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1.
Singapore medical journal ; : 30-37, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007313

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#This scoping review examined the number, types and characteristics of journal publications on ageing in Singapore from 2008 to 2018 to determine how ageing research in medical and social domains in Singapore has transformed over time.@*METHODS@#Using relevant search terms, articles were extracted from multiple databases and then screened and reviewed for eligibility and inclusion by independent reviewers. Data such as article title, authors, year of publication, name of journal, type of journal, study design and the kind of data used were charted from the included articles for evidence synthesis.@*RESULTS@#Since 2008, there has been a steady increase in the number of publications on ageing in medical and social domains in Singapore. In the medical domain, publications on Ophthalmology (22%) made up the largest proportion of the existing medical literature on ageing in Singapore, followed by Physical Functioning (17%), which involved physiological measurements of physical well-being, and Geriatrics (16%). Non-medical publications comprised 38% of all the included publications, with publications on the social aspects of ageing (43%) forming the largest group in this cluster, followed by publications on Prevention (19%) and Healthcare services (18%). The study design was mostly observational (82%), with only 3% of interventional studies.@*CONCLUSION@#While ageing research had expanded in Singapore in the last decade, it was predominantly discipline specific and observational in design. As ageing issues are complex, with biology intersecting with psychology and sociology, we call for greater interdisciplinary collaboration, the conduct of more interventional studies, as well as more research in understudied and emerging areas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Singapore , Aging , Geriatrics , Research Design
2.
Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore ; : 62-70, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970012

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#Studies of concordance between patients' self-report of diseases and a criterion standard (e.g. chart review) are usually conducted in epidemiological studies to evaluate the agreement of self-reported data for use in public health research. To our knowledge, there are no published studies on concordance for highly prevalent chronic diseases such as diabetes and pre-diabetes. The aims of this study were to evaluate the concordance between patients' self-report and their medical records of diabetes and pre-diabetes diagnoses, and to identify factors associated with diabetes concordance.@*METHOD@#A cross-sectional, interviewer-administered survey was conducted on patients with chronic diseases after obtaining written consent to assess their medical notes. Interviewers were blinded to the participants' profiles. Concordance was evaluated using Cohen's kappa (κ). A multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with diabetes concordance.@*RESULTS@#There was substantial agreement between self-reported and medical records of diabetes diagnoses (κ=0.76) and fair agreement for pre-diabetes diagnoses (κ=0.36). The logistic regression model suggested that non-Chinese patients had higher odds of diabetes concordance than Chinese patients (odds ratio [OR]=4.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19-14.13, P=0.03). Patients with 3 or more chronic diseases (i.e. multimorbidity) had lower odds of diabetes concordance than patients without multimorbidity (OR=0.21, 95% CI 0.09-0.48, P<0.001).@*CONCLUSION@#Diabetes concordance was substantial, supporting the use of self-report of diabetes by patients with chronic diseases in the primary care setting for future research. Pre-diabetes concordance was fair and may have important clinical implications. Further studies to explore and improve health literacy and patient-physician communication are needed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prediabetic State , Singapore/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Medical Records , Self Report
3.
Singapore medical journal ; : 172-181, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969676

ABSTRACT

The rising prevalence of obesity in Singapore is a harbinger for a corresponding increase in obesity-related complications such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and coronary heart disease. Obesity is a complex disease driven by multiple factors, and hence, treatment cannot follow a 'one-size-fits-all' approach. Lifestyle modifications involving dietary interventions, physical activity and behavioural changes remain the cornerstone of obesity management. However, similar to other chronic diseases such as T2DM and hypertension, lifestyle modifications are often insufficient on their own, hence the importance of other treatment modalities including pharmacotherapy, endoscopic bariatric therapy and metabolic-bariatric surgery. Weight loss medications currently approved in Singapore include phentermine, orlistat, liraglutide and naltrexone-bupropion. In recent years, endoscopic bariatric therapies have evolved as an effective, minimally invasive and durable therapeutic option for obesity. Metabolic-bariatric surgery remains the most effective and durable treatment for patients with severe obesity, with an average weight loss of 25%-30% after one year.


Subject(s)
Humans , Singapore , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Obesity , Obesity, Morbid , Bariatric Surgery
4.
Singapore medical journal ; : 155-162, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969674

ABSTRACT

Addressing weight stigma is essential to obesity management as it causes inequalities in healthcare and impacts the outcomes of health. This narrative review summarises systematic review findings about the presence of weight bias in healthcare professionals, and interventions to reduce weight bias or stigma in these professionals. Two databases (PubMed and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature [CINAHL]) were searched. Seven eligible reviews were identified from 872 search results. Four reviews identified the presence of weight bias, and three investigated trials to reduce weight bias or stigma in healthcare professionals. The findings may help further research and the treatment, health and well-being of individuals with overweight or obesity in Singapore. Weight bias was prevalent among qualified and student healthcare professionals globally, and there is a lack of clear guidance for effective interventions to reduce it, particularly in Asia. Future research is essential to identify the issues and inform initiatives to reduce weight bias and stigma among healthcare professionals in Singapore.


Subject(s)
Humans , Weight Prejudice , Singapore , Asia , Databases, Factual , Health Facilities
5.
Singapore medical journal ; : 37-44, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969663

ABSTRACT

Knowledge of an underlying genetic predisposition to cancer allows the use of personalised prognostic, preventive and therapeutic strategies for the patient and carries clinical implications for family members. Despite great progress, we identified six challenging areas in the management of patients with hereditary cancer predisposition syndromes and suggest recommendations to aid in their resolution. These include the potential for finding unexpected germline variants through somatic tumour testing, optimal risk management of patients with hereditary conditions involving moderate-penetrance genes, role of polygenic risk score in an under-represented Asian population, management of variants of uncertain significance, clinical trials in patients with germline pathogenic variants and technology in genetic counselling. Addressing these barriers will aid the next step forward in precision medicine in Singapore. All stakeholders in healthcare should be empowered with genetic knowledge to fully leverage the potential of novel genomic insights and implement them to provide better care for our patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Singapore , Genotype , Neoplasms/therapy , Risk Factors , Family
6.
Singapore medical journal ; : 196-202, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969655

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#Our aim was to study the prevalence of frailty and its associated factors in a subacute geriatric ward.@*METHODS@#This was a cross-sectional study of 167 participants between June 2018 and June 2019. Baseline demographics and participants' Mini Nutritional Assessment, Geriatric Depression Scale, Mini Mental State Examination, Charlson's Comorbidity Index and LACE index scores were obtained. Functional measurements such as modified Barthel's Index scores and hand grip strength (HGS) were taken. Frailty was assessed using the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) and the FRAIL scale. Data on history of healthcare utilisation, medications, length of stay, selected blood investigations and presence of geriatric syndromes were also collected.@*RESULTS@#The prevalence of pre-frailty (CFS 4) and frailty (CFS ≥ 5) was 16.2% and 63.4%, respectively. There were significant associations between CFS and age (pre-frail vs. non-frail: odds ratio [OR] 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.25, P = 0.006; frail vs. non-frail: OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.01-1.15, P = 0.021), HGS at discharge (frail vs. non-frail: OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.82-0.99, P = 0.025), serum albumin (frail vs. non-frail: OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.82-0.99, P = 0.035) and the presence of urinary incontinence (frail vs. non-frail: OR 3.03, 95% CI 1.19-7.77, P = 0.021).@*CONCLUSION@#Frailty is highly prevalent in the subacute geriatric setting and has many associated factors. In this study, independent factors associated with frailty were age, HGS at discharge, serum albumin and urinary incontinence. This has implications for future resource allocation for frail older inpatients and may help direct further research to study the effectiveness of frailty-targeted interventions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Frailty/epidemiology , Frail Elderly , Hand Strength , Prevalence , Singapore/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic , Geriatric Assessment , Urinary Incontinence , Serum Albumin
7.
Singapore medical journal ; : 732-738, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007328

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#Musculoskeletal injuries are the most common reason for surgical intervention in polytrauma patients.@*METHODS@#This is a retrospective cohort study of 560 polytrauma patients (injury severity score [ISS] >17) who suffered musculoskeletal injuries (ISS >2) from 2011 to 2015 in National University Hospital, Singapore.@*RESULTS@#560 patients (444 [79.3%] male and 116 [20.7%] female) were identified. The mean age was 44 (range 3-90) years, with 45.4% aged 21-40 years. 39.3% of the patients were foreign migrant workers. Motorcyclists were involved in 63% of road traffic accidents. The mean length of hospital stay was 18.8 (range 0-273) days and the mean duration of intensive care unit (ICU) stay was 5.7 (range 0-253) days. Patient mortality rate was 19.8%. A Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score <12 and need for blood transfusion were predictive of patient mortality (p < 0.05); lower limb injuries, road traffic accidents, GCS score <8 and need for transfusion were predictive of extended hospital stay (p < 0.05); and reduced GCS score, need for blood transfusion and upper limb musculoskeletal injuries were predictive of extended ICU stay. Inpatient costs were significantly higher for foreign workers and greatly exceeded the minimum insurance coverage currently required.@*CONCLUSION@#Musculoskeletal injuries in polytrauma remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, and occur predominantly in economically productive male patients injured in road traffic accidents and falls from height. Increasing insurance coverage for foreign workers in high-risk jobs should be evaluated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Trauma Centers , Retrospective Studies , Singapore/epidemiology , Multiple Trauma/epidemiology , Length of Stay
8.
Singapore medical journal ; : 657-666, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007305

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#We investigated the knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP) towards coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its related preventive measures in Singaporeans aged ≥60 years.@*METHODS@#This was a population-based, cross-sectional, mixed-methods study (13 May 2020-9 June 2020) of participants aged ≥ 60 years. Self-reported KAP about ten symptoms and six government-endorsed preventive measures related to COVID-19 were evaluated. Multivariable regression models were used to identify sociodemographic and health-related factors associated with KAP in our sample. Associations between knowledge/attitude scores and practice categories were determined using logistic regression. Seventy-eight participants were interviewed qualitatively about the practice of additional preventive measures and data were analysed thematically.@*RESULTS@#Mean awareness score of COVID-19 symptoms was 7.2/10. The most known symptom was fever (93.0%) and the least known was diarrhoea (33.5%). Most participants knew all six preventive measures (90.4%), perceived them as effective (78.7%) and practised 'wear a mask' (97.2%). Indians, Malays and participants living in smaller housing had poorer mean scores for knowledge of COVID-19 symptoms. Older participants had poorer attitudes towards preventive measures. Compared to Chinese, Indians had lower odds of practising three out of six recommendations. A one-point increase in score for knowledge and attitudes regarding preventive measures resulted in higher odds of always practising three of six and two of six measures, respectively. Qualitative interviews revealed use of other preventive measures, for example, maintaining a healthy lifestyle.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Elderly Singaporeans displayed high levels of KAP about COVID-19 and its related preventive measures, with a positive association between levels of knowledge/attitude and practice. However, important ethnic and socioeconomic disparities were evident, indicating that key vulnerabilities remain, which require immediate attention.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Cross-Sectional Studies , Singapore/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Singapore medical journal ; : 728-731, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007304

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#Post-anaesthesia care unit (PACU) delirium affects 5%-45% of patients after surgery and is associated with postoperative delirium and increased mortality. Up to 40% of PACU delirium is preventable, but it remains under-recognised due to a lack of awareness of its diagnosis. The nursing delirium screening scale (Nu-DESC) has been validated for diagnosing PACU delirium, but is not routinely used locally. This study aimed to use Nu-DESC to establish the incidence and risk factors of PACU delirium in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery in the surgical population.@*METHODS@#We conducted an audit of eligible patients undergoing major surgery in three public hospitals in Singapore over 1 week. Patients were assessed for delirium 30-60 min following their arrival in PACU using Nu-DESC, with a total score of ≥2 indicative of delirium.@*RESULTS@#A total of 478 patients were assessed. The overall incidence rate of PACU delirium was 18/478 (3.8%), and the incidence was 9/146 (6.2%) in patients aged > 65 years. Post-anaesthesia care unit delirium was more common in females, patients with malignancy and those who underwent longer operations. Logistic regression analysis showed that the use of bispectral index (P < 0.001) and the presence of malignancy (P < 0.001) were significantly associated with a higher incidence of PACU delirium.@*CONCLUSION@#In this first local study, the incidence of PACU delirium was 3.8%, increasing to 6.2% in those aged > 65 years. Understanding these risk factors will form the basis for which protocols can be established to optimise resource management and prevent long-term morbidities and mortality in PACU delirium.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Delirium/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Singapore/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Anesthesia/adverse effects , Risk Factors , Neoplasms
10.
Singapore medical journal ; : 677-682, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007301

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#Singapore instituted lockdown measures from 7 February 2020 to 1 June 2020 in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis of cases from the national trauma registry was carried out comparing the lockdown period (from 7 February 2020 to 1 June 2020) to the pre-lockdown period (from 7 February 2019 to 1 June 2019). Data extracted included the volume of Tier 1 (injury severity score [ISS] >15) and Tier 2 (ISS 9-15) cases and epidemiology. Subgroup analysis was performed for Tier 1 patient outcomes.@*RESULTS@#Trauma volume decreased by 19.5%, with a 32% drop in Tier 1 cases. Road traffic and workplace accidents decreased by 50% (P < 0.01), while interpersonal violence showed an increase of 37.5% (P = 0.34). There was an 18.1% decrease in usage of trauma workflows (P = 0.01), with an increase in time to intervention for Tier 1 patients from 88 to 124 min (P = 0.22). Discharge to community facilities decreased from 31.4% to 17.1% (P < 0.05). There was no increase in inpatient mortality, length of stay in critical care or length of stay overall.@*CONCLUSION@#There was an overall decrease in major trauma cases during the lockdown period, particularly road traffic accidents and worksite injuries, and a relative increase in interpersonal violence. Redeployment of manpower and hospital resources may have contributed to decreased usage of trauma workflows and community facilities. In the event of further lockdowns, it is necessary to plan for trauma coverage and maintain the use of workflows to facilitate early intervention.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Trauma Centers , Retrospective Studies , Singapore/epidemiology , Workload , Communicable Disease Control
11.
Singapore medical journal ; : 603-608, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007295

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#Acute malignant large bowel obstruction (MBO) occurs in 8%-15% of colorectal cancer patients. Self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) have progressed from a palliative modality to use as bridge to surgery (BTS). We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of SEMS for MBO in our institution.@*METHODS@#The data of patients undergoing SEMS insertion for MBO were reviewed. Technical success was defined as successful SEMS deployment across tumour without complications. Clinical success was defined as colonic decompression without requiring further surgical intervention. Rates of complications, median time to surgery, types of surgery and rates of recurrence were studied.@*RESULTS@#Seventy-nine patients underwent emergent SEMS placement from September 2013 to February 2020. Their mean age was 68.8 ± 13.8 years and 43 (54%) patients were male. Mean tumour length was 4.2 cm ± 2.2 cm; 89.9% of malignant strictures were located distal to the splenic flexure. Technical and clinical success was 94.9% and 98.7%, respectively. Perforation occurred in 5.1% of patients, with none having stent migration or bleeding. Fifty (63.3%) patients underwent SEMS insertion as BTS. Median time to surgery was 20 (range 6-57) days. Most (82%) patients underwent minimally invasive surgery. Primary anastomosis rate was 98%. Thirty-nine patients had follow-up beyond 1-year posttreatment (median 34 months). Local recurrence and distant metastasis were observed in 4 (10.3%) and 5 (12.8%) patients, respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#Insertion of SEMS for acute MBO has high success rates and a good safety profile. Most patients in this audit underwent minimally invasive surgery and primary anastomosis after successful BTS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Singapore , Tertiary Care Centers , Stents/adverse effects , Intestinal Obstruction/etiology , Treatment Outcome , Retrospective Studies , Palliative Care
12.
Singapore medical journal ; : 563-566, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007294

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), originally designed in the United States of America, contains items on dysphasia and dysarthria that are deemed culturally unsuitable for the Singapore context. We compared the error rates of dysphasia objects, dysphasia phrases and dysarthria words between the original and alternative items in a cohort of Singaporean subjects without dysphasia or dysarthria.@*METHODS@#In this prospective study, 140 English-speaking Singaporean subjects without impairments of dysphasia or dysarthria had an assessment of NIHSS items 9 and 10 using the original and alternative items. Paired analyses were conducted for comparison of error rates.@*RESULTS@#The error rates were high for four original dysphasia objects (Hammock: 62.9%, Cactus: 38.6%, Feather: 23.6%, Glove: 20.7%) and significantly lower for alternative items (Snail: 5%, Horse: 1.4%, Hanger: 1.4%, Car: 0%) (P < 0.001). For dysphasia phrases and dysarthria words, the error rates were low and there were no differences in error rates between the original and alternative items.@*CONCLUSION@#There are cultural issues with several dysphasia objects in the original NIHSS as evidenced by the high error rates, which were lowered with more culturally suitable alternatives. This study formed a basis to derive a more suitable version of the NIHSS for English-speaking subjects in Singapore.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , United States , Horses , Stroke/diagnosis , Singapore , Dysarthria/diagnosis , Prospective Studies , Aphasia/diagnosis , Severity of Illness Index
13.
Singapore medical journal ; : 302-306, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984218

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#In this study, we aimed to identify the differences in sociodemographic variables and reasons for termination of pregnancy (TOP) between married women and single/divorced women. We hope that this study can guide future policies and interventions to reduce the incidence of unsupported pregnancies in this profile group of women.@*METHODS@#We retrospectively evaluated the sociodemographic data of 802 women who underwent an abortion for social reasons at our institution in Singapore from January 2016 to September 2018. We compared the sociodemographic variables, reasons for and methods of TOP between married and single/divorced women.@*RESULTS@#We analysed data from 524 married women (65.3%) and 278 single/divorced women (34.7%). Married women were more likely to be of older age (29.5 years vs. 24.5 years, P < 0.001), had more living children and higher educational qualifications. The top two cited reason for abortions among married women were having enough children (42.0%) and the inability to afford another child (18.7%). Multivariate analysis showed that women aged >19 years and having more living children were independently associated with recurrent TOPs. Having a tertiary education was noted to be associated with less recurrent TOPs.@*CONCLUSION@#The most common reasons married women cited for having TOP include having enough children and the lack of financial capacity to afford another child. Recommendations to support women ought to be personalised and comprehensive in addressing their needs rather than offering a standardised support method. Greater emphasis should be placed on post-TOP family planning counselling to reduce repeated TOP.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Child , Female , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Singapore/epidemiology , Abortion, Induced , Hospitals, University , Educational Status
14.
Singapore medical journal ; : 385-390, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984217

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#Cannabis has consistently been the third most commonly abused drug among drug arrestees in Singapore over the past few years. Accordingly, this study aimed to understand the profile of cannabis users in Singapore and explore the effects of cannabis use on drug progression.@*METHODS@#A total of 450 participants who had used cannabis at least once in their lifetime were recruited from the National Addictions Management Service, prisons, the Community Rehabilitation Centre and halfway houses from August 2017 to May 2018. A face-to-face questionnaire was administered and descriptive analyses were conducted.@*RESULTS@#The mean participant age was 40.9 ± 14.51 years, and 93.1% of them were male. The participants generally initiated cannabis use during adolescence, at a mean onset age of 16.5 ± 4.46 years. Most (89.6%) were introduced to cannabis by peers. Approximately half of them (46.9%) had used cannabis before other illicit drugs and 42.1% of them had used heroin as the succeeding drug.@*CONCLUSION@#In Singapore, cannabis use is often initiated during adolescence, largely under peer influence. Cannabis users may progress to other illicit drugs, particularly heroin, later in life.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Child , Young Adult , Female , Cannabis , Singapore/epidemiology , Heroin , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Illicit Drugs
15.
Singapore medical journal ; : 294-301, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984212

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#Cervical cancer has a high disease burden in Singapore, and it is strongly associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infections. Despite constant efforts to encourage vaccination, local HPV vaccine uptake remains low. Universal mass vaccination is a proven cost-effective method to reduce the cervical cancer disease burden. This paper reviews the newly implemented school-based HPV vaccination programme in Singapore and the factors that led to its success.@*METHODS@#Fully subsidised HPV vaccinations were offered to all Secondary 1 female students on an opt-in basis, starting as a rollout dose in 2019. One-time catchup vaccination was also offered to female students in Secondary 2-5. Eligible recipients were identified using enrolment data provided by Ministry of Education schools. A total of 19,144 students across 139 schools were offered the rollout dose, and 20,854 students across 140 schools were offered the catchup doses.@*RESULTS@#High vaccine uptake rates of 80.6%-87.3% were noted with the introduction of the school-based programme, translating to high vaccine coverage of 90.3%-93.4%. Only a small proportion of students (1.5%-1.9% per cohort) opted out. The rate of reported side effects, which were commonly known effects, was low at one in 1000. Among the students who reported side effects, those who received the second vaccine dose did so uneventfully.@*CONCLUSION@#High HPV vaccine coverage was achieved after implementation of the school-based immunisation programme. Timely assessment of knowledge lapses and targeted intervention, strong partnerships with stakeholders, constant on-site adaptation and positive social influence contributed to its success. This model can be applied to future school health programmes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Papillomavirus Vaccines/therapeutic use , Papillomaviridae , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Singapore , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Vaccination , Immunization Programs
16.
Singapore medical journal ; : 434-438, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984205

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#Ustekinumab is a human monoclonal antibody that binds to the p40 subunit of both interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-23, and it is approved for the treatment of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. In this study, we assessed the efficacy and safety of patients receiving ustekinumab for psoriasis.@*METHODS@#This retrospective study included all adults with chronic plaque psoriasis who were prescribed ustekinumab in a tertiary dermatologic centre between December 2009 and December 2015. Efficacy end points included a proportion of patients achieving at least 50% and 75% improvement from baseline psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) and body surface area (BSA) at Weeks 4 and 16.@*RESULTS@#A total of 99 patients were prescribed ustekinumab; 69% of these were Chinese, followed by 15% Indians and 9% Malays. 31 patients had documented PASI scores and 55 patients had documented BSA improvements. In patients with recorded PASI scores, 29 (93.5%) of 31 patients achieved PASI 50, and 21 (67.7%) of 31 achieved PASI 75 at week 16. In patients with recorded BSA, 43 (78.2%) of 55 had at least 50% BSA improvement, and 31 (56.4%) of 55 achieved 75% BSA improvement at 16 weeks. Regarding safety, no patient experienced tuberculosis reactivation. A total of 11 (11%) of 99 patients had latent tuberculosis infection and were treated with prophylactic isoniazid. No patient experienced serious adverse events. No cardiovascular events, cutaneous malignancies or deaths were reported over six years.@*CONCLUSION@#Ustekinumab is safe and efficacious in the treatment of patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis in a multiethnic Asian population.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Ustekinumab/therapeutic use , Singapore , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Severity of Illness Index , Double-Blind Method , Psoriasis/drug therapy
17.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 310-314, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935388

ABSTRACT

As of December 31, 2021, Singapore reported that 4 758 601 had completed at least one dose of COVID-19 vaccination, 4 714 655 had completed two doses of COVID-19 vaccination, and 2 207 341 had received one booster shot of COVID-19 vaccine. This article analyses the current performance of COVID-19 vaccination in Singapore, interprets the content of Singapore's National Vaccination Programme, and systematically introduces specific measures of COVID-19 vaccination in Singapore, such as door-to-door vaccination, vaccination differentiated management, and self-payment of medical expenses for those who refuse to be vaccinated, to provide reference for the COVID-19 vaccination in China.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Immunization Programs , Singapore , Vaccination
18.
Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore ; : 292-299, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927489

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#Lifestyle activities, such as regular physical activity, are important for good metabolic health and the prevention of non-communicable diseases. Epidemiological studies highlight an increase in the proportion of overweight children in Singapore. A workgroup was formed to develop recommendations to encourage children and adolescents (aged 7-17 years) to adopt a holistic approach towards integrating beneficial activities within a daily 24-hour period for good metabolic and general health.@*METHODS@#The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) Evidence to Decision framework was employed to formulate the public health question, assess the evidence and draw conclusions for the guide. The evidence for international 24-hour movement guidelines, and guidelines for physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and sleep and eating habits were reviewed. An update of the literature review from August 2018 to end of September 2020 was conducted through an electronic search of Medline and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases.@*RESULTS@#Ten consensus statements were developed. The statements focused on the overall aim of achieving good metabolic health through integration of these activities and initiatives: light and moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity on a regular basis; muscle- and bone-strengthening activities; limiting sedentary behaviour; regular and adequate sleep; good eating habits and choosing nutritionally balanced foods and drinks; practise safety in exercise; and aiming to achieve more or all aforementioned recommendations for the best results.@*CONCLUSION@#This set of recommendations provides guidance to encourage Singapore children and adolescents to adopt health-beneficial activities within a 24-hour period.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Humans , Exercise , Public Health , Sedentary Behavior , Singapore , Sleep
19.
Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore ; : 283-291, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927488

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#The COVID-19 pandemic has affected almost all populations, with frontline workers experiencing a higher risk of mental health effects compared to other groups. Although there are several research studies focusing on the mental health effects of the pandemic on healthcare workers, there is little research about its impact on workers in outsourced hospital essential services. This study aims to examine the prevalence and correlates of psychological distress and coronavirus anxiety among staff working in 3 outsourced hospital essential services-housekeeping, porter service and maintenance services.@*METHODS@#A cross-sectional study was conducted among outsourced hospital essential services workers in a tertiary hospital. Data on demographics, medical history, lifestyle factors, psychosocial factors and mental well-being were collected using self-administered questionnaires. Robust logistic regression was used to determine risk factors associated with psychological distress and dysfunctional anxiety related to COVID-19.@*RESULTS@#A total of 246 hospital essential services workers participated in the study. The prevalence of psychological distress was 24.7%, and dysfunctional anxiety related to COVID-19 was 13.4%. Social support and workplace support were found to be independently associated with a lower risk of psychological distress, and social connectivity was associated with a lower risk of dysfunctional anxiety related to COVID-19.@*CONCLUSION@#These findings highlight the crucial roles of communities and workplaces in combating the mental health consequences of the pandemic. Public health programmes that aim to tackle the emerging mental health crisis in hospital essential services workers should incorporate strategies to address psychosocial factors, in addition to traditional self-care approaches.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Hospitals , Pandemics , Personnel, Hospital , Prevalence , Psychological Distress , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore/epidemiology
20.
Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore ; : 263-271, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927486

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#Infant gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a significant cause of concern to parents. This study seeks to describe GERD prevalence in infants, evaluate possible risk factors and assess common beliefs influencing management of GERD among Asian parents.@*METHODS@#Mother-infant dyads in the Singapore PREconception Study of long-Term maternal and child Outcomes (S-PRESTO) cohort were prospectively followed from preconception to 12 months post-delivery. GERD diagnosis was ascertained through the revised Infant Gastroesophageal Reflux Questionnaire (I-GERQ-R) administered at 4 time points during infancy. Data on parental perceptions and lifestyle modifications were also collected.@*RESULTS@#The prevalence of infant GERD peaked at 26.5% at age 6 weeks, decreasing to 1.1% by 12 months. Infants exclusively breastfed at 3 weeks of life had reduced odds of GERD by 1 year (adjusted odds ratio 0.43, 95% confidence interval 0.19-0.97, P=0.04). Elimination of "cold or heaty food" and "gas producing" vegetables, massaging the infant's abdomen and application of medicated oil to the infant's abdomen were quoted as major lifestyle modifications in response to GERD symptoms.@*CONCLUSION@#Prevalence of GERD in infants is highest in the first 3 months of life, and the majority outgrow it by 1 year of age. Infants exclusively breastfed at 3 weeks had reduced odds of GERD. Cultural-based changes such as elimination of "heaty or cold" food influence parental perceptions in GERD, which are unique to the Asian population. Understanding the cultural basis for parental perceptions and health-seeking behaviours is crucial in tailoring patient education appropriately for optimal management of infant GERD.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Gastroesophageal Reflux/epidemiology , Parents/psychology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Singapore/epidemiology
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