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1.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 6-20, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010785

ABSTRACT

Originating but free from chromosomal DNA, extrachromosomal circular DNAs (eccDNAs) are organized in circular form and have long been found in unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes. Their biogenesis and function are poorly understood as they are characterized by sequence homology with linear DNA, for which few detection methods are available. Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies have revealed that eccDNAs play crucial roles in tumor formation, evolution, and drug resistance as well as aging, genomic diversity, and other biological processes, bringing it back to the research hotspot. Several mechanisms of eccDNA formation have been proposed, including the breakage-fusion-bridge (BFB) and translocation-deletion-amplification models. Gynecologic tumors and disorders of embryonic and fetal development are major threats to human reproductive health. The roles of eccDNAs in these pathological processes have been partially elucidated since the first discovery of eccDNA in pig sperm and the double minutes in ovarian cancer ascites. The present review summarized the research history, biogenesis, and currently available detection and analytical methods for eccDNAs and clarified their functions in gynecologic tumors and reproduction. We also proposed the application of eccDNAs as drug targets and liquid biopsy markers for prenatal diagnosis and the early detection, prognosis, and treatment of gynecologic tumors. This review lays theoretical foundations for future investigations into the complex regulatory networks of eccDNAs in vital physiological and pathological processes.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Animals , Humans , Swine , DNA, Circular/genetics , Genital Neoplasms, Female , Semen , DNA , Reproduction
2.
Vet. zootec ; 31: 1-11, 2024.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1552885

ABSTRACT

This summary addresses the use of reproduction technologies in swine farming, with an emphasis on artificial insemination (AI). Brazilian swine farming has been growing significantly and seeks new technologies to achieve high productive indices sustainably and competitively. Pigs present favorable characteristics such as high prolificacy, fertility, rapid growth, feed efficiency, and carcass yield, which has led to intensive development of the activity with advanced genetic selection. AI is widely employed to disseminate genetic material among different regions and farms. Several AI techniques are used in modern swine farming: intrauterine insemination (IUI) allows semen deposition in the uterine region, reducing costs; fixed-time insemination (FTAI) synchronizes estrus in various females, facilitating management and increasing efficiency; deep intrauterine insemination (DIUI) deposits semen in the uterine horns, obtaining better results; and cervical insemination (CI), a traditional technique widely used, although it may be more time-consuming and present higher reflux rates. The success of AI is related to knowledge of the reproductive cycle of sows, proper nutrition, and genetic and environmental factors. Semen quality is essential, requiring collection by trained professionals and evaluation of sperm motility and morphology. Although it is a consolidated technique, there are issues to be further explored to optimize its application, defining the exact moment for insemination, reducing reflux, and adopting effective protocols. AI is an essential tool for the growth of Brazilian swine farming, but it requires continuous studies to maximize its efficiency and results, considering the farm's production goal and the size of the enterprise to achieve high reproductive and productive indices.


Este resumo aborda o uso de tecnologias de reprodução na suinocultura, com ênfase na inseminação artificial (IA). A suinocultura brasileira vem crescendo significativamente e busca novas tecnologias para alcançar altos índices produtivos de maneira sustentável e competitiva. Os suínos apresentam características favoráveis, como alta prolificidade, fertilidade, rápido crescimento, eficiência alimentar e rendimento de carcaça, o que levou ao desenvolvimento intensivo da atividade com seleção genética avançada. A IA é amplamente empregada para disseminar material genético entre diferentes regiões e granjas. Diversas técnicas de IA são utilizadas na suinocultura moderna: a inseminação intrauterina (IAIU) permite a deposição do sêmen na região uterina, reduzindo custos; a inseminação em tempo fixo (IATF) sincroniza o estro em várias fêmeas, facilitando o manejo e aumentando a eficiência; a inseminação intrauterina profunda (IAUP) deposita o sêmen nos cornos uterinos, obtendo melhores resultados; e a inseminação cervical (IAC), técnica tradicional amplamente utilizada, embora possa ser mais demorada e apresentar maiores taxas de refluxo. O sucesso da IA estar relacionado ao conhecimento do ciclo reprodutivo das matrizes, à nutrição adequada e aos fatores genéticos e ambientais. A qualidade do sêmen é essencial, exigindo coleta por profissionais treinados e avaliação da motilidade e morfologia dos espermatozoides. Apesar de ser uma técnica consolidada, há questões a serem aprofundadas para otimizar sua aplicação, definindo o momento exato para a realização da inseminação, a redução do refluxo e adoção de protocolos eficazes. A IA é uma ferramenta essencial para o crescimento da suinocultura brasileira, mas requer estudos contínuos para maximizar sua eficiência e resultados, considerando o objetivo produtivo da granja e o tamanho do empreendimento para alcançar altos índices reprodutivos e produtivos.


Este resumen aborda el uso de tecnologías de reproducción en la producción porcina, con énfasis en la inseminación artificial (IA). La producción porcina brasileña ha crecido significativamente y busca nuevas tecnologías para alcanzar altos índices de productividad de manera sostenible y competitiva. Los cerdos presentan características favorables, como alta prolificidad, fertilidad, rápido crecimiento, eficiencia alimentaria y rendimiento de la canal, lo que ha llevado al desarrollo intensivo de la actividad con selección genética avanzada. La IA se utiliza ampliamente para difundir material genético entre diferentes regiones y granjas. Diversas técnicas de IA son utilizadas en la producción porcina moderna: la inseminación intrauterina (IAIU) permite la deposición del semen en la región uterina, reduciendo costos; la inseminación a tiempo fijo (IATF) sincroniza el estro en varias hembras, facilitando el manejo y aumentando la eficiencia; la inseminación intrauterina profunda (IAUP) deposita el semen en los cuernos uterinos, obteniendo mejores resultados; y la inseminación cervical (IAC), técnica tradicional ampliamente utilizada, aunque puede ser más demorada y presentar mayores tasas de reflujo. El éxito de la IA está relacionado con el conocimiento del ciclo reproductivo de las hembras, la nutrición adecuada y los factores genéticos y ambientales. La calidad del semen es esencial, requiriendo la recolección por profesionales capacitados y la evaluación de la motilidad y morfología de los espermatozoides. A pesar de ser una técnica consolidada, hay aspectos que deben ser profundizados para optimizar su aplicación, como la definición precisa del momento de la inseminación, la reducción del reflujo y la adopción de protocolos eficaces. La IA es una herramienta esencial para el crecimiento de la producción porcina brasileña, pero requiere estudios continuos para maximizar su eficiencia y resultados, considerando el objetivo productivo de la granja y el tamaño del emprendimiento para alcanzar altos índices reproductivos y productivos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Sperm Motility , Swine/physiology , Insemination, Artificial/veterinary , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted/veterinary , Semen Analysis/veterinary
3.
Vet. zootec ; 31: 1-14, 2024.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1552664

ABSTRACT

O objetivo desta revisão bibliográfica é elucidar os principais avanços relacionados à utilização de aminoácidos na nutrição de suínos e sua relação com o desempenho animal. Essa revisão foi realizada a partir de uma busca bibliográfica embasada em diferentes publicações encontradas em banco de dados. A busca por artigos foi realizada nas seguintes bases de pesquisa literária eletrônica: Web of Science e Google Scholar, utilizando termos de busca associados ou não, no plural ou singular, em inglês e em português, como: "aminoacids" and "swine" and "needs". Foram selecionados 45 arquivos, após o teste de relevância para uso no estudo, os mesmos foram tabulados em planilha do Excel® com as informações relevantes, para exploração na revisão. As exigências de aminoácidos devem ser atendidas em todas as fases desde o nascimento, seguindo recomendações por idade e sexo e categoria produtiva, visando a expressão máxima do seu potencial de produção, atendendo as exigências de aminoácidos para garantir a sanidade, potencial produtivo, reprodutivo e índices zootécnicos de interesse.


The objective of this literature review is to elucidate the main advances related to the use of amino acids in swine nutrition and its relationship with animal performance. This review was carried out from a bibliographic search based on different publications found in the database. The search for articles was carried out in the following electronic literary research bases: Web of Science and Google Scholar, using search terms associated or not, in the plural or singular, in English and Portuguese, such as: "aminoacids" and "swine" and "needs". 45 files were selected, after the relevance test for use in the study, they were tabulated in an Excel® spreadsheet with the information that is relevant, for exploration in the review. Amino acid requirements must be met at all stages of life following recommendations by age and sex and productive category, aiming at the maximum expression of its production potential, meeting the amino acid requirements guarantees health, productive and reproductive potential and zootechnical indices of interest.


El objetivo de esta revisión bibliográfica es dilucidar los principales avances relacionados con el uso de aminoácidos en la nutrición porcina y su relación con el rendimiento animal. Esta revisión se realizó a partir de una búsqueda bibliográfica a partir de diferentes publicaciones encontradas en la base de datos. La búsqueda de artículos se realizó en las siguientes bases de datos de búsqueda literaria electrónica: Web of Science y Google Scholar, utilizando términos de búsqueda asociados o no, en plural o singular, en inglés y portugués, tales como: "aminoácidos" y "swine" y "necesidades". Se seleccionaron 45 archivos, luego de la prueba de pertinencia para su uso en el estudio, se tabularon en una planilla de Excel® con la información que sea relevante, para exploración en la revisión de recomendaciones por edad y sexo y categoría productiva, visando al máximo expresión de su potencial productivo, el cumplimiento de los requerimientos de aminoácidos garantiza sanidad, potencial productivo y reproductivo e índices zootécnicos de interés.


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine/growth & development , Amino Acids, Essential/analysis , Nutritional Requirements
4.
Acta cir. bras ; 39: e390624, 2024. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1533361

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study aimed to compare the degree of maturation and development of fetal pig segmental intestinal tissue with that of spheroids created by in-vitro reaggregation of dissociated fetal intestinal cells after transplantation into immunodeficient mice. Methods: Fetal pig small intestines were transplanted as segmental grafts into the omentum and subrenal capsules of immunodeficient mice or enzymatically treated to generate single cells. Spheroids made by in-vitro reaggregation of these cells were transplanted into the subrenal capsules of immunodeficient mice. The segmental grafts and spheroids were harvested four and eight weeks after transplantation, and the structural maturity and in-vivo development of these specimens were histologically evaluated. Results: The spheroids were engrafted and supplied blood vessels from the host mice, but an intestinal layered structure was not clearly observed, and there was almost no change in size. On the other hand, the segmental grafts formed deep crypts in the mucus membrane, the inner circular layer, and outer longitudinal muscles. The crypts of the transplanted grafts harvested at eight weeks were much deeper, and the smooth muscle layer and the enteric nervous system were more mature than those of grafts harvested at the fourth week, although the intestinal peristaltic wave was not observed. Conclusions: Spheroids created from fetal small intestinal cells could not form layered structures or mature sufficiently. Conversely, segmental tissues structurally matured and developed after in-vivo transplantation and are therefore potential grafts for transplantation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Swine , Transplantation, Heterologous/veterinary , Fetal Tissue Transplantation/veterinary , Fetal Organ Maturity
5.
Rev. Asoc. Méd. Argent ; 136(3): 23-30, sept. 2023. ilus, mapas
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1553358

ABSTRACT

La triquinosis es una zoonosis que afecta a los animales y al hombre, y es ocasionada por la ingestión de la larva Trichinella spiralis que habita en el músculo de los animales hospedadores y, tras ser ingerida por el hombre, pasa a la pared intestinal de éste donde se multiplica y sus embriones emigran a los músculos. De 1990 a 1999 se reportaron 5.217 casos y en otro posterior de 2014 a 2018 fueron 5.211 casos. Con un promedio anual de 579 casos y de 1302 casos. Como resultado del cambio climático, la triquinosis se traslada de climas fríos a templados, lo que la torna una enfermedad emergente. El cuadro clínico puede presentarse en forma benigna o aguda, y su evolución abarca un período de un año; en ocasiones provoca la muerte por complicaciones. El hombre es responsable de la crianza, la alimentación y el control sanitario del cerdo y de sus productos para consumo. Consideramos a esta zoonosis, un indicador del desarrollo de los pueblos. Con educación, cambios de conducta y cumplimiento de las normas sanitarias, se actuará en beneficio de la salud y el bienestar de la población. (AU)


Trichinosis is a zoonosis that affects animals and humans. It is caused by the ingestion of a larva called Trichinella spiralis which lives in the muscle of host animals. After being ingested by humans, the larva passes to the intestinal wall where it multiplies, and its embryos migrate to the muscles. From 1990 to 1999, 5.217 cases were reported, and in a later period from 2014 to 2018, there were 5.211 cases. With an annual average of 579 cases and 1.302 cases, respectively. As a result of climate change, trichinosis moves from cold to temperate climates making it an emerging disease. The clinical presentation can range from benign to acute, with an evolution period of 1 year; and sometimes it causes death due to complications. Humans are responsible for raising, feeding, and ensuring sanitary control of pigs and their products for consumption. We consider this zoonosis an indicator of the development of communities. Through education, behavioral changes, and compliance with sanitary regulations, actions can be taken to promote the health and welfare of the population. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Trichinellosis/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Argentina , Swine , Climate Change , Zoonoses , Food Inspection
6.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 58(4): 604-610, July-Aug. 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521797

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The interest in using 3D printing in the healthcare field has grown over the years, given its advantages and potential in the rapid manufacturing of personalized devices and implants with complex geometries. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare the mechanical fixation behavior of a 3D-printed interference screw, produced by fused deposition modeling of polylactic acid (PLA) filament, with that of a titanium interference screw. Methods Eight deep flexor porcine tendons, approximately 8 mm wide and 9 cm long, were used as graft and fixed to a 40 pounds-per-cubic-foot (PCF) polyurethane block at each of its extremities. One group was fixed only with titanium interference screws (group 1) and the other only with 3D-printed PLA screws (BR 20 2021 018283-6 U2) (group 2). The tests were conducted using an EMIC DL 10000 electromechanical universal testing machine in axial traction mode. Results Group 1 (titanium) obtained peak force of 200 ± 7 N, with mean graft deformation of 8 ± 2 mm, and group 2 (PLA) obtained peak force of 300 ± 30 N, and mean graft deformation of 7 ± 3 mm. Both the titanium and PLA screws provided good graft fixation in the polyurethane block, with no slippage or apparent deformation. In all the samples, the test culminated in graft rupture, with around 20 mm of deformation in relation to the initial length. Conclusion The 3D-printed PLA screw provided good fixation, similar to that of its titanium counterpart, producing satisfactory and promising results.


Resumo Objetivo O interesse em utilizar a impressão 3D na área da saúde tem crescido ao longo dos anos, dadas as suas vantagens e o seu potencial na rápida fabricação de dispositivos e implantes personalizados com geometrias complexas. Assim, o objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar o comportamento de fixação mecânica de um parafuso de interferência impresso em 3D, produzido pela modelagem fundida de deposição do filamento de ácido polilático (PLA), com o de um parafuso de interferência de titânio. Métodos Oito tendões suínos flexores profundos, de aproximadamente 8 mm de largura e 9 cm de comprimento, foram utilizados como enxerto e fixados em um bloco de poliuretano de 40 PCF em cada uma de suas extremidades. Um grupo foi fixado apenas com parafusos de interferência de titânio (grupo 1) e o outro apenas com parafusos PLA impressos em 3D (BR 20 2021 018283-6 U2) (grupo 2). Os testes foram realizados utilizando uma máquina de teste universal eletromecânica EMIC DL 10.000 no modo de tração axial. Resultados O grupo 1 (titânio) obteve força máxima de 200 ± 7 N com deformação média do enxerto de 8 ± 2 mm, e a força máxima do grupo 2 (PLA) foi de 300 ± 30 N e deformação média do enxerto de 7 ± 3 mm. Ambos os parafusos de titânio e PLA forneceram boa fixação de enxerto no bloco de poliuretano, sem deslizamento ou deformação aparente. Em todas as amostras o teste culminou na ruptura do enxerto, com cerca de 20 mm de deformação em relação ao comprimento inicial. Conclusão O parafuso PLA impresso em 3D proporcionou boa fixação, semelhante à de sua contraparte de titânio, produzindo resultados satisfatórios e promissores.


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine , Tendons/surgery , Bone Screws , Lactic Acid , Printing, Three-Dimensional
7.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 43(2): 68-74, Apr.-June 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514425

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The management of complex anal fistulae remains a topical surgical problem. The choice and success of surgical management are based on the balance between healing and continence. Although porcine dermal collagen (Permacol Collagen Paste [PCP]- Covidien plc, Gosport, Hampshire, UK) represents a new generation of non-solid biomaterials, its results in anal fistulae are mixed. Methods: A multicenter observational retrospective analysis of consecutive patients with cryptoglandular anal fistula treated in four colorectal surgery units was performed between 2015 and 2020. Clinical cure of the fistula was the main outcome measure. Adverse events and alterations in anal continence were secondary outcomes. Results: The study included 119 patients (87 males, 71.1%), with a mean age of 53 years (IR 44-65). Most patients had complex (80.6%) and recurrent (91.6%) fistulae. With the first PCP treatment, the overall cure rate was 41.2% (49 patients) and 45.4% with the second treatment (5 out of 17 patients). The mean follow-up period was 17 months (IR 5-25). Healing was not affected by the location and type of fistula, the existence or not of a cavity, the number of tracts, or the administration of prophylactic antibiotics. After the PCP treatment, no patient in the series had worsening of continence. Morbidity affected 22.7% of the patients (27), with postoperative abscesses being the most frequent adverse event. There were no statistical differences between the four hospitals studied. Conclusions: Permacol collagen paste is a safe and easily reproducible therapy for complicated anal fistulae that has moderate efficacy. The overall success rate is slightly over 40%, with no detriment to fecal continence. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Collagen/therapeutic use , Rectal Fistula/therapy , Recurrence , Swine , Health Profile , Cohort Studies , Treatment Outcome
8.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 134-145, feb. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430518

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Understanding species intraocular parameters using computed tomography (CT) scanning is initial and crucial step in ophthalmology. There is a lack of studies that have specialized in estimating the cattle and pig eyes using CT scans. Therefore, this study aimed to describe the anatomical and computed tomography features of cattle and pig eyes and its internal structures. Animal heads that not suffer from any diseases related to the eye were disarticulated. CT scan was performed. Moreover, 10 % fixed buffered formalin Specimens were used for the anatomical description of the eye and the optic nerve in particular. The values of length, width of the lens and globe, radio density of the optic nerve, lens, the anterior chamber, the vitreous chamber, and orbital dimensions were measured. Statistically, all parameters of cattle optic nerve increased significantly than that of the pig except for radiodensity, and angle of the optic nerve. Furthermore, all intraocular parameters of cattle increased significantly than that of the pig except the radiodensity of aqueous and vitreous humor. There was no significant difference between species in the opening angle of the orbit. This study's findings represent a first step toward developing CT reference values for cattle and pigs intraocular structural assessments.


Comprender los parámetros intraoculares de especies mediante la tomografía computarizada es un paso inicial y crítico en oftalmología. Faltan estudios enfocados en la estimación de ojos de bovinos y porcinos mediante tomografías computarizadas. Por tanto, este estudio tuvo como objetivo describir las características anatómicas y de tomografía computarizada de los bulbos oculares de bovinos y porcinos y sus estructuras internas. Se desarticularon cabezas de animales que no padecieran alguna enfermedad relacionada con el ojo. Se realizó una tomografía computarizada. Se fijaron las muestras en formalina tamponada al 10 % para la descripción anatómica del bulbo ocular y del nervio óptico en particular. Se midieron los valores de longitud del bulbo ocular, ancho del lente y la radio densidad del nervio óptico, lente, cámara anterior, cámara vítrea y dimensiones orbitarias. Estadísticamente, todos los parámetros del nervio óptico del ganado aumentaron significativamente con respecto al del cerdo, excepto la radio densidad y el ángulo del nervio óptico. Además, todos los parámetros intraoculares del ganado bovino aumentaron significativamente respecto a los del cerdo, excepto la radio densidad del humor acuoso y cuerpo vítreo. No hubo diferencia significativa entre especies en el ángulo de apertura de la órbita. Los hallazgos de este estudio representan un primer paso hacia el desarrollo de valores de referencia de tomografía computarizada para evaluaciones estructurales intraoculares de ganado vacuno y porcino.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Orbit/diagnostic imaging , Swine/anatomy & histology , Cattle/anatomy & histology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
9.
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 26(1cont): 182-198, jan.-jun. 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1437900

ABSTRACT

O emprego de água na suinocultura global é o principal insumo e, conse- quentemente, elevado. Mas, para que o produtor obtenha resultados positivos técnicos e econômicos, precisa controlar que a água tenha a qualidade correta e seja ministrada na quantidade certa, seguindo as indicações da Instrução Normativa nº 113/2020 do Minis- tério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento-MAPA, acerca da qualidade exigida deste elemento líquido, bem como a Instrução Normativa nº 357/2005 do CONAMA, relacio- nada ao uso e controle da água potável destinada ao consumo de humanos e animais. Uma forma de manter a qualidade da água potável na suinocultura é utilizando o dióxido de cloro (ClO2), eficaz numa ampla faixa de pH (4-10) na eliminação de vírus, bactérias e algas. Neste trabalho, objetiva-se apresentar índices zootécnicos da suinocultura parana- ense relacionados com a qualidade da água potável ­ pH, alcalinidade, dureza e cloração - e o reflexo dela na sanidade do animal evitando a poluição dos efluentes. O procedi- mento metodológico adotado é qualitativo com abordagem indutiva e técnica de pesquisa exploratória baseada em uma revisão de literatura. Da pesquisa bibliográfico-documental em sites de revistas científicas como a UNIPAR, a SCIELO, a Biblioteca Digital de Teses e Dissertações (BDTD), e sites do MAPA obteve-se um vasto material de consulta e apoio acerca do tema apresentado. Conclui-se que a qualidade da água na suinocultura deve ser monitorada por um profissional para que a produção seja lucrativa, zelando pelo bem- estar do rebanho, oferecendo-lhes água potável devidamente tratada, evitando a cloração indevida, dureza e alcalinidade fora do padrão exigido por lei.(AU)


The use of water in world pig farming is the main input and, consequently, high. In order for the producer to obtain positive technical and economic results, he will need to control that the water has the correct quality and that it is administered in the appropriate quantity, following the indications of Regulatory Instruction No. 113/2020 of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply-MAPA, on the required quality of this liquid element, as well as CONAMA Normative Instruction No. 357/2005, relating to the use and control of drinking water for human and animal consumption. One way to maintain the quality of drinking water in pig farming is by using chlorine dioxide (ClO2), effective in a wide range of pH (4-10) to eliminate viruses, bacteria and algae. In this work, the objective is to present zootechnical indices of swine production in Paraná related to the quality of drinking water - pH, alkalinity, hardness and chlorination - and its reflection on animal health, avoiding effluent contamination. The methodological procedure adopted is qualitative with an inductive approach and an exploratory research technique based on a literature review. From the bibliographical-documentary research on websites of scientific journals such as UNIPAR, SCIELO, the Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (BDTD) and MAPA websites, a large amount of reference and support material on the topic presented was obtained. It is concluded that the quality of water in pig farming must be monitored by a professional so that production is profitable, ensuring the well-being of the herd, offering them duly treated drinking water, avoiding undue chlorination, hardness and alkalinity of the appropriate standard required by law.(AU)


El uso de agua en la porcicultura mundial es el principal insumo y, en consecuencia, elevado. Para que el productor obtenga resultados técnicos y económicos positivos, necesitará controlar que el agua tenga la calidad correcta y se administre en la cantidad adecuada, siguiendo las indicaciones de la Instrucción Normativa nº 113/2020 del Ministerio de Agricultura, Pecuaria y Suministro-MAPA, sobre la calidad exigida de este elemento líquido, así como la Instrucción Normativa del CONAMA n° 357/2005, relativa al uso y control del agua potable destinada al consumo humano y animal. Una forma de mantener la calidad del agua potable en la porcicultura es utilizando el dióxido de cloro (ClO2), eficaz en una amplia faja de pH (4-10) para eliminar virus, bacterias y algas. En este trabajo, el objetivo es presentar índices zootécnicos de la producción porcina en Paraná relacionados con la calidad del agua de bebida - pH, alcalinidad, dureza y cloración - y su reflejo en la salud del animal, evitando la contaminación de los efluentes. El procedimiento metodológico adoptado es cualitativo con un enfoque inductivo y una técnica de investigación exploratoria basada en una revisión de la literatura. De la investigación bibliográfico-documental en sitios web de revistas científicas como UNIPAR, SCIELO, la Biblioteca Digital de Tesis y Disertaciones (BDTD) y sitios web del MAPA, se obtuvo una gran cantidad de material de consulta y apoyo sobre el tema presentado. Se concluye que la calidad del agua en la porcicultura debe ser monitoreada por un profesional para que la producción sea rentable, velando por el bienestar del hato, ofreciéndoles agua potable debidamente tratada, evitando cloraciones indebidas, durezas y alcalinidades del padrón adecuado exigido por ley.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine/physiology , Water Quality , Meat Industry/standards , Water Chlorination
10.
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 26(1cont): 226-238, jan.-jun. 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1443234

ABSTRACT

As doenças respiratórias são um problema significativo na produção suína e podem levar à condenação de carcaças no abate. Entre os agentes causadores dessas doenças destacam-se o Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae e a Pasteurella multocida. O Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae é um patógeno altamente contagioso, que ocasiona hemorragia, pleuropneumonia purulenta e fibrosa. A Pleuropneumonia é amplamente distribuída e gera graves prejuízos para a suinocultura. O Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae ocasionador da pneumonia por micoplasma, doença respiratória crônica. As infecções originadas podem regular negativamente o sistema imunológico do hospedeiro e aumentar a infecção e assim a replicação de outros patógenos. A Pasteurella multocida é o agente causador de uma ampla gama de infecções levando a alto impacto econômico. Patógeno comensal e oportunista da boca, nasofaringe e trato respiratório superior. A identificação precoce e o manejo adequado desses agentes causadores de doenças respiratórias são fundamentais para minimizar a incidência de carcaças suínas. A adoção de medidas preventivas, como a vacinação e práticas de manejo adequadas, pode ajudar a prevenir a propagação dessas doenças e garantir a produção de carne suína segura e de alta qualidade para o consumo humano.(AU)


Respiratory diseases are a significant problem in pork production and can lead to condemnation of carcasses at slaughter. Among the causative agents of these diseases are Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a highly contagious pathogen that causes hemorrhage, purulent and fibrous pleuropneumonia. Pleuropneumonia is widely distributed and causes serious damage to pig farming. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae causes mycoplasma pneumonia, a chronic respiratory disease. Originating infections can down-regulate the host's immune system and increase infection and thus replication of other pathogens. Pasteurella multocida is the causative agent of a wide range of infections leading to high economic impact. Commensal and opportunistic pathogen of the mouth, nasopharynx and upper respiratory tract. Early identification and proper management of these agents that cause respiratory diseases are essential to minimize the incidence of swine carcasses. Adopting preventive measures, such as vaccination and proper management practices, can help prevent the spread of these diseases and ensure the production of safe, high-quality pork for human consumption.(AU)


Las enfermedades respiratorias son un problema importante en la producción porcina y pueden provocar el decomiso de las canales en el matadero. Entre los agentes causantes de estas enfermedades se encuentran Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae y Pasteurella multocida. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae es un patógeno altamente contagioso que causa hemorragia, pleuroneumonía purulenta y fibrosa. La pleuroneumonía está ampliamente distribuida y causa graves daños a la cría de cerdos. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae causa neumonía por micoplasma, una enfermedad respiratoria crónica. Las infecciones que se originan pueden regular a la baja el sistema inmunitario del huésped y aumentar la infección y, por lo tanto, la replicación de otros patógenos. Pasteurella multocida es el agente causal de una amplia gama de infecciones que tienen un alto impacto económico. Patógeno comensal y oportunista de la boca, nasofaringe y tracto respiratorio superior. La identificación temprana y el manejo adecuado de estos agentes causantes de enfermedades respiratorias son fundamentales para minimizar la incidencia de las canales porcinas. La adopción de medidas preventivas, como la vacunación y prácticas de manejo adecuadas, puede ayudar a prevenir la propagación de estas enfermedades y garantizar la producción de carne de cerdo segura y de alta calidad para el consumo humano.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Pasteurella Infections/diagnosis , Swine/physiology , Actinobacillus Infections/diagnosis , Animal Culling/methods , Pork Meat/analysis , Mycoplasma Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Diseases/veterinary , Pasteurella multocida/pathogenicity , Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae/pathogenicity , Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae/pathogenicity
11.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 1116-1126, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-987029

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the potential mechanisms that mediate the inhibitory effect of porcine recombinant NKlysin (prNK-lysin) against liver cancer cell metastasis.@*METHODS@#HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify the differentially expressed proteins in prNK-lysin-treated hepatocellular carcinoma SMMOL/LC-7721 cells in comparison with the control and PBS-treated cells. GO functional annotation and KEGG pathway analysis of the differentially expressed proteins were performed using GO and KEGG databases. RT-qPCR was used to determine the mRNA expression levels of polypeptide-N-acetylgalactosaminotransferase 13 (GALNT13), transmembrane protein 51 (TMEM51) and FKBP prolyl isomerase 3 (FKBP3) in the cells, and the protein expression of FKBP3 was verified using Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#Proteomic analysis identified 1989 differentially expressed proteins in prNK-lysin-treated cells compared with the control cells, and 2753 compared with PBS-treated cells. Fifteen proteins were differentially expressed between PBS-treated and the control cells, and 1909 were differentially expressed in prNK- lysin group compared with both PBS and control groups. These differentially expressed proteins were involved mainly in the viral process, translational initiation and RNA binding and were enriched mainly in ribosome, protein process in endoplasmic reticulum, and RNA transport pathways. RT-qPCR showed that compared with the control group, prNK-lysin treatment significantly increased the mRNA expressions of GALNT13 (P < 0.05) and TMEM51 (P < 0.01) and lowered FKBP3 mRNA expression (P < 0.05). Western blotting also showed a significantly decreased expression of FKBP3 protein in prNK-lysin-treated cells (P < 0.001).@*CONCLUSION@#Treatment with prNK-lysin causes significant changes in protein expression profile of SMMOL/LC-7721 cells and inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis by downregulating FKBP3 protein and affecting the cellular oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis pathways.


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Oxidative Phosphorylation , Proteomics , Glycolysis , RNA, Messenger
12.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 783-792, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986989

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To prepare customized porous silicone orbital implants using embedded 3D printing and assess the effect of surface modification on the properties of the implants.@*METHODS@#The transparency, fluidity and rheological properties of the supporting media were tested to determine the optimal printing parameters of silicone. The morphological changes of silicone after modification were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, and the hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity of silicone surface were evaluated by measuring the water contact angle. The compression modulus of porous silicone was measured using compression test. Porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAOECs) were co-cultured with porous silicone scaffolds for 1, 3 and 5 days to test the biocompatibility of silicone. The local inflammatory response to subcutaneous porous silicone implants was evaluated in rats.@*RESULTS@#The optimal printing parameters of silicone orbital implants were determined as the following: supporting medium 4% (mass ratio), printing pressure 1.0 bar and printing speed 6 mm/s. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the silicone surface was successfully modified with polydopamine and collagen, which significantly improved hydrophilicity of the silicone surface (P < 0.05) without causing significant changes in the compression modulus (P > 0.05). The modified porous silicone scaffold had no obvious cytotoxicity and obviously promoted adhesion and proliferation of PAOECs (P < 0.05). In rats bearing the subcutaneous implants, no obvious inflammation was observed in the local tissue.@*CONCLUSION@#Poprous silicone orbital implants with uniform pores can be prepared using embedded 3D printing technology, and surface modification obviously improves hydrophilicity and biocompatibility of the silicone implants for potential clinical application.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Swine , Silicon , Orbital Implants , Endothelial Cells , Porosity , Silicones , Printing, Three-Dimensional
13.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 333-338, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986857

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the effect of various intracanal materials on the accuracy of oral maxillofacial cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) for the diagnosis of vertical root fracture (VRF).@*METHODS@#A total of twenty-four structurally intact single root canal dried and isolated teeth extracted for orthodontic treatment or periodontal disease were collected. The teeth were decrowned along the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) and then used as samples for the study after conventional root canal preparation and post preparation. The 24 samples were divided into two groups with 12 samples in each group. Group A was the control group (no VRF group). According to intracanal materials, they were divided into five subgroups: blank group, fiber post group, gutta-percha point group, titanium post group and gold-palladium post group. Group B was the experimental group (VRF group), and subgroups were grouped as above. The VRF model was prepared by a unified method in the VRF group: the root was completely fractured in the buccolingual direction with a custom root canal nail and then cemented and reset. The control group was not subjected to the simulation of VRF. Titanium post and gold-palladium post were made according to the individuality of the root canal preparation, and the tightness of the post to the root canal wall was confirmed by X-ray radiograph. Then all the samples were scanned by CBCT in the isolate swine mandibular alveolar sockets. The diagnostic accuracy was statistically analyzed via blind interpretation by experienced endodontic specialists and oral and maxillofacial medical imaging specialists.@*RESULTS@#The accuracy of the diagnosis of VRF in the blank group, fiber post group, gutta-percha point group, titanium post group, and gold-palladium post group in CBCT was 95.83%, 91.67%, 87.50%, 79.17%, and 45.83%, respectively. Compared with the blank group, the differences were not statistically significant in the fiber post group (P>0.999), the gutta-percha point group (P=0.500) and the titanium post group (P=0.125). The lowest diagnostic accuracy of VRF was found in the gold-palladium post group, and the difference was statistically significant compared with all other groups (P < 0.001).@*CONCLUSION@#Various intracanal materials have different degrees of influence on the diagnostic accuracy of VRF diagnosis in CBCT. The influence of fiber post, gutta-percha point and titanium post was small, while the influence of gold-palladium post was significant.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography/methods , Gold , Gutta-Percha , Palladium , Swine , Titanium , Tooth Fractures/diagnostic imaging , Tooth Root/injuries , Reproducibility of Results
14.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 131-138, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981930

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#SAM junctional tourniquet (SJT) has been applied to control junctional hemorrhage. However, there is limited information about its safety and efficacy when applied in the axilla. This study aims to investigate the effect of SJT on respiration when used in the axilla in a swine model.@*METHODS@#Eighteen male Yorkshire swines, aged 6-month-old and weighing 55 - 72 kg, were randomized into 3 groups, with 6 in each. An axillary hemorrhage model was established by cutting a 2 mm transverse incision in the axillary artery. Hemorrhagic shock was induced by exsanguinating through the left carotid artery to achieve a controlled volume reduction of 30% of total blood volume. Vascular blocking bands were used to temporarily control axillary hemorrhage before SJT was applied. In Group I, the swine spontaneously breathed, while SJT was applied for 2 h with a pressure of 210 mmHg. In Group II, the swine were mechanically ventilated, and SJT was applied for the same duration and pressure as Group I. In Group III, the swine spontaneously breathed, but the axillary hemorrhage was controlled using vascular blocking bands without SJT compression. The amount of free blood loss was calculated in the axillary wound during the 2 h of hemostasis by SJT application or vascular blocking bands. After then, a temporary vascular shunt was performed in the 3 groups to achieve resuscitation. Pathophysiologic state of each swine was monitored for 1 h with an infusion of 400 mL of autologous whole blood and 500 mL of lactated ringer solution. Tb and T0 represent the time points before and immediate after the 30% volume-controlled hemorrhagic shock, respectively. T30, T60, T90 and T120, denote 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after T0 (hemostasis period), while T150, and T180 denote 150 and 180 min after T0 (resuscitation period). The mean arterial pressure and heart rate were monitored through the right carotid artery catheter. Blood samples were collected at each time point for the analysis of blood gas, complete cell count, serum chemistry, standard coagulation tests, etc., and thromboelastography was conducted subsequently. Movement of the left hemidiaphragm was measured by ultrasonography at Tb and T0 to assess respiration. Data were presented as mean ± standard deviation and analyzed using repeated measures of two-way analysis of variance with pairwise comparisons adjusted using the Bonferroni method. All statistical analyses were processed using GraphPad Prism software.@*RESULTS@#Compared to Tb, a statistically significant increase in the left hemidiaphragm movement at T0 was observed in Groups I and II (both p < 0.001). In Group III, the left hemidiaphragm movement remained unchanged (p = 0.660). Compared to Group I, mechanical ventilation in Group II significantly alleviated the effect of SJT application on the left hemidiaphragm movement (p < 0.001). Blood pressure and heart rate rapidly increased at T0 in all three groups. Respiratory arrest suddenly occurred in Group I after T120, which required immediate manual respiratory assistance. PaO2 in Group I decreased significantly at T120, accompanied by an increase in PaCO2 (both p < 0.001 vs. Groups II and III). Other biochemical metabolic changes were similar among groups. However, in all 3 groups, lactate and potassium increased immediately after 1 min of resuscitation concurrent with a drop in pH. The swine in Group I exhibited the most severe hyperkalemia and metabolic acidosis. The coagulation function test did not show statistically significant differences among three groups at any time point. However, D-dimer levels showed a more than 16-fold increase from T120 to T180 in all groups.@*CONCLUSION@#In the swine model, SJT is effective in controlling axillary hemorrhage during both spontaneous breathing and mechanical ventilation. Mechanical ventilation is found to alleviate the restrictive effect of SJT on thoracic movement without affecting hemostatic efficiency. Therefore, mechanical ventilation could be necessary before SJT removal.


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Swine , Shock, Hemorrhagic/therapy , Tourniquets , Axilla , Hemorrhage/therapy , Vascular Diseases , Respiration
15.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 147-154, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981917

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#Child head injury under impact scenarios (e.g. falls, vehicle crashes, etc.) is an important topic in the field of injury biomechanics. The head of piglet was commonly used as the surrogate to investigate the biomechanical response and mechanisms of pediatric head injuries because of the similar cellular structures and material properties. However, up to date, piglet head models with accurate geometry and material properties, which have been validated by impact experiments, are seldom. We aim to develop such a model for future research.@*METHODS@#In this study, first, the detailed anatomical structures of the piglet head, including the skull, suture, brain, pia mater, dura mater, cerebrospinal fluid, scalp and soft tissue, were constructed based on CT scans. Then, a structured butterfly method was adopted to mesh the complex geometries of the piglet head to generate high-quality elements and each component was assigned corresponding constitutive material models. Finally, the guided drop tower tests were conducted and the force-time histories were ectracted to validate the piglet head finite element model.@*RESULTS@#Simulations were conducted on the developed finite element model under impact conditions and the simulation results were compared with the experimental data from the guided drop tower tests and the published literature. The average peak force and duration of the guide drop tower test were similar to that of the simulation, with an error below 10%. The inaccuracy was below 20%. The average peak force and duration reported in the literature were comparable to those of the simulation, with the exception of the duration for an impact energy of 11 J. The results showed that the model was capable to capture the response of the pig head.@*CONCLUSION@#This study can provide an effective tool for investigating child head injury mechanisms and protection strategies under impact loading conditions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine , Finite Element Analysis , Skull/injuries , Craniocerebral Trauma/diagnostic imaging , Brain , Biomechanical Phenomena , Scalp
16.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4824-4836, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008061

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a highly pathogenic virus that can cause acute intestinal infectious diseases in both piglets and fattening pigs. The virus encodes at least 16 non-structural proteins, including nsp9, which has been shown to bind to single-stranded RNA. However, its function and mechanism remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to identify potential host proteins that interact with PEDV nsp9 using immunoprecipitation combined with mass spectrometry. The interactions were then confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) and confocal laser scanning fluorescence techniques. The results showed that nsp9 interacts with HSPA8, Tollip, HSPA9 and TOMM70. Among them, overexpression of HSPA8 resulted in caused first upregulated and then down-regulated expression of nsp9, and promoted the proliferation of PEDV. Overexpression of Tollip significantly upregulated the expression of nsp9 and inhibited the proliferation of PEDV. Overexpression of TOMM70 significantly reduced the expression of nsp9, but did not show significant effect on the proliferation of PEDV. Overexpression of HSPA9 did not show significant effect on the expression of nsp9 and the proliferation of PEDV. These findings may facilitate further investigating the role of nsp9-interacting proteins in PEDV infection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Virus Replication , Proteins , Swine Diseases
17.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4809-4823, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008060

ABSTRACT

In order to understand the prevalence and evolution of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in China and to develop subunit vaccine against the epidemic lineage, the genetic evolution analysis of PRRSV strains isolated in China from 2001 to 2021 was performed. The representative strains of the dominant epidemic lineage were selected to optimize the membrane protein GP5 and M nucleotide sequences, which were used, with the interferon and the Fc region of immunoglobulin, to construct the eukaryotic expression plasmids pCDNA3.4-IFNα-GP5-Fc and pCDNA3.4-IFNα-M-Fc. Subsequently, the recombinant proteins IFNα-GP5-Fc and IFNα-M-Fc were expressed by HEK293T eukaryotic expression system. The two recombinant proteins were mixed with ISA206VG adjuvant to immunize weaned piglets. The humoral immunity level was evaluated by ELISA and neutralization test, and the cellular immunity level was detected by ELISPOT test. The results showed that the NADC30-like lineage was the main epidemic lineage in China in recent years, and the combination of IFNα-GP5-Fc and IFNα-M-Fc could induce high levels of antibody and cellular immunity in piglets. This study may facilitate the preparation of a safer and more effective new PRRSV subunit vaccine.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Swine , Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus/genetics , Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , HEK293 Cells , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics , Antibodies, Viral , Viral Vaccines/genetics , Recombinant Proteins , Vaccines, Subunit
18.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4796-4808, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008059

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to explore the mechanism of how African swine fever virus (ASFV) I226R protein inhibits the cGAS-STING signaling pathway. We observed that I226R protein (pI226R) significantly inhibited the cGAS-STING-mediated type Ⅰ interferons and the interferon-stimulated genes production by dual-luciferase reporter assay system and real-time quantitative PCR. The results of co-immunoprecipitation assay and confocal microscopy showed that pI226R interacted with cGAS. Furthermore, pI226R promoted cGAS degradation through autophagy-lysosome pathway. Moreover, we found that pI226R decreased the binding of cGAS to E3 ligase tripartite motif protein 56 (TRIM56), resulting in the weakened monoubiquitination of cGAS, thus inhibiting the activation of cGAS and cGAS-STING signaling. In conclusion, ASFV pI226R suppresses the antiviral innate immune response by antagonizing cGAS, which contributes to an in-depth understanding of the immune escape mechanism of ASFV and provides a theoretical basis for the development of vaccines.


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine , African Swine Fever Virus/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Immunity, Innate , Nucleotidyltransferases/metabolism , Signal Transduction/genetics
19.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4784-4795, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008058

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to produce recombinant porcine interferon gamma (rPoIFN-γ) by Chinese hamster ovarian (CHO) cells expression system and to analyze its antiviral activity. Firstly, we constructed the recombinant eukaryotic expression plasmid pcDNA3.1-PoIFN-γ and transfected into suspension cultured CHO cells for secretory expression of rPoIFN-γ. The rPoIFN-γ was purified by affinity chromatography and identified with SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Subsequently, the cytotoxicity of rPoIFN-γ was analyzed by CCK-8 test, and the antiviral activity of rPoIFN-γ was evaluated using standard procedures in VSV/PK-15 (virus/cell) test system. Finally the anti-Seneca virus A (SVA) of rPoIFN-γ activity and the induction of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) and cytokines were also analyzed. The results showed that rPoIFN-γ could successfully expressed in the supernatant of CHO cells. CCK-8 assays indicated that rPoIFN-γ did not show cytotoxicity on IBRS-2 cells. The biological activity of rPoIFN-γ was 5.59×107 U/mg in VSV/PK-15 system. Moreover, rPoIFN-γ could induced the expression of ISGs and cytokines, and significantly inhibited the replication of SVA. In conclusion, the high activity of rPoIFN-γ was successfully prepared by CHO cells expression system, which showed strong antiviral activity on SVA. This study may facilitate the investigation of rPoIFN-γ function and the development of novel genetically engineered antiviral drugs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cricetinae , Swine , Interferon-gamma/pharmacology , Cricetulus , CHO Cells , Sincalide , Recombinant Proteins/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology
20.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4773-4783, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008057

ABSTRACT

Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the pathogen causing swine mycoplasmal pneumonia. The lack of well-established animal models of M. hyopneumoniae infection has delayed the progress of M. hyopneumoniae-related anti-infection immunity studies. This paper reviews the inflammatory response, the recognition of M. hyopneumoniae by the innate immune system, and the role of innate immune cells, complement system, antimicrobial peptides, autophagy, and apoptosis in M. hyopneumoniae infection. The aim was to elucidate the important roles played by the components of the innate immune system in the control of M. hyopneumoniae infection, and prospect key research directions of innate immune response of M. hyopneumoniae infection in the future.


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine , Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae , Pneumonia of Swine, Mycoplasmal , Immunity, Innate
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