Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 33
Filter
1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255235, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355897

ABSTRACT

Abstract In soybean breeding program, continuous selection pressure on traits response to yield created a genetic bottleneck for improvements of soybean through hybridization breeding technique. Therefore an initiative was taken to developed high yielding soybean variety applying mutation breeding techniques at Plant Breeding Division, Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA), Bangladesh. Locally available popular cultivar BARI Soybean-5 was used as a parent material and subjected to five different doses of Gamma ray using Co60. In respect to seed yield and yield attributing characters, twelve true breed mutants were selected from M4 generation. High values of heritability and genetic advance with high genotypic coefficient of variance (GCV) for plant height, branch number and pod number were considered as favorable attributes for soybean improvement that ensure expected yield. The mutant SBM-18 obtained from 250Gy provided stable yield performance at diversified environments. It provided maximum seed yield of 3056 kg ha-1 with highest number of pods plant-1 (56). The National Seed Board of Bangladesh (NSB) eventually approved SBM-18 and registered it as a new soybean variety named 'Binasoybean-5' for large-scale planting because of its superior stability in various agro-ecological zones and consistent yield performance.


Resumo No programa de melhoramento da soja, a pressão pela seleção contínua para a resposta das características de rendimento criou um gargalo genético para melhorias da soja por meio da técnica de melhoramento por hibridação. Portanto, foi desenvolvida uma variedade de soja de alto rendimento, aplicando técnicas de reprodução por mutação, na Divisão de Melhoramento de Plantas, no Instituto de Agricultura Nuclear de Bangladesh (BINA), em Bangladesh. A cultivar popular BARI Soybean-5, disponível localmente, foi usada como material original e submetida a cinco doses diferentes de raios gama usando Co60. Em relação ao rendimento de sementes e às características de atribuição de rendimento, 12 mutantes genuínos foram selecionados a partir da geração M4. Altos valores de herdabilidade e avanço genético com alto coeficiente de variância genotípico (GCV) para altura da planta, número de ramos e número de vagens foram considerados atributos favoráveis ​​ao melhoramento da soja, garantindo, assim, a produtividade esperada. O mutante SBM-18, obtido a partir de 250Gy, proporcionou desempenho de rendimento estável em ambientes diversificados e produtividade máxima de sementes de 3.056 kg ha-1 com o maior número de vagens planta-1 (56). O Conselho Nacional de Sementes de Bangladesh (NSB) finalmente aprovou o SBM-18 e o registrou como uma nova variedade de soja, chamada 'Binasoybean-5', para plantio em larga escala por causa de sua estabilidade superior em várias zonas agroecológicas e desempenho de rendimento consistente.


Subject(s)
Soybeans/growth & development , Soybeans/genetics , Phenotype , Bangladesh , Plant Breeding , Genotype , Mutation
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2762-2771, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981231

ABSTRACT

Galactinol synthase (GolS) genes play important roles in plant response to abiotic stress. In this research, the plant expression vector of soybean GmGolS2-2 gene was constructed and transformed into tobacco to study the drought tolerance of transgenic tobacco. A GmGolS2-2 gene with 975 bp coding sequence was cloned from soybean leaves by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). GmGolS2-2 was linked to the plant expression vector pRI101 by restriction enzyme sites Nde Ⅰ and EcoR Ⅰ, and transformed into tobacco by leaf disc method. Genomic DNA PCR and real-time PCR showed that three GmGolS2-2 transgenic tobacco plants were obtained. The growth status of GmGolS2-2 transgenic tobacco under drought stress was better than that of wild-type tobacco. After drought stress treatment, the electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde content of transgenic tobacco were lower than those of wild-type tobacco, but the proline content and soluble sugar content were higher than those of wild-type tobacco. The results of real-time PCR showed that the heterologous expression of GmGolS2-2 increased the expression of stress-related genes NtERD10C and NtAQP1 in transgenic tobacco. The above results indicated that GmGolS2-2 improved drought resistance of transgenic tobacco.


Subject(s)
Drought Resistance , Tobacco/genetics , Soybeans/genetics , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Stress, Physiological/genetics , Droughts , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
3.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 586-602, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970393

ABSTRACT

Autophagy is a highly conserved mechanism for material degradation and recycling in eukaryote cells, and plays important roles in growth, development, stress tolerance and immune responses. ATG10 plays a key role in autophagosome formation. To understand the function of ATG10 in soybean, two homologous GmATG10 genes, namely GmATG10a and GmATG10b, were silenced simultaneously by bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) induced gene silencing. The carbon starvation induced by dark treatment and Western blotting analysis of GmATG8 accumulation level indicated that concurrent silencing GmATG10a/10b resulted in the impairment of autophagy in soybean; disease resistance and kinase assays demonstrated that GmATG10a/10b participated in the immune responses by negatively regulating the activation of GmMPK3/6, indicating that GmATG10a/10b plays a negative regulatory role in immune response in soybean.


Subject(s)
Soybeans/genetics , Immunity
4.
Hig. aliment ; 33(288/289): 1449-1453, abr.-maio 2019. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1482180

ABSTRACT

A soja tem alcançado um espaço muito amplo no cenário nacional no que diz respeito à produção e consumo de soja. O objetivo deste trabalho visa estudar o efeito da transgenia sobre os constituintes químicos da soja. Inicialmente foram preparadas frações por meio de CC das espécies de soja BRS326 e Tracajá convencionais e 279RR transgênica. Uma fração desses extratos também foram submetidos à CG-EM no qual apresentou picos distintos presentes nas sojas de cultura convencional e em baixas concentrações na soja transgênica, sugerindo que a transgenia influencia diminuindo a concentração de constituintes químicos que podem ser próprios da soja. Análises feitas sobre a atividade antioxidante demonstraram que a soja transgênica apresenta uma atividade antioxidante maior de 25% quando comparada com a soja convencional com apenas 15% ambas comparadas com o padrão rutina. Essa diferença pode significar uma alteração nos metabolitos secundários entre as duas espécies de soja analisadas.


Subject(s)
Food, Genetically Modified , Antioxidants/analysis , Chromatography , Soybeans/genetics , Soybeans/chemistry , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Chromatography, Thin Layer
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(2): 248-256, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989445

ABSTRACT

Abstract The use of GMO expressing Bt toxin in soybean production has increased significantly in the last years in Brazil in order to manage the damage caused by lepidopteran pests. In this study, we compared the richness and abundance of owlet moths (Noctuoidea) associated with Bt and non-Bt soybean. We determined the temporal variations as a function of phenology, and correlated the population variations of the most common species with meteorological variables. The research was conducted at the experimental area of Embrapa Cerrados. The collection method used was differentiated being suppressive and absolute. A total of 13 species were collected, of which eight occurred on Bt soybeans. The most representative taxa were Chrysodeixis includens (72.87%), Anticarsia gemmatalis (18.17%) and Spodoptera spp (5.22%). The number of larvae belonging to species targeted by the Bt technology was 10 times lower on Bt than on non-Bt soybeans. Utetheisa ornatrix and Elaphria deltoides were recorded on soybean for the first time, observing larvae of both species in non-Bt soybean and those of U. ornatrix also in Bt soybean. Only A. gemmatalis larvae correlated (p <0.05) negatively with precipitation. This study provided field information on the abundance and species richness of owlet moths on non-Bt soybeans, associated with the effects of Bt soybean. When considering the different levels of infestation between cultivars as a criterion, larvae monitoring is of substantial importance in order to develop the lost control program.


Resumo O uso de OGM que expressam toxina Bt na produção de soja tem aumentado significativamente nos últimos anos no Brasil e são utilizados para conter os danos causados ​​pelos lepidópteros pragas. Neste estudo comparamos a riqueza e a abundância de Noctuoides (Noctuoidea) associados à soja Bt e não-Bt. Determinamos as variações temporais em função da fenologia e correlacionamos às variações populacionais das espécies mais comuns com variáveis ​​meteorológicas. A pesquisa foi conduzida na área experimental da Embrapa Cerrados. O método de coleta utilizado foi diferenciado sendo supressivo e absoluto. Um total de 13 espécies foram coletadas, das quais oito ocorreram em soja Bt. Os taxa mais representativos foram Chrysodeixis includens, Anticarsia gemmatalis e Spodoptera spp. O número de larvas pertencentes às espécies alvo da tecnologia Bt foram 10 vezes menores na soja Bt do que em soja não-Bt . Utetheisa ornatrix e Elaphria deltoides foram registradas na soja pela primeira vez, observando-se larvas de ambas espécies na soja não-Bt e as de U. ornatrix também na soja Bt. Somente as larvas de A. gemmatalis se correlacionaram (p <0,05) negativamente com a precipitação. Este estudo forneceu informações em campo sobre a abundância e riqueza de espécies na soja não- Bt, associada aos efeitos da soja Bt. A importância do monitoramento das lagartas é substancial, a fim de tomar a melhor decisão de controle, considerando-se os diferentes níveis de infestação entre cultivares como critério.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/pharmacology , Endotoxins/genetics , Endotoxins/pharmacology , Hemolysin Proteins/genetics , Hemolysin Proteins/pharmacology , Soybeans/genetics , Soybeans/parasitology , Brazil , Pest Control, Biological , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Plants, Genetically Modified/parasitology , Larva/drug effects , Moths/drug effects
6.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 26: 40-45, Mar. 2017. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1009000

ABSTRACT

Background: Ethylene plays an important role in the regulation of floral organ development in soybean, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS) is a rate-limiting enzyme for ethylene biosynthesis. However, whether ACS also regulates floral organ differentiation in soybean remains unknown. To address this, we constructed an RNAi vector to inhibit ACS expression in cotyledonary nodes. Linear DNA cassettes of RNAi-ACS obtained by PCR were used to transform soybean cotyledonary nodes. Results: In total, 131 of 139 transiently transformed plants acquired herbicide resistance and displayed GUS activities in the new buds. In comparison to untransformed seedling controls, a greater number of flower buds were differentiated at the cotyledonary node; GM-ACS1 mRNA expression levels and ethylene emission in the transformed buds were reduced. Conclusion: These results indicate that the cotyledonary node transient transformation system may be suitable for stable transformation and that the inhibition of ACS expression may be an effective strategy for promoting floral organ differentiation in soybean.


Subject(s)
Soybeans/enzymology , Soybeans/genetics , RNA Interference , Lyases/metabolism , Soybeans/growth & development , Transformation, Genetic , Gene Expression , Cell Differentiation , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Ethylenes/biosynthesis , Herbicide Resistance , Genetic Vectors , Glucuronidase
7.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2014 Feb; 51(1): 58-65
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-154235

ABSTRACT

To develop a salt-tolerant soybean (Glycine max L.) cultivar, a minimal linear Na+/H+ antiporter gene cassette (35S CaMV promoter, open-reading-frame of AlNHX1 from Aeluropus littoralis and NOS terminator) was successfully expressed in soybean cultivar TF-29. Southern and Northern blot analysis showed that AlNHX1 was successfully incorporated into the genome and expressed in the transgenic plants. The AlNHX1 transgenic plant lines exhibited improved growth in severe saline condition (150 mM NaCl). The transgenic lines accumulated a lower level of Na+ and a higher level of K+ in the leaves than wild-type plants under saline condition (150 mM NaCl). Observations on the chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rates, malondialdehyde and relative electrical conductivity indicated that transgenic plants exhibited tolerance to salt stress, growing normally at salt concentrations up to 150 mM. These results demonstrated that AlNHX1 was successfully transferred into soybean and the salt-tolerance was improved by the overexpression of AlNHX1.


Subject(s)
Chlorophyll/metabolism , Electric Conductivity , Gene Transfer Techniques , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Photosynthesis/genetics , Plants, Genetically Modified , Poaceae/genetics , Potassium/metabolism , Salts/pharmacology , Sodium/metabolism , Sodium-Hydrogen Exchangers/genetics , Soybeans/drug effects , Soybeans/genetics , Soybeans/metabolism , Soybeans/physiology , Stress, Physiological/drug effects , Stress, Physiological/genetics
8.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2013 Dec; 50(6): 537-547
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-154210

ABSTRACT

Phytic acid, the major storage form of phosphorus in plant seeds is degraded by the phytases to yield inositol and free phosphate, contributing thereby to the improved bioavailability of phytate phosphorus and essential minerals in plant foods and simultaneous reduction in phosphorus pollution of the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. As a possible strategy for altering seed phytate levels, the approach involving reduction of phytate content by ectopically expressing endogenous phytase gene during seed development of soybean (Glycine max L. cv. Pusa-20) was attempted in the present study. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed the maximum expression of phytase gene transcripts in germinating cotyledons (~10 days after germinations), compared to other vegetative tissues. A full-length phytase cDNA was amplified from the germinating seedlings by splicing by overlap extension (SOE)-PCR and its sequence analysis revealed an open-reading-frame of 1644 bp, including an N terminal signal peptide of 28 amino acids. Predicted amino acid sequence (547-aa) of molecular mass 62 kDa on alignment with related purple acid phosphatases in other plants shared five conserved domains and seven invariant amino acids involved in coordination of the metals in the binuclear center of purple acid phosphatases. Owing to a large number of E. coli low-usage codons in soybean phytase gene, the modified gene was cloned into a prokaryotic expression vector pET-28a (+) and its expression in E. coli was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. Bioassay of the crude expression product in E. coli revealed a functional phytase gene, showing a great potential for developing low phytate transgenic soybean through its seed-specific overexpression in the early stages of seed development.


Subject(s)
6-Phytase/biosynthesis , 6-Phytase/chemistry , 6-Phytase/genetics , Amino Acid Sequence , Cloning, Molecular , Codon/genetics , DNA, Complementary/genetics , Escherichia coli/genetics , Gene Expression , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Genetic Engineering/methods , Minerals/metabolism , Molecular Sequence Data , Organ Specificity , Phosphorus/metabolism , Phylogeny , Seedlings/genetics , Sequence Homology , Soybeans/enzymology , Soybeans/genetics , Soybeans/metabolism
9.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2013 Feb; 50(1): 54-63
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-147287

ABSTRACT

The consumption of soybean is limited worldwide, despite being highly nutritious and having versatile uses, due to the presence of grassy, beany and rancid off-flavour. The lipoxygenase-2 (LOX-2) is the key enzyme responsible for the production of volatiles released from the beans, which cause off-flavour in soy products. In this study, a 2.6-kb full-length lox2 gene (NCBI accession No. JQ929619.1) was isolated and cloned from soybean (Glycine max L. Merril) cv. Pusa 16. The cloned cDNA sequence of lox2 gene showed the complete open reading frame (ORF) of a putative protein, having 866 amino acids with start codon present at the foremost position and stop codon at the end. The theoretical pI of predicted protein was 6.22. A hydropathy profile calculated from the amino acid sequence resembled those of dicot LOXs, suggesting conservation of the secondary structure of these enzymes. The LOX-2 showed conserved six Histidine residues within a span of 520 to 590 amino acid position, a signature element for the enzyme activity. The lox2 gene was expressed using pET vector in prokaryotic expression system. The recombinant LOX-2 protein was purified after induction with IPTG (isopentyl thiogalactoside). A prominent band of 97 kDa was observed, when affinity purified fractions were analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The purified protein was characterized for the enzyme activity, substrate preference and Km. Inhibitor studies with natural antioxidant molecules present in soybean revealed α-tocopherol to be the most effective inhibitor of LOX-2.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Base Sequence , Cloning, Molecular , Enzyme Activation , Enzyme Stability , Escherichia coli/enzymology , Escherichia coli/genetics , India , Lipoxygenase/chemistry , Lipoxygenase/genetics , Lipoxygenase/isolation & purification , Molecular Sequence Data , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Soybeans/enzymology , Soybeans/genetics
10.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 83(2): 719-730, June 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-589926

ABSTRACT

The present work analyzes the different modalities of protection of the intellectual creations in the biotechnology agricultural field. Regarding the Brazilian legislations related to the theme (the Industrial Property Law - no. 9. 279/96 and the Plant Variety Protection Law - no. 9. 456/97), and based in the international treaties signed by Brazil, the present work points to the inclusions of each of them, as well as to their interfaces using as reference the case study of glyphosate tolerant genetically modified soybean. For this case study, Monsanto's pipelines patents were searched and used to analyze the limits of patent protection in respect to others related to the Intellectual Property (IP) laws. Thus, it was possible to elucidate the complex scenario of the Intellectual Property of the glyphosate tolerant soybeans, since for the farmer it is hard to correlate the royalties payment with the IP enterprise's rights.


O presente trabalho analisa as diferentes modalidades de proteção das criações intelectuais no campo da biotecnologia agrícola. A partir das leis Brasileiras relacionadas ao tema (Lei da Propriedade Industrial - nº 9.279/96 e Lei da Proteção de Cultivares - nº 9.456/97), e com base nos tratados internacionais assinados pelo Brasil, o presente trabalho aponta as inclusões de cada uma, assim como, suas interfaces usando como referência o estudo de caso da soja geneticamente modificada para tolerância ao glifosato. Para este caso, patentes pipelines da Monsanto foram buscadas e usadas para analisar os limites de proteção das patentes frente às outras leis de Propriedade Intelectual (PI) relacionadas. Assim, foi possível elucidar o cenário complexo da Propriedade Intelectual das sojas tolerantes ao glifosato, já que para o agricultor não é fácil correlacionar o pagamento dos royalties com os direitos de PI da empresa.


Subject(s)
Genetic Engineering/legislation & jurisprudence , Glycine/analogs & derivatives , Herbicides/pharmacology , Intellectual Property , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Soybeans/genetics , Brazil , Genetic Engineering/economics , Glycine/pharmacology , Herbicide Resistance/genetics , Patents as Topic/legislation & jurisprudence , Plants, Genetically Modified/drug effects , Soybeans/drug effects
11.
Neotrop. entomol ; 40(1): 117-122, Jan.-Feb. 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-578844

ABSTRACT

The silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B has become a serious problem for soybean cultivation because it can significantly reduce soybean productivity. The use of soybean cultivars resistant to whitefly attack is an important strategy in an integrated pest management (IPM) program. This study evaluated the preference for oviposition and colonization by B. tabaci biotype B on different soybean genotypes. In the free-choice test, the genotypes studied were 'IAC 17' and 'IAC 19' as the standards for resistance and 'IAC Holambra Stwart' as the standard for susceptibility, as well as BABR01-0492, BABR01-0173, BABR01-1259, BABR01-1576, BABR99-4021HC, BABR99-4021HP, 'Barreiras', 'Conquista', 'Corisco', 'BRS Gralha', PI274454, PI227687, and PI171451. In the no-choice test, the four best genotypes selected in the free-choice test, in addition to the susceptible and resistant standards were evaluated. Our data indicated 'Barreiras' as the most resistant genotype against B. tabaci biotype B. 'BRS Gralha', which was the least attractive to whitefly adults in the free-choice test, did not show resistance to insect attack when they were confined in cages in the no-choice test. Despite the high number of eggs observed, BABR01-1576 and BABR99-4021HC showed a reduced number of nymphs, indicating antibiosis. The genotypes with a high level of resistance can be used as a tool against B. tabaci in IPM or as a source of resistance in plant-breeding programs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hemiptera , Soybeans/genetics , Soybeans/parasitology , Genotype , Hemiptera/classification , Hemiptera/physiology , Immunity, Innate , Soybeans/immunology
12.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 13(5): 6-7, Sept. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-591888

ABSTRACT

Microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs), in expressed sequence tags (ESTs) provide an opportunity for low cost SSR development. We looked for EST-SSRs in 403,511 ESTs (generated by 454 sequencing and representing 70,654 contigs and 52,082 singletons) from soybean globular stage embryos. Among 122,736 unique ESTs, 3,729 contained one or more SSRs. In total, 3,989 SSRs were identified including 304 mono, 1,374 di, 2,208 tri, 70 tetra, 13 penta and 20 hexanucleotide SSRs. Thirty three EST-SSRs were selected for primer design and polymorphism analysis using twenty soybean cultivars and one wild-type soybean. Successful amplification was obtained using 21 of these primer pairs, 11 of which detected polymorphisms in these soybean cultivars. These results demonstrated that 454 high throughput sequencing is a powerful tool for molecular marker development. From the 3,989 identified SSRs we expect to obtain a large number of makers with polymorphism among different soybean cultivars, which would be useful for analysis of genetic diversity and maker assisted selection in the soybean breeding programs.


Subject(s)
Expressed Sequence Tags , Soybeans/genetics , Genes, Plant , Genetic Markers , Microsatellite Repeats , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Genetic , Sequence Analysis, DNA
13.
Neotrop. entomol ; 39(2): 275-281, mar.-abr. 2010. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-547692

ABSTRACT

Three soybean experiments, one for each maturation group (early, semi-early, and medium), were installed in the field in Assis, State of São Paulo, during the 2003/2004 growing season to evaluate damage caused by Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hubn.) and by the soybean stink bug complex, Euschistus heros (F.), Piezodorus guildinii (West.), and Nezara viridula (L.). The experiments were installed again in 2004/2005, with the exception of the early cycle group. Defoliation caused by A. gemmatalis was evaluated by the percentage estimate of leaf area cut in the first year only, due to low caterpillar infestations in 2004/2005. All three stink bug species were present in both growing seasons. In 2003/2004, E. heros was predominant over the other two; in the following year, all three species occurred in similar numbers. The productivity criterion was adopted to evaluate stink bug damage. Based on both growing seasons and mainly considering productivity, a few lines could be selected within each maturation group for new field studies or for hybridizations in breeding programs. Among the early germplasm varieties, lines IAC 98-4540, IAC 98-4576, and IAC 98-3123 can be highlighted as promising; the latter also showed little defoliation by A. gemmatalis; in the semi-early group, IAC 98-4017, IAC 98-2663, and IAC 98-4250 were prominent, with steady productivity in both years; in the medium group, IAC 98-4136, the most productive, as well as IAC 98-4140 and IAC 98-4133, all with little defoliation, can be pointed out as promising.


Subject(s)
Animals , Heteroptera , Lepidoptera , Soybeans/genetics , Soybeans/parasitology , Genotype , Soybeans/growth & development
14.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 81(4): 861-871, Dec. 2009. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-529943

ABSTRACT

Anticarsia gemmatalis nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgMNPV) is being used in Brazil as a biological insecticide. Host plant resistance of soybean to insects is been searched for and some authors have mentioned the interference of plant chemistry in virus efficiency. Interactions among soybean extracts of genotypes used as a source of resistance (PI 274454 and PI 227687) with different AgMNPV concentrations in populations of A. geatalis susceptible (S) and resistant (R) to the virus were studied at laboratory condition. Higher mortality was observed when larvae fed on diets with extracts of the soybean genotypes compared with those fed on a plain diet (control). The mean lethal concentration (LC50) was reduced about 10 ties in the S-population fed on diets containing PI 274454 extracts and different concentrations of AgMNPV, compared to control diet. Additive effect was predominantly observed when larvae fed on diets with extracts of soybean genotypes (PI 274454 and PI 227687) and AgMNPV for both larval populations. The pupal weight was negatively influenced by the extracts incorporated to the diets compared to control, for both larval populations, notably for R-population. The results suggest that, in general, leaf extracts of soybean resistant genotype did not cause any harmful effect on virus efficiency.


O nucleopoliedrovirus de Anticarsia gemmatalis (AgMNPV) tem sido utilizado como um inseticida biológico no Brasil. A resistência de plantas de soja a insetos tem sido pesquisada e alguns autores têm mencionado a interferência de substâncias químicas de plantas sobre a eficiência de vírus. As interações entre extratos de genótipos de soja utilizados como fontes de resistência (PI 274454 e PI 227687) com diferentes concentrações do AgMNPV em populações de A. gemmatalis suscetível (S) e resistente (R) ao vírus foram estudadas em condições de laboratório. Mortalidades elevadas foram observadas quando as larvas foram alimentadas com dietas contendo extratos dos genótipos de soja, em relação às larvas alimentadas com dieta artificial sem a presença de extratos (testemunha). A concentração letal média (CL50) foi reduzida em aproximadamente 10 vezes, na população s alimentada com dieta contendo extratos da PI 274454 e diferentes concentrações do AgMNPV, comparada à dieta testemunha. Um efeito aditivo foi predominantemente observado quando as larvas se alimentaram em dietas com extratos dos genótipos de soja (PI 274454 e PI 227687) e o AgMNPV, para ambas as populações (S e R). O peso de pupa foi negativamente influenciado pela dieta contendo os extratos em relação à dieta testemunha, para ambas as populações, com destaque para a população R. Os resultados indicam que, no geral, os extratos de folhas de genótipos de soja resistentes não causam efeitos negativos na eficiência do vírus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Moths/virology , Nucleopolyhedroviruses/physiology , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Soybeans/chemistry , Genotype , Host-Parasite Interactions , Larva/virology , Soybeans/genetics , Soybeans/parasitology
15.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 42(6): 545-550, June 2009. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-512768

ABSTRACT

Since the anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effects of soy isoflavones may be mediated by activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR), the present study investigated whether the methanolic fractions obtained from soybean seeds (E1) and soybean seed coats with hypocotyls (E2) could influence PPARα, PPARγ and PPARβ/δ transcriptional activity. The isoflavones from E1 and E2 were quantified by HPLC analysis. E1 and E2 were rich in isoflavones (daidzin, glycitin, genistin, malonyldaidzin, malonylglycitin, malonylgenistin, daidzein, glycitein, and genistein). Moreover, E1 and E2 showed no evidence of genetically modified material containing the gene CP4 EPSPS. To investigate PPAR transcriptional activity, human promonocytic U-937 cells were treated with E1 and E2 (200, 400, 800, and 1600 µg/mL), positive controls or vehicle. Data are reported as fold-activation of the luciferase reporter driven by the PPAR-responsive element. Dose-response analysis revealed that E1 and E2 induced the transcriptional activity of PPARα (P < 0.001), with activation comparable to that obtained with 0.1 mM bezafibrate (positive control) at 1600 µg/mL (4-fold) and 800 µg/mL (9-fold), respectively. In addition, dose-response analysis revealed that E1 and E2 activated PPARβ/δ (P < 0.05), and the activation at 800 µg/mL (4- and 9-fold, respectively) was comparable to that of 0.1 mM bezafibrate (positive control). However, no effect on PPARγ was observed. Activation of PPARα is consistent with the lipid-lowering activity of soy isoflavones in vivo, but further studies are needed to determine the physiological significance of PPARβ/δ activation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Isoflavones/pharmacology , Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors/drug effects , Seeds/chemistry , Soybeans/chemistry , Transcriptional Activation/drug effects , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Isoflavones/isolation & purification , Seeds/genetics , Soybeans/genetics
16.
São Paulo; s.n; 26 jun 2009. 139 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-532285

ABSTRACT

Os parâmetros de avaliação de segurança de alimentos geneticamente modificados fundamentam-se na comparação de equivalência substançial entre as variedades e pela inocuidade de proteínas da planta GM com as proteínas encontradas nas plantas convencionais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a segurança alimentar de três cultivares de sojas geneticamente modificadas para tolerarem o herbicida glifosato através da determinação da equivalência substancial e do potencial alergênico das mesmas quando comparadas às suas respectivas parentais isogênicas. Seis amostras de soja foram analisadas, sendo três convencionais parentais e três GM, referentes ao cultivo de 2004-2005, em Goiás. Para a composição química foram realizadas análises em triplicata de proteínas, lipídeos, umidade, minerais e fibra alimentar. Análises complementares para determinação de aminoácidos, ácidos graxos, isoflavonas e ácido fítico também foram realizadas. O potencial de alergenicidade foi avaliado em extratos protéicos brutos de três cultivares convencionais e suas correspondentes GM. Os mesmos extratos protéicos foram fracionados para obter as globulinas 7S e 11S por precipitação e posterior purificação em coluna de bioafinidade Sepharose 4B...


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adult , Food, Genetically Modified , Soybeans/enzymology , Soybeans/genetics , Herbicide Resistance , Food Hypersensitivity/immunology , Immunoglobulin E , In Vitro Techniques , Soybean Proteins/genetics , Soybean Proteins/immunology , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Food Samples , Immunologic Tests
17.
Genet. mol. biol ; 31(4): 920-931, Sept.-Dec. 2008. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-501467

ABSTRACT

Phakopsora pachyrhizi has dispersed globally and brought severe economic losses to soybean growers. The fungus has been established in Brazil since 2002 and is found nationwide. To gather information on the temporal and spatial patterns of genetic variation in P. pachyrhizi, we sequenced the nuclear internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 and ITS2). Total genomic DNA was extracted using either lyophilized urediniospores or lesions removed from infected leaves sampled from 26 soybean fields in Brazil and one field in South Africa. Cloning prior to sequencing was necessary because direct sequencing of PCR amplicons gave partially unreadable electrophoretograms with peak displacements suggestive of multiple sequences with length polymorphism. Sequences were determined from four clones per field. ITS sequences from African or Asian isolates available from the GenBank were included in the analyses. Independent sequence alignments of the ITS1 and ITS2 datasets identified 27 and 19 ribotypes, respectively. Molecular phylogeographic analyses revealed that ribotypes of widespread distribution in Brazil displayed characteristics of ancestrality and were shared with Africa and Asia, while ribotypes of rare occurrence in Brazil were indigenous. The results suggest P. pachyrhizi found in Brazil as originating from multiple, independent long-distance dispersal events.


Subject(s)
DNA, Ribosomal , Soybeans/genetics , Genetic Variation , Base Sequence , Brazil , Soybeans/microbiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction
18.
Genet. mol. biol ; 31(1): 98-105, 2008. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-476158

ABSTRACT

Soybean is one of the most important crops in Brazil and continuously generates demands for production technologies, such as cultivars resistant to diseases. In recent years, the Asian rust fungus (Phakopsora pachyrhizi Syd. & P. Syd 1914) has caused severe yield losses and the development of resistant cultivars is the best means of control. Understanding the genetic control and estimating parameters associated with soybean (Glycine max) resistance to P. pachyrhizi will provide essential information for cultivar selection. We investigated quantitative genetic control of P. pachyrhizi and estimated parameters associated to soybean yield in the absence and presence of this phytopathogen. Six cultivars and their 15 diallel derived F2 and F3 generations were assessed in experiments carried out in the absence and presence of P. pachyrhizi. The results indicated that soybean yield in the presence and absence of P. pachyrhizi is controlled by polygenes expressing predominantly additive effects that can be selected to develop new cultivars resistant or tolerant to P. pachyrhizi. These cultivars may prove to be a useful and more durable alternative than cultivars carrying major resistance genes.


Subject(s)
Soybeans/genetics , Fungi/genetics , Asia , Brazil , Quantitative Trait Loci
19.
Genet. mol. res. (Online) ; 6(2): 445-452, 2007. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-482025

ABSTRACT

Evaluation of transgenic crops under field conditions is a fundamental step for the production of genetically engineered varieties. In order to determine if there is pollen dispersal from transgenic to nontransgenic soybean plants, a field release experiment was conducted in the Cerrado region of Brazil. Nontransgenic plants were cultivated in plots surrounding Roundup Ready transgenic plants carrying the cp4 epsps gene, which confers herbicide tolerance against glyphosate herbicide, and pollen dispersal was evaluated by checking for the dominant gene. The percentage of cross-pollination was calculated as a fraction of herbicide-tolerant and -nontolerant plants. The greatest amount of transgenic pollen dispersion was observed in the first row, located at one meter from the central (transgenic) plot, with a 0.52% average frequency. The frequency of pollen dispersion decreased to 0.12% in row 2, reaching 0% when the plants were up to 10 m distance from the central plot. Under these conditions pollen flow was higher for a short distance. This fact suggests that the management necessary to avoid cross-pollination from transgenic to nontransgenic plants in the seed production fields should be similar to the procedures currently utilized to produce commercial seeds.


Subject(s)
Soybeans/genetics , Gene Flow , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Regression Analysis , Brazil , Crosses, Genetic , Genetic Engineering , Genes, Dominant , Genes, Plant , Models, Genetic , Plants/genetics , Pollen/metabolism , Seeds/metabolism , Transgenes
20.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 78(4): 667-686, Dec. 2006. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-438569

ABSTRACT

Biosafety of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and their derivatives is still a major topic in the agenda of government and societies worldwide. The aim of this review is to bring into light that data that supported the decision taken back in 1998 as an exercise to stimulate criticism from the scientific community for upcoming discussions and to avoid emotional and senseless arguments that could jeopardize future development in the field. It must be emphasized that Roundup Ready® soybean is just one example of how biotechnology can bring in significant advances for society, not only through increased productivity, but also with beneficial environmental impact, thereby allowing more rational use of agricultural pesticides for improvement of the soil conditions. The adoption of agricultural practices with higher yield will also allow better distribution of income among small farmers. New species of genetically modified plants will soon be available and society should be capable of making decisions in an objective and well-informed manner, through collegiate bodies that are qualified in all aspects of biosafety and environmental impact.


A biosegurança dos organismos geneticamente modificados e seus derivados é um dos principais tópicos na agenda de discussões de governos e sociedades. O objetivo desta revisão é reviver os dados científicos que fundamentaram a decisão de liberação comercial da soja transgênica resistente ao Glifosate com o intuito de estimular uma posição crítica da comunidade científica para as próximas discussões no tema. A soja em questão é apenas um exemplo de como a biotecnologia pode contribuir para avanços na produtividade e na preservação do meio ambiente, com ganho de produtividade e lucratividade para agricultores em todas as escalas. Novas variedades trangênicas estarão na pauta de discussões que deverão estar fundamentadas em dados científicos objetivos, evitando argumentos emocionais que poderão, assim como no passado recente, prejudicar o desenvolvimento científico e tecnológico da agricultura.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , /genetics , Food, Genetically Modified , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Soybeans/genetics , /analysis , /chemistry , Brazil , Consumer Product Safety/legislation & jurisprudence , Plants, Genetically Modified/enzymology , Plants, Genetically Modified/toxicity
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL