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1.
São Paulo; s.n; 20240222. 73 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1531643

ABSTRACT

O carcinoma secretório em glândula salivar é uma neoplasia recentemente descrita que tem os mesmos aspectos morfológicos, imuno-histoquímicos e genéticos do carcinoma secretório de origem mamária. O carcinoma secretório tem características celulares reminiscentes de uma célula secretora lactacional, isto é, um citoplasma vacuolado repleto de gotas lipídicas e um material secretado, por vezes de forma apócrina, que pode lembrar o leite. Mais recentemente, algum nível de diferenciação lactacional foi sugerida no carcinoma secretório de origem salivar. O objetivo do estudo foi verificar se existe uma diferenciação do tipo lactacional em carcinomas secretórios de origem salivar, comparando a outros tipos de carcinomas salivares mais comuns. Foram realizadas reações imuno-histoquímicas para as seguintes proteínas: receptores hormonais (receptor de prolactina e receptor do hormônio do crescimento), proteínas associadas ao produto de secreção da glândula mamária lactacional (mucina-1 (MUC-1), MUC4, globulina de gordura 1 do leite humano, lactoferrina) e proteínas associadas à via Akt-mTOR (PTEN, p-Akt, p-mTOR, p4EBP1, eIF4E, pS6). A maioria dos casos de carcinoma secretório foi negativa para receptor de prolactina e de hormônio do crescimento. Lactoferrina foi positiva em todos os grupos tumorais, porém somente em carcinoma secretório observou-se um padrão de marcação intensa, difuso tanto em célula como em secreção. Todos os casos de carcinoma secretório foram positivos para globulina de gordura do tipo 1, porém o mesmo padrão de marcação foi observado em outros tumores. A maioria dos casos de carcinoma secretório foram positivos para MUC1 e MUC4. Nenhum caso de carcinoma secretório foi positivo para Akt, mas PTEN foi difusamente expresso em 57,1% dos casos. mTOR foi expresso em mais da metade dos casos de carcinoma secretório e dos outros tumores salivares. Entre as proteínas à jusante de mTOR, somente eIF4E demonstrou alta expressão no grupo de estudo. A expressão de marcadores lactacionais não é exclusiva do carcinoma secretório, porém a expressão de lactoferrina é distinta neste grupo de tumores quando comparado aos demais tumores salivares estudados.


Subject(s)
Lactation , Signal Transduction
2.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 251-259, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010332

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the mechanism of electroacupuncture (EA) in promoting recovery of the facial function with the involvement of autophagy, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway.@*METHODS@#Seventy-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into the control, sham-operated, facial nerve injury (FNI), EA, EA+3-methyladenine (3-MA), and EA+GDNF antagonist groups using a random number table, with 12 rats in each group. An FNI rat model was established with facial nerve crushing method. EA intervention was conducted at Dicang (ST 4), Jiache (ST 6), Yifeng (SJ 17), and Hegu (LI 4) acupoints for 2 weeks. The Simone's 10-Point Scale was utilized to monitor the recovery of facial function. The histopathological evaluation of facial nerves was performed using hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. The levels of Beclin-1, light chain 3 (LC3), and P62 were detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC), immunofluorescence, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Additionally, IHC was also used to detect the levels of GDNF, Rai, PI3K, and mTOR.@*RESULTS@#The facial functional scores were significantly increased in the EA group than the FNI group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). HE staining showed nerve axons and myelin sheaths, which were destroyed immediately after the injury, were recovered with EA treatment. The expressions of Beclin-1 and LC3 were significantly elevated and the expression of P62 was markedly reduced in FNI rats (P<0.01); however, EA treatment reversed these abnormal changes (P<0.01). Meanwhile, EA stimulation significantly increased the levels of GDNF, Rai, PI3K, and mTOR (P<0.01). After exogenous administration with autophagy inhibitor 3-MA or GDNF antagonist, the repair effect of EA on facial function was attenuated (P<0.05 or P<0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#EA could promote the recovery of facial function and repair the facial nerve damages in a rat model of FNI. EA may exert this neuroreparative effect through mediating the release of GDNF, activating the PI3K/mTOR signaling pathway, and further regulating the autophagy of facial nerves.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Electroacupuncture , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/metabolism , Facial Nerve Injuries/therapy , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Beclin-1 , Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Signal Transduction , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Autophagy , Mammals/metabolism
3.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 152-162, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010329

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate whether electroacupuncture (EA) at sensitized acupoints could reduce sympathetic-sensory coupling (SSC) and neurogenic inflammatory response by interfering with 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)ergic neural pathways to relieve colitis and somatic referred pain, and explore the underlying mechanisms.@*METHODS@#Rats were treated with 5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) solution for 7 days to establish a colitis model. Twelve rats were randomly divided into the control and model groups according to a random number table (n=6). According to the "Research on Rat Acupoint Atlas", sensitized acupoints and non-sensitized acupoints were determined. Rats were randomly divided into the control, model, Zusanli-EA (ST 36), Dachangshu-EA (BL 25), and Xinshu (BL 15) groups (n=6), as well as the control, model, EA, and EA + GR113808 (a 5-HT inhibitor) groups (n=6). The rats in the control group received no treatment. Acupuncture was administered on 2 days after modeling using the stimulation pavameters: 1 mA, 2 Hz, for 30 min, with sparse and dense waves, for 14 consecutive days. GR113808 was injected into the tail vein at 5 mg/kg before EA for 10 min for 7 consecutive days. Mechanical sensitivity was assessed with von Frey filaments. Body weight and disease activity index (DAI) scores of rats were determined. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed to observe colon histopathology. SSC was analyzed by immunofluorescence staining. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to detect 5-HT and substance P (SP) expressions. The calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in skin tissue and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein levels in DRG were detected by Western blot. The levels of hyaluronic acid (HA), bradykinin (BK), prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) in skin tissue, 5-HT, tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1), serotonin transporters (SERT), 5-HT 3 receptor (5-HT3R), and 5-HT 4 receptor (5-HT4R) in colon tissue were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).@*RESULTS@#BL 25 and ST 36 acupoints were determined as sensitized acupoints, and BL 15 acupoint was used as a non-sensitized acupoint. EA at sensitized acupoints improved the DAI score, increased mechanical withdrawal thresholds, and alleviated colonic pathological damage of rats. EA at sensitized acupoints reduced SSC structures and decreased TH and CGRP expression levels (P<0.05). Furthermore, EA at sensitized acupoints reduced BK, PGI2, 5-HT, 5-HT3R and TPH1 levels, and increased HA, 5-HT4R and SERT levels in colitis rats (P<0.05). GR113808 treatment diminished the protective effect of EA at sensitized acupoints in colitis rats (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#EA at sensitized acupoints alleviated DSS-induced somatic referred pain in colitis rats by interfering with 5-HTergic neural pathway, and reducing SSC inflammatory response.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Electroacupuncture , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Serotonin , Acupuncture Points , Pain, Referred , Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide , Signal Transduction , Colitis/therapy , Indoles , Sulfonamides
4.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 230-242, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010324

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To examine the therapeutic effect of Fangji Fuling Decoction (FFD) on sepsis through network pharmacological analysis combined with in vitro and in vivo experiments.@*METHODS@#A sepsis mouse model was constructed through intraperitoneal injection of 20 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS). RAW264.7 cells were stimulated by 250 ng/mL LPS to establish an in vitro cell model. Network pharmacology analysis identified the key molecular pathway associated with FFD in sepsis. Through ectopic expression and depletion experiments, the effect of FFD on multiple organ damage in septic mice, as well as on cell proliferation and apoptosis in relation to the mitogen-activated protein kinase 14/Forkhead Box O 3A (MAPK14/FOXO3A) signaling pathway, was analyzed.@*RESULTS@#FFD reduced organ damage and inflammation in LPS-induced septic mice and suppressed LPS-induced macrophage apoptosis and inflammation in vitro (P<0.05). Network pharmacology analysis showed that FFD could regulate the MAPK14/FOXO signaling pathway during sepsis. As confirmed by in vitro cell experiments, FFD inhibited the MAPK14 signaling pathway or FOXO3A expression to relieve LPS-induced macrophage apoptosis and inflammation (P<0.05). Furthermore, FFD inhibited the MAPK14/FOXO3A signaling pathway to inhibit LPS-induced macrophage apoptosis in the lung tissue of septic mice (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#FFD could ameliorate the LPS-induced inflammatory response in septic mice by inhibiting the MAPK14/FOXO3A signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 14/metabolism , Wolfiporia , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Sepsis/complications , Signal Transduction , Inflammation/drug therapy , Oxygen Radioisotopes
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 15-34, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008077

ABSTRACT

Jasmonic acid (JA), a plant endogenously synthesized lipid hormone, plays an important role in response to stress. This manuscript summarized the biosynthesis and metabolism of JA and its related regulatory mechanisms, as well as the signal transduction of JA. The mechanism and regulatory network of JA in plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses were systematically reviewed, with the latest advances highlighted. In addition, this review summarized the signal crosstalk between JA and other hormones in regulating plant resistance to various stresses. Finally, the problems to be solved in the study of plant stress resistance mediated by JA were discussed, and the application of new molecular biological technologies in regulating JA signaling to enhance crop resistance was prospected, with the aim to facilitate future research and application of plant stress resistance.


Subject(s)
Signal Transduction , Cyclopentanes , Oxylipins , Plant Growth Regulators
6.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 394-407, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007758

ABSTRACT

Gliomas tend to have a poor prognosis and are the most common primary malignant tumors of the central nervous system. Compared with patients with other cancers, glioma patients often suffer from increased levels of psychological stress, such as anxiety and fear. Chronic stress (CS) is thought to impact glioma profoundly. However, because of the complex mechanisms underlying CS and variability in individual tolerance, the role of CS in glioma remains unclear. This review suggests a new proposal to redivide the stress system into two parts. Neuronal activity is dominant upstream. Stress-signaling molecules produced by the neuroendocrine system are dominant downstream. We discuss the underlying molecular mechanisms by which CS impacts glioma. Potential pharmacological treatments are also summarized from the therapeutic perspective of CS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Glioma/pathology , Signal Transduction , Risk Factors , Anxiety , Brain Neoplasms/pathology
7.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 62-74, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011012

ABSTRACT

Pathological vascular remodeling is a hallmark of various vascular diseases. Previous research has established the significance of andrographolide in maintaining gastric vascular homeostasis and its pivotal role in modulating endothelial barrier dysfunction, which leads to pathological vascular remodeling. Potassium dehydroandrographolide succinate (PDA), a derivative of andrographolide, has been clinically utilized in the treatment of inflammatory diseases precipitated by viral infections. This study investigates the potential of PDA in regulating pathological vascular remodeling. The effect of PDA on vascular remodeling was assessed through the complete ligation of the carotid artery in C57BL/6 mice. Experimental approaches, including rat aortic primary smooth muscle cell culture, flow cytometry, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation assay, Boyden chamber cell migration assay, spheroid sprouting assay, and Matrigel-based tube formation assay, were employed to evaluate the influence of PDA on the proliferation and motility of smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Molecular docking simulations and co-immunoprecipitation assays were conducted to examine protein interactions. The results revealed that PDA exacerbates vascular injury-induced pathological remodeling, as evidenced by enhanced neointima formation. PDA treatment significantly increased the proliferation and migration of SMCs. Further mechanistic studies disclosed that PDA upregulated myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) expression in SMCs and interacted with T-cadherin (CDH13). This interaction augmented proliferation, migration, and extracellular matrix deposition, culminating in pathological vascular remodeling. Our findings underscore the critical role of PDA in the regulation of pathological vascular remodeling, mediated through the MyD88/CDH13 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Mice , Rats , Animals , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/metabolism , Vascular Remodeling , Cell Proliferation , Vascular System Injuries/pathology , Carotid Artery Injuries/pathology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Cell Movement , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Signal Transduction , Succinates/pharmacology , Potassium/pharmacology , Cells, Cultured , Diterpenes , Cadherins
8.
International Journal of Oral Science ; (4): 6-6, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010719

ABSTRACT

Existing studies have underscored the pivotal role of N-acetyltransferase 10 (NAT10) in various cancers. However, the outcomes of protein-protein interactions between NAT10 and its protein partners in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remain unexplored. In this study, we identified a significant upregulation of RNA-binding protein with serine-rich domain 1 (RNPS1) in HNSCC, where RNPS1 inhibits the ubiquitination degradation of NAT10 by E3 ubiquitin ligase, zinc finger SWIM domain-containing protein 6 (ZSWIM6), through direct protein interaction, thereby promoting high NAT10 expression in HNSCC. This upregulated NAT10 stability mediates the enhancement of specific tRNA ac4C modifications, subsequently boosting the translation process of genes involved in pathways such as IL-6 signaling, IL-8 signaling, and PTEN signaling that play roles in regulating HNSCC malignant progression, ultimately influencing the survival and prognosis of HNSCC patients. Additionally, we pioneered the development of TRMC-seq, leading to the discovery of novel tRNA-ac4C modification sites, thereby providing a potent sequencing tool for tRNA-ac4C research. Our findings expand the repertoire of tRNA ac4C modifications and identify a role of tRNA ac4C in the regulation of mRNA translation in HNSCC.


Subject(s)
Humans , DNA-Binding Proteins , Head and Neck Neoplasms/genetics , N-Terminal Acetyltransferases , RNA, Transfer , Serine , Signal Transduction , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck
9.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 69-73, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009477

ABSTRACT

In the tumor microenvironment, metabolic reprogramming can impact metabolic characteristics of T cells, thus inducing immunosuppression to promote tumor immune escape. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway plays an important role in regulating diverse functions of various immune cells. This review mainly focuses on the molecular mechanism of mTOR signaling in regulating cellular energy metabolism process, and the activation status of mTOR signaling under different nutritional environments. In addition, it also summarizes the role of the mTOR signaling in regulatory T cell (Tregs) metabolism and function in current studies, and evaluates the potential of mTOR as a clinical immunotherapeutic target and its current application challenges.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunosuppression Therapy , Metabolic Reprogramming , Signal Transduction , Sirolimus , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
10.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 26-32, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009472

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the significance of interleukin-17C(IL-17C)-mediated follicular helper T cell (Tfh) differentiation in atopic dermatitis (AD) model. Methods BALB/c mice were divided into control group, AD model group, low-dose MOR106 (anti-IL-17C huIgG1)(MDR106-L)treatment group and high-dose MOR106 (MOR106-H) treatment group, 8 mice in each group. Except for the control group, all the other groups were treated with 2, 4- dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) to establish AD models. The low-dose and high-dose MOR106 groups were treated with 5 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg MOR106 respectively. The differentiation of Tfh cell subsets in peripheral blood of mice was analyzed by flow cytometry, and the expression of Janus kinase 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3(JAK2/STAT3) signal pathway protein in skin tissue was detected by Western blot analysis. Results Compared with the control group, the dermatitis severity score, mass difference between two ears, spleen mass and spleen index of DNCB group increased significantly, while those of MOR106-L group and MOR106-H group decreased significantly. Compared with the control group, the Tfh subgroup of AD mice showed deregulated differentiation, resulting in a significant increase in the percentage of CD4+CXCR5+IFN-γ+Tfh1 cells, CD4+CXCR5+IL-17A+Tfh17 and CD4+CXCR5+IL-21+Tfh21 cells, and a significant decrease in the percentage of CD4+CXCR5+IL-10+Tfh10 cells and CD4+CXCR5+FOXP3+Tfr cells in peripheral blood. The protein levels of phosphorylated JAK2(p-JAK2) and p-STAT3 were significantly increased. MOR106 effectively reversed these changes of Tfh1, Tfh10, Tfh17, Tfh21 and Tfr cells in peripheral blood of AD mice. Compared with AD group, the levels of p-JAK2 and p-STAT3 protein in low-dose and high-dose MOR106 treatment groups decreased significantly. Conclusion MOR106 can reduce the inflammatory response of AD mice by blocking JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway and inhibiting the differentiation of Tfh cells mediated by IL-17C.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Dermatitis, Atopic/drug therapy , Interleukin-17 , T Follicular Helper Cells , Janus Kinase 2 , Dinitrochlorobenzene , Inflammation , Cell Differentiation , Signal Transduction
11.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 13-18, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009470

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effect of interleukin-6 (IL-6) on the phagocytosis of MH-S alveolar macrophages and its related mechanisms. Methods A mouse acute lung injury (ALI) model was constructed by instilling lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the airway. ELISA was used to detect the content of IL-6 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). In vitro cultured MH-S cells, in the presence or absence of signal transducer and activator 3 of transcription(STAT3) inhibitor Stattic (5 μmol/L), IL-6 (10 ng/mL~500 ng/mL) was added to stimulate for 6 hours, and then incubated with fluorescent microspheres for 2 hours. The phagocytosis of MH-S cells was detected by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis was used to detect the expression levels of phosphorylated Janus kinase 2 (p-JAK2), phosphorylated STAT3 (p-STAT3), actin-related protein 2 (Arp2) and filamentous actin (F-actin). Results The content of IL-6 in BALF was significantly increased after the mice were injected with LPS through the airway. With the increase of IL-6 stimulation concentration, the phagocytic function of MH-S cells was enhanced, and the expression levels of Arp2 and F-actin proteins in MH-S cells were increased. The expression levels of p-JAK2 and p-STAT3 proteins increased in MH-S cells stimulated with IL-6(100 ng/mL). After blocking STAT3 signaling, the effect of IL-6 in promoting phagocytosis of MH-S cells disappeared completely, and the increased expression of Arp2 and F-actin proteins in MH-S cells induced by IL-6 was also inhibited. Conclusion IL-6 promotes the expression of Arp2 and F-actin proteins by activating the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway, thereby enhancing the phagocytic function of MH-S cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Actins , Disease Models, Animal , Interleukin-6 , Janus Kinase 2 , Lipopolysaccharides , Macrophages, Alveolar , Signal Transduction
12.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(6): e202303017, dic. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1517881

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Los síndromes de sobrecrecimiento corporal segmentario son un grupo de enfermedades poco frecuentes caracterizadas por exceso de crecimiento en una o más partes del cuerpo relacionadas, en su mayoría, con mutaciones en mosaico en la vía de señalización AKT/PI3K/mTOR y RAS-MAPK. Nuestro objetivo fue analizar las características clínicas y auxológicas, y la calidad de vida relacionada a salud (CVRS) en este grupo de pacientes en un hospital de tercer nivel de atención. Población y métodos. Estudio transversal de una cohorte en seguimiento. Se analizaron edad, sexo, datos sociodemográficos, mediciones antropométricas del segmento afectado y del contralateral, complicaciones, tratamiento, calidad de vida (PedsQL4.0) y dolor. Se calcularon medidas centrales y de dispersión. Se realizó análisis univariado entre calidad de vida y variables incluidas. Resultados. Se incluyeron 50 pacientes, 29 varones. Mediana de edad 9,95 (r 1,44-17,81) años. El diagnóstico más frecuente fue síndrome de sobrecrecimiento relacionado a PIK3CA (PROS) (37/50). Mediana de número de segmentos afectados 2 (r: 1-7) por niño. Cuarenta casos presentaron malformación vascular; 20, capilar. El dolor (24/50) fue la complicación más frecuente. Treinta y un pacientes mostraron asimetría de longitud de miembros inferiores, < 5 cm. La estatura se ubicó entre los centilos 50 y 97 en la mayoría de los niños. Menor CVRS se observó en mujeres, en pacientes con malformación vascular compleja y necesidades básicas insatisfechas (NBI). Conclusiones. PROS fue el diagnóstico más frecuente. El dolor fue una complicación frecuente. La CVRS fue menor en mujeres, pacientes con malformación vascular combinada y NBI.


Introduction. Segmental overgrowth syndromes are a group of rare diseases characterized by overgrowth in one or more parts of the body, mostly related to mosaic mutations in the AKT/PI3K/mTOR and RASMAPK signaling pathway. Our objective was to analyze the clinical and auxological characteristics and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in this group of patients at a tertiary care hospital. Population and methods. Cross-sectional study of a follow-up cohort. Age, sex, sociodemographic data, anthropometric measurements of the affected and contralateral segments, complications, treatment, quality of life (PedsQL 4.0), and pain were analyzed. Central and dispersion measures were estimated. A univariate analysis between the quality of life and study variables was done. Results. A total of 50 patients were included; 29 were males. Median age: 9.95 (r: 1.44­17.81) years. The most common diagnosis was PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS) (37/50). The median number of affected segments was 2 (r: 1­7) per patient. Vascular malformations were observed in 40, and capillary malformations, in 20 patients. Pain was the most common complication (24/50). An asymmetry of the lower extremities of < 5 cm was observed in 31 patients. In most children, height was between the 50th and 97th percentiles. A lower HRQoL was observed among girls, patients with complex vascular malformations, and those with unmet basic needs (UBNs). Conclusions. PROS was the most common diagnosis. Pain was the most common complication. HRQoL was lower among girls, patients with combined vascular malformations, and those with UBNs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Quality of Life , Vascular Malformations , Pain , Syndrome , Signal Transduction , Cross-Sectional Studies , Mutation
13.
Actual. osteol ; 19(1): 18-29, ago. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1511400

ABSTRACT

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that play critical roles in post-transcriptional gene regulation. They function by binding to target messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules, leading to their degradation or inhibiting their translation into proteins. In the context of skeletal diseases, such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and bone metastasis, there is growing evidence osteoblastic miRNAs, are involved in the regulation of bone formation and maintenance.Osteoblasts are bone-forming cells responsible for synthesizing and depositing the extracellular matrix, which ultimately mineralizes to form bone tissue. Osteoblastic miRNAs modulate various aspects of osteoblast function, including proliferation, differentiation, mineralization, and apoptosis. Dysregulation of these miRNAs can disrupt the balance between bone formation and resorption, leading to skeletal diseases.The therapeutic implications of targeting osteoblastic miRNAs in skeletal diseases are significant. Modulating the expression levels of specific miRNAs holds promise for developing novel therapeutic strategies to enhance bone formation, prevent bone loss, and promote bone regeneration. Potential therapeutic approaches include the use of synthetic miRNA mimics to restore miRNA expression in diseases associated with miRNA downregulation or the use of anti-miRNA oligonucleotides to inhibit miRNA function in diseases associated with miRNA upregulation.miRNA-based therapies are still in the early stages of development, and further research is needed to fully understand the complexity of miRNA networks. Additionally, the delivery of miRNAs to specific target tissues and cells remains a challenge that needs to be addressed for effective clinical translation. Nonetheless, targeting osteoblastic miRNAs represents a promising avenue for future therapeutic interventions in skeletal diseases. (AU)


Los micro-ARNs (miARNss) son pequeños ARN no codificantes que desempeñan un papel fundamental en la regulación génica postranscripcional. Ejercen su función al unir-se a moléculas de ARN mensajero (ARNm), promoviendo su degradación e inhibiendo su traducción en proteínas. En el contexto de las enfermedades esqueléticas, como la osteoporosis, la osteoartritis y la metástasis ósea existe evidencia de que los miARNs osteoblásticos están involucrados en la regulación de la formación y del mantenimiento óseo. Los osteoblastos son células formadoras de hueso responsables de sintetizar y depositar la matriz extracelular, que finalmente se mineraliza para formar el hueso. Los miARNs derivados de osteoblastos modulan varios aspectos de la función de estas células, incluida la proliferación, diferenciación, mineralización y la apoptosis. La desregulación de estos miARNs puede alterar el equilibrio entre la formación y la resorción ósea, lo que lleva a enfermedades óseas. Las implicaciones terapéuticas de los miARNs osteoblásticos en enfermedades esqueléticas son significativas. La modulación de los niveles de expresión de miARNs específicos es prometedora para desarrollar nuevas estrate-gias terapéuticas a fin de mejorar la formación, prevenir la pérdida y promover la regeneración ósea. Los enfoques terapéuticos potenciales incluyen el uso de miméticos de miARNs para restaurar la expresión de miARNs o el uso de oligonucleótidos anti-miARNs para inhibir su función. Las terapias basadas en miARNs aún se encuentran en las primeras etapas de desarrollo. La administración de miARNs a las células y los tejidos específicos sigue siendo un desafío para lograr una aplicación clínica eficaz. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Osteoblasts/cytology , Osteogenesis/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , Osteoclasts/cytology , Bone Diseases/prevention & control , Signal Transduction , Gene Expression Regulation , MicroRNAs/biosynthesis , MicroRNAs/physiology , MicroRNAs/therapeutic use
14.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 625-633, abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440306

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: One of the reasons for acute kidney damage is renal ischemia. Nevertheless, there are limited protective and therapeutic approaches for this problem. Diacerein is an anti-inflammatory drug characterized by numerous biological activities. We aimed to determine the ameliorative impact of diacerein on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R) condition, exploring the underlying mechanisms. Twenty-four male rats were allotted into four groups (n= 6): sham group; Diacerein (DIA) group; I/R group, in which a non-crushing clamp occluded the left renal pedicle for 45 min, and the right kidney was nephrectomized for 5 min before the reperfusion process; I/R + diacerein group, injected intraperitoneally with 50 mg diacerein/kg i.m 30 minutes prior to I/R operation. Ischemia/ reperfusion was found to affect renal function and induce histopathological alterations. The flow cytometry analysis demonstrated an elevated expression of innate and mature dendritic cells in I/R renal tissues. Moreover, upregulation in the expression of the inflammatory genes (TLR4, Myd88, and NLRP3), and overexpression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β), apoptotic (caspase-3) and pyroptotic (caspase-1) markers were observed in I/R-experienced animals. The aforementioned deteriorations were mitigated by pre-I/R diacerein treatment. Diacerein alleviated I/R-induced inflammation and apoptosis. Thus, it could be a promising protective agent against I/R.


La isquemia renal es una de los motivos del daño renal agudo. Sin embargo, los enfoques protectores y terapéuticos para este problema son limitados. La diacereína es un fármaco antiinflamatorio caracterizado por numerosas actividades biológicas. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar el impacto de mejora de la diacereína en la condición de lesión por isquemia/ reperfusión renal (I/R), explorando los mecanismos subyacentes. Veinticuatro ratas macho se distribuyeron en cuatro grupos (n= 6): grupo simulado; grupo de diacereína (DIA); grupo I/R, en el que una pinza no aplastante ocluyó el pedículo renal izquierdo durante 45 min, y el riñón derecho fue nefrectomizado durante 5 min antes del proceso de reperfusión; Grupo I/R + diacereína, inyectado por vía intraperitoneal con 50 mg de diacereína/kg i.m. 30 min antes de la operación I/R. Se encontró que la isquemia/ reperfusión afecta la función renal e induce alteraciones histopatológicas. El análisis de citometría de flujo demostró una expresión elevada de células dendríticas innatas y maduras en tejidos renales I/R. Además, se observó una regulación positiva en la expresión de los genes inflamatorios (TLR4, Myd88 y NLRP3) y una sobreexpresión de las citoquinas proinflamatorias (IL-1β), marcadores apoptóticos (caspasa-3) y piroptóticos (caspasa-1) en animales con experiencia en I/R. Los deterioros antes mencionados fueron mitigados por el tratamiento previo a la diacereína I/R. La diacereína alivió la inflamación y la apoptosis inducidas por I/R. Por lo tanto, podría ser un agente protector prometedor contra I/R.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Anthraquinones/administration & dosage , Kidney Diseases/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Dendritic Cells/drug effects , Reperfusion Injury/immunology , Signal Transduction , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Anthraquinones/immunology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Oxidative Stress , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Flow Cytometry , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Inflammation , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Kidney Diseases/immunology
15.
Oncología (Guayaquil) ; 33(1): 1-17, 4 de Abril 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1427717

ABSTRACT

El cáncer de mama es la causa más común de muerte por cáncer en el mundo, y la resistencia a los medicamentos es una de las barreras más importantes para el éxito de la terapia de la enfermedad. Es fundamental tener una comprensión sólida de los procesos moleculares que impulsan la resistencia al tratamiento en el cáncer de mama para diseñar terapias dirigidas con el potencial de superar esta resistencia. Estos mecanismos son complejos y multifacéticos e incluyen la activación de vías de señalización que promueven la supervivencia y proliferación celular, la regulación positiva de las bombas de salida de fármacos, la aparición de células madre cancerosas y cambios genéticos y epigenéticos. Esta revisión de la literatura brinda una descripción general de estos mecanismos y analiza las posibles estrategias para superar la resistencia a los medicamentos en el cáncer de mama, incluido el uso de terapias dirigidas que se dirigen específicamente a las vías y los mecanismos involucrados en la resistencia a los medicamentos. La revisión también destaca la necesidad de más investigación para identificar estrategias efectivas para superar la resistencia a los medicamentos y mejorar los resultados del tratamiento en pacientes con cáncer de mama.


Breast cancer is the most common cause of death from cancer in the world, and drug resistance is one of the most significant barriers to successful therapy for the disease. It is critical to have a solid understanding of the molecular processes driving treatment resistance in breast cancer to design targeted therapies with the potential to overcome this resistance. These complex and multifaceted mechanisms include the activation of signaling pathways that promote cell survival and proliferation, the upregulation of drug efflux pumps, the emergence of cancer stem cells, and genetic and epigenetic changes. This literature review provides an overview of these mechanisms. It discusses potential strategies for overcoming drug resistance in breast cancer, including targeted therapies that specifically target the pathways and mechanisms involved in drug resistance. The review also highlights the need for further research to identify effective strategies for overcoming drug resistance and improving treatment outcomes in breast cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action , Neoplastic Stem Cells , Signal Transduction , Genetic Diseases, Inborn
16.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 1164-1171, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-987033

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effect of leucine-rich α-2-glycoprotein (LRG1) derived from hepatocytes on activation of hepatic M1 Kupffer cells.@*METHODS@#A metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) model was established in BALB/c mice by high-fat diet (HFD) feeding for 16 weeks. Oleic acid was used to induce steatosis in primary cultures of mouse hepatocytes. The mRNA and protein expressions of LRG1 in mouse liver tissues and hepatocytes were detected by real-time PCR and Western blotting. Primary hepatic macrophages were stimulated with the conditioned medium (CM) from steatotic hepatocyte along with LRG1 or transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), or both for 24 h, and the expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was detected with Western botting, and the mRNA expressions of iNOS, chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL-1) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were measured by RT-PCR. The MAFLD mice were injected with LRG1 (n=6), TGF-β1 (n=6), or both (n=6) through the caudal vein, and the live tissues were collected for HE staining and immumohistochemical detection of F4/80 expression; the mRNA expressions of iNOS, CXCL-1 and IL-1β in liver tissues were detected using RT-PCR.@*RESULTS@#The mRNA and protein expression levels of LRG1 were significantly downregulated in the liver tissues of MAFLD mice and steatotic hepatocytes (P < 0.05). Treatment of the hepatic macrophages with CM from steatosis hepatocytes significantly enhanced the mRNA expression levels of iNOS, CXCL-1 and IL-1β, and these changes were significantly inhibited by the combined treatment with TGF-β1 and LRG1 (P < 0.05). In MAFLD mice, injections with either LRG1 or TGF-β1 alone reduced hepatic lipid deposition and intrahepatic macrophage infiltration, and these effects were significantly enhanced by their combined treatment, which also more strongly inhibited the mRNA expression levels of iNOS, CXCL-1 and IL-1β (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#LRG1 inhibits hepatic macrophage infiltration by enhancing TGF-β1 signaling to alleviate fatty liver inflammation in MAFLD mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Macrophage Activation , Signal Transduction , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Culture Media, Conditioned , Glycoproteins
17.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 1002-1009, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-987014

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the interaction between Tubulin beta 4B class IVb (TUBB4B) and Agtpbp1/cytosolic carboxypeptidase- like1 (CCP1) in mouse primary spermatocytes (GC-2 cells) and the role of TUBB4B in regulating the development of GC-2 cells.@*METHODS@#Lentiviral vectors were used to infect GC-2 cells to construct TUBB4B knockdown and negative control (NC-KD) cells. The stable cell lines with TUBB4B overexpression (Tubb4b-OE) and the negative control (NC-OE) cells were screened using purinomycin. RT-qPCR and Western blotting were used to verify successful cell modeling and explore the relationship between TUBB4B and CCP1 expressions in GC-2 cells. The effects of TUBB4B silencing and overexpression on the proliferation and cell cycle of GC-2 cells were evaluated using CCK8 assay and flow cytometry. The signaling pathway proteins showing significant changes in response to TUBB4B silencing or overexpression were identified using Western blotting and immunofluorescence assay and then labeled for verification at the cellular level.@*RESULTS@#Both TUBB4B silencing and overexpression in GC-2 cells caused consistent changes in the mRNA and protein expressions of CCP1 (P < 0.05). Similarly, TUBB4B expression also showed consistent changes at the mRNA and protein after CCP1 knockdown and restoration (P < 0.05). TUBB4B knockdown and overexpression had no significant effect on proliferation rate or cell cycle of GC-2 cells, but caused significant changes in the key proteins of the nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) signaling pathway (p65 and p-p65) and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway (ErK1/2 and p-Erk1/2) (P < 0.05); CCP1 knockdown induced significant changes in PolyE expression in GC-2 cells (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#TUBB4B and CCP1 interact via a mutual positive regulation mechanism in GC-2 cells. CCP-1 can deglutamize TUBB4B, and the latter is involved in the regulation of NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways in primary spermatocytes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , RNA, Messenger , Serine-Type D-Ala-D-Ala Carboxypeptidase/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Spermatocytes , Tubulin/genetics
18.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 975-984, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-987011

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the expression of four-jointed box kinase 1 (FJX1) in gastric cancer (GC), its correlation with survival outcomes of the patients, and its role in GC progression.@*METHODS@#The expression level of FJX1 in GC tissues and normal gastric mucosal tissues and its correlation with the survival outcomes of GC patients were analyzed using TCGA and GEO database GC cohort. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect FJX1 expression level in clinical specimens of GC tissue, and its correlations with the patients' clinicopathological parameters and prognosis were analyzed. Bioinformatic analysis was performed to identify the potential pathways of FJX1 in GC. The effects of FJX1 overexpression or FJX1 silencing on GC cell proliferation and expressions of proliferation-related proteins, PI3K, AKT, p-PI3K, and p-AKT were evaluated using CCK-8 assay and Western blotting. The effect of FJX1 overexpression on GC cell tumorigenicity was evaluated in nude mice.@*RESULTS@#GC tissues showed significantly higher expressions of FJX1 mRNA and protein compared with normal gastric mucosa tissues (P < 0.05). The high expression of FJX1 was associated with poor prognosis of GC patients (P < 0.05) and served as an independent risk factor for poor survival outcomes in GC (P < 0.05). FJX1 was expressed mainly in the cytoplasm of GC cells in positive correlation with Ki67 expression (R=0.34, P < 0.05), and was correlated with CA199 levels, depth of tumor infiltration and lymph node metastasis of GC (P < 0.05). In the cell experiment, FJX1 level was shown to regulate the expressions of Ki67 and PCNA and GC cell proliferation (P < 0.05). Gene set enrichment analysis indicated that the PI3K/AKT pathway potentially mediated the effect of FJX1, which regulated the expressions of PI3K and AKT and their phosphorylated proteins. In nude mice, FJX1 overexpression in GC cells significantly promoted the growth of the transplanted tumors (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#FJX1 is highly expressed in GC tissues and is correlated with poor prognosis of GC patients. FJX1 overexpression promotes GC cell proliferation through the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, and may serve as a potential prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for GC.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Humans , Cell Proliferation , Ki-67 Antigen , Mice, Nude , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Signal Transduction , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/genetics
19.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 943-951, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-987007

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the mechanism by which conditioned medium of colorectal cancer cells promotes the formation of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs).@*METHODS@#Normal human colorectal fibroblasts (CCD-18Co cells) in logarithmic growth phase were treated with the conditioned media of colorectal cancer HCT116 cells (HCT116-CM) or Caco-2 cells (Caco-2-CM) alone or in combination with 300 nmol/L ERK inhibitor SCH772984. The expression levels of CAFs-related molecular markers were detected in the treated cells with real-time quantitative PCR (RT- qPCR) and immunofluorescence assay, and the changes in cell proliferation, colony formation and migration were assessed with RTCA, colony formation and wound healing assays; Western blotting was performed to detect the activated signaling pathways in the fibroblasts and the changes in CAFs formation after blocking of the signaling pathway.@*RESULTS@#HCT116-CM and Caco-2-CM significantly upregulated mRNA expression levels of CAFs markers (including α-SMA, FAP, FN and TGF-β) in CCD-18Co cells, and strongly promoted fibroblast transformation into CAFs (P < 0.05). The two conditioned media also promoted the proliferation, colony formation and migration of CCD-18Co cells (P < 0.05) and significantly increased the levels of α-SMA protein and ERK phosphorylation in the cells (P < 0.05). The ERK inhibitor SCH772984 obviously inhibited the expression of α-SMA and the transformation of CCD-18Co cells into CAFs induced by the conditioned medium of colorectal cancer cells (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Colorectal cancer cells may induce the formation of colorectal CAFs by activating the ERK pathway in the fibroblasts.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts/metabolism , Culture Media, Conditioned/pharmacology , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Caco-2 Cells , Fibroblasts , Signal Transduction , Cell Proliferation , Cell Line, Tumor , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Cell Movement
20.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 915-923, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-987004

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of acetylcorynoline (Ace) for promoting functional recovery of injured spinal cord in rats and explore the underlying mechanism.@*METHODS@#Rat models of spinal cord injury (SCI) were treated with intraperitoneal injection of different concentrations of Ace, with the sham-operated rats as the control group. After the treatment, the changes in motor function of the rats and the area of spinal cord injury were assessed with BBB score and HE staining, and the changes in pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and microglial activation were determined using PCR, ELISA and immunofluorescence staining. In a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated BV2 cell model, the effects of different concentrations of Ace or DMSO on microglial activation and inflammatory cytokine production were observed. Network pharmacology analysis was performed to predict the target protein and signaling mechanism that mediated the inhibitory effect of Ace on microglia activation, and AutoDock software was used for molecular docking between Ace and the target protein. A signaling pathway blocker (Osimertinib) was used to verify the signaling mechanism in rat models of SCI and LPS-treated BV2 cell model.@*RESULTS@#In rat models of SCI, Ace treatment significantly increased the BBB score, reduced the area of spinal cord injury, and lowered the number of activated microglia cells and the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (P < 0.05). The cell experiments showed that Ace treatment significantly lower the level of cell activation and the production of inflammatory cytokines in LPS-treated BV2 cells (P < 0.05). Network pharmacology analysis suggested that EGFR was the main target of Ace, and they bound to each other via hydrogen bonds as shown by molecular docking. Western blotting confirmed that Ace inhibited the activation of the EGFR/MAPK signaling pathway in injured mouse spinal cord tissue and in LPS-treated BV2 cells, and its inhibitory effect was comparable to that of Osimertinib.@*CONCLUSION@#In rat models of SCI, treatment with Ace can inhibit microglia-mediated inflammatory response by regulating the EGFR/MAPK pathway, thus promoting tissue repair and motor function recovery.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Rats , Recovery of Function , Lipopolysaccharides , Microglia , Molecular Docking Simulation , Spinal Cord Injuries , Signal Transduction , Cytokines , ErbB Receptors
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