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1.
Subj. procesos cogn. ; 27(2): 127-142, dic. 12, 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1519644

ABSTRACT

Este estudo se propõe a mostrar que o francês Michel Foucault, em todas as suas obras, oferece ferramentas para que sejam compreendidos, sob diferentes óticas, os problemas da sociedade por meio de interpretações sobre o viver humano. O objetivo dessa revisão de literatura é entender de que forma o discurso organiza as vozes dos sujeitos, como reelabora os discursos proferidos e os faz circular segundo Foucault. Apresenta-se conceitos básicos da Análise de Discurso iniciada na França por Michel Pêcheuxem 1969. O estudo percorre as obras em idas e vindas, com apoio em vários autores como Pêcheux e Mainguineauque ajudam na compreensãoe na aproximação entre método, teoria e prática.Conclui-se que a obra de Michel Foucault assinala que tudo o que é criado como saber oferece inúmeras possibilidades de recriação e está em permanente processo de transformação AU


Este estudio tiene como objetivo mostrar que el francés Michel Foucault, en todas sus obras, ofrece herramientas para comprender, desde diferentes perspectivas, los problemas de la sociedad a través de interpretaciones del vivir humano. El objetivo de esta revisión de la literatura comprender cómo el discurso organiza las voces de los sujetos, cómo reelabora los discursos pronunciados y los hace circular según Foucault. Presenta conceptos básicos del Análisis del Discurso iniciado en Francia por Michel Pêcheux en 1969. El estudio recorre las obras, con el apoyo de varios autores como Pêcheux y Mainguineau que ayudan a comprender y unir método, teoría y práctica. Se concluye que la obra de Michel Foucault destaca que todo lo creado como conocimiento ofrece innumerables posibilidades de recreación y se encuentra en un permanente proceso de transformación AU


This study aims to show that French Foucault, in all his works, offers tools to understand, from different perspectives, the problems of society, through interpretations of human living. The objective of this literature review is to understand how discourse organizes the subjects' voices, how it reworks the speeches given and makes them circulate according to Foucault. It presents basic concepts of Discourse Analysis initiated in France by Michel Pêcheux in 1969. The study goes back and forth through the works, with support from several authors such as Pêcheux and Mainguineau who help in understanding and bringing together method, theory and practice. It is concluded that Michel Foucault's work highlights that everything created as knowledge offers countless possibilities for recreation and is in a permanent process of transformation AU


Subject(s)
Speech , Psychology, Social , Linguistics
2.
Subj. procesos cogn. ; 27(2): 198-231, dic. 12, 2023.
Article in Spanish | BINACIS, UNISALUD, LILACS | ID: biblio-1523335

ABSTRACT

Se presentan los resultados dela tesis doctoral sobre los deseos y defensas (y sus estados) de la madre de una niña abusada sexualmente, con el objetivo de conocer su estructuración subjetiva en este difícil acontecimiento. Se trata de un estudio de caso en el que se usa como método el Algoritmo David Liberman (ADL), en el análisis del discurso de la madre, seleccionadas tres sesiones y una carta manuscrita. El estudio de deseos y defensas puede contribuir a describir y conocer el posicionamiento subjetivo de una madre frente a la situación abusiva de su hija, y como ésta es vivida por ella AU


The results of the doctoral thesis on the wishes and defenses (and their states) of the mother of a sexually abused girl are presented, with the aim of knowing her subjective structuring in this difficult event. This is a case study in which the David Liberman Algorithm (ADL) is used as a method in the analysis of the mother's speech, three sessions and a handwritten letter selected. The study of desires and defenses can contribute to describing and knowing the subjective position of a mother in the face of her daughter's abusive situation, and how it is experienced by her AU


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Psychoanalytic Therapy/methods , Child Abuse, Sexual/legislation & jurisprudence , Personal Narratives as Topic , Speech , Defense Mechanisms , Family Relations/psychology
3.
Cambios rev. méd ; 22(1): 862, 30 Junio 2023. ilus, tabs
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1451458

ABSTRACT

de la deglución, los cuales representan todas las alteraciones del proceso fisiológico encargado de llevar el alimento desde la boca al esófago y después al estómago, salvaguardando siempre la protección de las vías respiratorias. OBJETIVO. Definir el manejo óptimo, de la disfagia en pacientes con antecedente de infección severa por COVID-19. METODOLOGÍA. Se realizó una revisión de la literatura científica en las bases de datos PubMed y Elsevier que relacionan el manejo de la disfagia y pacientes con antecedente de infección severa por SARS-CoV-2. Se obtuvo un universo de 134 artículos que cumplieron los criterios de búsqueda. Se seleccionaron 24 documentos, para ser considerados en este estudio. RESULTADOS. La incidencia de disfagia posterior a infección severa por SARS-CoV-2 fue del 23,14%, siendo la disfagia leve la más frecuente 48,0%. Los tratamientos clínicos más empleados en el manejo de la disfagia fueron rehabilitación oral y cambio de textura en la dieta en el 77,23% de los casos, mientras que el único tratamiento quirúrgico empleado fue la traqueotomía 37,31%. Un 12,68% de pacientes recuperó su función deglutoria sin un tratamiento específico. La eficacia de los tratamientos clínicos y quirúrgicos en los pacientes sobrevivientes de la infección severa por SARS-CoV-2 fue del 80,68%, con una media en el tiempo de resolución de 58 días. CONCLUSIÓN. La anamnesis es clave para el diagnóstico de disfagia post COVID-19. El tratamiento puede variar, desde un manejo conservador como cambios en la textura de la dieta hasta tratamientos más invasivos como traqueotomía para mejorar la función deglutoria.


INTRODUCTION. The difficulty to swallow or dysphagia is included within the problems of swallowing, which represent all the alterations of the physiological process in charge of carrying the food from the mouth to the esophagus, and then to the stomach, always taking into account the protection of the airways. OBJECTIVE. To define the optimal management, both clinical and surgical, for the adequate treatment of dysphagia produced as a consequence of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODOLOGY. A review of the scientific literature was carried out using both PubMed and Elsevier databases, which relate the management of dysphagia and patients with a history of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS. The incidence of dysphagia following severe SARS-CoV-2 infection was of 23,14%, with mild dysphagia being the most frequent 48,00%. The most frequently used clinical treatments for dysphagia management were oral rehabilitation and change in dietary texture in 77,23% of cases, while tracheotomy was the only surgical treatment used 37,31%. A total of 12,68% of patients recovered their swallowing function without specific treatment. The efficacy of clinical and surgical treatments in survivors of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection was 80,68%, with a mean resolution time of 58 days. CONCLUSION. An adequate medical history is key to the diagnosis of post-COVID-19 dysphagia. Treatment can range from conservative management such as changes in diet texture to more invasive treatments such as tracheotomy to improve swallowing function.


Subject(s)
Rehabilitation , Respiration, Artificial , Tracheotomy , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Deglutition/physiology , COVID-19 , Otolaryngology , Rehabilitation of Speech and Language Disorders , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Speech , Tertiary Healthcare , Pulmonary Medicine , Deglutition Disorders , Respiratory Mechanics , Enteral Nutrition , Aerophagy , Dysgeusia , Ecuador , Exercise Therapy , Pathologists , Gastroenterology , Anosmia , Glossopharyngeal Nerve , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011037

ABSTRACT

Objective:By analyzing the clinical phenotypic characteristics and gene sequences of two patients with Treacher Collins syndrome(TCS), the biological causes of the disease were determined. Then discuss the therapeutic effect of hearing intervention after bone bridge implantation. Methods:All clinical data of the two family members were collected, and the patients signed the informed consent. The peripheral blood of the proband and family members was extracted, DNA was extracted for whole exome sequencing, and Sanger sequencing was performed on the family members for the mutation site.TCOF1genetic mutations analysis was performed on the paitents. Then, the hearing threshold and speech recognition rate of family 2 proband were evaluated and compared under the sound field between bare ear and wearing bone bridge. Results:In the two pedigrees, the probands of both families presented with auricle deformity, zygomatic and mandibular hypoplasia, micrognathia, hypotropia of the eye fissure, and hypoplasia of the medial eyelashes. The proband of Family 1 also presents with specific features including right-sided narrow anterior nasal aperture and dental hypoplasia, which were consistent with the clinical diagnosis of Treacher Collins syndrome. Genetic testing was conducted on both families, and two heterozygous mutations were identified in the TCOF1 gene: c. 1350_1351dupGG(p. A451Gfs*43) and c. 4362_4366del(p. K1457Efs*12), resulting in frameshift mutations in the amino acid sequence. Sanger sequencing validation of the TCOF1 gene in the parents of the proband in Family 1 did not detect any mutations. Proband 1 TCOF1 c. 1350_1351dupGG heterozygous variants have not been reported previously. The postoperative monosyllabic speech recognition rate of family 2 proband was 76%, the Categories of Auditory Performance(CAP) score was 6, and the Speech Intelligibility Rating(SIR) score was 4. Assessment using the Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale(MAIS) showed notable improvement in the patient's auditory perception, comprehension, and usage of hearing aids. Evaluation using the Glasgow Children's Benefit Inventory and quality of life assessment revealed significant improvements in the child's self care abilities, daily living and learning, social interactions, and psychological well being, as perceived by the parents. Conclusion:This study has elucidated the biological cause of Treacher Collins syndrome, enriched the spectrum of TCOF1 gene mutations in the Chinese population, and demonstrated that bone bridge implantation can improve the auditory and speech recognition rates in TCS patients.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Mandibulofacial Dysostosis/genetics , Quality of Life , Speech , Parents , Mutation , Nuclear Proteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/genetics
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970672

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we propose a multi-scale mel domain feature map extraction algorithm to solve the problem that the speech recognition rate of dysarthria is difficult to improve. We used the empirical mode decomposition method to decompose speech signals and extracted Fbank features and their first-order differences for each of the three effective components to construct a new feature map, which could capture details in the frequency domain. Secondly, due to the problems of effective feature loss and high computational complexity in the training process of single channel neural network, we proposed a speech recognition network model in this paper. Finally, training and decoding were performed on the public UA-Speech dataset. The experimental results showed that the accuracy of the speech recognition model of this method reached 92.77%. Therefore, the algorithm proposed in this paper can effectively improve the speech recognition rate of dysarthria.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dysarthria/diagnosis , Speech , Speech Perception , Algorithms , Neural Networks, Computer
6.
Agora (Rio J.) ; 26: e257692, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1519977

ABSTRACT

Resumo: Este artigo trata dos conceitos de sujeito e falasser de acordo as perspectivas do ensino lacaniano. Buscou-se discutir as proposições cartesianas sobre o ser e as cisões do Eu presentes na obra freudiana, assim como o caráter evanescente do sujeito, como exposto por Lacan. Desenvolveu-se o problema do gozo, desde o viés estruturalista que pressupõe um corpo mortificado até a sua concepção enquanto substância do corpo vivo. O apontamento para um gozo anterior à linguagem tem consequências teóricas e clínicas, tornando necessário revisitar tanto o dualismo cartesiano quanto o inconsciente freudiano.


Abstract: This article deals with the concepts of subject and parlêtre according to the perspectives of Lacanian teaching. We tried to discuss the Cartesian propositions about being and the splits of the Self present in Freud's work, as well as the evanescent feature of the subject, as stated by Lacan. We have developed the jouissance question from the structuralist bias that presupposes a mortified body to its conception as a substance of the living body. The indication of a jouissance prior to language has theoretical and clinical consequences, making it necessary to revisit both Cartesian dualism and Freudian unconscious.


Subject(s)
Psychoanalysis , Speech , Pleasure , Research Subjects
7.
Agora (Rio J.) ; 26: e280623, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1527667

ABSTRACT

RESUMO: O presente trabalho dedica-se às incidências do exílio sobre a prática da língua. Com o intuito de manter aberta a interrogação sobre a escrita, adota a perspectiva da questão-resposta a propósito do território que se tece pela via da escrita. Parte da língua enquanto ela coloniza os falantes para abordar os efeitos de linguagem documentados na escrita daqueles que atravessam a experiência do exílio. Remonta à acepção de exílio intrínseca à inexistência da relação sexual e procede à aproximação entre desejo e escrita.


ABSTRACT: The present work is dedicated to the effects of exile on the practice of the language. In order to keep the question about writing open, it adopts the perspective of the question-answer regarding the territory woven through writing. It starts from language as it colonizes speakers to address the effects of language documented in the writing of those going through the experience of exile. It goes back to the meaning of exile intrinsic to the non-existence of the sexual relation and brings together desire and writing.


Subject(s)
Psychoanalysis , Speech , Deportation , Handwriting
8.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e254599, 2023.
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1448941

ABSTRACT

Student protagonism is paramount in the knowledge construction process. In this paper, we discuss a didactic-pedagogical resource called licentîa hypomnema (LH), inspired in portfolios and learning diaries in which student-teachers record their understandings and reflections regarding pedagogical topics learned at University in a meta-learning process on learning about teaching. The initial context of the research was a Psychological Development and Teaching course, offered in the Teacher Education program at Universidade de Brasília (UnB). Two of the authors, then Literacy and Languages Teaching students, produced their LH and peer assessed each other during the course. In their annotations, the student-authors recorded two pedagogical situations related to the use of LH in their own teaching practices, causing an impact on their formative path. These materials consist of the data for analysis and discussion. Moreover, we discuss possible uses of reflexive writing in teacher education and other learning contexts. Producing a LH supports knowledge production and allows students to connect theory and practice, which consequently influences the student's teaching practice. Since LH is a didactic-pedagogical resource and not a close-ended tool, both the context and individuals who use it should be considered.(AU)


O protagonismo de estudantes tem grande importância no processo de construção do conhecimento. Neste artigo, discutimos um recurso didático-pedagógico chamado licentîa hypomnema (LH), inspirado em portfólios e diários de aprendizagem, isto é, estudantes de licenciatura escrevem suas compreensões e reflexões acerca de assuntos pedagógicos vistos na universidade em um processo de meta-aprendizagem sobre aprender a ensinar. O contexto inicial da pesquisa foi um curso de Desenvolvimento Psicológico e Ensino, ministrado em cursos de Licenciatura da Universidade de Brasília (UnB). Duas das autoras eram estudantes do curso de Letras, elas produziram seus LH, realizando avaliação por pares entre si durante o curso. As estudantes-autoras trouxeram em seus registros duas situações pedagógicas relacionadas ao uso desse recurso em suas próprias práticas de ensino que causaram um impacto em suas trajetórias formativas. São esses relatos que compõem os dados para análise e discussão. Além disso, procuramos discutir possíveis desdobramentos para o uso do recurso da escrita reflexiva na formação docente e em outros contextos de aprendizagem. A produção do LH fornece suporte para a produção de conhecimento e permite ao aluno conectar teoria e prática, o que, consequentemente, reverbera na prática de ensino do aluno. O LH é um recurso didático-pedagógico e não uma ferramenta fechada, portanto, tanto o contexto quanto as pessoas que o utilizam devem ser considerados.(AU)


El protagonismo de los estudiantes tiene gran importancia en el proceso de construcción del conocimiento. En este trabajo, discutimos un recurso didáctico-pedagógico llamado licentîa hypomnema (LH), que se inspira en diarios de aprendizaje, es decir, estudiantes de profesorado escriben sus comprensiones y reflexiones sobre temas pedagógicos aprendidos en la universidad, produciendo un proceso de meta-aprendizaje sobre aprender a enseñar. El contexto inicial de la investigación fue un curso de Desarrollo Psicológico y Enseñanza, impartido en el programa de Formación de Profesores de la Universidade de Brasília (UnB). Dos de las autoras eran alumnas de la carrera de Letras que produjeron sus LH y realizaron una evaluación por pares mutua durante el curso. Las estudiantes autoras plantearon en su LH dos situaciones pedagógicas relacionadas con el uso de este recurso en sus propias prácticas de enseñanza, causando un impacto en su trayectoria formativa. Estos materiales constituyen los datos para el análisis y la discusión en esta investigación. Buscamos discutir posibles desdoblamientos para el uso del recurso de la escritura reflexiva en la formación docente y en otros contextos de aprendizaje. La producción de este recurso da soporte a la producción de conocimiento y permite al estudiante conectar teoría y práctica, lo que consecuentemente repercute en su práctica docente. El LH es un recurso didáctico-pedagógico y no una herramienta cerrada, por lo tanto, se debe considerar tanto el contexto como las personas que lo utilizan.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Diary , Faculty , Handwriting , Organizational Objectives , Aptitude , Psychology , Psychology, Educational , Psychology, Social , Reading , Remedial Teaching , Association , Self Care , Social Change , Social Responsibility , Social Sciences , Speech , Awareness , Thinking , Writing , Activities of Daily Living , Power, Psychological , Mental Competency , Models, Educational , Cognition , Problem-Based Learning , Conditioning, Psychological , Neurobehavioral Manifestations , Behavioral Disciplines and Activities , Creativity , Cultural Evolution , Culture , Personal Autonomy , Decision Making , Interdisciplinary Communication , Comprehension , Educational Measurement , Educational Status , Abstracting and Indexing , Methodology as a Subject , Planning , Existentialism , Knowledge Discovery , Teach-Back Communication , Mindfulness , Mentoring , Self-Directed Learning as Topic , Memory and Learning Tests , Self-Management , Freedom , Self-Testing , Social Interaction , Individuality , Inservice Training , Intelligence , Knowledge of Results, Psychological , Language Arts , Leadership , Learning Disabilities , Life Change Events , Memory , Mental Processes
9.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e255712, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1529208

ABSTRACT

Com o advento da covid-19, foi declarado estado de emergência de saúde pública e decretadas medidas de isolamento e distanciamento social para conter a propagação da doença. O Conselho Federal de Psicologia, considerando a importância do acolhimento seguro durante a pandemia, publicou a Resolução CFP nº 4/2020, permitindo que serviços psicológicos aconteçam de maneira remota. O presente estudo visa, através do Método da Cartografia, apresentar a construção de um setting on-line para intervenções grupais e os desafios na oferta de acolhimento e atendimento remoto. Foram ofertados grupos terapêuticos, por meio da plataforma Google Meet, para estudantes da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro. Um diário de bordo foi produzido para acompanhar as forças que atravessavam e constituíam o território e a experiência grupal remota. Compreendemos que o território-espaço-grupal-on-line era composto pelo espaço virtual em que nos reuníamos, pelos espaços individuais de cada integrante e pelas forças que os atravessavam. Observamos que nem sempre os participantes dispunham de um lugar privado, mas estiveram presentes no encontro com câmeras e áudios abertos e/ou fechados e/ou através do chat da videochamada. A participação no grupo funcionou como alternativa no momento de distanciamento social, sendo uma possibilidade para o atendimento psicológico em situações de dificuldade de encontros presenciais; entretanto, se mostrou dificultada em diversos momentos, pela falta de equipamentos adequados e instabilidade na internet, fatores que interferiram nas reuniões e impactaram na possibilidade de falar e escutar o que era desejado.(AU)


With the advent of COVID-19, a state of public health was declared, and measures of isolation and social distance to contain the spread of the disease was decreed. The Federal Council of Psychology, considering the importance of safe reception during the pandemic, published CFP Resolution No. 4/2020, allowing psychological services to happen remotely. This study narrates, via the Cartography Method, the experience of inventing an Online Setting for group reception. Therapeutic groups were offered, via Google Meet Platform, to students at the Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro. A logbook was produced to accompany the forces that crossed and constituted the territory and the remote group experience. We understand that the territoryspace-group-online was composed by the virtual-space that we gathered, by the individualspaces of each member and by the forces that crossed them. We observed that the participants did not always have a private place, but they were present at the meeting with open and/or closed cameras and audio and/or through the video call chat. Participation in the group worked as an alternative at the time of social distancing, being a possibility for psychological care in situations of difficulty in face-to-face meetings, however, it proved to be difficult at various times, due to the lack of adequate equipment and instability on the internet, factors that interfered in meetings and impacted the possibility of speaking and listening to what was desired.(AU)


La llegada de la COVID-19 produjo un estado de emergencia de salud pública, en el que se decretaron medidas de confinamiento y distanciamiento físico para contener la propagación de la enfermedad. El Consejo Federal de Psicología, considerando la importancia de la acogida segura durante la pandemia, publicó la Resolución CFP nº 4/2020, por la que se permite la atención psicológica remota. Este estudio tiene por objetivo presentar, mediante el método de la Cartografía, la elaboración de un escenario en línea para la intervención grupal y los desafíos en la oferta de acogida y atención remota. Grupos terapéuticos se ofrecieron, en la plataforma Google Meet, a estudiantes de la Universidad Federal Rural de Río de Janeiro. Se elaboró un diario para acompañar a las fuerzas que atravesaron y constituyeron el territorio y la experiencia remota del grupo. Entendemos que el territorio-espacio-grupo-en línea estaba compuesto por el espacio-virtual que reunimos, por los espacios individuales de cada integrante y por las fuerzas que los atravesaban. Observamos que los participantes no siempre tenían un lugar privado y que estaban presentes en la reunión con cámaras y audio abiertos y/o cerrados y/o por el chat de la videollamada. La participación en el grupo funcionó como una alternativa en el momento del distanciamiento físico y revela ser una posibilidad de atención psicológica en situaciones de dificultad en los encuentros presenciales, sin embargo, se mostró difícil en varios momentos, ya sea por la falta de medios adecuados o por inestabilidad en Internet, factores que interferían en las reuniones e impactaban en la posibilidad de hablar y escuchar lo que se deseaba.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Psychology , Attitude , Answering Services , Internet-Based Intervention , Teleworking , COVID-19 , Anxiety , Personal Satisfaction , Preceptorship , Professional Practice Location , Psychoanalysis , Psychology, Social , Quality of Life , Safety , Social Identification , Social Values , Socialization , Socioeconomic Factors , Speech , Students , Teaching , Unemployment , Universities , Work , Behavior , Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms , Work Hours , Attitude to Computers , Medical Informatics Applications , Bereavement , Single Parent , Family , Catchment Area, Health , Cell Adhesion , Cell Communication , Quarantine , Communicable Disease Control , Mental Health , Life Expectancy , Universal Precautions , Infection Control , Employment, Supported , Communication , Mandatory Testing , Confidentiality , Privacy , Imagery, Psychotherapy , Psychotherapeutic Processes , Internet , Crisis Intervention , Personal Autonomy , Death , Trust , Codes of Ethics , Depression , Air Pollution , Educational Status , Disease Prevention , Centers of Connivance and Leisure , Professional Training , Faculty , Family Relations , Fear , Emotional Intelligence , Return to Work , Hope , Social Skills , Emotional Adjustment , Optimism , Healthy Lifestyle , Work-Life Balance , Mentoring , Sadness , Respect , Solidarity , Psychological Distress , Social Integration , Transtheoretical Model , Psychosocial Intervention , Listening Effort , Social Cohesion , Belonging , Cognitive Training , Diversity, Equity, Inclusion , Psychological Well-Being , Household Work , Humanities , Individuality , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Interpersonal Relations , Learning , Life Change Events , Motivation , Object Attachment
10.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e255496, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1529211

ABSTRACT

O presente artigo tem como objetivo apresentar a construção metodológica desenvolvida em uma pesquisa de mestrado, na qual sustentamos a escrita de cenas como método de pesquisa da escuta clínica. As cenas do trabalho em questão foram recolhidas ao longo do tempo, no contorno da experiência de um projeto de extensão universitária de atenção à infância e adolescência em situação de vulnerabilidade social, situado em uma comunidade periférica. Apresentamos, neste texto, as interrogações que se elaboraram em torno da escolha pelo trabalho com cenas, e compartilhamos o resgate histórico dessas como um método de escrever a clínica, bem como a retomada de sua análise a partir da tradição psicanalítica. Amparadas nesta teoria e em leituras e contribuições do filósofo francês Jacques Derrida, embasamos a noção de que a cena se constitui como um lugar de produção, ao engendrar a configuração particular de elementos significantes nos processos de subjetivação e de construção social. A cena não é, então, compreendida aqui como uma representação do que acontece na clínica, mas como um modo de produzir a escuta e os seus processos de investigação.(AU)


This article aims to present the methodological construction developed in a master's research, in which the writing of scenes as a method of clinical listening research was endorsed. The scenes from the study in question were collected over time, from the experience gained in a project conducted within a university extension program on care in childhood and adolescence in social vulnerability, in a peripheral community. In this study, we present some questions that were elaborated surrounding the choices of working with scenes; and we share the historical rescue of this work as a method of writing on clinic practices and resuming their analysis from the psychoanalytic tradition. Based on the psychoanalytic theory and on the readings and contributions of the French philosopher Jacques Derrida, we corroborate the notion that the scene is constituted as a place of production, engendering the particular configuration of significant elements in the processes of subjectivation and social construction. Here, the scene is not a representation of clinical practice but one mode of producing listening and its research processes.(AU)


Este artículo tiene como objetivo presentar la construcción metodológica desarrollada en una investigación de maestría, en la que sostenemos la escritura de escenas como método de investigación de la escucha clínica. Las escenas del trabajo en cuestión se recogieron a lo largo del tiempo desde la experiencia en un proyecto de extensión universitario de atención a la niñez y adolescencia en situación de vulnerabilidad social aplicado en una comunidad periférica. En este texto, presentamos los interrogantes que se elaboraron en torno a la elección por el trabajo con escenas y compartimos el rescate histórico de las mismas como un método de escribir la clínica y la reanudación del análisis a partir de la tradición psicoanalítica. Amparadas en el psicoanálisis y en lecturas y contribuciones del filósofo francés Jacques Derrida, nos basaremos en la noción de que la escena se constituye como un lugar de producción, engendrando la configuración particular de elementos significantes en los procesos de subjetivación y de construcción social. La escena no es aquí una representación de lo que pasa en la clínica, sino un modo de producir escucha y sus procesos de investigación.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child, Preschool , Psychoanalysis , Child , Child Welfare , Equipment and Supplies , Methodology as a Subject , Meals , Social Vulnerability , Parapsychology , Parent-Child Relations , Parents , Paternity , Play and Playthings , Play Therapy , Poverty , Psychological Phenomena , Psychological Theory , Psychology , Psychology, Clinical , Reality Therapy , Scapegoating , Schools , Sibling Relations , Social Class , Social Isolation , Social Justice , Social Responsibility , Social Support , Social Work , Speech , Superego , Unconscious, Psychology , Behavior , Poverty Areas , Solid Waste Use , Child, Abandoned , Child Abuse , Child Advocacy , Child Care , Child Development , Developmental Disabilities , Residence Characteristics , Hygiene , Child Health , Liability, Legal , Adolescent , Parenting , Clinical Clerkship , Comprehensive Health Care , Consciousness , Life , Crime , Crisis Intervention , Affect , Culture , Narration , Diapers, Infant , Research Subjects , Aggression , Human Rights Abuses , Dreams , Education , Ego , Employment , Job Market , Ethics , Child Nutrition , Bullying , Social Marginalization , Child, Foster , Social Privilege , Freedom , Freudian Theory , Economic Status , Respect , Clinical Decision Rules , Social Inclusion , Housing Instability , Low Socioeconomic Status , History , Human Rights , Id , Functional Laterality , Love , Memory , Memory, Short-Term , Morale , Names
11.
Edumecentro ; 152023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1448172

ABSTRACT

Este artículo tiene como objetivo resaltar la importancia del tratamiento de la expresión oral como habilidad productiva en la formación de los estudiantes universitarios con énfasis en la carrera de Medicina, desde la nueva política asumida para el proceso de enseñanza y aprendizaje del idioma inglés en su estudio como lengua extranjera, lo que ha implicado asumir nuevos retos y tendencias para el desarrollo del proceso de enseñanza y aprendizaje de este idioma en la formación de los diferentes profesionales en el contexto de la universidad cubana. El estudio asume como sustento teórico el Marco Común Europeo de Referencia, el enfoque comunicativo, los nuevos estándares internacionales para el tratamiento y evaluación de la expresión oral, así como estudios anteriores que han abordado esta temática desde otros contextos.


The objective of this article is to highlight the importance of the treatment of oral expression as a productive skill in the training of university students with an emphasis on the Medicine career from the new policy assumed for the teaching and learning process of the English language in its study. as a foreign language, which has implied assuming new challenges and trends for the development of the teaching and learning process of this language in the training of different professionals in the context of the Cuban university. The study assumes as theoretical support the Common European Framework of Reference, the communicative approach, the new international standards for the treatment and evaluation of oral expression, as well as previous studies that have addressed this issue from other contexts.


Subject(s)
Speech , Teaching , Communication , Education, Medical , Learning
12.
Rev. latinoam. cienc. soc. niñez juv ; 20(1): 188-209, ene.-abr. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365871

ABSTRACT

Resumen (analítico) El objetivo de la siguiente revisión sistemática fue indagar sobre la contribución diferencial del entorno socioeconómico en la capacidad de comunicación verbal y no verbal en los primeros tres años de vida. Se revisaron artículos de investigación empírica de los últimos 30 años en infantes con desarrollo típico. Se encontraron, en general, menores niveles respecto del desarrollo del habla y la comunicación expresiva y productiva en infantes de contextos vulnerables. Sin embargo, los resultados fueron inconsistentes respecto a la comunicación no verbal. Se concluye que se deben realizar más estudios con medidas directas comportamentales en comunicación no verbal para poder paliar las inconsistencias en los resultados actuales sobre la temática.


Abstract (analytical) The objective of this systematic literature review was to inquire about the differential contribution of socioeconomic environment to the capacity for verbal and non-verbal communication in the first three years of life. Empirical research articles from the last 30 years in normally developing infants were reviewed. In general, lower levels were identified among infants from vulnerable contexts in terms of speech development f and expressive and productive communication . However, the results were inconsistent in the area of non-verbal communication. It is concluded that more studies should be carried out with direct behavioral measures in relation to non-verbal communication in order to alleviate existing inconsistencies for the current results in this field.


Resumo (analítico) O objetivo da revisão sistemática a seguir foi indagar sobre a contribuição diferencial do meio socioeconômico na capacidade de comunicação verbal e não verbal nos primeiros três anos de vida. Artigos de pesquisa empírica dos últimos 30 anos em bebês com desenvolvimento típico foram revisados. Em geral, foram encontrados níveis mais baixos em relação ao desenvolvimento da fala e da comunicação expressiva e produtiva em bebês de contextos vulneráveis. No entanto, os resultados foram inconsistentes com relação à comunicação não verbal. Conclui-se que mais estudos devem ser realizados com medidas comportamentais diretas na comunicação não verbal, a fim de amenizar as inconsistências nos resultados atuais sobre o assunto.


Subject(s)
Speech , Communication , Minors , Nonverbal Communication
13.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 88(2): 187-193, Mar.-Apr. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374725

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Individuals with cleft palate can present with velopharyngeal dysfunction after primary palatoplasty and require a secondary treatment due to insufficiency. In these cases, the pharyngeal bulb prosthesis can be used temporarily while awaiting secondary surgery. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the outcome of treatment of hypernasality with pharyngeal bulb prosthesis in patients with history of cleft palate presenting with velopharyngeal insufficiency after primary palatal surgery. We hypothesized that the use of the pharyngeal bulb prosthesis is an effective approach to eliminate hypernasality related to velopharyngeal insufficiency in patients with cleft palate. Methods: Thirty speakers of Brazilian Portuguese (15 males and 15 females) with operated cleft palate, ages ranging from 6 to 14 years (mean: 9 years; SD = 1.87 years), participated in the study. All patients were fitted with a pharyngeal bulb prosthesis to manage velopharyngeal insufficiency while they were awaiting corrective surgery to be scheduled. Auditory-perceptual analysis of speech recorded in the conditions with and without pharyngeal bulb prosthesis were obtained from three listeners who rated the presence or absence of hypernasality for this study. Results: Seventy percent of the patients eliminated hypernasality while employing the pharyngeal bulb prosthesis, while 30% still presented with hypernasality. The comparison was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The use of the pharyngeal bulb prosthesis is an effective approach to eliminate hypernasality related to velopharyngeal insufficiency.


Resumo Introdução: Indivíduos com fissura palatina podem apresentar disfunção velofaríngea após a palatoplastia primária e necessitam de um secundário devido à insuficiência velofaríngea. Nesses casos, o obturador faríngeo pode ser usado temporariamente enquanto se aguarda uma cirurgia secundária. Objetivo: Investigar o resultado do tratamento da hipernasalidade com o uso de obturador faríngeo em pacientes com histórico de fissura palatina que apresentam insuficiência velofaríngea após a palatoplastia primária. Nossa hipótese é que o uso do obturador faríngeo seja uma abordagem eficaz para eliminar a hipernasalidade relacionada à insuficiência velofaríngea em pacientes com fissura palatina Método: Participaram do estudo 30 indivíduos falantes do Português Brasileiro (15 homens e 15 mulheres) com fissura palatina operada, de 6 a 14 anos de idade (média: 9 anos; DP = 1,87 anos). Todos os pacientes receberam obturador faríngeo para o tratamento da insuficiência velofaríngea, enquanto aguardavam vaga para a cirurgia secundária. A análise perceptivo-auditiva da fala, realizada nas condições com e sem obturador faríngeo, foi realizada por três ouvintes, quanto à presença e ausência da hipernasalidade. Resultados: 70% dos pacientes eliminaram a hipernasalidade de fala com o uso do obturador faríngeo, enquanto 30% não eliminaram. A comparação foi estatisticamente significante (p < 0,001). Conclusão: O uso temporário do obturador faríngeo é uma abordagem efetiva para eliminar a hipernasalidade decorrente da insuficiência velofaríngea.


Subject(s)
Velopharyngeal Insufficiency/surgery , Velopharyngeal Insufficiency/etiology , Voice Disorders , Nose Diseases , Cleft Palate/surgery , Cleft Palate/complications , Prostheses and Implants , Speech , Treatment Outcome
14.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 27(3): 937-946, mar. 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364702

ABSTRACT

Resumo O ensaio enfatiza a reflexão psicossocial do psiquiatra martinicano Frantz Fanon. Seu pensamento tem expressão na crítica da dominação colonial e do racismo, destacando-se as obras Pele negra, máscaras brancas e Os condenados da Terra. Uma transcendência literária forja seu discurso apaixonado e libertador, relevante nas teorizações pós-coloniais e decoloniais. Crescentemente reconhecido pela discussão política do mundo diaspórico contemporâneo, suas ideias e práticas médico-sociais, precursoras na atenção à saúde mental, são menos conhecidas. Referenciado por Paulo Freire e Boaventura de Sousa Santos, Fanon releva a cultura na discussão de uma sociogênese do sofrimento mental e na crítica à inadequação da psicanálise eurocêntrica para lidar com a opressão colonial e o racismo. Fanon, embora citado por Franco Baságlia, não figurou como referência para a Reforma Psiquiátrica Brasileira, mas seu pensamento descolonial e antirracista se revela, em perspectiva, uma importante contribuição para a saúde coletiva.


Abstract The essay emphasizes the psychosocial reflection of the Martinican psychiatrist Frantz Fanon. Fanon's thought is marked by criticism of colonial domination and racism, as in "Black Skin, White Masks" and "The Damned of the Earth." A literary transcendence signalizes his passionate and liberating speech, relevant in postcolonial and decolonial theories. Fanon is increasingly acknowledged for his political discussion of the diasporic contemporary world, although his medical and social ideas and practices, as precursors in mental health assistance, are less well known. Mentioned by Paulo Freire and Boaventura de Sousa Santos, Fanon stresses culture in his sociogenesis and when he criticizes the inadequacy of Eurocentric psychoanalysis to deal with colonial oppression and racism. Although he was cited by Franco Basaglia, Fanon did not feature as a benchmark in Brazilian Psychiatric Reform, though his decolonial and antiracist thought, is, when viewed in perspective, is an important contribution to Public Health.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Psychiatry , Mental Disorders/psychology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Speech , Mental Health , Public Health
15.
Distúrb. comun ; 34(1): e53900, mar. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396270

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O conhecimento sobre aquisição fonológica é balizador para a prática clínica na avaliação de transtornos fonológicos. Objetivo: Realizar revisão sistemática das publicações científicas sobre aquisição fonológica consonantal do Português Brasileiro (PB) por crianças com desenvolvimento linguístico típico. Metodologia: Foram selecionados descritores que atendiam à pergunta de pesquisa "qual a idade de aquisição fonológica consonantal típica de crianças falantes monolíngues do Português Brasileiro (PB)?" nas bases de dados Bireme, Pubmed, Scopus, Web of Science, Portal Periódicos Capes e Google Acadêmico, e literatura cinzenta. Critério de inclusão foi tratar-se de aquisição fonológica consonantal do PB por crianças. Excluíram-se estudos sobre aquisição de: vogais e/ou ditongos, domínios linguísticos que não fossem fonologia, segunda língua ou bilíngue, outra língua que não o PB, leitura, escrita, soletração, língua de sinais, também pesquisas somente com análise fonética, com dados de fala de crianças com alterações de fala, texto escrito, e linguagem não natural. Foram considerados os tipos de estudo, objetivos e indicadores de aquisição. Os estudos selecionados foram analisados via Iniciativa STROBE e Sistema GRADE. Resultados: Dos 1.381 estudos obtidos, selecionou-se 33. A aquisição fonológica consonantal foi identificada entre as idades um ano e quatro meses a sete anos, dependendo do fonema ou classe dos fonemas, apresentando grande variação entre indivíduos. A definição sobre aquisição convergiu para a frequência de 75% a 85% de produções corretas da consoante ou estrutura silábica. Conclusão: Constatou-se que a aquisição fonológica consonantal apresenta ampla variação entre indivíduos e entre diferentes consoantes e destas nas diversas estruturas silábicas.


Introduction: Knowledge about phonological acquisition is a guideline for clinical practice in the assessment of phonological disorders. Objective: To perform a systematic review of scientific publications on consonant phonological acquisition of Brazilian Portuguese (PB) by children with typical linguistic development. Methods: there were selected descriptors that meet the question "what is the age of typical consonant phonological acquisition in monolingual Brazilian Portuguese (BP) speakers?" in the databases Bireme, Pubmed, Scopus, Web of Science, Portal Periódicos Capes and Google Scholar, and gray literature. The inclusion criteria were that it was a consonant phonological acquisition of BP by children. Studies on the acquisition of: vowels and/or diphthongs, linguistic domains other than phonology, second language or bilingual, language other than BP, reading, writing, spelling, sign language, as well as research with phonetic analysis, speech data of children with speech disorders, about written text, and unnatural language were excluded. The types of study, objectives and acquisition indicators were considered. The selected studies were analyzed by the STROBE Initiative and the GRADE System. Results: Of the 1,381 studies obtained, 33 were selected. Consonant phonological acquisition was identified between one year and four months to seven years, depending on the phoneme or class of phonemes and showing great variation between individuals. The definition of acquisition converged to the frequency of 75% to 85% of correct productions of the consonant or syllabic structure. Conclusion: It was found that the consonant phonological acquisition presents a wide variation in individuals and between different consonants and of these in the different syllabic structures.


Introducción: El conocimiento sobre la adquisición fonológica es una guía para la práctica clínica en la evaluación de los trastornos fonológicos. Objetivo: Realizar una revisión sistemática de publicaciones científicas sobre la adquisición fonológica consonante del portugués brasileño (PB) por parte de niños con desarrollo lingüístico típico. Metodos: Se seleccionaron descriptores que cumplieron con la pregunta "¿Cuál es la edad de adquisición fonológica consonante típica en hablantes monolingües de portugués brasileño (BP)?" en las bases de datos Bireme, Pubmed, Scopus, Web of Science, Portal Periódicos Capes y Google Acadêmico, y literatura gris. Los criterios de inclusión fueron la adquisición fonológica consonante de PA por parte de los niños. Se excluyeron los estudios sobre la adquisición de: vocales y/o diptongos, dominios lingüísticos distintos de la fonología, segunda lengua o bilingüe, distintos de BP, lectura, escritura, ortografía, lengua de signos, también investigaciones con análisis fonético. Con datos de habla de niños con trastornos del habla, texto escrito y lenguaje antinatural. Se consideraron los tipos de estudio, objetivos e indicadores de adquisición. Los estudios seleccionados fueron analizados por la Iniciativa STROBE y el Sistema GRADE. Resultados: De los 1381 estudios obtenidos, se seleccionaron 33. Se identificó adquisición fonológica consonante entre las edades de un año y cuatro meses a siete años, dependiendo del fonema o clase de fonemas y mostrando gran variación entre individuos. La definición de adquisición convergió a la frecuencia del 75% al ​​85% de producciones correctas de la estructura consonante o silábica. Conclusión: Se encontró que la adquisición fonológica consonante presenta una amplia variación entre individuos y entre diferentes consonantes y de estas en las diferentes estructuras silábicas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Phonetics , Language Development , Speech , Brazil
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939628

ABSTRACT

Speech expression is an important high-level cognitive behavior of human beings. The realization of this behavior is closely related to human brain activity. Both true speech expression and speech imagination can activate part of the same brain area. Therefore, speech imagery becomes a new paradigm of brain-computer interaction. Brain-computer interface (BCI) based on speech imagery has the advantages of spontaneous generation, no training, and friendliness to subjects, so it has attracted the attention of many scholars. However, this interactive technology is not mature in the design of experimental paradigms and the choice of imagination materials, and there are many issues that need to be discussed urgently. Therefore, in response to these problems, this article first expounds the neural mechanism of speech imagery. Then, by reviewing the previous BCI research of speech imagery, the mainstream methods and core technologies of experimental paradigm, imagination materials, data processing and so on are systematically analyzed. Finally, the key problems and main challenges that restrict the development of this type of BCI are discussed. And the future development and application perspective of the speech imaginary BCI system are prospected.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain , Computers , Imagery, Psychotherapy , Speech , Technology
17.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1381844

ABSTRACT

Los cuidados de fin de vida han evolucionado en lo conceptual y en lo práctico, incluyendo el tipo de profesionales que se involucra actualmente en esta área del quehacer. El trabajo de los/las fonoaudiólogos/as históricamente se ha relacionado con la intervención de las dificultades en la comunicación y deglución, sin embargo, frente al acompañamiento de personas en su proceso de muerte, es necesario diversificar esta concepción. Por esto, el presente artículo tiene por objetivo, reflexionar sobre nuestra realidad como profesionales de la salud en dicha área, por esto se presenta una revisión de tópicos relacionados con los cuidados de fin de vida, buscando entregar sustentos teóricos y prácticos al respecto. Se destacan aspectos relevantes para la intervención, tales como el modelo de salud que fundamenta las intervenciones que se realizan (biomédico ­ biopsicosocial), la importancia del autoconocimiento y el rol que juegan las emociones del profesional en el proceso terapéutico. Finalmente, se hace referencia a puntos relevantes relacionados con la intervención clínica específica a nivel fonoaudiológico, buscando ampliar el entendimiento y los límites del abordaje de las personas con dificultades de comunicación y deglución (alimentación) al final de su vida, esperando con ello explicitar lo diverso de las acciones realizables en el acompañamiento de la población antes mencionada


End-of-life care has evolved conceptually and practically, including the type of professionals currently involved in this area of work. Speech and Language therapists practice has historically been related to the intervention of communication and swallowing difficulties, however, when accompanying people in their dying process, it is necessary to diversify this conception. Therefore, this article aims to reflect on our reality as health professionals in this area, therefore a review of issues related to end-of-life care is presented. Relevant aspects for the intervention are highlighted, such as the health model that underlies the interventions carried out (biomedical - biopsychosocial), the importance of self-knowledge and the role played by the professional's emotions in the therapeutic process.Finally, reference is made to important points related to the specific clinical intervention at the speech and language therapy level, seeking to expand the understanding and the limits of the approach to people with communication and swallowing difficulties (feeding) at the end of their life, hoping to make explicit the diversity of the actions that can be performed in the accompaniment of the aforementioned population


Subject(s)
Humans , Terminal Care , Death , Language , Language Therapy , Speech , Therapeutics , Work , Health , Health Personnel , Communication , Knowledge , Deglutition , Comprehension , Diet
18.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1381863

ABSTRACT

Este artículo pretende demostrar la viabilidad que tiene la creación de una spin-off universitaria que ofrezca servicios fonoaudiológicos para darle solución a las dificultades comunicativas que se presentan en el ámbito escolar, tanto en estudiantes como en docentes y administrativos. Metodología: Este fue un estudio cualitativo con diseño de investigación mixto, en el cual se obtuvieron los resultados a partir de una revisión documental y la aplicación de dos instrumentos de recolección de datos a profesionales de algunas instituciones educativas públicas y privadas de Medellín. Resultados: Los resultados evidenciaron que los docentes no reconocen en su totalidad las funciones del fonoaudiólogo en el sector educativo, y así mismo, se demostró que la participación que se ha tenido en los procesos que lleva a cabo este profesional en las instituciones educativas no ha sido la esperada; los docentes refirieron identificar diversas dificultades en los estudiantes y en ellos mismos, relacionadas con la comunicación; además, reconocieron la importancia y necesidad de incluir al fonoaudiólogo en las instituciones educativas. Conclusión: Se concluye que en el sector educativo son evidentes las dificultades comunicativas que presentan los estudiantes, los docentes y administrativos, sin embargo, en estas instituciones aún no se ha integrado el servicio de fonoaudiología, por ende, no se logra dimensionar el alcance que tiene el fonoaudiólogo para beneficiar la población escolar. Las experiencias docentes permitieron confirmar el gran valor que tiene la conformación de una spin-off que ofrezca servicios fonoaudiológicos a la comunidad educativa, brinde solución a las necesidades y complemente la labor docente


To demonstrate the viability of creating a university spin-off that offers speech and language services to solve communication difficulties that appear in the school environment for students, teachers and administrators. Methodology: This was a qualitative study with a mixed research design in which the results were obtained from a documentary review and the application of two data collection instruments to professionals in some public and private educational institutions in Medellin. Results: The results showed that the teachers do not fully recognize the functions of the speech and language therapist in the educational sector and it was also demonstrated that the participation in the processes carried out by this professional in the educational institutions has not been as expected. The teachers referred to identify various difficulties in the students and in themselves related to communication. In addition, they recognized the importance and need to include the speech and language therapist in the educational institutions.Conclusion: It is concluded that in the educational sector the communication difficulties presented by students, teachers and administrators are evident; however, in these educational institutions the speech and language service has not yet been integrated. Therefore, it is not possible to dimension the scope that the speech and language therapist has to benefit the school population. The teaching experiences allowed confirming the great value of the conformation of a spin-off that offers speech and language services to the educational community, providing solutions to the needs and complementing the teaching work


Subject(s)
Humans , Communication , Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences , Language , Language Therapy , Research , Research Design , Schools , Speech , Students , Teaching , Data Collection , Education , Environment , Faculty , Health Services Needs and Demand
19.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1381876

ABSTRACT

El coaching es un proceso de acompañamiento de personas para el cumplimiento de sus metas y desarrollo de habilidades, entre ellas la comunicación, como indicador de calidad de vida y de socialización. Se decidió, por lo tanto, realizar la aplicación de un programa de coaching comunicativo grupal para determinar, objetivamente, las mejoras que se producirían en un grupo de personas mayores. Objetivo: Se planteó como objetivo general desarrollar un programa de coaching comunicativo grupal para favorecer el envejecimiento saludable en un grupo de personas mayores de un centro comunitario de la Región Metropolitana de Santiago de Chile. Metodología: El estudio fue de carácter cuantitativo, cuasiexperimental, exploratorio y longitudinal realizándose durante los meses de enero y febrero de 2020. Se trabajó con 6 personas mayores a quienes se les aplicó inicialmente el cuestionario WHO-QOL (Urzúa & Navarrete, 2013), que mide calidad de vida en las personas mayores, con un eje comunicativo, realizándose posteriormente 6 sesiones de coaching comunicativo grupal. Al finalizar el proceso, se realizó la reaplicación del mencionado cuestionario. Resultados: Al comparar los resultados de pre y post evaluación con WHO-QOL, se obtuvieron resultados estadísticamente significativos en todas las esferas, en particular de los parámetros de salud psicológica y relaciones sociales. Con todo lo anterior, se releva la importancia de contar con nuevas herramientas en el trabajo con personas mayores, en particular el trabajo del fonoaudiólogo coach que, al acompañar procesos de calidad de vida desde la comunicación, ayudará a potenciar el envejecimiento saludable


Coaching is the process of accompaniment of people to fulfill their goals and develop skills including communication, as an indicator of quality of life and socialization. Aim: It was therefore decided to carry out a group coaching program to determine, objectively, the improvements that would occur with the use of coaching. It was generally aimed at determining the effect of group coaching on the perception of quality of life and healthy aging in a group of older people. In addition, they set out as specific objectives: to identify the quality-of-life factors of a group of elderly people using the WHO-QOL instrument; apply a group coaching program, aimed at healthy aging, to a group of elderly people and contrast the quality of life factors of a group of elderly people through the WHO-QOL instrument, following the development of the coaching program group, relative to the initial application. Methodology: The study was descriptive, non-experimental and transectional during the months of April and May 2019. It worked with 6 elderly people belonging to the community center of Parque los Reyes, in the commune of Santiago de Chile. They were initially given the WHO-QOL questionnaire, which measures quality of life in the elderly, and then 6 group coaching sessions with that same group. Consequently, at the end of the process, the said questionnaire was reapplied. Results: When comparing pre ­ and post-evaluation results with WHO-QOL, statistically meaning results were obtained, from the psychological health and ambient parameters, which are measured by the questionnaire. With all of the above, the importance of having new tools in working with older people is replayed, in particular the work of the coach speech therapist who, by accompanying quality of life processes from communication, will help promote healthy aging.


Subject(s)
Humans , Speech , Communication , Healthy Aging , Perception , Quality of Life , Reference Standards , Socialization , Health , Surveys and Questionnaires , Total Quality Management , Interpersonal Relations , Persons
20.
Rev. chil. fonoaudiol. (En línea) ; 21(1): 1-13, 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1437117

ABSTRACT

Este estudio analizó las rutinas y los hábitos de alimentación de niños portugueses de entre 4 y 18 meses, los métodos de introducción de alimentos más utilizados y las percepciones de los padres acerca de la importancia de la introducción de alimentos en el desarrollo del habla, Se aplicó un cuestionario online a una muestra de 297 padres. El cuestionario mostró una alta fiabilidad (α = 0.86). La mayoría de las madres portuguesas respondió que amamantan a sus hijos o que lo hacen en combinación con mamadera. Además, que les presentan nuevos alimentos a sus hijos en forma de sopas o purés y que varían los sabores, texturas y consistencias con frecuencia. Aunque hubo resultados razonables con respecto al conocimiento sobre los métodos tradicionales y Baby Led Weaning (BLW), en esta muestra se observó una mayor frecuencia de uso del método tradicional en comparación con BLW. Por otro lado, no hubo una correlación significativa entre la edad de los padres y su percepción sobre la importancia de la alimentación para el habla. Sin embargo, los padres con estudios superiores mostraron una mayor percepción sobre la importancia de la alimentación en el habla. Los padres con un mayor número de hijos mostraron una menor consciencia sobre la importancia de la relación entre la alimentación y el habla.


This study analyzedthe eating routines and habits of Portuguese children aged 4 to 18 months, the methods of food introduction most frequently used, and the parents' perceptions regarding the importance of food introduction for speech development. A sample of 297 parents filled out an online self-report questionnaire about their perceptions, knowledge, and routines regarding food introduction methods, and their relationship with speech development. This questionnaire showed high reliability (α=0.86). The majority of the Portuguese mothers that filled out the survey answered either that they breastfed their children or breastfed them in combination with bottle feeding. They also stated that they introduce new food to their children in the form of soups or purees and that they vary the flavors, textures, and consistencies frequently. Although the results showed a reasonable level of knowledge regarding the traditional and Baby Led Weaning (BLW) methods, there was a higher frequency of use of the traditional method in this samplewhen compared to BLW. There was not a significant correlation between the age of the parents and their perception of the importance of feeding for speech. In turn, parents with a higher level of education showed a greater awareness of the relevance of feeding in the development of speech. Parents with a higher number of children showed less awareness of the relationship between feeding and speech development.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Adult , Speech/physiology , Feeding Methods/psychology , Parent-Child Relations , Parents/psychology , Perception , Portugal , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Surveys and Questionnaires , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Self Report , Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
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