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1.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 31(3): e009322, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1394894

ABSTRACT

Abstract The seroprevalence of Sarcocystis spp. and Toxoplasma gondii was researched in swine raised in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. Serum samples from 84 pigs from 31 farms were tested using indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for both agents. Additionally, 53 samples of pork sausages and tissues destined for human consumption, including: salami, sausage, black pudding, heart, tongue, brain, and rib muscle, were submitted to PCR to detect DNA for each agent. The frequency of anti-Sarcocystis spp. antibodies was 36.9% (31/84), with titers ranging from 32 to 1024, and 25% (21/84) for anti-T. gondii antibodies, with titers ranging from 64 to 2048. Sarcocystis spp. and T. gondii DNA were detected in 67.9% (36/53) and 13.2% (7/53) of samples, respectively. The presence of antibodies and the detection of DNA from Sarcocystis spp., and T. gondii suggests that the pigs were infected and may serve as an important reservoir for both parasites. The infection by these protozoa in the swine population is relevant to public health due to their zoonotic potential.


Resumo A soroprevalência de Sarcocystis spp. e Toxoplasma gondii foi pesquisada em suínos criados em Santa Maria, RS, Brasil. Amostras de soro de 84 suínos de 31 fazendas foram testadas pela reação deimunofluorescência indireta (IFA) para ambos os agentes. Adicionalmente, 53 amostras de embutidos suínos e tecidos cárneos destinados ao consumo humano, incluindo: salame, linguiça, morcela, coração, língua, cérebro e músculo da costela foram submetidas à PCR para detecção de DNA para cada agente. A frequência de anticorpos anti-Sarcocystis spp. foi de 36,9% (31/84), com títulos variando de 32 a 1.024; e 25% (21/84) para anticorpos anti-T. gondii, com títulos variando de 64 a 2048. A presença de DNA de Sarcocystis spp. e T. gondii foi detectada em 67,9% (36/53) e 13,2% (7/53) das amostras avaliadas, respectivamente. A detecção de anticorpos e DNA de Sarcocystis spp. e T. gondii sugere que os suínos foram infectados e podem servir como um importante reservatório de ambos os parasitas. A circulação desses agentes na população suína é relevante para a saúde pública devido ao seu potencial zoonótico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Swine Diseases/diagnosis , Swine Diseases/parasitology , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/diagnosis , Sarcocystosis/diagnosis , Sarcocystosis/veterinary , Swine/parasitology , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Toxoplasma/genetics , Toxoplasma/immunology , Antibodies, Protozoan/analysis , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/epidemiology , Prevalence , DNA, Protozoan/immunology , Sarcocystis/genetics , Sarcocystis/immunology , Sarcocystosis/epidemiology , Pork Meat/parasitology
2.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(4): e008721, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1351875

ABSTRACT

Abstract A serological, molecular and histopathological study was carried out in order to investigate occurrences of Toxoplasma gondii in pigs slaughtered with and without inspection service. Serum samples were collected from 60 pigs to detect anti-T. gondii antibody by indirect fluorescent antibody (IFAT). Tongue, masseter and diaphragm fragments were also collected for parasite DNA detection by means of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and histopathological analysis. The serological results showed that 77% (44/60) of the pigs were positive. Regarding PCR, 66.67% (40/60) were positive for T. gondii. Among the tissues evaluated, the diaphragm was the one with the highest frequency of positivity (40%; 24/60), followed by the masseter (38.33%; 23/60) and tongue (33.3%; 20/60). Histopathological changes were only observed in the diaphragm, which presented inflammatory infiltrates of lymphohistiocytic and neutrophilic types. These results not only show the potential threat of T. gondii to human health, but also demonstrate the dynamic epidemiological situation of toxoplasmosis in pigs in the city of São Luís, providing support for food security regarding pigs and for T. gondii control programs in Brazil.


Resumo Realizou-se um estudo sorológico, molecular e histopatológico com o objetivo de verificar a ocorrência de Toxoplasma gondii em suínos abatidos com e sem serviço de inspeção. Foram coletados soros de 60 suínos para a pesquisa de anticorpos anti-T. gondii pela reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI). Também foram coletados fragmentos de língua, masseter e diafragma para a detecção do DNA do parasito por meio da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) e análise histopatológica. A análise sorológica demonstrou que 77% (44/60) dos suínos apresentaram anticorpos anti-T. gondii. Com relação ao PCR, 66,67% (40/60) foram positivos para T. gondii. Dentre os tecidos avaliados, o diafragma foi o que obteve maior frequência de positividade (40%; 24/60), seguidos de masseter (38,33%; 23/60) e língua (33,3%; 20/60). Alterações histopatológicas foram observadas apenas no diafragma, que apresentou infiltrado inflamatório do tipo linfohistiocitário e neutrofílico. Esses resultados não evidenciam apenas a ameaça potencial de T. gondii à saúde humana, mas também demonstram a dinâmica situação epidemiológica da toxoplasmose em suínos na região da cidade de São Luís, fornecendo suporte para a segurança alimentar de suínos e programas de controle de T. gondii no país.


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine Diseases/diagnosis , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/diagnosis , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/epidemiology , Swine , Brazil/epidemiology , Antibodies, Protozoan , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect/veterinary
3.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(1): e014819, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058007

ABSTRACT

Abstract Despite the global importance of the zoonotic parasite Toxoplasma gondii, little is known regarding its infection in the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe (DRSTP). This is the first report of antibodies to T. gondii in cattle, sheep, goats and pigs from the DRSTP. Antibodies were assessed by the modified agglutination test (MAT), with a cut-off titer of 100 for cattle and 20 for sheep, goats and pigs. The present study revealed an overall seroprevalence of 55.8%; 27.1% in 48 cattle, 68.4% in 98 sheep, 70.1% in 97 goats and 43.7% in 103 pigs. The south geographical area for cattle, the central area for sheep, and adult age and living in the central region for goats were found to be risk factors for seropositivity to T. gondii. These results support the scenario of a considerable presence of sporulated oocysts as well as of infected intermediate hosts in the local environment. Consumption of raw or undercooked meat should be considered as an important potential source of infection for animals and humans in the DRSTP.


Resumo Apesar da importância global do parasita zoonótico Toxoplasma gondii, pouco se conhece sobre sua infecção na República Democrática de São Tomé e Príncipe (RDSTP). Esse é o primeiro relato de anticorpos para T. gondii em bovinos, ovinos, caprinos e suínos da RDSTP. Os anticorpos foram pesquisados pelo teste de aglutinação direta modificada (TADM), com um título de corte de 100 para bovinos e de 20 para ovinos, caprinos e suínos. O presente estudo revelou uma soroprevalência global de 55,8%: 27,1% em 48 bovinos, 68,4% em 98 ovinos, 70,1% em 97 caprinos e 43,7% em 103 suínos. A área geográfica sul para os bovinos, a área central para os ovinos, bem como a idade adulta e a região central para os caprinos foram considerados fatores de risco para soropositividade a T. gondii. Esses resultados suportam o cenário de uma considerável presença de oocistos esporulados, bem como de hospedeiros intermediários infectados no ambiente local. O consumo de carne crua ou mal passada deve ser considerado como uma importante fonte potencial de infecção para animais e seres humanos na RDSTP.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Toxoplasma/immunology , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/epidemiology , Sheep Diseases/diagnosis , Sheep Diseases/epidemiology , Swine , Swine Diseases/diagnosis , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Goats , Sheep , Cattle Diseases/diagnosis , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Goat Diseases/diagnosis , Goat Diseases/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/diagnosis , Risk Factors , Sao Tome and Principe/epidemiology
4.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(3): 403-409, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042533

ABSTRACT

Abstract To estimate the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum, using an indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA), and identify the risk factors associated, serum samples were collected from 1,070 pigs from 320 backyard pig farming in the of Mato Grosso state. The animal-level seroprevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum was 32.48% and 13.49%, respectively, with a herd seroprevalence of 55.63% for T. gondii and 27.81% for N. caninum. Feeding the animals with leftovers increases the probability of the presence of anti-T. gondii antibodies in pigs by 1.09-fold. Unlike to T. gondii, feeding with leftovers was found to be negatively associated with N. caninum seropositivity in farm-level analysis and in the animal-level model, so decreasing the chances of positivity. Yet, age was considered a risk factor for N. caninum seropositivity. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the impact of T. gondii infection on backyard pig farming production, and its importance as a source of toxoplasmosis infection in humans in the Mato Grosso state, as well as, the role of domestic pigs in the epidemiology of neosporosis.


Resumo Para estimar a soroprevalência de Toxoplasma gondii e Neospora caninum, utilizando a reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI), e identificar os fatores de risco associados, foram coletadas amostras de soro de 1.070 suínos provenientes de 320 criatórios de fundo de quintal no Estado de Mato Grosso. A soroprevalência para nível animal de T. gondii e N. caninum foi de 32,48% e 13,49%, respectivamente, com uma soroprevalência de rebanho de 55,63% para T. gondii e 27,81% para N. caninum. Alimentar os animais com sobras aumenta a probabilidade da presença de anticorpos anti-T. gondii em porcos em 1,09 vezes. Ao contrário de T. gondii, a alimentação baseada em sobras foi encontrada como negativamente associada à soropositividade para N. caninum na análise em nível de fazenda e no modelo em nível animal, diminuindo assim as chances de positividade. Ainda, a idade foi considerada um fator de risco para a soropositividade para N. caninum. Mais estudos são necessários para avaliar o impacto da infecção por T. gondii na produção de suinocultura de quintal e sua importância como fonte de infecção para toxoplasmose em humanos no Estado de Mato Grosso, bem como o papel dos suínos domésticos na epidemiologia da neosporose.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Swine/parasitology , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Toxoplasma/immunology , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/epidemiology , Coccidiosis/veterinary , Neospora/immunology , Swine Diseases/diagnosis , Swine Diseases/parasitology , Brazil/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/diagnosis , Risk Factors , Coccidiosis/diagnosis , Coccidiosis/epidemiology , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect
5.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(2): 306-309, Apr.-June 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042510

ABSTRACT

Abstract Mycoplasma suis is a bacterium that causes hemoplasmosis in pigs. This agent is capable of adhering to the surface of porcine erythrocytes, inducing structural changes on these cells. In Brazil, there are few reports about the disease, its causal agent, and the economic impact of this pathogen on pig production systems and farm sanitation. The present study aimed to investigate the occurrence of M. suis in extensive swine farms located in the counties of Itapecuru Mirim, Santa Rita and Rosario, State of Maranhão, northeast Brazil. For such purpose, 64 blood samples of pigs from these facilities were tested for M. suis using a 16S rRNA gene-based quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR); 82.3%, 65.2% and 25% of blood samples of swine from farms in the cities of Itapecuru Mirim, Santa Rita and Rosario were positive for M. suis by qPCR, respectively. This study shows, for the first time, that M. suis circulates in pig populations from the state of Maranhão, Northeast Brazil.


Resumo Mycoplasma suis é uma bactéria que causa a hemoplasmose em suínos. Este agente é capaz de se aderir à superfície dos eritrócitos de suínos, ocasionando deformações estruturais nestas células. No Brasil, poucos são os relatos acerca do parasita, da infecção e de seus impactos econômicos nas esferas produtiva e sanitária. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar, por meio da PCR em tempo real quantitativa (qPCR) baseada no gene 16S rRNA, a ocorrência de M. suis em 64 amostras de sangue de suínos de criações extensivas dos municípios de Itapecuru Mirim, Santa Rita e Rosário, localizados no estado do Maranhão. Foram obtidos um percentual de 82,3%, 65,2% e 25% de amostras positivas na qPCR para M. suis nos municípios de Itapecuru Mirim, Santa Rita e Rosário, respectivamente. Este estudo mostra que M. suis circula entre os suínos de criações extensivas no estado do Maranhão.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Mycoplasma/genetics , Mycoplasma Infections/microbiology , Mycoplasma Infections/veterinary , Swine , Swine Diseases/diagnosis , Swine Diseases/microbiology , Brazil , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Mycoplasma/classification , Mycoplasma Infections/diagnosis
6.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 37(10): 1101-1107, out. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-895346

ABSTRACT

Disenteria Suína e Colite Espiroquetal são duas enfermidades importantes em suínos causados pela Brachyspira hyodysenteriae e Brachyspira pilosicoli, respectivamente. O diagnóstico eficaz dessas espécies é extremamente importante para a adoção de estratégias adequadas para o controle. Propõe-se avaliar a técnica de hibridização in situ de fluorescência (FISH) para detecção de B. hyodysenteriae e B. pilosicoli em fragmentos histopatológicos de intestino de suínos e compará-la ao PCR duplex. Foram analisadas amostras de fezes e intestinos de suínos de terminação com histórico de diarreia pelas técnicas de reação em cadeia da polimerase duplex (dPCR), hibridização in situ fluorescente (FISH) para diagnóstico dessas bactérias. Foram utilizadas 34 amostras de intestino de suínos de campo positivos para alguma das duas espécies de Brachyspira sp. nos testes de FISH ou PCR. Das 34 amostras analisadas, foram detectadas 28 (82,35%) positivas na PCR e no FISH. Dentre as 29 amostras positivas para B. hyodysenteriae, 23 (79,3%) foram positivas à PCR e 21 (72,4%) no FISH. Os resultados de FISH e PCR não diferiram estatisticamente entre si. Baseado no fato dessa técnica poder ser realizada em tecidos formolizados, ser prática, rápida e associar a marcação especifica do agente com lesões histológicas, o FISH demonstrou ser mais uma alternativa no diagnóstico de Brachyspira hyodysenteriae e B. pilosicoli.(AU)


Growing and finishing pigs are affected by pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Brachyspira sp., which cause a significant economic impact due to direct and indirect losses. Thus, efficient diagnosis of these species enables better technical intervention to prevent or treat diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for the diagnosis of B. hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli in histopathologic fragments of pig's intestine and compare it to the duplex PCR. Thirty-four samples collected from pigs positive for these species in at least one of the tests were used in the study. Out of the 34 analyzed intestine samples, 28 (82.35%) were positive by PCR and FISH. Among the 29 B. hyodysenteriae positive samples, 23 (79.3%) were positive by PCR and 21 (72.4%) by FISH. There was no statistical difference among the detection rate of the used tests. Based on the fact this technique can be performed in formalin fixed tissue samples, it is practical, fast and allows the association of labeling a specific agent with histological lesions, FISH has become an alternative diagnostic method for Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine Diseases/diagnosis , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections , Brachyspira hyodysenteriae , Brachyspira , Sus scrofa , Dysentery/veterinary , Feces/microbiology
7.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 49(2): 158-165, jun. 2017. map, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-957995

ABSTRACT

Los criaderos porcinos de menos de 100 madres representan más del 99% de los de todo el país; sin embargo, existen escasos reportes sobre su situación sanitaria y productiva. Se recabó información productiva y se tomaron muestras para detectar anticuerpos contra Brucella suis (Bs), virus de la enfermedad de Aujeszky (VA) y virus de influenza (VI) en 68 establecimientos de menos de 100 madres ubicados en la región norte, centro y sur del país. El 80% de los establecimientos fueron positivos al VI H1 pandémico 2009, el 11% al H3 clúster 2, mientras que el 11,7% presentó anticuerpos contra el VA y el 6% contra Bs. Ninguno de los productores conocía los factores de riesgo para la transmisión de enfermedades del cerdo al humano. El 47% compra sus reproductores a pares o en ferias. En lo que respecta a normas de bioseguridad, solo el 16% de los establecimientos tenía cerco perimetral y el 37% de las granjas contaba con asesoramiento veterinario. Los resultados de este estudio demuestran que la caracterización productiva y el relevamiento sanitario son de suma importancia para mejorar la productividad y reducir el riesgo de transmisión de enfermedades. El conocimiento de la situación sanitaria y de los factores de riesgo es necesario para conseguir un mejor control y la erradicación de enfermedades en sistemas de baja tecnificación. Se deberían llevar a cabo estudios más representativos a nivel país para detectar los agentes circulantes y, sobre la base de esta información, implementar medidas de prevención y control.


Farmers raising less than 100 sows represent more than 99% of swine producers in Argentina, although little is known about their sanitary status and productive characteristics in the country. Sanitary and productive information was obtained. Furthermore, samples for serological studies were taken to detect antibodies against Brucella suis (Bs), Aujeszky's disease virus (AV) and influenza virus (IV) in 68 backyard and small producers with less than 100 sows located in the north, central and south regions of Argentina. Antibodies against H1 pandemic were detected in 80% of the farms while 11%, 11.7% and 6.0% of the producers were positive to influenza H3 cluster 2, AV and Bs, respectively. None of the producers was aware of the risk factors concerning the transmission of diseases from pigs to humans. A percentage of 47% of them buy pigs for breeding from other farmers and markets. With regard to biosecurity measures, only 16% of the farms had perimeter fences. The results of this study demonstrate that productive characterization and disease surveys are important to improve productivity and to reduce the risk of disease transmission among animals and humans. The study of sanitary status and risk factors is necessary for better control and eradication of diseases in backyard or small producers. More representative studies at country level should be carried out to detect the pathogensthat circulate and, with this knowledge, to implement prevention and control measures.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Orthomyxoviridae , Swine Diseases , Herpesvirus 1, Suid , Brucella suis , Orthomyxoviridae/isolation & purification , Argentina , Pseudorabies/transmission , Swine , Swine Diseases/diagnosis , Swine Diseases/transmission , Brucellosis/transmission , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/transmission , Herpesvirus 1, Suid/isolation & purification , Brucella suis/isolation & purification , Animal Husbandry , Antibodies, Viral
8.
Biol. Res ; 50: 30, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950880

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Porcine Deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a newly emerged enteropathogenic coronavirus that causes diarrhea and mortality in neonatal piglets. PDCoV has spread to many countries around the world, leading to significant economic losses in the pork industry. Therefore, a rapid and sensitive method for detection of PDCoV in clinical samples is urgently needed. RESULTS: In this study, we developed a single-tube one-step reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay specific for nucleocapsid gene to diagnose and monitor PDCoV infections. The detection limit of RT-LAMP assay was 1 × 101 copies of PDCoV, which was approximately 100-fold more sensitive than gel-based one-step reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). This assay could specifically amplify PDCoV and had no cross amplification with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), porcine kobuvirus (PKoV), porcine astrovirus (PAstV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), classic swine fever virus (CSFV), and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2). By screening a panel of clinical specimens (N = 192), this method presented a similar sensitivity with nested RT-PCR and was 1-2 log more sensitive than conventional RT-PCR in detection of PDCoV. CONCLUSIONS: The RT-LAMP assay established in this study is a potentially valuable tool, especially in low-resource laboratories and filed settings, for a rapid diagnosis, surveillance, and molecular epidemiology investigation of PDCoV infections. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work for detection of newly emerged PDCoV with LAMP technology.


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronaviridae/isolation & purification , Swine , Swine Diseases/diagnosis , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Sensitivity and Specificity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/veterinary
9.
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : 195-201, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-86399

ABSTRACT

Mycoplasma (M.) hyorhinis and M. hyosynoviae are pathogens known to cause disease in pigs post-weaning. Due to their fastidious nature, there is increased need for culture-independent diagnostic platforms to detect these microorganisms. Therefore, this study was performed to develop and optimize quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays to rapidly detect M. hyorhinis and M. hyosynoviae in pen-based oral fluids as well as nasal and tonsillar fluids as proxies for samples used in swine herd surveillance. Two methods of genomic DNA extraction, automated versus manual, were used to compare diagnostic test performance. A wean-to-finish longitudinal study was also carried out to demonstrate the reproducibility of using pen-based oral fluids. Overall, pen-based oral and tonsillar fluids were more likely to be positive for both types of bacteria whereas only M. hyorhinis was detected in nasal fluids. DNA extraction protocols were shown to significantly influence test result. Although the initial detection time somewhat differed, both organisms were repeatedly detected in the longitudinal study. Overall, this study evaluated two qPCR methods for rapid and specific detection of either mycoplasma. Results from the present investigation can serve as a foundation for future studies to determine the prevalence of the two microorganisms, environmental load, and effectiveness of veterinary interventions for infection control.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , Longitudinal Studies , Mouth/microbiology , Mycoplasma Infections/diagnosis , Mycoplasma hyorhinis/isolation & purification , Mycoplasma hyosynoviae/isolation & purification , Nose/microbiology , Palatine Tonsil/microbiology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Reproducibility of Results , Swine , Swine Diseases/diagnosis
10.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 34(11): 1069-1072, nov. 2014. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: lil-736029

ABSTRACT

Swine are susceptible to different mycobacteria species, being Mycobacterium bovis an agent of tuberculosis, with most significant zoonotic risks, while M. avium determines a granulomatous lymphadenitis with low zoonotic risk. Currently performed intradermal tests present some important limitations, such as the lack of ability to detect anergic animals or to differentiate among mycobacterial species. In order to improve the TB diagnosis, serological assays have been developed, with encouraging results. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of a MPB70-ELISA in 82 piglets divided into four groups: sensitized by inactivated M. bovis, M. avium, inoculated with oil adjuvant, or with saline solution. The test was able to discriminate between an animal sensitized by M. bovis and animals of the three other groups, including M. avium-sensitized animals; for this reason, we suggest that MPB70-ELISA could be used as a complementary tool for discriminating the agent of the mycobacteriosis, and therefore to diagnose tuberculosis in a swine herd.(AU)


Suínos são suscetíveis a diferentes espécies de micobactérias, sendo Mycobacterium bovis agente de tuberculose (TB), com claro risco zoonótico, enquanto M. avium determina uma linfadenite granulomatosa (LG) de baixo risco zoonótico. Os testes intradérmicos atualmente realizados apresentam algumas limitações importantes, como a falta de habilidade em detectar animais anérgicos ou de diferenciar entre as espécies micobacterianas. Com o intuito de melhorar o diagnóstico de TB, testes sorológicos têm sido desenvolvidos, com resultados encorajadores. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar um MPB70-ELISA em 82 leitões divididos em quatro grupos: sensibilizados por M. bovis, por M. avium, inoculados com óleo adjuvante ou com solução salina. O teste foi capaz de discriminar entre os animais sensibilizados com M. bovis dos demais três grupos, incluindo aqueles que foram sensibilizados com M. avium; desta forma, sugere-se que o MPB70-ELISA poderia ser utilizado como ferramenta complementar para discriminar o agente da micobacteriose, e portanto diagnosticar TB em um plantel de suínos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine/microbiology , Swine Diseases/diagnosis , Mycobacterium avium/isolation & purification , Mycobacterium bovis/isolation & purification , Pneumonia of Swine, Mycoplasmal/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Lymphadenitis/diagnosis
11.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 34(2): 123-128, fev. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-709854

ABSTRACT

Foi investigado o valor diagnóstico da resposta alérgica cutânea em leitões experimentalmente sensibilizados, pela via intramuscular, com suspensões oleosas de Mycobacterium bovis ou M. avium inativados pelo calor.Foram utilizados 91 animais, divididos em quatro grupos: grupos A e B, cada um com 25 indivíduos, grupos C e D com 21 e 20 indivíduos respectivamente, balanceando-se as características de raça, linhagem, faixa etária e sexo. Aos 30 dias de idade, todos os animais foram submetidos a uma triagem com a aplicação de tuberculina PPD bovina, pela via intradérmica na base da orelha e não houve qualquer tipo de reação. Decorridos 60 dias do teste tuberculínico de triagem, o grupo A recebeu injeção intramuscular de 0,5 mL de uma suspensão oleosa de M. avium estirpe D4; o grupo B recebeu 0,5 mL de uma suspensão oleosa de M. bovis estirpe AN5; o grupo C (controle I), recebeu 0,5 mL do adjuvante oleoso; e o grupo D (controle II), recebeu 0,5 mL de solução fisiológica. Após 30 dias da sensibilização foi realizada a prova de tuberculinização comparativa com reação medida pela variação da espessura da pele com cutímetro de mola às 0h, 24h, 48h e 72h, após a aplicação das tuberculinas. No teste comparativo, lido às 48 ou 72 horas, a reação foi considerada negativa quando a diferença das reações entre o PPD bovino e o PPD aviário foi menor que 6,7 mm; suspeito ou inconclusivo quando a diferença se situou na faixa de 6,7 a 7,5 mm; e positiva de acordo com o tipo de PPD, considerando-se tuberculose para PPD M. bovis e micobacteriose para PPD M. avium, quando a diferença da reação foi superior a 7,5 mm.


The diagnostic value of the cutaneous allergic response to tuberculin in piglets experimentally sensitized intramuscularly with the oily suspensions of heat inactivated M. bovis or M. avium was investigated. Ninety-one animals were used and divided into four groups: groups A and B were formed each with 25 individuals, and groups C and D, with 21 and 20 individuals, respectively, balancing the characteristics of race, ancestry, age and sex. At the age of 30 days, all the animals were submitted to the screening test with the use of M. bovis PPD, by the intradermal route at the base of the ear and no reaction was detected. Sixty days after the screening tuberculin test, animals of the group A were injected intramuscularly with 0.5 mL of oily suspension of M. avium D4 strain; animals of the group B received 0.5 mL of an oily suspension of M. bovis, AN5 strain; group C (control I) received 0.5 mL of an oily adjuvant; and the individuals of the group D (control II) received 0.5 mL of saline solution. Following 30 days of sensitization, comparative skin reactions were measured by the variation in skin thickness with a caliper at 0h, 24h, 48h an 72h after applications of tuberculins. In the comparative test measured at 48 or 72h, the reaction was considered negative when the difference of the reactions between bovine PPD and avian PPD was less than 6.7 mm; suspected or inconclusive, when the difference stood in the range of 6.7 to 7.5 mm; and positive according to the type of PPD, considering tuberculosis the M. bovis PPD and mycobacteriosis the M. avium PPD, when the difference of the reaction was greater than 7.5 mm.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mycobacterium Infections/diagnosis , Mycobacterium avium/isolation & purification , Mycobacterium bovis/isolation & purification , Swine , Tuberculin Test/veterinary , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Swine Diseases/diagnosis , Mycobacterium Infections/veterinary , Tuberculin Test/methods , Tuberculosis/veterinary
12.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 33(9): 1103-1108, set. 2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-694058

ABSTRACT

The diagnosis of the urinary tract infection (UTI) in sows is usually performed by using reagent test strips, since it is a fast and practical method, and capable of being done at the farm. The microscopic examination of the urine is rarely used at the farm since it is a more time consuming and difficult technique. However, there are no studies on the accuracy of those two techniques for the UTI diagnosis on this species. This study aims to assess the accuracy of the reagent test strip and the urine microscopic examination in the diagnosis of ITU in sows, comparing them with the bacteriological examination of urine. In order to select the sows for this study, a chemical reagent test strip was carried out previously and a total of 139 sows were selected, 66 sows of which showed positivity to nitrite in the reagent test strip and 73 without nitrituria. Then, the next day, a new sample collection for performing a complete urinalysis was carried out from those 139 sows, which included physical, chemical, microscopic and microbiological examination of these urine samples. The results revealed that the nitrite test of the reagent strip showed 100% of specificity and 93% of sensitivity. The specificity of the microscopic examination for bacteriuria was 82% and the sensitivity was 100%. The UTI diagnosis by using reagent strips and/or the urine sediment test is reliable if compared to the urine bacteriological examination, which makes possible the rapid diagnosis of UTI in sows at the farm.


O diagnóstico de infecção do trato urinário (ITU) em porcas geralmente é feito com o auxílio de tiras reagentes, por ser um método rápido, prático e passível de ser realizado na própria granja. O exame microscópico da urina raramente é utilizado em granjas por ser uma técnica mais demorada e trabalhosa. No entanto, não existem estudos sobre a precisão destas duas técnicas no diagnóstico de ITU nesta espécie. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a precisão da tira reagente e do exame microscópico da urina no diagnóstico de ITU em porcas, comparando-os com o exame bacteriológico da urina. Para selecionar as porcas que iriam compor o estudo foi realizado um exame químico prévio com tira reagente, do qual foram selecionadas 139 porcas, 66 positivas para nitrito na tira reagente e 73 negativas. No dia seguinte foi realizada uma nova coleta de urina destas 139 porcas para realização da urinálise completa, que incluiu os exames físico, químico, microscópico e microbiológico destas amostras de urina. Os resultados demonstraram que a prova de nitrito da tira reagente apresentou 100% de especificidade e 93% de sensibilidade. A especificidade do exame microscópico para bacteriúria foi de 82% e a sensibilidade de 100%. O diagnóstico de ITU com o uso de tiras reagentes e/ou com exame microscópico da urina é confiável, quando comparado com o exame bacteriológico da urina, o que torna possível o diagnóstico rápido de ITU em porcas na granja.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Swine Diseases/diagnosis , Urinary Tract Infections/veterinary , Urinalysis/veterinary , Bacteriuria/veterinary
13.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(5): 548-553, ago. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-680774

ABSTRACT

Asymptomatic influenza virus infections in pigs are frequent and the lack of measures for controlling viral spread facilitates the circulation of different virus strains between pigs. The goal of this study was to demonstrate the circulation of influenza A virus strains among asymptomatic piglets in an abattoir in Brazil and discuss the potential public health impacts. Tracheal samples (n = 330) were collected from asymptomatic animals by a veterinarian that also performed visual lung tissue examinations. No slaughtered animals presented with any noticeable macroscopic signs of influenza infection following examination of lung tissues. Samples were then analysed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction that resulted in the identification of 30 (9%) influenza A positive samples. The presence of asymptomatic pig infections suggested that these animals could facilitate virus dissemination and act as a source of infection for the herd, thereby enabling the emergence of influenza outbreaks associated with significant economic losses. Furthermore, the continuous exposure of the farm and abattoir workers to the virus increases the risk for interspecies transmission. Monitoring measures of swine influenza virus infections and vaccination and monitoring of employees for influenza infection should also be considered. In addition regulatory agencies should consider the public health ramifications regarding the potential zoonotic viral transmission between humans and pigs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Occupational Exposure , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/veterinary , Swine Diseases/virology , Abattoirs , Asymptomatic Diseases/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Influenza A virus/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/diagnosis , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/transmission , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Factors , Sus scrofa , Swine , Swine Diseases/diagnosis , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Swine Diseases/transmission
14.
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : 467-472, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-43060

ABSTRACT

Swine hepatitis E virus (HEV) is widespread throughout pigs in both developing and industrialized countries. This virus is an important zoonotic agent and a public concern worldwide. Infected pigs are asymptomatic, so diagnosing swine HEV relies on detection of the virus or antibodies against the virus. However, several obstacles need to be overcome for effective and practical serological diagnosis. In this study, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that used a purified recombinant capsid protein of swine HEV. The potential clinical use of this assay was evaluated by comparing it with a commercial kit (Genelabs Technologies, Diagnostics, Singapore). Results of the ELISA were highly correlated with those of the commercial kit with a sensitivity of 97% and specificity of 95%. ROC (receiving operator characteristic) analysis of the ELISA data produced a value of 0.987 (95% CI, 0.977~0.998, p < 0.01). The cut-off value for the ELISA was also determined using negative pig sera. In summary, the HEV-specific ELISA developed in the present study appears to be both practical and economical.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic/analysis , Capsid Proteins/genetics , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Hepatitis E/diagnosis , Hepatitis E virus/genetics , Immunoglobulin G/blood , ROC Curve , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Swine , Swine Diseases/diagnosis
15.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 573-577, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-155353

ABSTRACT

A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay allows rapid diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection. In the present study, the LAMP assay was evaluated using blood from both naturally and experimentally infected pigs. The sensitivity of the LAMP assay was compared with that of Q-PCR. Both assays detected T. gondii in the blood of experimentally infected pigs, with 100% agreement. In infected blood samples, the parasite was detected as early as 2 days post-infection and reached a peak in 3-5 days. In 216 field serum samples, the detection rates of LAMP and Q-PCR assays were 6.9% and 7.8%, respectively. This result indicates that the sensitivity of the LAMP assay was slightly lower than that of the Q-PCR assay. However, the LAMP may be an attractive diagnostic method in conditions where sophisticated and expensive equipment is unavailable. This assay could be a powerful supplement to current diagnostic methods.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Azure Stains , Biological Assay , Brain/parasitology , DNA, Protozoan/blood , Lung/parasitology , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/veterinary , Parasitemia , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Sensitivity and Specificity , Swine , Swine Diseases/diagnosis , Toxoplasma/genetics , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/diagnosis
16.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 62(6): 1521-1525, dez. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-576059

ABSTRACT

Relata-se a quantificação de PCV-2, por meio de PCR em tempo real, no trato gastrintestinal, linfonodo mesentérico, tonsilas e fezes de nove suínos refugo da fase de crescimento, provenientes de rebanhos com histórico de diarreia não responsiva ao tratamento com antibioticoterapia. Com base nos resultados histopatológicos e imunoistoquímicos, os animais foram classificados como afetados por PCV-2 (n=5) e não afetados (n=4). Foi observada diarreia em todos os animais do grupo afetado por PCV-2. Em todas as amostras testadas foi detectado PCV-2, no entanto, a carga viral observada nos tecidos, bem como a excreção nas fezes foi significantemente maior (P<0.01) nos animais com diarreia. A maior concentração de PCV-2 foi observada nos linfonodos mesentéricos. A carga viral observada em tecido fresco e nas mesmas amostras emblocadas em parafina foi semelhante, sugerindo que o PCR em tempo real pode ser uma ferramenta útil em estudos retrospectivos da infecção por PCV-2.


Subject(s)
Animals , Viral Load , Diarrhea/veterinary , Swine Diseases/diagnosis , Swine/physiology
17.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 42(2): 98-101, abr.-jun. 2010. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-634651

ABSTRACT

Se evaluó la prevalencia serológica del virus de influenza mediante las pruebas de inhibición de la hemaglutinación (IHA) y ELISA para los subtipos H1N1 y H3N2 en 13 granjas porcinas de Argentina. Se compararon los resultados obtenidos mediante ambas pruebas en términos individuales y de establecimientos. La prevalencia individual por la técnica de IHA fue de 38,46% a 100% para H1 y de 7,69% a 100% para H3. Por la técnica de ELISA, la prevalencia individual fue de 2,33% a 6,9% para H1 y de 9,65% a 48% para H3. No se observaron diferencias significativas entre ambas técnicas a escala de granja (H1: p=0,20; H3: p=0,11). La concordancia entre las pruebas fue nula al tomar como unidad de referencia el animal (H1: 0,005; H3: 0,070), mientras que en términos de establecimiento fue escasa (H1: 0,350; H3: 0,235). Considerando la alta prevalencia individual obtenida por la prueba de IHA y la alta sensibilidad de esta técnica, se podría sugerir que en las poblaciones porcinas de la Argentina circularon cepas virales humanas o cepas porcinas con gran proximidad filogenética a las utilizadas en este estudio desde el año 2002.


The seroprevalence of the Influenza virus against H1N1 and H3N2 was determined by the hemagglutination-inhibition test (HI) and a commercial swine influenza ELISA kit, in 13 Argentinean swine herds. The results of within-herd and between-herd prevalence obtained by both tests were statistically correlated. The within-herd prevalence observed by the HI test varied from 38.46 to 100% against H1 and 7.69 to 100% for H3. When the within-herd prevalence was measured with the ELISA test, it varied from 2.33 to 6.9% for H1 and 9.65 to 48% for H3. No statistical differences were observed at herd level between HI and ELISA (H1: p = 0. 20; H3: p=0.11). No agreement between HI and ELISA detected prevalence was observed when the within-herd prevalence was compared (H1: 0.005; H3: 0.070), while the agreement at herd level was considered poor (H1: 0,350; H3: 0,235). The high within-herd prevalence values observed with the HI test and the high sensibility of this test might show that human strains or swine strains phylogenetically closely related to the humans strains used in the HI test in this study have been affecting the swine population since 2002.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests/veterinary , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/veterinary , Sus scrofa/virology , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/isolation & purification , Influenza A virus/classification , Influenza A virus/immunology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/virology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/diagnosis , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology , Predictive Value of Tests , Seasons , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Swine Diseases/diagnosis , Swine Diseases/virology , Swine/virology
18.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 15(2): 77-81, maio-ago. 2008. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-521217

ABSTRACT

Em estudo epidemiológico tipo caso-controle realizado em matadouro-frigorífico do Oeste de Santa Catarina, observou-se aocorrência de pneumonia enzoótica em suínos, diagnosticada sob inspeção sanitária e histopatologia, bem como se o pesoda carcaça quente modificaria em função da enfermidade. O grupo caso foi representado por 69 suínos portadores daenfermidade e o grupo controle, por 69 animais sem a enfermidade, identificados por técnicos do Serviço de Inspeção Federal(SIF) com base em características morfológicas previamente padronizadas. Dos animais positivos para a enfermidade nainspeção sanitária, 75,36% deles (52/69) tiveram diagnóstico positivo na microscopia. No grupo controle (negativos na inspeçãosanitária), 14,49% (10/69) também foram positivos na microscopia, não havendo diferença significante entre os dois tipos dediagnóstico (P>0,05), os quais concordaram em 62% pelo método de Kappa. A média de peso da carcaça quente no grupocontrole foi 2,35 kg maior que no grupo caso, porém essa diferença de peso não foi significativa (P>0,05).


In an epidemiological case-control study carried out in the west of Santa Catarina state slaughterhouses, the occurrence ofEnzootic Pneumonia in swine slaughtered under sanitary inspection as well as the effect of this disease on hot carcass weightwas accused. The lungs examined were identified by technicians of the Federal Inspection Service based on the presence ofstandardized morphological characteristics. Using the case-control design, 69 swine identified as having Enzootic Pneumoniawere compared with 69 swine without Enzootic Pneumonia. Within the animals with Enzootic Pneumonia diagnosed by SanitaryInspection, 75.36% (52/69) were diagnosed as positive by histopathology. Within the animals without Enzootic Pneumoniadiagnosed by Sanitary Inspection, 14.49% (10/69) were diagnosed as positive by histopathology (P>0.05) without significantdifferences between them, but with Kappa agreement of 62%. The average of hot carcass weight within control group was 2.35Kg bigger than case group, but this difference was not significative (P>0,05).


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Swine Diseases/diagnosis , Pneumonia of Swine, Mycoplasmal/diagnosis , Pneumonia of Swine, Mycoplasmal/prevention & control , Sanitary Inspection , Swine , Prevalence
19.
Ciênc. rural ; 38(3): 749-754, maio-jun. 2008. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-480188

ABSTRACT

A doença de Aujeszky (DA) é uma infecção causada por um herpesvírus, o vírus da DA (VDA), primariamente em suínos. Esta doença está presente no Estado de Santa Catarina (SC) desde 1984. Devido ao impacto da DA no mercado exportador de carne suína, no comércio de reprodutores e nas perdas de produtividade, um programa de erradicação, financiado por uma parceria entre a indústria e a associação de produtores tem tido sucesso em eliminar gradualmente a DA de rebanhos suínos de SC. O último caso de DA no estado foi identificado em julho de 2004. Durante o processo de despovoamento/repovoamento, foi detectado um rebanho suíno positivo para o VDA localizado no oeste de SC. Estudos de rastreabilidade da origem daqueles animais indicaram que a fonte era uma granja que distribuía reprodutores ilegalmente sem certificação sanitária. Este suinocultor mantinha um sistema de integração que incluía 40 diferentes produtores para quem eram comercializados reprodutores e/ou suínos para terminação. Testes de soroprevalência detectaram anticorpos anti-VDA em 12 daqueles rebanhos. Devido a sua localização dentro do raio de 2,5km do foco inicial, uma outra granja, onde havia uma central de inseminação artificial que distribuía sêmen suíno para outras 5 granjas do mesmo proprietário, foi testada e também resultou positiva. Os objetivos deste artigo são descrever as condições sanitárias frente ao VDA naquelas granjas que receberam suínos ou sêmen suíno daqueles suinocultores, as medidas para controlar e eliminar o VDA dos rebanhos positivos e a situação atual decorrente deste trabalho. Além disso, o artigo busca alertar que medidas de vigilância ativa e normas sanitárias para comércio e distribuição de material genético devem ser seguidas, caso contrário, a DA pode recrudescer e tornar-se fora de controle como ocorria antes do início deste programa.


Aujeszky's disease (AD) is an herpesvirus infection, caused by the pseudorabies virus (PRV), primarily in swine and present in Santa Catarina State (SC) since 1984. Due to the impacts of AD in the pork export, breeder's trade and productivity losses, an eradication program, financed by industry and swine producers association, has successfully eradicated the AD of swine herds in SC State. The last case of AD in the State was identified in July of 2004. During the depopulation/repopulation process, a PRV positive swine herd located in the west region of SC State was detected. Traceability studies of the origin of those animals indicated that the source was a swine farm which illegally distributed breeders without sanitary certification. This swine producer maintained an integration system which included 40 different producers, to whom were commercialized breeders and/or finishers. Serum-prevalence tests detected PRV antibodies in 12 of those herds. Due to the location into the 2.5km of radius from the initial outbreak, another swine farm, which had an artificial insemination center that distributed swine semen to another 5 herds of the same owner was tested positive as well. The objectives of this paper are to describe the sanitary status related to AD on the farms which have received pigs or swine semen from these swine producers, the measures to control and eliminate ADV from positive herds and the outcome of this work. Beyond that, to alert that measures of active surveillance and sanitary rules for commerce and distribution of genetic materials must be properly fulfilled, otherwise, AD can reactivate and become out of control as occurred before the eradication program.


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine Diseases/diagnosis , Swine Diseases/prevention & control , Swine Diseases/transmission , Herpesvirus 1, Suid , Pseudorabies , Swine
20.
Genet. mol. res. (Online) ; 7(2): 509-517, 2008. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-640987

ABSTRACT

Reproductive failures are still common grounds for complaint by commercial swine producers. Porcine parvovirus (PPV) is associated with different clinical reproductive signs. The aim of the present study was to investigate PPV fetal infection at swine farms having ongoing reproductive performance problems. The presence of virus in fetal tissues was determined by nested-polymerase chain reaction assay directed to the conserved NS1 gene of PPV in aborted fetuses, mummies and stillborns. Fetuses show a high frequency of PPV infection (96.4%; n = 28). In 60.7% of the fetuses, PPV were detected in all tissue samples (lung, heart, thymus, kidney, and spleen). Viral infection differed among fetal tissues, with a higher frequency in the lung and heart (p < 0.05). Fetuses with up to 99 days of gestational age and from younger sows showed a higher frequency of PPV (p < 0.05). No significant difference in the presence of PPV was detected among the three clinical presentations. The results suggest that PPV remains an important pathogenic agent associated with porcine fetal death.


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine Diseases/diagnosis , Parvoviridae Infections/diagnosis , Parvovirus, Porcine/genetics , Abortion, Veterinary , DNA, Viral/genetics , Swine Diseases/virology , Fetus/virology , Parvoviridae Infections/virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Parvovirus, Porcine/isolation & purification
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