Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 4.306
Filter
Add filters

Year range
1.
J Environ Manage ; 335: 117567, 2023 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36857889

ABSTRACT

Returning straw-like agricultural waste to the field by converting it into hydrochar through hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is an important way to realize resource utilization of waste, soil improvement, and carbon sequestration. However, the large-scale HTC is highly limited by the large water consumption and waste liquid pollution. Here, we propose strategies to optimize the liquid-solid ratio (LSR) of HTC, and comprehensively evaluate the stability, soil application potential, and economic benefits of corn stover-based hydrochar under different LSRs. The results showed that the total amount of dissolved organic carbon of hydrochars increased by 55.0% as LSR reducing from 10:1 to 2:1, while the element content, thermal stability, carbon fixation potential, specific surface area, pore volume, and functional group type were not obviously affected. The specific surface area and pore volume of hydrochar decreased by 61.8% and 70.9% as LSR reduced to 1:1, due to incomplete carbonization. According to the gray relation, hydrochar derived at LSR of 10:1 and followed by 2:1 showed greatest relation degree of 0.80 and 0.70, respectively, indicating better soil application potential. However, reducing LSR from 10:1 to 2:1 made the income of single process production increased from -388 to 968 ¥, and the wastewater generation decreased by 80%. Considering the large-scale application of HTC in fields for farmland improvement and environmental remediation, the comprehensive advantages of optimized LSR will be further highlighted.


Subject(s)
Carbon , Soil , Wastewater , Carbon Sequestration , Zea mays , Temperature
2.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36833857

ABSTRACT

Potentially toxic element (PTE) contamination in soils has serious impacts on ecosystems. However, there is no consensus in the field of assessment and monitoring of contaminated sites in China. In this paper, a risk assessment and pollution monitoring method for PTEs was proposed and applied to a mining site containing As, Cd, Sb, Pb, Hg, Ni, Cr, V, Zn, Tl, and Cu. The comprehensive scoring method and analytical hierarchical process were used to screen the priority PTEs for monitoring. The potential ecological risk index method was used to calculate the risk index of monitoring point. The spatial distribution characteristics were determined using semi-variance analysis. The spatial distribution of PTEs was predicted using ordinary kriging (OK) and radial basis function (RBF). The results showed that the spatial distribution of As, Pd, and Cd are mainly influenced by natural factors, while Sb and RI are influenced by both natural and human factors. OK has higher spatial prediction accuracy for Sb and Pb, and RBF has higher prediction accuracy for As, Cd, and RI. The areas with high ecological risk and above are mainly distributed on both sides of the creek and road. The optimized long-term monitoring sites can achieve the monitoring of multiple PTEs.


Subject(s)
Metals, Heavy , Soil Pollutants , Humans , Soil , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Ecosystem , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Cadmium , Lead , Soil Pollutants/analysis , Risk Assessment , China
3.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36833927

ABSTRACT

Major problems in China's pursuit of sustainable agricultural development include inadequate, low-quality soil and water resources, imbalanced regional allocation and unreasonable utilization of resources. In some regions, overexploitation of soil resources and excessive use of chemicals triggered a web of unforeseen consequences, including insufficient use of agricultural resources, agricultural non-point source pollution and land degradation. In the past decade, China has changed its path of agricultural development from an output-oriented one to a modern, sustainable one with agricultural ecological civilization as its goal. First, the government has formulated and improved its laws and regulations on soil resources and the environment. Second, the government has conducted serious actions to ensure food safety and coordinated management of agricultural resources. Third, the government has planned to establish national agricultural high-tech industry demonstration zones based on regional features to strengthen the connection among the government, agri-businesses, scientific community and the farming community. As the next step, the government should improve the system for ecological and environmental regulation and set up a feasible eco-incentive mechanism. At the same time, the scientific community should strengthen the innovation of bottleneck technologies and the development of whole solutions for sustainable management in ecologically fragile regions. This will enhance the alignment between policy mechanisms and technology modes and effectively promote the sustainable development of agriculture in China.


Subject(s)
Soil , Sustainable Development , Farms , Agriculture , China , Food Security , Conservation of Natural Resources
4.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36834134

ABSTRACT

Soil heavy metal contamination is crucial due to menacing food safety and mortal health. At present, with the fast advancement of urbanization and industrialization, heavy metals are increasingly released into the soil by anthropogenic activities, and the soil ecosystem contamination around the Danjiangkou Reservoir is directly associated with water quality security of the reservoir. In this paper, using 639 soil samples from the Danjiangkou Reservoir, Henan Province, China, we studied a variety of space distribution characteristics of heavy metals in soil. Geographic information system analysis (GIS), geo-accumulation index (Igeo), contamination factor (CF), principal component analysis (PCA) model, and positive matrix factorization (PMF) model were used together to recognize and quantify the distribution, contamination, and origin of heavy metals. We uncovered an exceptional variety of heavy metal concentrations among the tested soils: the mean arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) concentrations (14.54, 0.21, 18.69, 81.69, 898.42, 39.37, 79.50, 28.11, 0.04 mg/kg, respectively, in the topsoil (0-20 cm depth)), all exceed their background values. The mean Igeo value and CF values of these trace elements are both in descending order: Cd > Co > Mn > Ni > Pb > Zn > Cr > As > Hg. Cd was the highest contributor to the assessment of heavy metal pollution, with an average Igeo value over three, indicating that the study area is modestly contaminated by Cd. The PCA analysis and PMF model revealed three potential sources, including natural sources (PC1) for Cr, Co, Mn and Ni; agricultural sources (PC2) for Cd, Zn and Hg; and industrial emissions and transportation sources (PC3) for Pb. This study displays a map of heavy metal contamination in the eastern area topsoil of the Danjiangkou Reservoir, showing the most severe pollutant is Cd, which poses a threat to the water quality security of Danjiangkou Reservoir and provides a significant source identification for future contamination control.


Subject(s)
Arsenic , Mercury , Metals, Heavy , Soil Pollutants , Soil , Ecosystem , Cadmium/analysis , Lead/analysis , Environmental Monitoring , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Arsenic/analysis , Water Quality , Zinc/analysis , Mercury/analysis , Chromium/analysis , Cobalt/analysis , Manganese/analysis , Nickel/analysis , China , Soil Pollutants/analysis , Risk Assessment
5.
Environ Int ; 172: 107795, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36764184

ABSTRACT

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are contaminants of global concern, and the inadvertent consumption of PFAA-contaminated crops may pose a threat to public health. Therefore, systematically studying their source tracing, bioaccumulation prediction and risk assessments in crops is an urgent priority. This study investigated the source apportionment and transport of PFAAs and novel fluorinated alternatives (collectively as per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances, PFASs) from factories to agricultural fields in a fluorochemical industrial region of China. Furthermore, bioaccumulation specificities and prediction of these chemicals in different vegetables were explored, followed by a comprehensive risk assessment from agricultural fields to dinner plates which considered precursor degradation. A positive matrix factorization model revealed that approximately 70 % of PFASs in agricultural soils were derived from fluorochemical manufacturing and metal processing. Alarming levels of ∑PFASs ranged 8.28-84.3 ng/g in soils and 163-7176 ng/g in vegetables. PFAS with short carbon chain or carboxylic acid group as well as branched isomers exhibited higher environmental transport potentials and bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) across a range of vegetables. The BAFs of different isomers of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) decreased as the perfluoromethyl group moved further from the acid functional group. Hexafluoropropylene oxide dimer acid (GenX) showed relatively low BAFs, probably related to its ether bond with a high affinity to soil. Vegetables with fewer Casparian strips (e.g., carrot and radish), or more protein, possessed larger BAFs of PFASs. A bioaccumulation equation integrating critical parameters of PFASs, vegetables and soils, was built and corroborated with a good contamination prediction. After a total oxidizable precursors (TOP) assay, incremental perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) were massively found (325-5940 ng/g) in edible vegetable parts. Besides, precursor degradation and volatilization loss of PFASs was firstly confirmed during vegetable cooking. A risk assessment based on the TOP assay was developed to assist the protection of vegetable consumers.


Subject(s)
Alkanesulfonic Acids , Fluorocarbons , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Environmental Monitoring , Bioaccumulation , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Vegetables/metabolism , Crops, Agricultural/metabolism , Fluorocarbons/analysis , China , Soil/chemistry , Carboxylic Acids/analysis , Risk Assessment , Alkanesulfonic Acids/analysis
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 252: 114632, 2023 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36773436

ABSTRACT

In this paper, the stereoselective degradation and quantitative identification of chiral pesticide etoxazole in organisms with different classes of organisms (soil, chlorella algal fluid and mice) were carried out by compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA). The degradation behavior and stable isotope fractionation effect of etoxazole in soil, chlorella and mice were investigated. The R-etoxazole degraded faster than S-etoxazole in different classes of organisms. The metabolites M1, M2 and M3 were detected in all three substrates. Biodegradation is the main factor for the change of stable isotope ratio of chiral pesticide etoxazole. Furthermore, the relationship between fractionation value of carbon isotope and residual concentration of etoxazole is established by Rayleigh equation, and the biodegradation rate of etoxazole could be calculated by using CSIA without measuring the concentration of etoxazole. Therefore, the use of CSIA can accurately assess the degradation behavior of pesticide pollution in the environment and provide a certain scientific evidence and technical support in the process of environmental remediation.


Subject(s)
Chlorella , Pesticides , Animals , Mice , Carbon Isotopes/analysis , Pesticides/analysis , Soil/chemistry , Biodegradation, Environmental
7.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 44(2): 944-953, 2023 Feb 08.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36775617

ABSTRACT

In order to clarify the pollution characteristics of PAHs in suburban agricultural soils, the content of 16 types of PAHs was measured in agricultural soils with different land use types (paddy fields, vegetable fields, and forest land) in the suburbs of Nanjing. The results showed that acenaphthene (Acy) was not detected in any soil samples. The concentration of 15 PAHs in agricultural soil in suburban Nanjing ranged from 24.49 to 925.54 µg·kg-1, with an average concentration of 259.88 µg·kg-1. In different land use types, the order of PAHs concentration in soil from high to low was:forest land>paddy fields>vegetable fields, and the high-ring PAHs content was dominant in general. The effects of different soil physicochemical properties on PAHs showed that there was a certain correlation between soil organic carbon (TOC) and clay (clay) content and PAHs, whereas pH and total nitrogen (TN) had no significant correlation with PAHs. The toxic equivalence method and CSI index method were used for ecological risk assessment, which showed that the ecological risk of PAHs in agricultural soils in suburban Nanjing was relatively small; however, the ecological risk of PAHs in forest land should be given some attention, and supervision should be strengthened. Health risk assessment using incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) showed that the threat to the health of children was slightly greater than that of adults, and the CR of forest land was significantly higher than that of vegetable and paddy fields, though still within an acceptable range. Uncertain health assessments were performed in adults, showing that risk analyses of deterministic health risks underestimated the health risks of PAHs. The results of sensitivity analysis showed that the input parameter that had the greatest impact on the total variance of the total carcinogenic risk CR was the exposure frequency EF (50.7%), followed by the pollutant concentration CS (43.3%).


Subject(s)
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons , Soil Pollutants , Adult , Child , Humans , Soil/chemistry , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons/analysis , Clay , Carbon/analysis , Soil Pollutants/analysis , Risk Assessment , Vegetables , China
8.
PeerJ ; 11: e14816, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36743953

ABSTRACT

Background: Best management practices (BMPs) are promising solutions that can partially control pollution discharged from farmlands. These strategies, like fertilizer reduction and using filter strips, mainly control nutrient (N and P) pollution loads in basins. However, they have secondary impacts on nutrition production and ecosystem. This study develops a method to evaluate the cumulative environmental impacts of BMPs. It also introduces and calculates food's environmental footprint (FEF) for accounting the total environmental damages per nutrition production. Methods: This study combines the soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) for basin simulation with the indices of ReCiPe, a life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) method. By these means, the effectiveness of BMPs on pollution loads, production yields, and water footprints (WFs) are evaluated and converted as equivalent environmental damages. This method was verified in Zrebar Lake, western Iran. Here, water consumption, as WFs, and eutrophication are the main indices that are converted into equivalent health and ecological impairments. Two methods, entropy and environmental performance index (EPI), are used for weighting normalized endpoints in last step. Results: Results showed that using 25-50% less fertilizer and water for irrigation combined with vegetated filter strips reduce N and P pollution about 34-60% and 8-21%, respectively. These can decrease ecosystem damages by 5-9% and health risks by 7-14%. Here, freshwater eutrophication is a more critical damage in ecosystem. However, using less fertilizer adversely reduces total nutrition production by 1.7-3.7%. It means that BMPs can decline total ecological damages and health risks, which threatens nutrition production. FEF presents a tool to solve this dilemma about the sustainability of BMPs. In the study area, a 4-9% decrease in FEF means that BMPs are more environmental friendly than nutrition menacing. Finally, this study concludes that SWAT-ReCiPe with FEF provides a quantitative framework for environment-food nexus assessment. However, due to the uncertainties, this method is recommended as a tool for comparing management strategies instead of reporting certain values.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Ecosystem , Farms , Agriculture/methods , Fertilizers/adverse effects , Soil , Water
9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(3): 371, 2023 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36754889

ABSTRACT

Dynamic assessment of the water environment reflects variations in water resources in a basin under the combined influence of nature and humans and is a prerequisite for rational water management. This study provides an integrated assessment of the water environment in a water quantity-quality-soil model. Using the long-term monthly data from hydrological monitoring stations, the water environment of the Yellow River basin is assessed from the year 2006 to 2019. The kernel density estimation and the Dagum Gini coefficient are used to analyze the spatial and temporal imbalances of the water environment. Geographic detectors are used to extract external driving factors of the unbalanced evolution. The study results reveal that (1) the water environment in the basin shows a fluctuating downward trend, which mainly depends on the organic pollution control indicators, with a contribution of 22.85%. Scores of the water environment in the midstream are lower than those in the upstream and downstream due to the heavy pollutant discharges. (2) The spatial imbalance shows a fluctuating downward trend. Inter-regional variation is the primary source of regional variation in the water environment, with an average contribution of 56.02%. (3) The temporal imbalance of the water environment is on the rise, with a degree of multipolarity. The significant left trailing feature of the kernel density curve suggests that there are areas within the basin where the water environment is extremely poor. (4) For the overall basin and upstream, economic development and technological innovation are the main external driving factors influencing the spatial and temporal imbalances of the water environment. For the midstream and downstream, population density and environmental regulations are the main drivers. The interaction of any two factors has a greater impact than the single one.


Subject(s)
Environmental Monitoring , Soil , Humans , Water Quality , Water , China
10.
J Environ Public Health ; 2023: 6147506, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36755786

ABSTRACT

The Wadi Al-Far'a Watershed (WFW) is one of the most important agricultural lands in Palestine where considerable amounts of organic wastes are generated. Yet, mismanagement of agricultural waste, including random disposal and/or burning, is a prevalent practice in the WFW. Such a practice might result in greenhouse gas emissions and leachate penetration into underlying soil and groundwater. To encourage compost production in the WFW as an efficient way for organic agricultural waste treatment and emission reduction, this study aims at evaluating the quality of both raw organic agricultural waste and ready compost, locally produced or imported. The evaluation considers the physiochemical characteristics as well as the heavy metal contents. The analysis of 17 samples of raw organic agricultural waste showed a good potential for compost production due to the high content of organic matter and other nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus. The analysis of 15 ready compost samples, however, showed that compost quality is relatively low due to the high electrical conductivity and low moisture content measurements as well as the high levels of sodium, chloride, and potassium. Furthermore, heavy metal contents of both raw organic agricultural waste and ready compost samples are less than the limits specified by the Palestinian and international standards. Therefore, local farmers can safely use raw organic agricultural waste generated in the WFW for compost production. Composting will not only enhance soil reclamation and crop production but also protect human health and the environment and promote sustainable economic development.


Subject(s)
Composting , Metals, Heavy , Refuse Disposal , Humans , Arabs , Soil/chemistry , Metals, Heavy/analysis
11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(3): 386, 2023 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36764975

ABSTRACT

Potential pollution of mining environmental liabilities' locations can be preliminarily and efficiently assessed by the potential generation of acid mine drainage and indices of contamination. This research evaluates the potential pollution by potentially toxic elements at locations with uranium mining liability evidence, using the net acid generation test and determining the background values to estimate acid mine drainage and indices of contamination. Sixty soil samples were collected, and the mineralogy and potentially toxic elements' total contents were determined by x-ray diffraction and optical spectrometry. The findings suggest that the soils related to a specific lithology might not present potential acid mine drainage generation but potential soil and sediment contamination. Future research is recommended on applying leaching tests to identify which potentially toxic elements are effectively being solubilized. Finally, it can be concluded that the study area's potential contamination is relatively low overall.


Subject(s)
Metals, Heavy , Soil Pollutants , Uranium , Uranium/analysis , Mexico , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Soil Pollutants/analysis , Soil/chemistry , Mining , Acids/analysis , Metals, Heavy/analysis
12.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(3): 360, 2023 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36735077

ABSTRACT

This study assessed the human health hazards and ecological risks of heavy metals from waste sites in residential vicinity. The heavy metals analyzed were Cr, Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, and Zn. A total of 40 soil samples were collected from waste sites in two residential estates located in the urban and suburb areas of Umuahia, Abia state. Results revealed a trend in concentrations of the heavy metals for both sites in the following order: Cu > Ni > Zn > Cr > Cd > Pb. The concentrations of heavy metals were higher in rural soils than in urban soil. The contamination factor (CF) indices for Pb, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn were less than 1 for both sites, signifying a low contamination scenario. The contamination factor for Cd (6 > CF) for both sites indicated a very high contamination status. The estimated degree of contamination (Cdeg) was less than the lower threshold of 8.0, denoting a low degree of contamination. Cd was the highest contributor to ecological risk with Er index value of 184.2 among measured heavy metals. The overall potential ecological risk index for urban and rural sites are 187.1 and 196.1 respectively, classifying the sites as moderate risk. The overall non-carcinogenic hazard index values (HI) for adults and children in urban and rural soils are 0.00248, 0.0198 and 0.0028, 0.0223 respectively, which are below the acceptable limit (HI < 1), indicating that the exposed residents are unlikely to experience any apparent adverse health hazards. However, children are more susceptible to non-carcinogenic hazards than adults in the study areas.


Subject(s)
Metals, Heavy , Soil Pollutants , Child , Adult , Humans , Cadmium , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Nigeria , Lead , Soil Pollutants/analysis , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Risk Assessment , Soil , China
13.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(3): 376, 2023 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36757450

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the contamination and health risk assessment of heavy metals and organophosphorus pesticides in single, double, and ratoon cropping of rice in Mazandaran province, north of Iran. A total of 17 sampling locations in rice farms were selected and soil and rice samples were collected from farms in 5 counties of Mazandaran. Soil and rice samples were then transferred to the lab for further analysis. The concentration of pesticides and heavy metals was then analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), respectively. Mercury was analyzed using a Leco mercury analyzer. Target hazard quotient (THQ), total target hazard quotient (TTHQ), carcinogenic risk (CR), and total carcinogenic risk (TCR) in children and adults were used. Potential ecological risk also was used to test the possible hazards of heavy metals to the environment. Heavy metals concentration in rice and soil samples in different farming steps revealed different levels. THQ showed no considerable risk in consuming contaminated rice to adults and children considered, while TTHQ revealed potential non-carcinogenic risks. Ni had the most carcinogenic risks to target human groups, and TCR showed carcinogenicity for carcinogenic heavy metals in all stations. Findings showed no ecological risks of metals to the environment. In conclusion, rice farmers in Mazandaran use the lands multiple times during the year to increase the performance, function, quality, and quantity of rice, but the possible toxic effects of heavy metals and pesticides on consumers and the environment should not be overlooked.


Subject(s)
Mercury , Metals, Heavy , Oryza , Pesticides , Soil Pollutants , Adult , Child , Humans , Oryza/chemistry , Organophosphorus Compounds/analysis , Environmental Monitoring , Pesticides/analysis , Iran , Food Contamination/analysis , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Soil/chemistry , Carcinogens/analysis , Mercury/analysis , Risk Assessment , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell , Soil Pollutants/analysis
14.
J Environ Manage ; 335: 117546, 2023 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36848802

ABSTRACT

Antibiotics are widely used in medical care, livestock production, and aquaculture. However, antibiotic pollution has attracted increasing global concerns due to their ecological risks after entering into environmental ecosystem via animal excretion, effulent from industrial and domestic sewage treatment facilities. In this study, 30 antibiotics were investigated in soils and irrigation rivers using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer. This study evaluated the occurrence, source apportionment, and ecological risks of these target compounds in soils and irrigation rivers (i.e., sediments and water) of farmland system by using principal component analysis-multivariate linear regression (PCA-MLR) and risk quotients (RQ). The concentration range of antibiotics in soils, sediments, and water was 0.38-689.58 ng/g, 81.99-658.00 ng/g, and 134.45-1547.06 ng/L, respectively. In soils, the most abundant antibiotics were quinolones and antifungals with an average concentration of 30.00 ng/g and 7.69 ng/g, respectively, contributing to 40% of total antibiotics. Macrolides were the most frequently detected antibiotics in soils with an average concentration of 4.94 ng/g. In irrigation rivers, quinolones and tetracyclines, the most abundant antibiotics, accounted for 78% and 65% of antibiotics in water and sediments, respectively. Higher antibiotic contamination of irrigation water was primarily distributed in highly populated urban areas, while increasing antibiotic contamination of sediments and soils was particularly observed in rural areas. PCA-MLR analysis indicated that antibiotic contamination in soils was mainly ascribed to the irrigation of sewage-receiving water body and manure application of livestock and poultry farming, which cumulatively contributed to 76% of antibiotics. According to RQ assessment, quinolones in irrigation rivers posed high risk to algae and daphnia, contributing 85% and 72% to the mixture risk, respectively. In soils, macrolides, quinolones and sulfonamides were responsible for more than 90% to the mixture risk of antibiotics. Ultimately, these findings can improve our fundamental knowledge on contamination characteristics and source pathways towards risk management of antibiotics in farmland system.


Subject(s)
Quinolones , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Farms , Sewage/analysis , Ecosystem , Quinolones/analysis , Soil , Risk Assessment , Rivers , Water/analysis , Macrolides/analysis , Environmental Monitoring , China , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36767808

ABSTRACT

The United Nations and scholars called for more attention and efforts for cleaner water and water sustainability. This study established a water sustainability evaluating method framework, including indicators, goals, and methods and performs provincial and city-level assessments as case studies. The framework involves six fields, surface water quality, marine environmental quality, water-soil-agriculture, water infrastructure, water conservation, aquatic ecology, water-efficient use, and pollutant emission reduction. The methods innovatively integrate multi fields and concerns of water sustainability while providing a goal-oriented evaluation and implementing the United Nations' call for the refinement and clarification of SDGs. China's overall water sustainability was evaluated as 0.821 in 2021, and have performed well in surface water quality, sea quality, water conservation, and aquatic ecology fields while performing poorly in the water-soil-agriculture field. The overall strategy, policy, and action for water sustainability could be developed based on the evaluation. The water sustainability evaluation presented the regional and field/indicator differentiations. It is necessary to implement regionally classified policies and differentiated management for sustainable water development. The correlation analysis with socioeconomic factors implies the complicated and intimate interaction between socioeconomic development and water sustainability while revealing that development stages and the inherent conditions of natural ecology and water sources bring about the differentiations. A comprehensive evaluation of water sustainability may be three-dimensional, involving water quality and ecology, development related to water, and water resources and utilization.


Subject(s)
Conservation of Natural Resources , Goals , Conservation of Natural Resources/methods , Sustainable Development , Soil , China
16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36767832

ABSTRACT

To identify the sources of contamination with potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in roadside orchard soils and to evaluate the potential ecological and environmental impacts in Gaziantep, soil samples from 20 mixed pistachio and olive orchards on roadsides with different traffic densities and at different distances to the roads were analyzed. Concentrations were 23,407.36 ± 4183.76 mg·kg-1 for Fe, 421.78 ± 100.26 mg·kg-1 for Mn, 100.20 ± 41.92 mg·kg-1 for Ni, 73.30 ± 25.58 mg·kg-1 for Cr, 65.03 ± 12.19 mg·kg-1 for Zn, 60.38± 7.91 mg·kg-1 for Pb, 17.74 ± 3.35 mg·kg-1 for Cu, 14.93 ± 4.94 mg·kg-1 for Co, and 0.30 ± 0.12 mg·kg-1 for Cd. It was found that the Ni content in 51% and the Cr content in 18% of orchard soils were above the legal limits for agricultural soils (pH > 6) in Türkiye. Factor analysis (FA) showed that Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Pb loaded on the first factor (FC1), while Cd and Zn loaded mostly on the second factor (FC2). It was found that Cr, Ni, and Pb were primarily enriched through pedogenic processes, whereas Cd most likely originated from agricultural activities, while the impact of road traffic as source of PTE contamination was insignificant. It has been revealed that the soils are of low quality for agricultural production due to PTE contamination (PIave ≥ 1). The SOPI values from environmental and ecological individual indices showed that the soil pollution level was moderate for Cd, Ni, and Pb, and low for Cr. The soil pollution index (SOPI) proved to be suitable for evaluating and comparing PTE pollution in regions with different soil properties.


Subject(s)
Metals, Heavy , Soil Pollutants , Soil/chemistry , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Environmental Monitoring , Cadmium/analysis , Lead/analysis , Soil Pollutants/analysis , Risk Assessment , China
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 871: 161768, 2023 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36740051

ABSTRACT

Soil heavy metal pollution has been a serious and widespread problem in China. Although more attention has been paid on soil pollution status of heavy metals in China, systematic reviews on the spatiotemporal distribution of soil heavy metals and their related health risk considering different land use types at a national scale are still lacking. In this review, we extracted concentrations of seven heavy metals in soils including lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), nickel (Ni), and copper (Cu), assessed the spatiotemporal distribution of soil heavy metal concentrations from studies carried out between 1977 and 2020, and estimated the ecological and human health risks on a national scale. Among the seven metals, associated risks posed by Pb and As are more serious compared to other metals. Based on the temporal trend of the geoaccumulation index of the seven heavy metals during 1977-2020, there is no further increasing trend. Among different land use types, mining areas showed higher risk compared to others. Totally, the pollution was more serious in southeast China than those in northwest. Children and adult females are identified as the priority group for protection. This paper presents a comprehensive ecological and health risk assessment of seven heavy metals in soils across China considering different land use types and spatiotemporal variation, and provides important evidence for policy makers to manage and reduce soil heavy metal pollution and related health risks.


Subject(s)
Arsenic , Mercury , Metals, Heavy , Soil Pollutants , Adult , Child , Humans , Soil , Lead , Environmental Monitoring , Soil Pollutants/analysis , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Environmental Pollution , Cadmium , Risk Assessment , China
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 871: 162015, 2023 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36746284

ABSTRACT

The agricultural soils in China are suffered from serious polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination, however, the valid management standards for farmland are absent to efficiently control the health risks of PCBs exposure. This study analyzed the contamination characteristics and main composition of PCBs in agricultural soils of the southeastern China from the published literature over the past 20 years, and derived the regional generic assessment criteria (GAC) using an exposure modelling approach for individual and total PCBs (∑PCBs) via multiple exposure pathways such as ingestion of soil and dust, consumption of vegetables, dermal contact with soil and dust, ingestion of soil attached to vegetables, and inhalation of soil vapour and soil-derived dust outdoors under the agricultural land scenario. It is identified that the averaged ∑PCBs concentration of 80.03 ng g-1 under the 95 % lower confidence limit with an unacceptable health risk of 4.8 × 10-6 has significantly exceeded the integrated generic assessment criteria (expressed as GACint) of 16.5 ng g-1. Accordingly, the exposure pathways from the consumption of agricultural produces and indirect ingestion of soil attached to vegetables contributed up to 62 %-88 % of the total exposure, followed by 11 %-33 % of the soil ingestion and 2 %-6 % of dermal contact. The derived GACint for ∑PCBs is extremely valuable to effectively assess and manage the PCBs contamination in agricultural soils of China.


Subject(s)
Polychlorinated Biphenyls , Soil Pollutants , Polychlorinated Biphenyls/analysis , Soil , Environmental Monitoring , Soil Pollutants/analysis , China , Vegetables , Dust
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 871: 162093, 2023 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36758689

ABSTRACT

Food waste valorization, considered as energy and/or chemicals source, via biorefinery or biotechnology, gained great attention in recent years, because of the fast depletion of primary resources, increased waste generation and landfilling worldwide. Coffee by-products for example (i.e. coffee pulp, coffee husks, silver skin, spent coffee, etc.) have been investigated in different forms either as a source of antioxidant and valuable chemicals and as a filler in composites. A new valorization route for coffee silver skin (CSS), up to now just sent to damping, is here investigated: particulate bio-composites based on poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) (PBSA), an aliphatic biodegradable polyester commercially available, have been formulated with up to a 30 wt% of CSS, in order to prepare mulching films for agriculture. The bacterial analysis of the filler indeed, has underlined the presence of potential Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria species, mainly ascribed to the Bacillus genus, which can survive both the roasting and the compounding processes. The obtained composites have been characterized mechanically and thermally and their hydrophilic nature has been investigated by measuring their contact angle. Eventually, the bacteria release from the composite films has been examined by means of in-vitro tests. The plant growth promoting capability of the films was preliminarily evaluated in pot experiments using lettuce as a model crop. The composite films were able to release the endogenous bacteria in the soil and to stimulate plant and root growth of the assayed crop. The possibility to produce functionalized biodegradable mulching films by recycling agricultural wastes can thus be forecast, highlighting potential multiple advantages in terms of soil preservation/fertilization, decrease of polymeric materials in mulching products, exploitation of a waste.


Subject(s)
Refuse Disposal , Silver , Food , Soil , Biotechnology
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 871: 162092, 2023 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36775148

ABSTRACT

China has experienced a rapid expansion of human settlement in both urban and rural areas over the past three decades. Regarding the impacts on carbon storage, previous studies that only focus on certain ecosystems cannot reflect urban-rural disparities, resulting in the carbon storage changes in human settlement remaining unknown. In this study, we aimed to explore China's urban-rural disparities in human settlement expansion and direct impacts on carbon storage by using the big Earth data technology. The results showed that from 1990 to 2018, the total amount of China's human settlement expansion reached 175,703.80 km2, and the inner-city, peri-urban, and rural components accounted for 21.00 %, 20.18 %, and 58.82 %, respectively. Along with the general tendency of impervious surface area (ISA) growth, there was more soil organic carbon (SOC) (1254.33 TgC) being sealed beneath ISA (0-100 cm depth), compared to a huge reduction in vegetation biomass carbon (VBC) (91.44 TgC) during the study period. The results further indicated that the change density of either VBC or SOC presented a slightly rising trend along the urban-rural gradient, due to the increasingly common encroachment on vegetation and soil types with higher carbon content. We also found that socioeconomic drivers had a greater influence in urban areas than rural areas, and the related correlation exhibited a descending trajectory in both urban and rural areas. There is thus an urgent need to preserve lands with abundant carbon storage and contain the waste of land resources in rural areas. All stakeholders should pay more attention to concerted and targeted regulation policies for well-planned and eco-friendly human settlement expansion such as enhancing rural land use efficiency and promoting large-scale afforestation and continuous urban greening, which will be critical not only for guiding sustainable urbanization all over China but also for mitigating climate change for the entire world.


Subject(s)
Carbon , Ecosystem , Humans , Carbon/analysis , Soil , Economic Development , Urbanization , China
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL