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1.
Oncología (Ecuador) ; 32(2): 129-140, 2 de Agosto del 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391883

ABSTRACT

In troducción:La mortalidad de los pacientes con cáncer,ingresados en unaunidad de terapia intensiva puede ser estimada usando las escalas de sepsis. El objetivo del presente estudio fue realizar una prueba diagnóstica entre las principales escalas en un grupo de pacientes oncológicos de un centro de referencia de Guayaquil-Ecuador.Met odología: Se realizó un estudio transversal, en la unidad de terapia intensiva del Instituto Oncológico Nacional "Dr Juan Tanca Marengo" de SOLCA-Guayaquil, en el período octubre 2019a noviembre del 2020. La muestrafue probabilística, de pacientes con diagnóstico oncológicos clínicos ingresado en UCI. Se registró edad, tipo de cáncer, antecedentes familiares, mortalidad y las escalas SOFA y APACHE II. Se utiliza estadística descriptiva, se realiza una prueba diagnóstica y un análisis de supervivencia.R esultados: Se analizan 99 casos, de 57 ± 16 añosde edad, 37 hombres (37.4%). Con Hipertensión arte-rial (39.4%) y diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (17.1%). 12.1 %casos de linfoma no Hodgkiny cáncer intestinal 11.1%; 17 fallecimientos (17.2%). La puntuación global SOFA fue de 6.8 ± 3.0. La puntuación global APACHE II de 18.6 ± 7.0. El riesgo de mortalidad fue estadísticamente significativo a partir del 5to día. La puntuación SOFA >6 tuvo una sensibilidad del 88.24 %, valor predictivo (VP) positivo fue muy bajo, así como la especificidad; el VP negativo fue de 97%. La escala APACHE II, tuvo una sensibilidad del 94.12 %, con una especificidad de 96.34 %; VP positivo, comparada a la escala SOFA fue el doble.Co nclusión: La escala APACHE II en pacientes oncológicos clínicos ingresados en UCI predice de la ma-nera más exacta la mortalidad cuando la puntuación es mayor a 18


Subject(s)
Neoplasms , Survival Analysis , Mortality , Hospital Mortality , Critical Care , Neoplasm Metastasis
2.
Oncología (Ecuador) ; 32(2): 141-156, 2 de Agosto del 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391889

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El Linfoma de Hodgkin (LH), es una neoplasia hematológica poco frecuente, donde las células neoplásicas forman una minoría del tumor y están rodeados por un medio inflamatorio reactivo que incluye linfocitos, eosinófilos, neutrófilos, histiocitos y células plasmáticas. El objetivo del presente estudio fue describir una población con esta patología y su supervivencia en 7 años de seguimiento. Metodología Este estudio longitudinal, se realizó en el Hospital Carlos Andrade Marín, de Quito, Ecuador, del período 2013-2019, con una muestra no probabilística, de pacientes con LH. Se registraron variables demográficas, clínicas, de laboratorio, clasificación Ann Arbor, clasificación histológica, tratamiento y respuesta, mortalidad y tiempo de supervivencia. Se utiliza estadística descriptiva; bivariado y un análisis de supervivencia. Resultados: Se analizan 73 casos, 43 hombres (58.9 %). El grupo de 61 a 70 años fue el más prevalente con 19 casos (26%). 1 caso (4.1 %) con VIH, 7 casos (9.6%) con inmunosupresores. Síntomas B en 49 casos (67.1%). Adenomegalias en 15 casos (20.5 %). Masa Bulky 5 casos (6.8 %). Fallecieron 22 casos (30.1 %). Supervivencia de 52.8 meses, el 83.6% de recibieron Adriamicina, Bleomicina, Vincristina y Dacarbazina como 1ra línea de tratamiento, con remisión completa en el 61.7%. El estadio IV de Ann Arbor con Hazard Ratio (HR): 3.47,(IC95%: 1.20 ­6.11, P= 0.04), depleción linfocitaria HR: 4.98 (IC95%: 1.31 ­9.47, P= 0.04).Hemoglobina < 10.5 g/dL HR: 2.40,(IC95%: 1.47­5.94, P= 0.03), Albúmina < 4 g/dL HR: 4.02, IC95%: 1.94­7.26, P= 0.01) y linfocitos < 600 células/µL HR: 4.57, (IC95%: 1.85 ­11.28, P= 0.001)Conclusión: La prevalencia de LH fue ligeramente mayor en hombres, con una relación de 1.1: 1. LA incidencia fue bimodal, entre 31-40 años y entre 61-70 años, con síntomas B y adenomegalias. Los estadios II y III (Ann Arbor) fueron los más frecuentes. La Hemoglobina y albúmina fue menor en los fallecidos. El tratamiento de primera línea tuvo remisión completa en el 61.7% de los casos. La ausencia de síntomas B, se relacionó con una mayor supervivencia; los estadios avanzados se relacionaron con peor supervivencia; la supervivencia fue mayor en pacientes que obtuvieron remisión completa con la primera línea de tratamiento; la supervivencia general fue menor a la encontrada en países desarrollados


In troduction: Hodgkin's Lymphoma (HL) is a rare hematological neoplasm where neoplastic cells form a minority of the tumor and are surrounded by a reactive inflammatory medium that includes lympho-cytes eosinophils, neutrophils, histiocytes, and plasma cells. The objective of the present study was to describe a population with this pathology and its survival in 7 years of follow-up.Met hodology: This longitudinal study was carried out at the Carlos Andrade Marín Hospital, in Quito, Ec-uador, from 2013-2019, with a non-probabilistic sample of patients with HL. Demographic, clinical, labor-atory variables, Ann Arbor classification, histological classification, treatment and response, mortality, and survival time were recorded. Descriptive statistics are used; bivariate and survival analysis.R esults: 73 cases were analyzed, 43 men (58.9%). The group of 61 to 70 years was the most prevalent, with 19 cases (26%). 1 case (4.1%) with AIDS and 7 cases (9.6%) with immunosuppressants. B symp-toms in 49 cases (67.1%). Enlarged lymph nodes in 15 cases (20.5%). Bulky mass 5 cases (6.8%). 22 cases died (30.1%). Survival of 52.8 months, 83.6% received Adriamycin, Bleomycin, Vincristine, and Dacarbazine as1st line of treatment, with complete remission in 61.7%. Ann Arbor stage IV with Hazard Ratio (HR): 3.47, (95% CI: 1.20 ­6.11, P= 0.04), lymphocyte depletion HR: 4.98 (95% CI: 1.31 ­9.47, P= 0.04). Hemoglobin < 10.5 g/dL HR: 2.40, (95% CI: 1.47 ­5.94, P= 0.03), Albumin < 4 g/dL HR: 4.02, 95% CI: 1.94 ­7.26, P= 0.01) and lymphocytes < 600 cells/ µL HR: 4.57, (95% CI: 1.85 ­11.28, P= 0.001).C o nclusion: The prevalence of HL was slightly higher in men, with a ratio of 1.1: 1. The incidence was bimodal, between 31-40 years and between 61-70 years, with B symptoms and enlarged lymph nodes. Stages II and III (Ann Arbor) were the most frequent. Hemoglobin and albumin were lower in the de-ceased. First-line treatment had complete remission in 61.7% of cases. The absence of B symptoms was related to more remarkable survival; advanced stages were related to worse survival; survival was higher in patients who achieved complete remission with the first line of treatment; overall survival was lower than that found indeveloped countries


Subject(s)
Hodgkin Disease , Survival Analysis , Mortality , Lymphoma, AIDS-Related , Hospital Mortality
3.
Oncología (Ecuador) ; 32(2): 194-207, 2 de Agosto del 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391903

ABSTRACT

In troducción: Una de cada 18 mujeres desarrolla a lo largo de su vida cáncer de mama, siendo esta la principal causa de muerte por cáncer en mujeres.El propósito del presente estudio fue establecer el valor predictivo de los factores histopatológicos presentes en tumores malignos de mama con recepto-res hormonales positivos Her2 negativo de un grupo de pacientes en un centro de referencia oncológico.Met odología: Este estudio longitudinal se realizó en el Instituto Oncológico Nacional "Dr Juan TancaMa-rengo", de Guayaquil -Ecuador. El período de inclusión del 2007 al 2009 con período de observación hasta diciembre del 2020. Con una muestra no probabilística, se incluyeron mujeres con cáncer de mama, hormonal positivo Her2Neu negativo, que hayan recibido tratamiento adyuvante durante un pe-riodo de seguimiento. Se midieron variables demográficas, clínicas, relacionadas al tumor, clasificación TNM y sobrevida.Se realiza un análisis univariado descriptivo de la muestra, un análisis bivariado, com-parando el grupo de pacientes fallecidas con el grupo de pacientes vivas; un análisis de correlación entre variables en escala; un análisis de supervivencia y finalmente se presenta una regresión COX para pre-decir la supervivencia en base a las variables.R esultados: Ingresaron al estudio 105 pacientes, de 54.1 ± 11.4 años. 58.1% de casos en etapa temprana y 41.9% en etapa localmente avanzada. La sobrevida global (SG) fue de 67.6%a 14 añosy la sobrevida librede progresión (SLP) del 59.05%. La terapia de bloqueo hormonal se asoció con la SLP (R=0.544, P<0.01) y con SG (R=0.399, P<0.05). El compromiso ganglionar en estadio N0 tuvo una SLP de 11.9 ± 0.4 años, en estadio N3 fue de 6.8 ± 1.6 años (P<0.01). El modelo de regresión de Cox para predecir el tiempo de vida libre de progresión o enfermedad fue estadísticamente significativo con la terapia de bloqueo hormonal (R2=0.607, P<0.001) Conclusión: Laterapia de bloqueo hormonal mantenida por más de 5 años tiene un impacto positivo en la supervivencia de las pacientes con cáncer de mama hormonal positivo Her2 Neu negativo


In troduction:One in 18 women develops breast cancer throughout her life, this being the leading cause of death from cancer in women. The purpose of the present study was to establish the predictive value of the histopathological factors present in malignant breast tumors with positive hormone receptors Her2 negative in a group of patients in an oncology reference center.Met hodology: This longitudinal study was conducted at the "Dr. Juan Tanca Marengo" National Oncology Institute in Guayaquil -Ecuador. The inclusion period was from 2007 to 2009, with an observation period until December 2020. With a non-probabilistic sample, women with hormone-positive Her2 Neu negative breast cancer who had received adjuvant treatment during a follow-up period were included. Demo-graphic, clinical, tumor-related, TNM classification and survival variables were measured. A descriptive univariate analysis of the sample is performed, a bivariate analysis comparing the group of deceased patients with the group of living patients; a correlation analysis between variables in scale; a survival analysis; and a COX regression is presented to predict survival based on the variables.R esults: 105 patients,54.1 ± 11.4 years old, entered the study. 58.1% of cases are in the early stage, and 41.9% are in a locally advanced stage. Overall survival (OS) was 67.6% at 14 years, and progression-free survival (PFS) was 59.05%. Hormone blocking therapy was associated with PFS (R=0.544, P<0.01) and OS (R=0.399, P<0.05). Lymph node involvement in stage N0 had a PFS of 11.9 ± 0.4 years; stage N3 was 6.8 ± 1.6 years (P<0.01). The Cox regression model to predict progression-free or disease-free life was statistically significant with hormone blockade therapy (R2=0.607, P<0.001).C o nclusion: Hormone blockade therapy maintained for more than five years positively impacts the sur-vival of patients with hormone-positive Her2 Neu negative breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Tamoxifen , Survival Analysis , Regression Analysis , Receptor, ErbB-2
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(3): 855-859, jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385666

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: Gran parte de los pacientes con cáncer de colon (CC), son diagnosticados y tratados de forma electiva. Sin embargo, aproximadamente un 20 % de ellos debutará como una emergencia (obstrucción o perforación). El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar morbilidad postoperatoria (MPO) y supervivencia global (SVG) en pacientes resecados por CC perforado (CCP). Serie de casos retrospectiva de pacientes con CCP, sometidos a colectomía y linfadenectomía, de forma consecutiva, en Clínica RedSalud Mayor y Hospital de Temuco, Chile, entre 2010 y 2019. Las variables resultados fueron SVG y MPO. Otras variables de interés fueron: tiempo quirúrgico, resecabilidad, número de linfonodos resecados, estancia hospitalaria, mortalidad operatoria, recurrencia y supervivencia libre de enfermedad (SLE). Los pacientes fueron seguidos de forma clínica. Se utilizó estadística descriptiva, con medidas de tendencia central y dispersión; y análisis de SV con curvas de Kaplan Meier. Se intervinieron 15 pacientes (60 % mujeres), con una mediana de edad de 62 años. La localización más frecuente fue sigmoides (6 casos; 40,0 %). La resecabilidad de la serie fue 100 %. La medianas del tiempo quirúrgico, número de linfonodos resecados y estancia hospitalaria; fueron 80 min, 20 y 5 días respectivamente. La MPO fue 26,7 % (4 casos). Con una mediana de seguimiento de 36 meses, se verificó una recurrencia de 40,0 %. Por otra parte, la SVG y SLE a 5 años fue 46,7 % y 33,3 % respectivamente. Los resultados obtenidos, en términos de MPO y SVG, fueron similares a series internacionales.


SUMMARY: Most patients with colon cancer (CC) are diagnosed and treated electively. However, a fifth of them will debut as an emergency (obstruction or perforation). The aim of this study was to determine postoperative morbidity (POM) and overall survival (OS) in patients resected by perforated CC (PCC). Retrospective case series of patients with PCC undergoing colectomy and lymphadenectomy, consecutively, at RedSalud Mayor Clinic and Temuco hospital, Chile, between 2010 and 2019. The outcome variable were POM and OS. Other variables of interest were surgical time, resectability, number of resected lymph nodes, hospital stay, mortality, recurrence, and disease-free survival (DFS). Patients were followed clinically. Descriptive statistics was used (measures of central tendency and dispersion), and OS analysis was applying Kaplan Meier curves.15 patients (60 % women) were intervened, with a median age of 62 years. The most frequent location was the sigmoid colon (6 cases, 40.0 %). Resectability of the series was 100 %. Median surgical time, number of lymph nodes resected, and hospital stay; they were 80 min, 20 and 5 days respectively. POM was 26.7 % (4 cases). With a median follow-up of 36 months, recurrence was 40.0 %. On the other hand, OS and DFS at 5 years were 46.7 % and 33.3 %, respectively. The observed results, in terms of POM and OS, were like international series.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Colectomy , Colonic Neoplasms/surgery , Colonic Neoplasms/complications , Intestinal Perforation/etiology , Postoperative Complications , Colon, Sigmoid , Survival Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Emergencies , Lymph Node Excision , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
5.
Oncología (Ecuador) ; 32(1): 27-39, 30-04-2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368926

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La cuarta parte de las mujeres con neoplasias ginecológicas cursa con obstrucción en la vía urinaria, secundaria a infiltración tumoral o compresión extrínseca de los uréteres. La nefrostomía es la alternativa clínica intervencionista para mejorar la nefropatía obstructiva y evitar el tratamiento de diálisis en un paciente oncológico con hidronefrosis. El presente estudio tiene el objetivo de determinar la supervivencia de pacientes con cáncer de cérvix portadoras de nefrostomía. Metodología: El presente estudio observacional se realizó en el Hospital Solón Espinosa Ayala "Solca-Núcleo de Quito" de enero-2014 a diciembre-2018. El cálculo muestral fue no probabilístico, se incluyeron casos de pacientes con cáncer de cérvix con nefrostomía. Las variables fueron: edad, su-pervivencia global, supervivencia con nefrostomía, tipo histológico de la neoplasia de cérvix, estadío, tratamiento oncológico luego de la nefrostomía, complicaciones y repuesta al tratamiento. Para el análisis se usó el método Kaplan Meier. Se analiza supervivencia según estadios funcionales ECOG . Resultados: Se incluyeron 96 casos en el estudio. La media de sobrevida luego de colocar la nefros-tomía fue de 277 días (9.2 meses), y la media de la sobrevida global fue de 462 días (15 meses). Las pacientes con ECOG-0 la supervivencia global fue de 625 días (20.8 meses), con ECOG 1, 2 y 3 fue de 437 días (14.5 meses) P= 0.013. Conclusión: Es este estudio las pacientes con cáncer de cérvix que tienen enfermedad localmente avanzada y metastásica con ECOG 0, son las más beneficiadas del procedimiento de nefrostomía con mejoría de la supervivencia. Las pacientes con enfermedad localmente avanzada y metastásica con ECOG 2 y 3, no mejoraron su sobrevida global con la colocación de nefrostomía, ya que a pesar de que recibieron tratamiento oncológico el 50% de ellas progresaron, pero evitaron el ingreso a programas de diálisis. La principal complicación luego de la colocación del catéter de nefrostomía fue la infección.


Introduction: A quarter of women with gynecological neoplasms present with obstruction in the urinary tract, secondary to tumor infiltration or extrinsic compression of the ureters. Nephrostomy is an interventional clinical alternative to improve obstructive nephropathy and avoid dialysis treatment in a cancer patient with hydronephrosis. The objective of this study was to determine the survival of patients with cervical cancer who underwent nephrostomy. Methodology: The present observational study was carried out at Solón Espinosa Ayala Hospital "Solca-Núcleo de Quito" from January 2014 to December 2018. The sample calculation was nonprobabilistic. Cases of patients with cervical cancer who underwent nephrostomy were included. The variables were age, overall survival, survival with nephrostomy, histological type of cervical neo-plasia, stage, oncological treatment after nephrostomy, complications, and response to treatment. For the analysis, the Kaplan­Meier method was used. Survival was analyzed according to ECOG func-tional stages. Results: Ninety-six cases were included in the study. The median survival after nephrostomy place-ment was 277 days (9.2 months), and the median overall survival was 462 days (15 months). Pa-tients with ECOG-0 had an overall survival of 625 days (20.8 months); those with ECOG 1, 2, and 3 had an overall survival of 437 days (14.5 months) (P= 0.013). Conclusion: In this study, patients with cervical cancer who had locally advanced and metastatic disease with ECOG 0 benefited the most from the nephrostomy procedure with improved survival. Patients with locally advanced and metastatic disease with ECOG scores of 2 and 3 did not improve their overall survival with nephrostomy placement. Fifty percent of them progressed despite receiving cancer treatment, but they avoided admission to dialysis programs. The main complication after placement of the nephrostomy catheter was an infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Survival Analysis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Hydronephrosis , Nephrostomy, Percutaneous
6.
Oncología (Ecuador) ; 32(1): 40-54, 30-04-2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368943

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La relación entre supervivencia e infiltración linfocitaria en el cáncer gástrico se ha determinado como factor pronóstico beneficioso, este estudio local tiene como objetivo determinar la probabilidad de supervivencia en los pacientes con cáncer gástrico estadios IB al IIIC de acuerdo con el porcentaje de infiltración linfocitaria tumoral. Metodología: El presente estudio longitudinal se realizó en el Hospital Oncológico Solón Espinosa Ayala Solca-Núcleo de Quito. El período de estudio de enero del 2013 a enero del 2016, el tiempo de seguimiento terminó en diciembre del 2018. El cálculo de la muestral fue no probabilístico en donde se incluyeron casos de pacientes mayores a 18 años con diagnóstico de cáncer gástrico con estadios clínicos IB al IIIC, que contaron con una muestra histopatológica de gastrectomías. Se usó la variable: "Porcentaje de infiltración" para el análisis la muestra y se dividió en 3 grupos: G1: infiltración linfocitaria leve, G2: moderada y G3: intensa. Las estimaciones de supervivencia se calcularon utilizando el método de Kaplan-Meier y la comparación entre los grupos con la prueba de rango logarítmico. Resultados: 173 pacientes con cáncer gástrico con estadios clínicos IB al IIIC, seguidos a 72 meses, el 60 % son hombres y el 40 % mujeres. Según el porcentaje de infiltración linfocitaria, el 52 % reportaron un porcentaje de infiltración leve, el 21 % moderada y el 27 % intensa. A los 72 meses de seguimiento la supervivencia en G1 fue del 31 %, en G2 fue del 48 %, y en G3 fue del 77 % (P= 0.001). Conclusión: Se encontró que el grado de infiltración linfocitaria intensa en los pacientes con cáncer gástrico estuvo asociado a una mejor supervivencia en el seguimiento a 72 meses.


Introduction: The relationship between survival and lymphocytic infiltration in gastric cancer has been determined to be a beneficial prognostic factor. This local study aims to assess the probability of survival in patients with gastric cancer stages IB to IIIC according to the percentage of lymphocytic infiltration. Methodology: This longitudinal study was conducted at the Solón Espinosa Ayala Solca-Núcleo Cancer Hospital in Quito. The study period was from January 2013 to January 2016; the follow-up time ended in December 2018. The sample calculation was nonprobabilistic and included cases of patients older than 18 diagnosed with gastric cancer with clinical stages IB at IIIC, which had a histo-pathological sample of gastrectomies. The variable "percentage of infiltration" was used to analyze the sample, and it was divided into three groups: G1: mild lymphocytic infiltration, G2: moderate, and G3: intense. Survival estimates were calculated using the Kaplan­Meier method and compared groups with the log-rank test. Results: A total of 173 patients with gastric cancer with clinical stages IB to IIIC were followed up for 72 months; 60% were men, and 40% were women. According to the percentage of lymphocytic infil-tration, 52% reported a rate of mild infiltration, 21% moderate, and 27% intense. At 72 months of follow-up, survival was 31% in G1, 48% in G2, and 77% in G3 (P= 0.001). Conclusion: The degree of intense lymphocytic infiltration in gastric cancer patients was associated with better survival at the 72-month follow-up.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Aged , Stomach Neoplasms , Survival , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating , Biomarkers, Tumor , Survival Analysis
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936304

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the expression of profilin 2 (PFN2) in gastric cancer and assess its potential value as a novel prognostic indicator and a therapeutic target.@*METHODS@#We collected gastric cancer and paired adjacent tissues from 100 patients for immunohistochemical detection of PFN2 expression. According to the expression level of PFN2, the patients were divided into two groups with high (46 cases) and low (48 cases) PNF2 expression in cancer tissues, and also into two groups with high (26 cases) and low (49 cases) PNF2 expression in adjacent tissues. Chi-square test, Spearman correlation and KaplanMeier survival analysis were used to analyze the relationship between PFN2 protein expression level and the patients' clinical parameters. We also tested the effects of PFN2 knockdown and overexpression on the proliferation and migration of MKN-45 cells using Transwell assay and CCK-8 assay.@*RESULTS@#The expression of PFN2 protein was significantly higher in gastric cancer tissues than in adjacent tissues (P < 0.01). PFN2 expression was positively correlated with M-stage of gastric cancer and VEGFR expression in the tumor tissues (P < 0.01). A high expression of PFN2 protein was significantly correlated with a poor prognosis of gastric cancer patients (P < 0.01), and was an independent predictor of the prognosis of gastric cancer. In MKN-45 cells, the cells overexpressing PFN2 showed significantly stronger proliferation and migration abilities than those with PFN2 knockdown (P < 0.001).@*CONCLUSION@#PFN2 protein is highly expressed in gastric cancer tissues to promote the proliferation and migration of the tumor cells. PFN2 may serve as a potential diagnostic marker, a prognostic indicator and a therapeutic target for gastric cancer.


Subject(s)
Cell Proliferation , Humans , Profilins/metabolism , Prognosis , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Survival Analysis
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929056

ABSTRACT

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), as the most common type (>90%) of head and neck cancer, includes various epithelial malignancies that arise in the nasal cavity, oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx. In 2020, approximately 878 ‍ 000 new cases and 444 000 deaths linked to HNSCC occurred worldwide (Sung et al., 2021). Due to the associated frequent recurrence and metastasis, HNSCC patients have poor prognosis with a five-year survival rate of 40%-50% (Jou and Hess, 2017). Therefore, novel prognostic biomarkers need to be developed to identify high-risk HNSCC patients and improve their disease outcomes.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Head and Neck Neoplasms/genetics , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , RNA , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck , Survival Analysis , Survival Rate
9.
Rev. Bras. Cancerol. (Online) ; 68(2)Abr.-Jun. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1373452

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A síndrome de compressão medular metastática (SCMM) tem grande potencial de perda irreversível da função motora e sensitiva, sendo considerada uma emergência oncológica. Objetivo: Avaliar o prognóstico da SCMM e a funcionalidade dos pacientes com tumores sólidos. Método: Estudo de coorte que incluiu pacientes com câncer que desenvolveram SCMM entre janeiro de 2017 e dezembro de 2018. Os dados clínicos e sociodemográficos foram extraídos dos prontuários físicos e eletrônicos. Análise de sobrevida foi realizada pelo método Kaplan-Meier. Resultados: O estudo abrangeu 90 pacientes que apresentaram SCMM. Ao diagnóstico da SCMM, 55,5% dos pacientes não conseguiam realizar marcha. Os pacientes com SCMM após câncer de pulmão tiveram 4,1 vezes maior risco de morrer (IC 95%, 1,79-9,41; p=0,001), os pacientes com tumores geniturinários tiveram 1,9 vezes maior risco de morrer (IC 95%, 1,06- 3,45; p=0,02) e os pacientes com outros tipos de tumor tiveram 3,1 vezes maior risco de morrer (IC 95%, 1,58-6,24; p=0,001) quando comparados aos pacientes com SCMM após câncer de mama. Conclusão: Destaca-se a relevância clínica deste estudo ao descobrir que o tipo de tumor primário é um fator preditor independente para sobrevida da SCMM. Ao diagnóstico da SCMM, mais da metade dos pacientes não realizam marcha


Introduction: Metastatic Spinal Cord Compression (MSCC) has great potential of irreversible loss of motor and sensory function, and it is considered an oncological emergency. Objective: Evaluate the prognosis of MSCC and the functionality of patients with solid tumors. Method: Cohort study was conducted in patients with cancer who developed MSCC between January 2017 and December 2018. Clinical and socio-demographic data were extracted from physical and electronic charts. Survival analysis was performed by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The study included 90 patients who were diagnosed with MSCC. At the time of MSCC diagnosis, 55.5% of patients were unable to walk. Patients with MSCC after lung cancer had 4.1-fold more odds of death (95% CI: 1.79-9.41; p=0.001), those with genitourinary tumors, 1.9-fold higher risk of death (95% CI: 1.06-3.45; p=0,02), and with other types of tumors, 3.1-fold higher risk of death (95% CI: 1.58-6.24; p=0.001) when compared with patients with MSCC after breast cancer. Conclusion: The clinical relevance of this study relies on the findings that the primary type of tumor is a predictive factor for overall survival of MSCC. More than half of the patients were unable to walk at the MSCC diagnosis


Introducción: El síndrome de compresión espinal (SCE) tiene un gran potencial de pérdida irreversible de la función motora y sensorial, siendo considerado una emergencia oncológica. Objetivo: Evaluar el pronóstico de SCE y la funcionalidad de los pacientes. Método: Estudio de cohorte que incluyó pacientes con cáncer que desarrollaron SCE entre enero de 2017 y diciembre de 2018. Se extrajeron datos clínicos y sociodemográficos de historias clínicas físicas y electrónicas. El análisis de supervivencia se realizó mediante el método de Kaplan-Meier. Resultados: El estudio cubrió a 90 pacientes que tenían SCE. En el diagnóstico de SCE, 55,5% de los pacientes no pueden caminar. En comparación con los pacientes con cáncer de mama, los pacientes con cáncer de pulmón tenían 4,1 veces más riesgo de morir (IC 95%, 1,79-9,41; p=0,001), los pacientes con tumores genitourinarios 1,9 veces mayor de morir (IC 95%, 1,06-3,45; p=0,02) y aquellos pacientes con otro tipo de tumor, 3,1 veces mayor riesgo de morir (IC 95%, 1,58- 6,24; p=0,001). Conclusión: Este estudio encontró que el tipo de tumor primario es un factor predictivo para la supervivencia de le SCE. Más de la mitad de los pacientes no caminan en el momento del diagnóstico de SCE. Palabras clave: compresión de la médula espinal; neoplasias de la columna


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Prognosis , Spinal Cord Compression , Spinal Neoplasms , Survival Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis
10.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 8(1): e24820, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1348511

ABSTRACT

Introdução:O carcinoma de células escamosas de cavidade oral e orofaringe é uma neoplasia epitelial maligna comum, respondendo pela maioria dos casos de tumores de cabeça e pescoço. Ele está relacionado a hábitos comportamentais, como tabagismo e etilismo de longa duração, e à infecção pelo Papilomavírus humano. Objetivos:Esse estudo objetivou descrever o perfil epidemiológico dos pacientes diagnosticados com essa neoplasia na Liga Mossoroense de Estudos e Combate ao Câncer. Metodologia: Foi realizado um estudo observacional com delineamento transversal a partir de dados presentes nos prontuários clínicos e laudos anatomopatológicos e no Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade no período entre 2006 a 2018. Os dados foram analisados a partir do Software R, utilizandoo teste de Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney para as análises inferenciais e o método de Kaplan-Meier para análise da sobrevida. Resultados:225 prontuários foram analisados, sendo 70,22% de homens, 65,33% na faixa etária entre 46-70 anos e cor branca (51,57%). Destes, 25,78% eram tabagistas e 39,11% tabagistas e etilistas. O principal tratamento identificado foi a associação de cirurgia, quimioterapia e radioterapia. Observou-se que 49,10% dos óbitos foram em decorrência dessa neoplasia. O principal estádio patológico encontrado foi o quatro A (34,22%). Foi identificada maior sobrevida nos pacientes acima de 70 anos, cujo tratamento foi exclusivamente cirúrgico. Menor sobrevida foi identificada em indivíduos que tinham associação de hábitos (etilismo e tabagismo). Conclusões:Nossos resultados sugerem que a evolução à óbito foi o principal desfecho clínico e, isso pode estar relacionado aos hábitos comportamentais que influenciam diretamente o curso e prognóstico da doença. Ademais, destaca-se a importância do diagnóstico precoce a fim de reduzir óbitos e melhorar a qualidade de vida dos indivíduos, assim como a necessidade de implementar políticas educativas sobre os principais fatores de risco associados ao desenvolvimento dessa neoplasia (AU).


Introduction: Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx is a common malignant epithelial neoplasm, accounting for most cases of head and neck tumors. It is related to behavioral habits, such as long-standing smoking and alcoholism, as well as to the human Papillomavirus infection. Objectives: This study aimed at describing the epidemiological profile of the patients diagnosed with this neoplasm in the Mossoró League for Studying and Combating Cancer. Methodology:An observational study with a cross-sectional design was carried out based on data present in the medical records and anatomopathological reports and in the Mortality Information System during the 2006-2018 period. The data were analyzed using the R Software, resorting to the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitneytest for the inferential analyses and to the Kaplan-Meier method for survival analysis. Results: 225 medical records were analyzed: 70.22% belonging to men, 65.33% aged between 46 and 70 years old and white-skinned (51.57%). Of these, 25.78% were smokers and 39.11% were smokers and alcoholics. The main treatment identified was the association of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. It was observed that 49.10% of the deaths were due to this neoplasm. The main pathological stage found wasfour A(34.22%).Longer survival was identified in patients over 70 years of age, whose treatment was exclusively surgical. Shorter survival was identified in individuals who had associated habits (alcoholism and smoking). Conclusions:Our results suggest that evolution to death was the main clinical outcome; this can be related to the behavioral habits that exert a direct influence on the course and prognosis of the disease. Furthermore, the importance of early diagnosis is highlighted in order to reduce the number of deaths and improve the individuals' quality of life, as well as the need to implement educational policies on the main risk factors associated with the development of this neoplasm (AU).


Introducción: El carcinoma de células escamosas de la cavidad oral y la orofaringe es una neoplasia epitelial maligna común, que representa la mayoría de los casos de tumores de cabeza y cuello. Se relaciona con hábitos de comportamiento, como el tabaquismo y el alcoholismo, y la infección por el virus papiloma humano. Objetivos:Este estudio tuvo como objetivo describir el perfil epidemiológico de los pacientes diagnosticados con esta neoplasiaen la Liga Mossoroense de Estudios y Combate al Cáncer. Metodología: Se realizó un estudio observacional, transversal a partir de los datos presentes en las historias clínicas e informes patológicos y en el Sistema de Información de Mortalidad en el período 2006-2018. Los datos se analizaron mediante el Software R, con utilización de la Prueba de Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney para análisis inferencial y el método de Kaplan-Meier para análisis de supervivencia. Resultados:Se analizaron 225 historias clínicas, 70,22% en hombres, 65,33% con edades entre 46-70 años y blancos (51,57%). De estos, 25,78% eran fumadores y 39,11% eran fumadores y alcohólicos. El principal tratamiento identificado fue la asociación de cirugía, quimioterapia y radioterapia. 49,10% de las muertes se debieron a esta neoplasia. El principal estadio patológico encontrado fue cuatro A (34,22%). Se identificó mayor sobrevida en pacientes mayores de 70 años, cuyo tratamiento fue exclusivamente quirúrgico. Se identificó una menor sobrevida en personas que tenían hábitos asociados. Conclusiones:Nuestros resultados sugieren que la evolución hacia la muerte fue el principal resultado clínico y esto puede estar relacionado con hábitos de comportamiento que influyen directamente en el curso y pronóstico de la enfermedad. Además, se destaca la importancia del diagnóstico precoz para reducir las muertes y mejorar la calidad de vida, así como la necesidad de implementar políticas educativas sobre los principales factores de riesgo asociados al desarrollo de esta neoplasia (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Profile , Brazil/epidemiology , Mouth Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Oropharyngeal Neoplasms/pathology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , Tobacco Use Disorder , Survival Analysis , Epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Papillomavirus Infections , Research Report , Smokers
11.
São Paulo; s.n; 2022. 55 p. tab, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, Inca | ID: biblio-1362687

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O carcinoma escamoso do pênis é uma neoplasia rara, mas sua incidência e mortalidade específica vêm aumentando. No Brasil, o câncer de pênis constitui 2,1% das neoplasias em homens. O acometimento dos linfonodos inguinais é o fator prognóstico mais importante. Comparados aos pacientes com linfonodos positivos, aqueles com linfonodos histologicamente negativos (pN0) têm o melhor prognóstico; entretanto, a ausência de metástases linfonodais não garante a cura, haja vista que uma proporção destes apresenta recorrência locorregional ou progressão tumoral após o tratamento. Poucos estudos examinaram populações de pacientes com pN0 ou clinicamente negativos (cN0). Objetivos: Avaliar o impacto da expressão imuno-histoquímica da E-caderina e da vimentina como fatores prognósticos para sobrevida global, sobrevida câncer específica e sobrevida livre de doença em pacientes com carcinoma escamoso do pênis clinicamente ou histologicamente negativos para metástase linfonodal. Material e Métodos: Coorte retrospectiva de 116 pacientes cN0 e pN0 com carcinoma escamoso do pênis consecutivamente tratados no A.C.Camargo Cancer Center entre 1953-2017. As variáveis registradas incluíram idade, estadiamento TNM, subtipo histológico, grau de diferenciação tumoral, invasão vascular microscópica, invasão perineural, padrão microscópico da fronte de invasão tumoral (expansivo/infiltrativo) e expressão imuno-histoquímica das proteínas E-caderina e vimentina. As amostras de tumor foram analisadas no centro do tumor e na fronte de invasão tumoral. As análises de sobrevida foram realizadas usando curvas de Kaplan-Meier e testes de log-rank. O modelo de riscos proporcionais de Cox foi usado para determinar quais variáveis influenciaram as taxas de sobrevida global, câncer específica e livre de doença. Resultados: O tempo de seguimento médio foi de 176 meses. A presença de invasão perineural foi associada à alta expressão de vimentina no centro tumoral (p = 0,013), à perda da expressão de Ecaderina no centro do tumor (p = 0,026) e na fronte de invasão tumoral (p = 0,02). A perda da expressão imuno-histoquímica da E-caderina na fronte de invasão e a presença de invasão perineural foram independentemente associadas à sobrevida livre de doença. Conclusões: A perda da expressão imuno-histoquímica da E-caderina na fronte de invasão tumoral e a presença de invasão perineural no tumor primário foram associadas a uma menor sobrevida livre de doença. Alta expressão de vimentina no centro do tumor, perda da expressão da Ecaderina no centro do tumor e na fronte de invasão do tumor foram associadas à presença de invasão perineural no tumor primário.


Introduction: Penile squamous cell carcinoma is a rare neoplasm, but its incidence and specific mortality have been increasing. In Brazil, penile squamous cell carcinoma constitutes 2.1% of neoplasms in men. The involvement of inguinal lymph nodes is the most important prognostic factor. Compared to patients with positive lymph nodes, histologically negative patients (pN0) have the best prognosis; however, the absence of lymph node metastases does not guarantee a cure. Some pN0 patients exhibit locoregional recurrence or tumor progression after treatment. Few studies have examined patient populations with histologically negative (pN0) or clinically negative (cN0) lymph nodes. Objectives: To evaluate the impact of E-cadherin and vimentin expression as prognostic factors for overall survival, cancer-specific survival, and disease-free survival in patients with penile squamous cell carcinoma who were clinically or histologically negative for lymph node metastasis. Material and Methods: Retrospective cohort of 116 patients (cN0 and pN0) treated at A. C. Camargo Cancer Center from 1953 to 2017. Recorded variables included age, TNM staging, histological subtype, degree of tumor differentiation, microscopic vascular invasion, perineural invasion, microscopic pattern of the tumor invasion front (pushing/infiltrating) and vimentin and E-cadherin immunohistochemical expression. Tumor samples were analyzed at the tumor center and at the tumor invasion front. Survival analyses were performed using Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank testing. Cox's proportional hazards model was used to determine which variables influenced overall survival, disease-free survival, or cancer specific survival. Results: The median follow-up time was 176 months. Perineural invasion was associated with high vimentin expression at tumor center (p = 0.013), loss of E-cadherin expression in the tumor center (p = 0.026) and at the front invasion (p = 0.02). Loss of immunohistochemical E-cadherin expression at the front invasion and the presence of perineural were independently associated with disease-free survival. Conclusions: Lower disease-free survival was associated with loss of immunohistochemical E-cadherin expression at the tumor invasion front, and the presence of perineural invasion. High vimentin expression in the tumor center, loss of E-cadherin expression in the tumor center and in the tumor invasion front were associated with the presence of perineural invasion in the primary tumor.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Penile Neoplasms , Vimentin , Cadherins , Prognosis , Immunohistochemistry , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Survival Analysis , Lymph Node Excision , Neoplasm Metastasis
12.
São Paulo; s.n; 2022. 172 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1379421

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A tuberculose (TB) ainda se apresenta como um grave problema de saúde pública no mundo, com mais de 10 milhões de casos e 1,3 milhão de mortes anualmente. Em 2020, no Brasil, foram notificados 66.819 casos novos de TB, e aproximadamente 913 casos de TB drogarresistente. Cerca de 4.500 pessoas vão a óbito, anualmente, por TB no país. Com as tecnologias atuais, a melhor estratégia para controlar a transmissão e reduzir a incidência da TB é o diagnóstico e tratamento dos casos pulmonares bacilíferos, associados ao diagnóstico e tratamento da infecção latente. O Brasil incorporou, em 2014, o teste rápido molecular (TRM), recomendando-o como estratégia inicial para diagnóstico da TB e detecção da resistência à rifampicina (TB-RR). A presente tese buscou descrever e analisar o impacto da implantação do teste rápido molecular para tuberculose sobre os indicadores programáticos para o controle da tuberculose no Brasil, e o efeito do teste rápido molecular no início do tratamento em casos de tuberculose resistentes à rifampicina e/ou multidrogarresistente. Métodos: foram realizados estudos observacionais, com dados secundários. O primeiro, trata-se de um estudo ecológico cujas unidades de análise foram os municípios que compõe a rede de teste rápido molecular para TB (RTR-TB), e foram analisados os indicadores da TB antes e depois do início de utilização do TRM. Foi utilizada a modelagem de séries temporais interrompidas pela Regressão de Prais-Winsten. O segundo estudo teve como desenho uma coorte retrospectiva, tomando o indivíduo como unidade de análise. Foi utilizado o método de análise de sobrevida para avaliar o efeito do TRM sobre o tempo entre o diagnóstico e o início do tratamento dos casos novos de TB-RR / TB-MDR. A Regressão de Cox foi utilizada para estimação dos riscos proporcionais. Resultados: no período estudado, a RTR-TB consumiu um total de 1.756.358 cartuchos de TRM, sendo 1.734.935 testes realizados. A notificação de casos novos de TB na série histórica trimestral de janeiro de 2010 a junho de 2014 apresentou tendência estacionária. Após a implantação do TRM-TB, verificou-se uma tendência de aumento médio da ordem de 0,5% (IC 95%: 0,13 - 0,87) de casos novos, por trimestre, e em todo o período pós-intervenção, houve um incremento de 8.241 casos novos de TB nos municípios da RTR-TB, um aumento de 15% (IC 95%: 10,71 - 19,46) no nível de confirmação laboratorial dos casos novos de TB, e uma queda de 8,42% (IC 95%: -15,61 - -0,62) na realização de baciloscopia. Entre 2014 e 2019, 2.071 casos de TB-RR / TB-MDR tiveram o diagnóstico da resistência por meio do TRM, e 1.592 por meio do TSA. Após a incorporação do TRM, houve uma redução no tempo médio de início do tratamento da resistência em 89 dias (p-valor < 0,0001), quando comparado ao TSA. Indivíduos diagnosticados pelo TRM apresentam maior probabilidade de iniciar o tratamento da TB-DR mais precocemente quando comparado aos indivíduos diagnosticados pelo TSA, e essa diferença é mais acentuada até os primeiros 60 dias após o diagnóstico. Indivíduos diagnosticados pelo TSA apresentaram probabilidade 78% menor de iniciar o tratamento nos primeiros 30 dias após o diagnóstico da resistência quanto comparado aos indivíduos diagnosticados pelo TRM (HRadj: 0,22; IC95%: 0,13 - 0,36), e 49% menor probabilidade de iniciar o tratamento nos primeiros seis meses após o diagnóstico quando comparado aos indivíduos diagnosticados pelo TRM (HRadj: 0,51; IC95%: 0,39 - 0,62). Conclusões: o TRM apresentou, de forma global, impacto positivo nas estratégias de controle da TB do Brasil, reestruturando a rede de diagnóstico da doença, aumentando a confirmação laboratorial, e diminuindo o tempo entre o diagnóstico e o início do tratamento da TB-RR / TB-MDR. A incorporação do TRM no SUS propiciou um diagnóstico da doença mais rápido e com maior sensibilidade, viabilizando um diagnóstico muito mais oportuno da TB-RR / TB-MDR, e encurtando o tempo para início do tratamento da TB resistente. A ampliação do diagnóstico rápido molecular por TRM para os municípios que ainda não compõe a RTR-TB podem contribuir para um melhor controle da TB no país.


Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) still is as a serious public health problem in the world, with more than 10 million cases and 1.3 million deaths annually. In 2020, in Brazil, 66.819 new cases of TB and approximately 913 cases of drug-resistant TB were notified. About 4,500 persons die annually from TB in the country. With the current technologies available, the best strategies to control the transmission and to reduce the TB incidence is the diagnosis and treatment of the bacilliferous pulmonary cases, associated with the diagnosis and treatment of latent infection. In 2014, Brazil has incorporated the rapid molecular test (TRM), recommending it as an initial strategy for diagnosing TB and detecting rifampicin resistance (TB-RR). The present thesis describes and analyses the impact of the roll out of the TRM for TB on the programmatic indicators for TB control in Brazil, and the effect of the TRM in the beginning of the treatment in cases of tuberculosis resistant to rifampicin and/or multidrugresistent. Methods: observational studies were performed with routine data. The first study was an ecological study whose units of analysis were the municipalities that make up the rapid molecular testing network for TB (RTR-TB), and TB indicators were analyzed before and after the beginning of TRM use. The modeling of time series interrupted by the Prais-Winsten Regression was used. The second study was a retrospective cohort, whose the individual was the unit of analysis. The survival analysis method was used to assess the effect of TRM on the time between diagnosis and initiation of treatment of new cases of RR-TB / MDR-TB. Cox regression was used to estimate proportional hazards. Results: in the period studied, the RTR-TB consumed a total of 1,756,358 TRM cartridges, with 1,734,935 tests performed. The notification of new TB cases in the quarterly historical series from January 2010 to June 2014 showed a stationary trend. After the implementation of the TRM-TB, there was a trend towards an average increase of around 0.5% (95% CI: 0.13 - 0.87) of new cases, per quarter-year, and throughout the post-intervention period, there was an increase of 8,241 new TB cases in the municipalities of RTR-TB, a 15% increase (95% CI: 10.71 - 19.46) in the level of laboratory confirmation of new TB cases, and a decrease of 8.42% (95% CI: -15.61 - -0.62) in performing smear microscopy. Between 2014 and 2019, 2,071 RR-TB/MDR-TB cases were diagnosed with resistance through TRM, and 1,592 through TSA. After the incorporation of TRM, there was a reduction in the mean time of initiation of resistance treatment by 89 days (p-value < 0.0001), when compared to TSA. Individuals diagnosed by TRM are more likely to start DR-TB treatment earlier when compared to individuals diagnosed by TSA, and this difference is more accentuated up to the first 60 days after diagnosis. Persons diagnosed by TSA were 78% less likely to start the treatment in the first 30 days after the diagnosis of resistance when compared to those diagnosed by TRM (HRadj: 0.22; 95% CI: 0.13 - 0.36), and 49% lower probability of starting the treatment in the first six months after the diagnosis when compared to those diagnosed by TRM (HRadj: 0.51; 95%CI: 0.39 - 0.62). Conclusions: Overall, the TRM had a positive impact on TB control strategies in Brazil, restructuring the disease diagnosis network, increasing laboratory confirmation, and reducing the time between diagnosis and initiation of TB-RR / TB-MDR treatment. The incorporation of TRM into the Public Health System in Brazil provided a faster and more sensitive diagnosis of the disease, enabling a much more timely diagnosis of RR-TB / MDR-TB, and shortening the time to start treatment for resistant TB. The expansion of rapid molecular diagnosis by TRM to municipalities that are not yet part of the RTR-TB may contribute to better control of the disease in the country.


Subject(s)
Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Survival Analysis , Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis , Health Strategies
13.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 550-554, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940921

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the survival and influencing factors of unexpected small cell lung cancer following surgery. Methods: We respectively reviewed the clinical characters of 104 patients who underwent surgical treatment and be proved as small cell lung cancer by pathology between January 2000 to October 2020 in Chinese PLA General Hospital. Overall survival (OS) of patients was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards analysis. Results: Of 104 patients, 27 cases showed central lesions, and other 77 showed peripheral nodules. The margin of nodules was smooth in 42 cases on CT imaging. The median OS was 34.3 months and 5-year OS rate was 45.8%. Postoperative 5-year OS rates for patients were 52.1%, 45.4%, and 27.8% for clinical stages Ⅰ, Ⅱ, and Ⅲ, respectively. Univariate analyses identified the age, surgical access, surgical approach, N stage, TNM stage and vascular cancer emboli were associated with OS (P<0.05). The N stage was an independent factor for the OS of patients (P<0.05). Conclusions: Patients with unexpected SCLC, including Ⅰ, Ⅱ and part ⅢA stage have favorable outcome and can benefit from surgery and systemic postoperative treatment. Standard lobectomy plus systemic lymph node dissection is commended.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Lymph Node Excision , Neoplasm Staging , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma/surgery , Survival Analysis
14.
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 12(6): 1196-1203, dez. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1369274

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: construir um modelo preditivo de avaliação do tempo entre o diagnóstico do Vírus da imunodeficiência humana e primeira hospitalização. Método: estudo epidemiológico, descritivo, retrospectivo, com amostra de 200 prontuários de pessoas com Síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida, acompanhadas em serviço especializado. Realizada análise da sobrevida através do estimador Kaplan-Meier, modelo paramétrico de Weibull e semi paramétrico de Cox. Resultados: houve diferenças significativas no tempo entre diagnóstico e hospitalização, no que se refere à faixa etária, orientação sexual, registro de descontinuidade da terapia e ao número de consultas médicas e multidisciplinar. O modelo de Weibull apresentou como covariável significativa o registro de descontinuidade da terapia. No modelo de Cox, as variáveis ocupação, uso de álcool e psicotrópicos, contagem de linfócitos T-CD4+, carga viral e antecedentes psiquiátricos foram significativas para explicar o risco de hospitalização. Conclusão: foi possível identificar os fatores de risco e de proteção para o desfecho hospitalização. Os modelos também apontaram fatores que influenciam no tempo entre o diagnóstico do Vírus da Imunodeficiência humana e primeira hospitalização, e possibilitaram uma discussão enriquecedora acerca dos aspectos intrínsecos aos cuidados em saúde das pessoas vivendo com o vírus e a doença. (AU)


Objective: To build an evaluation predictive model of time between Human Immunodeficiency Virus diagnosis and first hospitalization. Methods: An epidemiological, descriptive, and retrospective study, with a sample of 200 medical records of people with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, monitored in a specialized service. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier estimator, the Weibull parametric model, and the Cox semi-parametric model. Results: There were significant differences in time between diagnosis and hospitalization regarding age, sexual orientation, therapy discontinuation records, and the number of medical and multidisciplinary consultations. The Weibull model presented the record of therapy discontinuity as a significant co-variable. In the Cox model, the occupation, alcohol and psychotropic use, T-CD4+ lymphocyte count, viral load, and psychiatric history variables were significant to explain the risk of hospitalization. Conclusion: It was possible to identify the risk and protection factors for the outcome hospitalization. The models also pointed out factors that influence the time between human immunodeficiency virus diagnosis and first hospitalization, and enabled an enriching discussion about the intrinsic aspects of health care for people living with the virus and the disease. (AU)


Objetivo: Construir un modelo predictivo para evaluar el tiempo entre el diagnóstico de Virus da Inmunodeficiencia humana y la primera hospitalización. Métodos: Estudio epidemiológico, descriptivo, retrospectivo, con una muestra de 200 historias clínicas de personas con Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida, seguido de un servicio especializado. El análisis de supervivencia se realizó mediante el estimador de Kaplan Meier, el modelo paramétrico de Weibull y el modelo semiparamétrico de Cox. Resultados: Hubo diferencias significativas en el tiempo entre el diagnóstico y la hospitalización, en cuanto al grupo de edad, orientación sexual, historial de discontinuidad de la terapia y número de consultas médicas y multidisciplinarias. El modelo de Weibull presentó la discontinuidad de la terapia como una covariable significativa. En el modelo de Cox, las variables ocupación, consumo de alcohol y psicofármacos, recuento de linfocitos T-CD4 +, carga viral e historia psiquiátrica fueron significativas para explicar el riesgo de hospitalización. Conclusión: Fue posible identificar los factores de riesgo y de protección para el resultado de la hospitalización. Los modelos también señalaron los factores que influyen en el tiempo que transcurre entre el diagnóstico del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana y la primera hospitalización, y permitieron un debate enriquecedor sobre los aspectos intrínsecos de la atención sanitaria a las personas que viven con el virus y la enfermedad. (AU)


Subject(s)
HIV , Survival Analysis , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Hospitalization
15.
Oncología (Ecuador) ; 31(3): 201-212, 30-diciembre-2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352465

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La supervivencia relativa a los cinco años para pacientes con cáncer colorrectal (CCR) se presenta entre el 60% en América del Norte y de 40% o menos en Argelia y Estonia. Es objetivo del presente estudio establecer la supervivencia a nivel local y determinar los factores asociados en un estudio de un centro nacional de referencia en Quito, Ecuador. Metodología: El presente estudio observacional se realizó en el Hospital de Especialidades Eugenio Espejo de la ciudad de Quito-Ecuador, en el período de enero del 2010 a diciembre del 2016. Se incluyeron pacientes con cáncer colorrectal. Las variables fueron descriptivas demográficas, variables clínicas y mortalidad. La muestra fue no probabilística, tipo censo. La variable mortalidad, fue estudiada con las variables Independientes clínicas, epidemiológicas con análisis actuarial de supervivencia. Resultados: Se incluyeron 395 casos, el 62.3% mujeres, con una edad 60 años (16 a 94). El 7.1% de casos refirieron algún tipo de exposición de riesgo relacionado a CCR. La supervivencia global fue del 56%, con una tasa de mortalidad del 7%. Casos con CCR estadio I sobrevida a los 6 años de 100%, con estadio II 96.5%, en el estadio III el 84%, estadio IV de 63% (P=0.001). Pacientes con instrucción secundaria o superior con supervivencia del 95% versus 88% en pacientes con instrucción primaria/analfabetos (P=0.048). La supervivencia es mayor en pacientes con diagnóstico temprano esta-dios (I y II) (P=0.007). Conclusión: La supervivencia en el presente estudio se asoció al nivel de instrucción de los pacientes, al estadiaje del cáncer, y al diagnóstico temprano sobre todo en pacientes con comorbilidades. No se evidenció relación con factores de riesgo como tabaco, alcohol, presencia de pólipos, etc.


Introduction: The five-year relative survival for patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) is between 60% in North America and 40% or less in Algeria and Estonia. The objective of this study is to estab-lish survival at the local level and determine the associated factors in a study of a national referral center in Quito, Ecuador. Methodology: The present observational study was carried out at the Eugenio Espejo Specialty Hospital in the city of Quito-Ecuador, in the period from January 2010 to December 2016. Patients with colorectal cancer were included. The variables were descriptive demographic, clinical variables and mortality. The sample was non-probabilistic, census type. The mortality variable was studied with the independent clinical and epidemiological variables with actuarial survival analysis. Results: A total of 395 patients were analyzed, 62.3% women, aged 60 years (16 to 94). 7.1% of cases referred to some type of risk exposure related to CRC. Overall survival was 56%, with a mortality rate of 7%. Cases with stage I CRC survival at 6 years of 100%, with stage II 96.5%, in stage III 84%, stage IV of 63% (P = 0.001). Patients with secondary education or higher with survival of 95% versus 88% in patients with primary education / illiterate (P= 0.048). Survival is higher in patients with early diagnosis stages (I and II) (P = 0.007). Conclusion: Survival in the present study was associated with the level of education of the patients, the staging of the cancer, and early diagnosis, especially in patients with comorbidities. There was no evidence of a relationship with risk factors such as tobacco, alcohol, presence of polyps, etc.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Survival Analysis , Risk Factors , Colonic Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms , Early Detection of Cancer , Life Style
16.
Infectio ; 25(4): 276-283, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1286722

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Describir la supervivencia a siete años y los principales factores asociados a esta, en las personas con VIH que fueron atendidas en el sistema de salud colombiano entre 2011 a 2018. Métodos: Análisis de supervivencia de una cohorte de 64 039 personas diagnosticadas con VIH en Colombia. Se aplicó el método de Kaplan-Meier para estimar la probabilidad de supervivencia a partir de la fecha del diagnóstico. Se ajustó un modelo de supervivencia paramétrico flexible de Royston Parmar. Resultados: La estimación de la supervivencia global a 7 años fue de 94,8% (IC 95%: 94,5-95,2). El mayor riesgo de muerte se presentó en los hombres (HR: 1,2; IC 95%: 1,1-1,4; p: 0,010); en personas ≥50 años de edad (HR: 3,1; IC 95%: 1,6-6,3; p: 0,002); en el régimen subsidiado (HR: 2,2; IC 95%: 1,9-2,5; p: <0,001); en la etapa sida (HR: 2,8; IC 95%: 2,1-3,7; p: <0,001); en quienes presentaron la última carga viral detectable (HR: 7,1; IC 95%: 6,0-8,3; p: <0,001); y en quienes mostraron conteo de linfocitos T CD4+ <350 células/μL (HR: 1,9; IC 95%: 1,4-2,4; p: <0,001). Conclusión: La probabilidad de la supervivencia de las personas que viven con VIH aumenta al ser diagnosticados en edades jóvenes, en quienes presenten un recuento de linfocitos T CD4+ ≥350 células/μL, una carga viral indetectable (< 50 copias/mL) y no se encuentren en etapa sida.


Summary Objective: to describe the seven-year survival and predictors of mortality among people with HIV who were treated in the Colombian health system between 2011 and 2018. Methods: 64 039 people diagnosed with HIV in Colombia were included. Kaplan-Meier analysis estimated the probability of survival from the date of diagnosis. A Royston Parmar flexible parametric survival model was fitted. Results: The overall survival at 7 years was 94.8% (95% CI: 94.5-95.2). Survival was related to sex (men, HR: 1.2; 95% CI: 1.1-1.4; p: 0.010); people ≥50 years of age (HR: 3.1; 95% CI: 1.6-6.3; p: 0.002); subsidized regime (HR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.9-2.5; p: <0.001); AIDS stage (HR: 2.8; 95% CI: 2.1-3.7; p: <0.001); a detectable viral load (HR: 7.1; 95% CI: 6.0-8.3; p: <0.001); and a CD4+ Lymphocyte count <350 cells/μL (HR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.4-2.4; p: <0.001). Conclusion: The probability of survival of people living with HIV increases when they are diagnosed at a young age, in those with a CD4+ T Lymphocyte count ≥350 cells/μL, an undetectable viral load (<50 copies/mL) and are not in the AIDS stage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Survival Analysis , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Sex , T-Lymphocytes , Probability , HIV , Colombia , Lymphocyte Count , Viral Load , Survivorship
17.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 34(5,supl.1): 105-113, Nov. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346344

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Congenital heart disease is the leading cause of mortality among all congenital malformations. Objectives: To evaluate the incidence of congenital heart diseases in a central maternity hospital in Portugal from January 2003 to December 2018 and to determine survival in the first year of life. Methods: Retrospective analysis of newborns diagnosed with congenital heart diseases within 72 hours after birth. Malformations were divided according to pathophysiology. Cumulative survival analysis was performed by the Kaplan-Meier test. Stastical significance was set at p <0.05. Results: A total of 297 newborns with cardiac malformation was recorded among 47,198 live births (incidence of 6:1000), 16% associated with extra-cardiac disease. The most frequent congenital heart diseases were left-to-right shunt lesions (n = 216), followed by cyanotic (n = 41), acyanotic obstructive (n = 31) and miscellaneous (n = 9). Seventy (24%) patients had prenatal diagnosis, 88% of them cyanotic defects, and a positive association was found between prenatal diagnosis and mortality (p <0.001). Coarctation of the aorta was associated with gestational diabetes (p = 0.014). Atrial septal defect was more common in females (p = 0.02). Mortality rate due to heart disease was 3.4%. Patients with cyanotic disease, 99%, 97%, 97%, respectively, for patients with left-to-right shunt lesions, and 97%, 97%,97% for those with obstructive lesion cases. Conclusion: The incidence of congenital heart disease was 6:1000, mostly left-to-right shunt lesions. Heart disease accounted for only half of deaths, and cyanotic diseases have a high nonspecific mortality rate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Heart Defects, Congenital/epidemiology , Portugal/epidemiology , Survival Analysis , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Heart Defects, Congenital/complications , Heart Defects, Congenital/mortality , Neonatology
18.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(supl.2): 21-28, oct. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355756

ABSTRACT

Abstract | Non-parametric survival analysis has become a very popular statistical method in current medical research. However, resorting to survival analysis when its fundamental assumptions are not fulfilled can severely bias the results. Currently, hundreds of clinical studies are using survival methods to investigate factors potentially associated with the prognosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and test new preventive and therapeutic strategies. In the pandemic era, it is more critical than ever to base decision-making on evidence and rely on solid statistical methods, but this is not always the case. Serious methodological errors have been identified in recent seminal studies about COVID-19: One reporting outcomes of patients treated with remdesivir and another one on the epidemiology, clinical course, and outcomes of critically ill patients. High-quality evidence is essential to inform clinicians about optimal COVID-19 therapies and policymakers about the true effect of preventive measures aiming to tackle the pandemic. Though timely evidence is needed, we should encourage the appropriate application of survival analysis methods and careful peer-review to avoid publishing flawed results, which could affect decision-making. In this paper, we recapitulate the basic assumptions underlying non-parametric survival analysis and frequent errors in its application and discuss how to handle data on COVID-19.


Resumen | El análisis de supervivencia es un método estadístico muy popular en la investigación médica actual. Sin embargo, el recurrir al análisis de supervivencia cuando no se cumplen sus supuestos fundamentales puede sesgar gravemente los resultados. Actualmente, cientos de estudios clínicos están utilizando esta metodología para estudiar los factores potencialmente asociados con el pronóstico de la COVID-19 y probar nuevas estrategias preventivas y terapéuticas. En la pandemia actual es más importante que nunca que las decisiones se basen en pruebas y en métodos estadísticos sólidos. Sin embargo, este no es siempre el caso. Se han detectado errores metodológicos graves en estudios seminales recientes sobre COVID-19: uno que informa los resultados de los pacientes tratados con remdesivir y otro sobre la epidemiología, el curso clínico y los resultados de los pacientes críticamente enfermos. La evidencia de calidad es esencial para informar a los médicos sobre las terapias óptimas contra la enfermedad y, a los legisladores, sobre el verdadero efecto de las medidas preventivas destinadas a abordar la pandemia. Aunque se necesitan pruebas oportunas, debemos fomentar la aplicación adecuada de los métodos de análisis de supervivencia y una cuidadosa revisión por pares para evitar la publicación de resultados defectuosos que pueden afectar la adopción de decisiones. En este artículo, recapitulamos los supuestos básicos que subyacen al análisis de supervivencia y los errores frecuentes en su aplicación, y discutimos cómo manejar los datos sobre la COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Survival Analysis , Coronavirus Infections , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Betacoronavirus
19.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 37(3): e1505, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341404

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Con el protocolo LPM-TOA para el tratamiento de la leucemia promielocítica se obtienen excelentes resultados, se prolonga la sobrevida global y es posible la curación de los enfermos. En la de inducción a la remisión se utilizan dos drogas, una antraciclina y trióxido de arsénico, y en la consolidación los enfermos reciben de nuevo una dosis elevada de arsénico. Objetivo: Evaluar la toxicidad hepática tardía en pacientes con leucemia promielocítica tratados según el protocolo LPM-TOA. Métodos: Se realizó estudio longitudinal prospectivo que incluyó20 pacientes tratados con dicho protocolo, todos con más de dos años de haberlo suspendido. Se revisaron las historias clínicas para evaluar mediante los valores iniciales y evolutivos de las enzimas hepáticas, la función hepática inicial y evolutiva. Se determinó el índice de Ritis para predecir evolución a la cronicidad de existir daño hepático. Resultados: Hombres y mujeres se presentaron con la misma frecuencia y la media para la edad del sexo masculino fue 36,39 y para el femenino 39, con desviación estándar de ±14,02 y ±9,43, respectivamente. La variedad morfológica más frecuente fue la hipergranular, el promedio del índice de Ritis fue de solo 1,006 con desviación estándar de 0,745. Conclusiones: No hubo evidencias clínica ni enzimática de toxicidad hepática tardía en los pacientes estudiados(AU)


Introduction: With the LPM-TOA protocol for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia, excellent results are obtained, overall survival is prolonged and the patients are cured, in the induction to remission two drugs are used, an anthracycline and arsenic trioxide, and in consolidation the patients again receive a high dose of arsenic. Objective: To assess late liver toxicity in patients with promyelocytic leukemia treated according to the PML-TOA protocol. Methods: A prospective longitudinal study was carried out that included 20 patients treated with this protocol, all with more than two years of having suspended treatment. The clinical histories were reviewed and by means of the initial and evolutionary values of liver enzymes, the initial and evolutionary liver function was evaluated and the Ritis index was determined to predict evolution to chronicity if there is liver damage. Results: Men and women presented with the same frequency and the mean age for males was 36.39 and for females it was 39, with a standard deviation of ± 14.02 and ± 9.43 respectively. The most frequent morphological variety was hypergranular, the average Ritis index was only 1.006 with a standard deviation of 0.745. Conclusions: There was no clinical or enzymatic evidence of late liver toxicity in the patients studied(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute/drug therapy , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/prevention & control , Arsenic Trioxide/toxicity , Survival Analysis , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies
20.
Infectio ; 25(3): 176-181, jul.-set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1250089

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To determine the mortality and survival of COVID-19 cases in Colombia between March and July 2020. Materials and methods: A retrospective cohort study in the Colombian population between March 6 to July 8, 2020, with the data reported to the National Institute of Health. Survival analysis was performed considering the real-time PCR results, died or recovered, the onset of symptoms until the date of death, or the final time of the cohort. The actuarial variation and Long-Rank test were applied for survival. Risk factors were determined by Cox regression. Results: The overall survival rate was 100%, 98%, 97%, and 95% for day 1, 10, 20 and 30, respectively. Differences were found in survival in age, sex, region, and hospitaliza tion time spending (p <0.01), the 30-day survival rate was 96% and 95% for females and males, respectively. The region with the highest survival was Antioquia with 99% and the lower Barranquilla with 93%. The age group with the lowest survival was ≥80 years of age with 60%, and being hospitalized represented a survival rate of 68%. Conclusions: This study is one of the first to estimate survival in the Colombian population diagnosed with COVID-19.


Resumen Objetivo: determinar la mortalidad y supervivencia de casos de COVID-19 en Colombia entre marzo y julio de 2020. Materiales y métodos: Estudio de cohorte retrospectivo en población colombiana entre el 6 de marzo al 8 de julio de 2020, con los datos reportados al Instituto Nacional de Salud. El análisis de supervivencia se realizó considerando los resultados de la PCR en tiempo real, fallecido o recuperado, el inicio de los síntomas hasta la fecha del fallecimiento o el momento final de la cohorte. Para la supervivencia se aplicó la variación actuarial y la prueba de rango largo. Los factores de riesgo se determinaron mediante regresión de Cox. Resultados: La tasa de supervivencia general fue del 100%, 98%, 97% y 95% para los días 1, 10, 20 y 30, respectivamente. Se encontraron diferencias en la su pervivencia en cuanto a edad, sexo, región y tiempo de hospitalización (p <0,01), la tasa de supervivencia a 30 días fue del 96% y 95% para mujeres y hombres, respectivamente. La región con mayor supervivencia fue Antioquia con 99% y la Baja Barranquilla con 93%. El grupo de edad con menor supervivencia fue el ≥80 años con 60%, y la hospitalización representó una tasa de supervivencia del 68%. Conclusiones: Este estudio es uno de los primeros en estimar la supervivencia en la población colombiana diagnosticada con COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Survival Analysis , COVID-19 , Survival Rate , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Mortality , Colombia , Survivorship , Methods
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