuras de indivíduos do sexo masculino sendo maiores que de indivíduos do sexo feminino.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Skull/anatomy & histology , Forensic Anthropology , Face/anatomy & histology , Dimensional Measurement Accuracy , Forensic Dentistry , Sex Factors , Age Factors , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Facial Recognition
7.
ABCD (São Paulo, Online) ; 36: e1748, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447014

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Obesity has reached epidemic proportions among adolescents. Methods, such as bariatric surgery, have become the most effective treatment for patients with classes III and IV obesity. AIM: To evaluate weight loss, comorbidity remission, and long-term results of bariatric surgery in adolescents. METHODS: Study with adolescent patients undergoing bariatric surgery, evaluating laboratory tests, comorbidities, and the percentage of excess weight loss in the preoperative period and at one, two, and five years postoperatively. RESULTS: A total of 65 patients who met the inclusion criteria, with a mean age of 18.6 years, were included in the analysis. In the preoperative period, 30.8% of hypercholesterolemia, 23.1% of systemic arterial hypertension, and 18.4% of type 2 diabetes were recorded, with remission of these percentages occurring in 60, 66.7 and 83.4%, respectively. The mean percentage of excess weight loss was 63.48% after one year of surgery, 64.75% after two years, and 57.28% after five years. The mean preoperative total cholesterol level was 180.26 mg/dL, and after one, two, and five years, it was 156.89 mg/dL, 161.39 mg/dL, and 150.97 mg/dL, respectively. The initial mean of low-density lipoprotein was 102.19mg/dL and after five years the mean value reduced to 81.81 mg/dL. The mean preoperative glycemia was 85.08 mg/dL and reduced to 79.13 mg/dL after one year, and to 76.19 mg/dL after five years. CONCLUSIONS: Bariatric surgery is safe and effective in adolescents, with low morbidity, resulting in a loss of excess weight and long-term stability, improving laboratory tests, and leading to remission of comorbidities, such as diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, and systemic arterial hypertension.


RESUMO RACIONAL: A obesidade tomou proporções epidêmicas entre adolescentes, e procedimentos como a cirurgia bariátrica tornou-se o tratamento mais efetivo em pacientes com obesidade grau III e IV. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a perda peso, a remissão de comorbidades, e resultados a longo prazo da cirurgia bariátrica em adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Estudo com pacientes adolescentes submetidos à cirurgia bariátrica, avaliando exames laboratoriais, comorbidades e o percentual de perda de excesso de peso, nos períodos pré-operatório e com 1, 2 e 5 anos de pós-operatório. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos no estudo 65 pacientes que preencheram os critérios de inclusão, com a média de idade de 18,6 anos. No pré-operatório foram registrados: 30,8% hipercolesterolemia, 23,1% hipertensão arterial sistêmica e 18,4% diabetes tipo 2, ocorrendo remissão destes porcentuais em 60, 66,7 e 83,4%, respectivamente. O percentual médio de perda de excesso de peso após 1 ano foi de 63,48%, após 2 anos foi de 64,75% e após 5 anos foi 57,28%. O valor médio do colesterol total no pré-operatório era de 180,26mg/dL, e após 1 ano, 2 anos e 5 anos foram de 156,89mg/dL,161,39mg/dL e de 150,97mg/dL, respectivamente. A média inicial de lipoproteína de baixa densidade era 102,19mg/dL e após 5 anos o valor médio reduziu para 81,81 mg/dL. O valor médio da glicose pré-operatório era 85,08 mg/dL, após um ano uma média 79,13mg/dL, e com 5 anos 76,19 mg/dL. CONCLUSÕES: A cirurgia bariátrica é segura e eficaz em adolescentes, com baixa morbidade, resultando em uma perda do excesso de peso e estabilidade a longo prazo, melhorando exames laboratoriais e levando a remissão de comorbidades como diabetes mellitus, hipercolesterolemia e hipertensão arterial sistêmica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Laparoscopy/methods , Bariatric Surgery/methods , Pediatric Obesity/surgery , Obesity, Morbid/diagnosis , Weight Loss , Comorbidity , Sex Factors , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Pediatric Obesity/diagnosis
8.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 22: e239237, Jan.-Dec. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1399762

ABSTRACT

Aim: To estimate the prevalence and associated factors of self-reported depressive symptoms in undergraduate and graduate dental students. Methods: The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) was applied, and only the depression domain was verified. A structured questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic, behavioral, and COVID-19 pandemic-related fear variables. Academic performance was assessed based on academic records, ranging from 0 (worst possible grade) to 10 (best possible grade). Respondents included 408 regularly enrolled dental students. Bi- and multivariate analyses were performed using Poisson regression with robust variance to verify the association between at least moderate depressive symptoms and independent variables. Results: The prevalence of at least moderate depression was 40.5% among undergraduate students and 26% among graduate students. The prevalence of fear and anxiety due to the COVID-19 pandemic was 96.1% among undergraduate students and 93.5% among graduate students. In the final multivariate analysis, being female (prevalence ratio [PR]:2.01; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]:1.36­2.96) was associated with a higher PR for depression. Conversely, no exposure to smoking (PR:0.54; 95%CI:0.36­0.82) and a final academic performance average ≥7.0 (PR:0.56; 95%CI:0.41­0.76) was associated with a lower PR for depression. Finally, among graduate students, a non-heterosexual orientation was associated with a higher PR for depression (PR:6.70; 95%CI:2.21­20.29). Conclusion: Higher rates of depression symptoms were observed in female undergraduates, students with lower academic performance and smoking exposure, and graduate dental students with a non-heterosexual orientation


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Students, Dental/psychology , Tobacco Use Disorder , Depression/epidemiology , Academic Performance/psychology , Sexual Behavior , Sex Factors , Prevalence , Risk Factors
9.
Psicol. reflex. crit ; 36: 16, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1507181

ABSTRACT

Abstract To promote prosocial behaviour, in the present study, we observed the human values that may predict it within the realms of the transcendental views of life, society's shared culture and the world of personal and interpersonal affections. To do this, we started with two hypotheses: (1) prosocial behaviour differs according to gender and participation in volunteering; and (2) the variables of transcendental values, cultural development, affective development, gender and participation in volunteering predict prosocial behaviour. To do so, we conducted a quantitative study based on the cross-sectional, social analytical-empirical research method. We used a validated instrument with a large sample of 1,712 individuals living in the multicultural context of the Spanish city of Melilla, located in North Africa and one of only two land borders between Europe and Morocco. Values that could promote prosocial behaviour were grouped into four dimensions to locate relevant factors that helped identify which values are linked to specific actions, both formal and informal, through an inferential analysis focusing on regression and multivariate analysis of variance. Our findings highlighted the linkage of the transcendent dimension of the individual in relation to his or her level of prosocial behaviour and the role of women as socialising agents.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Social Behavior , Social Values , Volunteers , Sex Factors , Altruism , Religion , Spain , Cultural Factors
10.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1443404

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: apresentar resultados do eixo 2 do projeto Diagnóstico da Violência Fatal e Não Fatal no Estado de Alagoas (DVEAL). Neste artigo é comparado o padrão epidemiológico do estupro de crianças e adolescentes em relação aos adultos. Métodos: delineou-se uma investigação observacional e retrospectiva incluindo 380 registros de violência sexual no Instituto Médico Legal, entre 2016 e 2018. Por meio de regressão logística binária e múltipla calculou-se a chance de violência por faixa etária, associando os possíveis fatores relacionados. Resultados: metade das vítimas estupradas possuíam até 13 anos de idade, com média de 14 anos, e 9 em cada 10 casos eram de mulheres/meninas vitimadas. O padrão do estupro identificado foi de vítimas: em situação conjugal solteira; estudantes, abusadas por conhecidos; que realizaram exame pericial entre 1-7 dias; abusadas durante a madrugada; e em região genital. Cerca de 8 em cada 10 casos foram estupros confirmados pela perícia, o restante foi via relato oral. O modelo final identificou dois fatores mais associados à violência sexual em crianças/adolescentes. Conclusão: o padrão de vitimização sexual no estado impacta significativamente crianças e adolescentes e, principalmente, o gênero feminino


Aims: to present the results of axis 2 of the Diagnosis of Fatal and Non-Fatal Violence in the State of Alagoas (DVEAL) project. This article compares the epidemiological pattern of rape involving children/adolescents in relation to adults. Methods: an observational and retrospective investigation was designed, including 380 records of sexual violence at the Instituto Médico Legal, between 2016 and 2018. Through binary and multiple logistic regression, the chance of violence by age group was calculated, associating the possible related factors. Results: half of the raped victims were up to 13 years old, with an average of 14 years old, and 9 out of 10 cases were victimized women/girls. The pattern of rape identified was of victims: single marital status; students, abused by acquaintances; who underwent an expert examination between 1-7 days; abused during the dawn; and in the genital region. About 8 out of 10 cases were rapes confirmed by forensics, the rest were via oral report. The final model identified two factors most associated with sexual violence in children/adolescents. Conclusions: the pattern of sexual victimization in the state significantly impacts children and adolescents, especially the female gender


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Rape/statistics & numerical data , Child Abuse, Sexual/statistics & numerical data , Violence Against Women , Brazil , Logistic Models , Sex Factors , Retrospective Studies , Age Factors , Sociodemographic Factors
11.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 47: e22, 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1424250

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo. Medir el efecto de la pandemia de COVID-19 en la implementación de un programa de detección oportuna, intervención breve y referencia para tratamiento por consumo de alcohol en centros de salud del primer nivel de atención de la Ciudad de México. Métodos. Se recopilaron los datos en 18 centros de salud de la Ciudad de México entre 2019 y 2021, como parte de un estudio más amplio. Participaron 287 profesionales de la salud, quienes midieron el consumo de alcohol de sus pacientes con la prueba AUDIT-C. Se analizaron aspectos demográficos y patrones de consumo de los pacientes, así como las acciones de atención (detección, intervención breve, entrega de folletos, monitoreo y referencia) en tres momentos: antes de la pandemia de COVID-19, durante el confinamiento y luego del confinamiento. Se realizaron pruebas paramétricas y no paramétricas para identificar la relación y las diferencias entre las variables en los tres períodos. Resultados. Se identificaron 9 090 personas con consumo de alcohol; el porcentaje de detección del consumo tuvo fluctuaciones en los tres períodos estudiados (26%, 53% y 37%, respectivamente). El consumo de riesgo medio y alto fue más frecuente entre hombres jóvenes y con mayor escolaridad durante y después del confinamiento. En el período posconfinamiento aumentaron las acciones de monitoreo y referencia. Conclusiones. La medición del impacto de la pandemia en la implementación de un programa de detección oportuna, asesoramiento breve y referencia para el tratamiento del consumo de alcohol en centros de salud ayuda a elaborar políticas en salud por edad, género, escolaridad y tipo de consumo para el primer nivel de atención.


ABSTRACT Objective. To measure the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the implementation of a program for timely detection, brief intervention, and referral for treatment of alcohol consumption in health centers at the first level of care in Mexico City. Methods. The data were collected at 18 health centers in Mexico City between 2019 and 2021, as part of a larger study. A total of 287 participating health professionals measured their patients' alcohol consumption using the AUDIT-C test. The patients' demographic aspects and consumption patterns were analyzed, as well as care actions (detection, brief intervention, provision of leaflets, monitoring, and referral) at three points in time: before the COVID-19 pandemic, during confinement, and after confinement. Parametric and nonparametric tests were performed to identify the relationship and differences between the variables at the three points. Results. A total of 9090 people who consumed alcohol were identified; detection of consumption fluctuated in the three periods studied (26%, 53%, and 37%, respectively). Medium- and high-risk consumption was more frequent among young men with higher schooling during and after confinement. In the post-confinement period, monitoring and referral actions increased. Conclusions. Measuring the impact of the pandemic on the implementation of a program for timely detection of alcohol consumption, brief intervention, and referral for treatment in health centers helps to develop health policies by age, gender, schooling, and type of consumption at the first level of care.


RESUMO Objetivo. Medir o efeito da pandemia de COVID-19 na implementação de um programa de detecção oportuna, intervenção breve e encaminhamento para tratamento pelo consumo de álcool em centros de saúde no nível da atenção primária na Cidade do México. Métodos. Foram coletados dados em 18 centros de saúde na Cidade do México entre 2019 e 2021, como parte de um estudo mais amplo. Participaram 287 profissionais de saúde, que mediram o consumo de álcool de seus pacientes com o teste AUDIT-C. Foram analisados aspectos demográficos e o padrão de consumo dos pacientes, bem como as medidas em termos de atendimento (triagem, intervenção breve, entrega de folhetos, monitoramento e encaminhamento) em três momentos: antes da pandemia de COVID-19, durante o confinamento e após o confinamento. Foram feitos testes paramétricos e não paramétricos para identificar a relação e as diferenças entre as variáveis nos três períodos. Resultados. Foram identificadas 9.090 pessoas com consumo de álcool, sendo que a porcentagem de consumo detectada flutuou nos três períodos estudados (26%, 53% e 37%, respectivamente). O consumo de médio e alto risco foi mais prevalente entre homens jovens e com nível maior de escolaridade durante e após o confinamento. No período posterior ao confinamento, as medidas de monitoramento e encaminhamento aumentaram. Conclusões. Medir o impacto da pandemia na implementação de um programa de detecção oportuna, intervenção breve e encaminhamento para tratamento do consumo de álcool em centros de saúde ajuda na formulação de políticas de saúde por idade, gênero, escolaridade e tipo de consumo para o primeiro nível de atenção.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Primary Health Care , Alcohol Drinking/prevention & control , COVID-19 , Sex Factors , Mass Screening , Age Factors , Sociodemographic Factors
12.
ABCD (São Paulo, Online) ; 36: e1773, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1519804

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown a relationship between calf circumference (CC) and outcomes in hospitalized patients. AIMS: To investigate the relationship between CC and clinical and nutritional outcomes in older in-patients (OiP) in a surgery ward. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study with 417 OiP in a surgery ward. Clinical variables, anthropometry, and nutritional screening instruments such as subjective global assessment (SGA), mini nutritional assessment (MNA), and nutritional risk screening (NRS) were used in the investigation. The tests Pearson's chi-square, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, and Spearman's coefficient, and multiple linear regression analyses were used to review the factors associated with CC. RESULTS: Lower CC values were found in the age group 80 years and over (p<0.0001), presence of complications (p=0.0269), NRS (p<0.0001), SGA (p<0.0001), and MNA (p<0.0001). Gender (p=0.0011; partial R2=0.01151), age (p=0.0002; partial R2=0.06032), body mass index (p≤0.0001; partial R2=0.40820), and arm circumference (p≤0.0001; partial R2=0.11890) are variables that together were associated with CC. There was also a relationship between SGA (p=0.0166; partial R2=0.00605) and absence of complications during hospitalization (p=0.0047; R2=0.01154) with CC. CONCLUSIONS: Gender, age, body mass index, and arm circumference were jointly associated with CC, in addition to SGA and absence of complications. The CC is a relevant indicator for OiP in the clinical practice.


RESUMO RACIONAL: Estudos anteriores mostraram uma relação entre a circunferência da panturrilha (CP) e desfechos em pacientes hospitalizados. OBJETIVOS: Investigar a relação entre CP e desfecho clínico e nutricional em pacientes idosos hospitalizados (PIH) em uma enfermaria cirúrgica. MÉTODOS: Este foi um estudo transversal com 417 PIH em uma enfermaria de cirurgia. Variáveis clínicas, antropometria e instrumentos de triagem nutricional como avaliação subjetiva global (ASG), mini avaliação nutricional (MAN) e triagem de risco nutricional (NRS) foram utilizados na investigação. Qui-quadrado, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, coeficiente de Spearman e análise de regressão linear múltipla foram usados para analisar os fatores associados a CP. RESULTADOS: Menores valores de CP foram encontrados na faixa etária de 80 anos (p<0,0001), complicações (p=0,0269), risco nutricional pelo NRS (p<0,0001), ASG (p<0,0001) e MAN (p<0,0001). Sexo (p=0,0011; R2 parcial=0,01151), idade (p=0,0002; R2 parcial=0,06032), IMC (p≤0,0001; R2 parcial=0,40820) e circunferência do braço (CB) (p≤0,0001; R2 parcial=0,11890) foram variáveis que juntas estiveram associadas com a CP. Também houve relação entre ASG (p=0,0166; R2 parcial=0,00605) e ausência de complicações durante a internação (p=0,0047; R2= 0,01154) com a CP. CONCLUSÕES: Sexo, idade, IMC e CB associaram-se conjuntamente com CP, ASG e ausência de complicações. CP é um indicador relevante em PIH na prática clínica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Body Weights and Measures , Malnutrition , Body Mass Index , Nutrition Assessment , Sex Factors , Nutritional Status , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Age Factors , Hospitalization
13.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(6): 1511-1517, dic. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421794

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Although acute and chronic pathologies of the glenohumeral and acromioclavicular joints are frequently encountered in the population, the anatomy and morphometry are not fully known. The aim of this study is to determine the measurements of morphometric parameters according to age groups and sex in a large series of Turkish population. Nine hundred and forty-one shoulders computed tomography (CT) images were screened and those of subjects with healthy anatomical structure were included. Humeral head diameter (HDD) was measured on CT images. Measurements were made using 3D-CT images of: width (GW) and height (GH) of the glenoid cavity; width (CW) and height (CH) of the distal clavicular joint surface; and width (AW) and height (AH) of the acromial joint surface. Data were compared, stratified by age and sex. Images of 223 patients (118 men, 105 women) were analyzed. The following mean measurements were determined: HDD, 41.77±3.77 mm; GH, 34.66±3.26 mm; GW, 25.50±2.90 mm; CW, 14.85±3.51 mm; CH, 8.49±2.27 mm; AW, 12.97±2.94 mm; AH, 7.01±1.77 mm. When startified by sex, HDD (p<0.001), GH (p<0.001), GW (p<0.001), CW (p<0.001), CH (p=0.002), AW (p<0.001) and AH (p<0.001) measurements were significantly different and mean values were greater in men. Similarly for age, significant differences were found for GH (p=0.028), CW (p<0.001), AW (p<0.001), AH (p<0.001). The parametric values we have obtained in the Turkish population we measure differ from the measurements made in different populations according to age groups and sex. Knowing these features will contribute to treatment planning, implant and prosthesis applications.


Aunque las patologías agudas y crónicas de las articulaciones glenohumeral y acromioclavicular son frecuentes en la población, la anatomía y morfometría no se conocen por completo. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar las medidas de los parámetros morfométricos según grupos de edad y sexo en una serie de individuos de población turca. Se examinaron 941 imágenes de tomografía computarizada (TC) de hombro y se incluyeron las de sujetos con una estructura anatómica sana. El diámetro de la cabeza humeral (HDD) se midió en imágenes de TC. Las mediciones se realizaron utilizando imágenes 3D-CT de: ancho (GW) y altura (GH) de la cavidad glenoidea; anchura (CW) y altura (CH) de la superficie articular clavicular; y anchura (AW) y altura (AH) de la superficie articular acromial. Los datos fueron comparados, estratificados por edad y sexo. Se analizaron imágenes de 223 pacientes (118 hombres, 105 mujeres). Se determinaron las siguientes medidas medias: HDD, 41,77±3,77 mm; GH, 34,66 ± 3,26 mm; GW, 25,50±2,90 mm; CW, 14,85±3,51 mm; CH, 8,49±2,27 mm; AW, 12,97±2,94 mm; AH, 7,01±1,77 mm. Cuando se inicia por sexo, HDD (p<0,001), GH (p<0,001), GW (p<0,001), CW (p<0,001), CH (p=0,002), AW (p<0,001) y AH (p <0,001) las mediciones fueron significativamente diferentes y los valores medios fueron mayores en los hombres. De igual forma para la edad se encontraron diferencias significativas para GH (p=0,028), CW (p<0,001), AW (p<0,001), AH (p<0,001). Los valores paramétricos que hemos obtenido en la población turca difieren de las medidas realizadas en diferentes poblaciones según grupos de edad y sexo. El conocimiento de estas características contribuirá a la planificación del tratamiento, aplicaciones de implantes y prótesis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Shoulder Joint/diagnostic imaging , Acromioclavicular Joint/diagnostic imaging , Shoulder Joint/anatomy & histology , Turkey , Acromioclavicular Joint/anatomy & histology , Acromion , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Sex Factors , Analysis of Variance , Age Factors , Age and Sex Distribution , Glenoid Cavity
14.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(6): 1641-1647, dic. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421806

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between acetabulum morphological measurements and present the reference values of the acetabulum. The study had a retrospective design and was conducted with 234 healthy subjects (108 females; 126 males) aged 18-53 years over a period of 4 years from 2018 to 2022. Eleven measurements including the center- edge angle (CEA), acetabular angle (AA), acetabular depth (AD), acetabular width (AW), dept to width ratio (ADWR), Extrusion A (EA)-B (EB), Extrusion index (EI), the lateral subluxation (LS), peak to edge distance (PED), and roof obliquity (RO) were taken. The p<0.05 value was considered significant. A significant difference was found in CEA, AA, EB, LS, and RO values, while there was no significance in the AD, AW, ADWR, EI, and PED measurements in comparison with acetabular morphometry according to gender. Also, in the evaluation of acetabulum to age-related changes, there was a significant difference in values of the CEA, AA, AD, AW, ADWR, LS, and PED from decades 1 to 5. The knowledge of radiological acetabulum findings is paramount for the diagnosis of hip dysplasia and may be useful for prosthesis, orthopedic and forensic experts. Also, the most interesting finding was that ADWR increased based on age in a directly proportional trend. The most apparent change based on age was seen in CEA (between decades 3-4), LS (decades 1-5), PED (decades 2-4), AD, and AW (decades 2-5).


El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la relación entre las medidas morfológicas del acetábulo y presentar sus valores de referencia. El estudio tuvo un diseño retrospectivo y se realizó con 234 sujetos sanos (108 mujeres; 126 hombres) de 18 a 53 años de edad durante un período de 4 años, desde 2018 hasta 2022. Once mediciones que incluyeron el ángulo centro-margen (ACM), ángulo acetabular (AA), profundidad acetabular (PA), ancho acetabular (AC), relación de profundidad y ancho (RPAC), extrusión A (EA)-B (EB), índice de extrusión (IE), subluxación lateral (SL). Se midió la distancia al margen (DAM) y la oblicuidad del techo (OT). Se consideró significativo el valor de p<0,05. Se encontró una diferencia significativa en los valores de ACM, AA, EB, SL y OT, mientras que no hubo significación en las medidas de AA, AC, RPAC, IE y DAM en comparación con la morfometría acetabular según el sexo. Además, en la evaluación del acetábulo respecto a los cambios relacionados con la edad, hubo una diferencia significativa en los valores de ACM, AA, PA, AC, RPAC, SL y DAM de las décadas 1 a 5. El conocimiento de los hallazgos radiológicos del acetábulo es primordial para el diagnóstico de displasia de cadera y puede ser útil para expertos en prótesis, ortopedia y medicina forense. Además, el hallazgo más interesante fue que RPAC aumentó según la edad en una tendencia directamente proporcional. El cambio más aparente según la edad se observó en ACM (entre las décadas 3 y 4), LS (décadas 1 a 5), DAM (décadas 2 a 4), PA y AC (décadas 2 a 5).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Hip Dislocation/pathology , Acetabulum/anatomy & histology , Sex Factors , Retrospective Studies , Age Factors
15.
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 13: 1-8, dez. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1413769

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analisar o padrão de desempenho nas atividades de vida diária em idosos quilombolas maranhenses. Métodos: Estudo transversal, de base domiciliar. Realizado com 208 idosos ≥60 anos de idade, residentes em 11 comunidades remanescentes de Quilombolas no Município de Bequimão, Maranhão. Investigou-se a capacidade funcional para as Atividades Básicas da Vida Diária e Atividades Instrumentais da Vida Diária. Calcularam-se as prevalências e realizaram-se testes Qui-quadrado de Pearson ou Exact de Fisher para diferenças entre sexo e faixa etária. Resultados: A prevalência total de incapacidade funcional foi de 57,7%, sendo 14,4% nas atividades básicas e 56,3% para as atividades instrumentais. A incapacidade para as atividades da vida diária foi maior nas mulheres e aumentou com a idade. As atividades instrumentais variaram de 18,3% (tomar medicamentos) a 43,3% (ir ao médico). Já para as atividades básicas, comer sozinho foi a menor (3,9%) e vestir-se a maior (9,6%). Diferiu estatisticamente a prevalência do acúmulo de incapacidades por sexo e idade, sendo maior número de incapacidades entre os idosos mais velhos. Conclusão: Observou-se elevada prevalência de incapacidade funcional e dependência nas atividades da vida diária. As atividades instrumentais foram as mais comprometidas e as mulheres e os idosos mais velhos foram os mais dependentes. (AU)


Objective: To analyze the pattern of performance in activities of daily living in elderly quilombolas from Maranhão. Methods: Cross-sectional, household-based study. Carried out with 208 elderly people ≥60 years of age, residing in 11 remaining communities of Quilombolas in the Municipality of Bequimão, Maranhão. Functional capacity for Basic Activities of Daily Living and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living was investigated. Prevalences were calculated and Pearson's Chisquare or Fisher's Exact tests were performed for differences between sex and age group. Results: The total prevalence of functional disability was 57.7%, with 14.4% in basic activities and 56.3% in instrumental activities. Inability to perform activities of daily living was greater in women and increased with age. The instrumental activities ranged from 18.3% (taking medication) to 43.3% (going to the doctor). As for basic activities, eating alone was the lowest (3.9%) and dressing the highest (9.6%). The prevalence of the accumulation of disabilities by sex and age was statistically different, with a greater number of disabilities among the older elderly. Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of functional disability and dependence on activities of daily living. Instrumental activities were the most compromised and women and the oldest elderly are the most dependent. (AU)


Objetivo: Analizar el patrón de desempeño em lãs actividades de la vida diária en quilombolas ancianos de Maranhão. Métodos: Estudio transversal de hogares. Realizado con 208 ancianos ≥ 60 años, residentes en 11 comunidades restantes de Quilombolas em el Municipio de Bequimão, Maranhão. Se investigo la capacidad funcional para lãs actividades básicas de la vida diaria y las atividades instrumentales de la vida diaria. Se calcularon las prevalencias y se realizaron las pruebas de Chi-cuadrado de Pearson o Exacto de Fisher para las diferencias entre sexo y grupo de edad. Resultados: La prevalencia total de discapacidad funcional fue de 57,7%, con 14,4% en actividades básicas y 56,3% en atividades instrumentales. La incapacidad para realizar las actividades de la vida diária fue mayor em las mujeres y aumento com la edad. Las actividades instrumentales oscilaron entre el 18,3% (toma de medicación) y el 43,3% (acudir al médico). Encuanto a las actividades básicas, comer solo fue el más bajo (3,9%) y vestirse el más alto (9,6%). La prevalencia de acumulación de discapacidades por sexo y edad fue estadísticamente diferente, com um mayor número de discapacidades entre losancianos. Conclusión: Hubo una alta prevalencia de discapacidad funcional y dependencia de las actividades de la vida diaria. Las atividades instrumentales fue ronlas más comprometidas y lasmujeres y losancianos mayores sonlos más dependientes. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aged , Activities of Daily Living , Frail Elderly/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Surveys , Black People , Health of Ethnic Minorities , Quilombola Communities
16.
Rev. chil. neuro-psiquiatr ; 60(4): 413-421, dic. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1423704

ABSTRACT

Introducción: las sustancias psicoactivas han formado parte de la existencia humana por miles de años, han sido empleadas con distintos fines, consolidando su uso y abuso durante los últimos años como una condición altamente prevalente en la sociedad. Actualmente, existen gran cantidad de sustancias y, así mismo, diversas formas de clasificación. En términos de prevalencia mundial hasta el momento no hay un estándar de oro que permita medir de manera exacta el consumo según cada región geográfica, lo que dificulta el estudio y constituye un desafío al momento de realizar comparaciones entre regiones. No obstante, en términos de prevalencia mundial, la sustancia más consumida es el alcohol, seguida por cannabis, opioides, anfetaminas y cocaína respectivamente. Objetivo: caracterizar pacientes adultos del policlínico de salud mental del Hospital Hernán Henríquez Aravena con diagnóstico relacionado al consumo de sustancias y establecer las principales sustancias consumidas. Materiales y Método: se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal en la población objetivo mediante revisión de fichas clínicas de pacientes adultos atendidos en policlínico de salud mental del Hospital Hernán Henríquez Aravena, durante los años 2018, 2019, 2020. Los antecedentes recolectados del estudio se analizaron según la población general y se compararon según género. Resultados: en la muestra estudiada, 73.2% de los consumidores son de sexo masculino, siendo el alcohol la sustancia de mayor consumo, seguida por cocaína, marihuana y benzodiacepinas.


Introduction: psychoactive substances have been part of the existence of humanity for thousands of years and have been used for different purposes, consolidating its use and abuse in recent years as a highly prevalent condition in our society. They are a large number of substances, and also various forms of classification. In terms of world prevalence, to date, there is no gold standard method that allows the exact measurement of substance consumption to each geographical region, which makes the study difficult and constitutes a challenge when making comparisons between regions. However, in terms of world prevalence, the most consumed substance is alcohol, followed by cannabis, opioids, amphetamines, and cocaine respectively. Objective: characterize adult patients of the mental health polyclinic of the Hernán Henríquez Aravena Hospital with a diagnosis related to substance use and establish the main substances consumed. Material and Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in the target population by reviewing the clinical records of adult patients treated at the mental health polyclinic of the Hernán Henríquez Aravena Hospital, during the years 2018, 2019, and 2020. The antecedents collected from the study were analyzed according to the general population and compared according to gender. Results: In the sample studied, 73.2% of the users are male, alcohol being the substance most consumed, followed by cocaine, marijuana, and benzodiazepines


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Tobacco Use Disorder/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Chile , Sex Factors , Marijuana Abuse/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Age Factors , Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry) , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy , Hospitals, Public , Mental Health Services
17.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(6): 1323-1330, dic. 2022. ilus., tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1427939

ABSTRACT

El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar el conocimiento sobre el Virus del Papiloma Humano (VPH) en estudiantes universitarios de la ciudad de Guayaquil, Se realizó una investigación con alcance descriptivo y transaccional, con una población constituida por 3000 estudiantes universitarios, y una muestra probabilística de 332. La técnica empleada fué la encuesta y el instrumento de recolección de la información, un cuestionario con 15 preguntas. El conocimiento de esta enfermedad se determinó mediante una escala de valoración en las siguientes categorías: Insuficiente: de 1-3; Regular: 4-6; Bueno: 7-9; Muy Bueno; 10-12 y Excelente: 13-15. Se realizó la prueba de Kolmogorov- Smirnov para determinar la normalidad de la distribución de datos y la prueba del Chi-cuadrado para la comprobación de las hipótesis planteadas, los datos se procesaron con el paquete estadístico SPSS 21,0. Se concluye que existe una asociación significativa entre el grado de conocimiento del papiloma humano con la edad y el sexo de los estudiantes universitarios(AU)


The objective of the present study was to determine the knowledge about the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) in university students in the city of Guayaquil. An investigation with a descriptive and cross-sectional scope was carried out, with a population made up of 3000 university students, and a probabilistic sample of 332. The technique used was the survey and the data collection instrument, a questionnaire with 15 questions. Knowledge of this disease was determined using an assessment scale in the following categories: Insufficient: 1-3; Regular: 4-6; Good: 7-9; Very good; 10-12 and Excellent: 13-15. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was performed to determine the normality of the data distribution and the Chi-square test to verify the hypotheses proposed, the data was processed with the SPSS 25.0 statistical package. It is concluded that there is a significant association between the degree of knowledge of the human papilloma with the age and sex of university students(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Perception , Students/psychology , Universities/statistics & numerical data , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Papillomavirus Infections/psychology , Papillomaviridae , Sex Factors , Age Factors , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Ecuador
18.
Actual. osteol ; 18(2): 75-81, oct. 2022. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1437673

ABSTRACT

Para la evaluación longitudinal de la composición corporal por DXA se deben calcular los cambios mínimos significativos (CMS). No está claro si hay diferencias de género para los CMS de adultos. Con consentimiento informado se realizaron 2 escaneos DXA de cuerpo completo consecutivos, con reposicionamiento entre ellos, en 40 varones y 40 mujeres (rango de edad de 22 a 85 años), con un equipo GE Lunar Prodigy Advance®, siguiendo las pautas de la International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD). Todos los escaneos fueron obtenidos por la misma técnica experta. Los CMS se calcularon de acuerdo con el método propuesto por la ISCD. Los resultados se analizaron con GraphPad® para Windows 6.0, con una significancia fijada en p < 0,05. No hubo diferencias de género para la edad (p = 0,846) o el índice de masa corporal (p = 0,802). La altura, la masa corporal, la masa magra y el contenido mineral óseo (CMO) fueron mayores en los varones (todos p < 0,0001), mientras que la masa grasa fue mayor en las mujeres (p = 0,0036). No hubo diferencias significativas entre géneros para los coeficientes de variación de masa grasa (p = 0,0698), masa magra (p = 0,1483) o CMO (p = 0,5254). Los CMS (para IC de 95%) para la masa grasa fueron 1,780 kg (varones), 1,671 kg (mujeres) y 1,727 kg (ambos sexos); para masa magra, 1,658 kg (varones), 1,644 kg (mujeres) y 1,651 (ambos sexos); y para CMO, 112,2 g (varones), 109,4 (mujeres) y 110,8 g (ambos sexos). Los resultados sugieren que los CMS para la composición corporal de su-jetos adultos pueden calcularse a partir de una muestra de cualquier género o una que incluya sujetos de ambos sexos. (AU)


Lack of gender-related differences in least significant changes for DXA body composition analysis in adult subjectsFor longitudinal assessment of body composition by DXA, least significant changes (LSCs) should be calculated. It is unclear if there are gender differences for adult LSCs. With informed consent, 2 consecutive total-body DXA scans, with repositioning between them, were performed on 40 males and 40 females (age range 22 to 85 years) with a GE Lunar Prodigy Advance scanner, following the guidelines of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD). All scans were obtained by the same skilled technologist. The LSCs were calculated according to the method proposed by the ISCD. Results were analyzed with GraphPad for Windows 6.0, with significance set at p < 0.05. There were no gender differences for age (p = 0.846) or body mass index (p = 0.802). Height, body mass, lean mass, and bone mineral content (BMC) were higher in males (all p < 0.0001), whereas fat mass was higher in females (p = 0.0036). There was no significant difference between genders for the coefficients of variation of fat mass (p = 0.0698), lean mass (p = 0.1483), or BMC (p = 0.5254). The LSCs (for a 95% CI) for fat mass were 1.780 kg (men), 1.671 kg (women), and 1.727 kg (both genders); for lean mass, 1.658 kg (men), 1.644 kg (women) and 1,651 (both genders); and for BMC, 112.2 g (men), 109.4 (women), and 110.8 g (both genders). These results suggest that LSCs for body composition of adult subjects can be calculated from either a sample of each gender or one that includes subjects of both genders. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Body Composition , Absorptiometry, Photon , Bone Density , Sex Factors , Reference Values , Body Height , Body Weight , Body Mass Index , Anthropometry , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Age Factors , Adiposity
19.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 9(3): 1-12, sept. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1518696

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La enfermedad renal crónica se encuentra en ascenso.Prevenir o retardar su progresión mediante la aplicación de estrategias dirigidas al diagnóstico precoz es esencial. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la utilidad de la fórmula HUGE para el diagnóstico de Enfermedad Renal Crónica en el anciano. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo prospectivo y de corte longitudinal en 260 adultos mayores que ingresaron en los servicios de Geriatría y Medicina Interna del Hospital Clínico Quirúrgico "Hermanos Ameijeiras" en el período enero de 2019 y junio de 2020. RESULTADOS: El 58,5% de la muestra de estudio fueron mujeres. La edad promedio fue de 77,1 ± 7,3 años. La enfermedad renal crónica estuvo presente en el 64,2% de los pacientes. Se observó mayor frecuencia de pacientes con daño renal (32,7%) al emplear la formula CKD­ EPI en comparación con los identificados al emplear la fórmula HUGE (25,0%). Al estimar la concordancia entre ambas fórmulas se observó un estadístico kappa (k) de 0,814 (IC de 95%:0,7370 - 0,8909; p < 0,001). La sensibilidad de la fórmula de HUGE fue de un 76,5% (IC de 95%: 66,9% - 86,1%) y la especificidad de un 100% (99,7% - 100%). El valor predictivo positivo fue de 100 % (IC de 95%: 99,2% - 100%) y el negativo de 89,7% (85,2% - 94,2%). CONCLUSIONES: La fórmula CKD-EPI identifica daño renal en mayor porcentaje, en estadios precoces. Por el contrario, la fórmula de HUGE, detecta el daño renal en un porcentaje mayor en estadios más avanzados.La concordancia para diagnosticar daño renal entre la fórmula CKD-EPI y HUGE fue muy buena. La fórmula HUGE es útil, sensible y específica para evaluar la enfermedad renal crónica en los adultos mayores.


INTRODUCTION: Chronic kidney disease is on the rise. Preventing or delaying its progression through the application of strategies aimed at early diagnosis is essential. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the usefulness of the HUGE formula for the diagnosis of Chronic Kidney Disease in the elderly. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A prospective, descriptive and longitudinal observational study was carried out in 260 older adults who were admitted to the Geriatrics and Internal Medicine services of the "Hermanos Ameijeiras" Surgical Clinical Hospital between January 2019 and June 2020. RESULTS: 58.5% of the study sample was women. The mean age was 77.1 ± 7.3 years. CKD was present in 64.2% of the patients. A higher frequency of patients with kidney damage (32.7%) was observed when using the CKD ­ EPI formula compared to those identified when using the HUGE (25.0%). When estimating the concordance between both formulas, a kappa statistic (k) of 0.814 (95% CI: 0.7370 - 0.8909; p < 0.001) was observed. The sensitivity of the HUGE formula was 76.5% (95% CI: 66.9% - 86.1%) and the specificity was 100% (99.7% - 100%). The positive predictive value was 100% (95% CI: 99.2% - 100%) and the negative predictive value was 89.7% (85.2% - 94.2%). CONCLUSIONS: The CKD-EPI formula identifies kidney damage in a higher percentage, in early stages. On the contrary, the HUGE formula detects kidney damage in a higher percentage in more advanced stages. The concordance to diagnose kidney damage between the CKD-EPI and HUGE formula was very good. The HUGE formula is useful, sensitive, and specific for evaluating chronic kidney disease in older adults.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/blood , Urea/blood , Sex Factors , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Creatinine , Mathematical Concepts , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Hematocrit
20.
Rev. chil. ter. ocup ; 23(1): 65-79, jun. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1398803

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: El contexto sociodemográfico del país ha desafiado a la sociedad un estudio cada vez más acabado de las personas mayores del país. Desde la Terapia Ocupacional surge la necesidad de conocer cuáles son los roles que desempeñan las personas mayores y su satisfacción e interés por involucrarse en éstos, dada la escasa evidencia local en la materia. Material y método: Diseño de corte transversal de tipo cuantitativo. El presente estudio se realiza en la comuna de Puente Alto a 322 personas mayores participantes de programas municipales a quienes se les aplica el Listado de Roles v3 (C) Forma 1. Resultados: Hombres y mujeres tienen la misma jerarquía y similar frecuencia en el desempeño de roles a excepción de los roles de amigo(a), aficionado(a) y participante de organizaciones. Los roles más desempeñados son amo(a) de casa y miembro de familia. Los menos desempeñados son de estudiante, voluntario y trabajador. En ambos géneros se ven altos niveles de satisfacción por los roles desempeñados y existe interés actual por ser amo de casa, amigo y aficionado en el caso de hombres, así como interés por ama de casa, miembro de familia y amiga en mujeres. Conclusión: Las personas mayores participantes mantienen una participación activa a través del desempeño de roles significativos que proveen de alta satisfacción, y tienen interés por desempeñar ciertos roles que como sociedad se podrían fomentar mayormente.


Objective: The actual social and demographic context has challenged society to study elderly people. From occupational therapy, the need arises to know which are the roles that older people play, their satisfaction and interest in getting involved in them, given the scant local evidence on the matter. Method: Quantitative type cross-sectional design. This study is carried out in the Commune of Puente Alto, with 322 older people participating in community programs, to whom the Role Cheklist v3 © Form 1 was applied. Results: Men and women have the same hierarchy and similar frequency in the performance of roles, with exception of the roles of friend, fan and participant in organizations. The most performed roles are housewife and family member. The least performed are student, volunteer and worker. In both genders, high levels of satisfaction are seen for the roles performed and there is current interest in being a housewife, friend and fan in the case of men, as well as interest in being a housewife, family member and friend in women. Conclusion: Older people maintain an active participation in the community through the performance of significant roles, which confirms their motivation to contribute and contribute to society, contradicting the theoretical proposals associated with that old age is a passive and inactive stage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Personal Satisfaction , Quality of Life , Role , Aging , Occupational Therapy , Sex Factors , Organizations , Cross-Sectional Studies , Age Factors , Checklist
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