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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 00264, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339364

ABSTRACT

Abstract Allium cepa L. is a commonly consumed vegetable that belongs to the Amaryllidaceae family and contains nutrients and antioxidants in ample amounts. In spite of the valuable food applications of onion bulb, its peel and outer fleshy layers are generally regarded as waste and exploration of their nutritional and therapeutic potential is still in progress with a very slow progression rate. The present study was designed with the purpose of doing a comparative analysis of the antioxidant potential of two parts of Allium cepa, i.g., bulb (edible part) and outer fleshy layers and dry peels (inedible part). Moreover, the inhibitory effect of the onion bulb and peel extracts on rat intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase of porcine was also evaluated. The antioxidant potential of onion peel and bulb extracts were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP), 2,2'-azino-bis- 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, H2O2 radical scavenging activity and Fe2+ chelating activity. Total flavonoids and phenolic content of ethanolic extract of onion peel were significantly greater as compared to that of onion bulb. Ethanolic extract of onion peel also presented better antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activity as compared to the ethanolic extract of bulb, while the aqueous extract of bulb presented weakest antioxidative potential. Onion peel extract's α-glucosidase inhibition potential was also correlated with their phenolic and flavonoid contents. The current findings presented onion peel as a possible source of antioxidative agents and phenolic compounds that might be beneficial against development of various common chronic diseases that might have an association with oxidative stress. Besides, outer dry layers and fleshy peels of onion exhibited higher phenolic content and antioxidant activities, compared to the inner bulb. The information obtained by the present study can be useful in promoting the use of vegetable parts other than the edible mesocarp for several future food applications, rather than these being wasted.


Resumo Allium cepa pertence à família Liliaceae e é rica em nutrientes e antioxidantes. Apesar das expressivas aplicações alimentares do bulbo da cebola, sua casca e outras camadas externas são geralmente consideradas resíduos, e seu potencial nutricional e terapêutico ainda é pouco explorado. O presente estudo foi delineado com o objetivo de investigar comparativamente o potencial antioxidante de duas partes de Allium cepa, por exemplo o bulbo (parte comestível) e camadas externas e cascas secas (parte não comestível). Além disso, o efeito inibitório dos extratos do bulbo de cebola e casca sobre a α-glucosidase intestinal de ratos e α-amilase pancreática suína também foi avaliado. O potencial antioxidante dos extratos da casca de cebola e bulbo foi avaliado utilizando-se 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil (DPPH), método de poder antioxidante de redução do ferro (FRAP), método 2,2'-azino-bis-3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-ácido sulfônico (ABTS) de eliminação de radicais, atividade de eliminação de radicais H2O2 e atividade quelante do Fe2+. Os flavonoides totais e os teores fenólicos do extrato de etanol da casca de cebola foram significativamente maiores quando comparados ao do bulbo. O extrato de etanol da casca de cebola também apresentou melhor atividade antioxidante e eliminação de radicais livres quando comparado ao extrato de etanol do bulbo, enquanto o extrato aquoso de bulbo apresentou menor potencial antioxidante. O potencial de inibição da α-glicosidase dos extratos de casca de cebola correlacionou-se com seus teores fenólicos e de flavonoides. Os resultados encontrados identificaram que a casca de cebola é uma possível fonte de agentes antioxidantes e compostos fenólicos que podem ser benéficos contra o desenvolvimento de várias doenças crônicas que estão associadas ao estresse oxidativo. Além disso, as camadas externas secas e as cascas da cebola exibiram maior conteúdo fenólico e atividades antioxidantes, em comparação com o bulbo interno. As informações obtidas pelo presente estudo podem promover o uso de outras partes vegetais além do mesocarpo comestível para futuras aplicações em alimentos, ao invés de serem desperdiçadas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Onions , Antioxidants , Swine , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , alpha-Glucosidases , Hydrogen Peroxide
2.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 42(2): 77-83, jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1378671

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el impacto de la resistencia antimicrobiana (RAM) generará un aumento de las muertes relacionadas de 10 millones anuales hacia 2050. El 70% de la dispensación de antimicrobianos (ATB) se utiliza en la agroveterinaria y no en salud humana. Es fundamental conocer la portación de RAM en trabajadores de cría de animales y en los animales, para acciones tempranas de salud pública. Métodos: bajo metodología PRISMA se realizó la búsqueda bibliográfica en distintas fuentes disponibles hasta octubre de 2020. Se priorizaron revisiones sistemáticas, metanálisis, ensayos clínicos y estudios observacionales para determinar la RAM en trabajadores de cría de cerdos. De 990 artículos identificados se incluyeron 8 estudios. Resultados: la tasa de colonización por Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina (SAMR) en trabajadores fue mayor que la de la población general. La prevalencia de SAMR fue significativamente mayor en trabajadores en contacto directo con animales y los de granjas de cría intensiva con respecto a los de extensiva. En cerdos, la prevalencia de RAM en cría intensiva fue significativamente mayor que la de los de cría extensiva. También fue significativa la asociación entre el suministro de antibióticos en la cría intensiva y la presencia de RAM. Las granjas de más de 1250 cerdos presentaron mayor prevalencia de RAM (p < 0,001). El fenotipo de SAMR en cerdos, trabajadores y el ambiente fue el mismo. Conclusiones: existe evidencia de asociación entre la producción agrícola de cría intensiva y la RAM en cerdos y trabajadores. No se encontraron estudios de vigilancia epidemiológica en la Argentina en trabajadores de cría de animales. (AU)


Introduction: it is estimated that the impact of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) will generate an increase of 10 million deaths by 2050, being reflected to a greater extent in low-income countries. 70% of the annual use of antimicrobials is concentrated in agroveterinary but not in human health. Considering the presence of AMR in ranchers and agricultural workers is essential for early public health actions. Methods: using the PRISMA methodology, bibliography was searched in different sources until October 2020. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses, clinical trials and observational studies were prioritized to determine AMR in pig workers. Eight studies of the 990 found have been included. Results: the rate of colonization by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in farming workers was higher than the general population. MRSA prevalence was significantly higher in workers who reported direct contact with animals. And also in those workers of intensive farms compared to those of extensive farms. The same situation is observed in swines, in which the prevalence of AMR in intensive farming was significantly higher than in extensive farming. The association between the supply of antibiotics in intensive farming workers and the presence of AMR was also significant. Farms with more than 1,250 swines had a higher prevalence of AMR (p<0.001). The MRSA phenotype found in swine, agricultural workers, and the environment was the same. Conclusions: there is scientific evidence of an association between agricultural production in intensive livestock farming and AMR in swine and farming workers. There aren't Argentine studies of epidemiological surveillance in farming workers. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Farmers/statistics & numerical data , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Swine , Public Health , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Observational Studies as Topic , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage
3.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(1): 81-93, ene. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1372383

ABSTRACT

Escherichia coli is a pathogen associated with infections in piglets in the post-weaning phase, its pathogenicity is related to the animal's susceptibility to bacterial enterotoxins. The objective of the present study was to determine the EOs activity against E. colistrain, in the form planktonic and sessile. Although the Disc-Diffusion tests to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration, do not fully corroborate with the other analyzes of this study, it was noticed bacteria inhibition. The EOs were prepared at 0.4%, 0.8% and 1.0% for tests. The tested EOs were effective against E. coliplanktonic cells (p<0.05). As for the sessile cells, the most significant result was inhibition and 100% sessile cells at the concentration of 1.0% of Cymbopogon citratusEO. Although there was resistance in some treatments, the tested EOs demonstrated inhibition capacity, constituting promising alternatives for the control of E. coli, especially of planktonic cells.


Escherichia coli es un patógeno asociado con infecciones en lechones en la fase posterior al destete, su patogenicidad está relacionada con la susceptibilidad del animal a las enterotoxinas bacterianas. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la actividad de contra E. coli, en la forma planctónico y sésil. Aunque las pruebas de difusión de disco para determinar la concentración inhibitoria mínima, no corroboran completamente con los otros análisis de este estudio, se observó inhibición de la bacteria. Las soluciones basadas en AE se prepararon al 0.4%, 0.8% y 1.0% para pruebas. Los AEs probados fueron efectivos contra las células planctónicas (p<0.05). En cuanto a las células sésiles, el resultado más significativo fue la inhibición y el 100% de las células sésiles a la concentración de 1,0% de Cymbopogon citratus. Aunque hubo resistencia en algunos tratamientos, los AEs probados demostraron capacidad de inhibición, constituyendo alternativas prometedoras para el control de E. coli, especialmente de células planctónicas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Swine , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Biofilms/drug effects , Ocimum basilicum , Cymbopogon , Diarrhea/microbiology , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Escherichia coli/cytology , Flame Ionization , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e237869, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249268

ABSTRACT

Abstract Reproductive diseases have been well documented in domestic livestock such as sheep, goat, cattle and pigs. However, there is very little information on these diseases in the agouti (Dasyprocta leporina). The agouti is used for its meat in South America and the Caribbean. More recently, intensive farming of this animal is being practiced in the Neotropics. There is dearth of information on dystocia and vaginal prolapses in the agouti. This document reports on three cases of reproductive diseases in captive reared agoutis in Trinidad and Tobago. The first case was a female agouti weighing approximately 3 kg that was in the last stage of pregnancy, which was found dead in its cage. The vulva of the mother had the protruding hind-limbs of the fetus. Necroscopic evaluation of carcass revealed little fat tissue and the mother had two fetuses in the right horn of the uterus. Each fetus weighed approximately 200 g. The fetuses were well formed with fur, teeth and eyes. The placenta was attached to each fetus. The pathological findings suggested that dystocia resulted from secondary uterine inertia which was the cause of death of the adult female agouti. The second case was that of an adult female agouti weighing 2.5 kg. This female had given birth to an offspring three weeks prior and was observed to have had a vaginal prolapse. Surgery was performed and the prolapsed vagina was placed back into the pelvic cavity. Further to this intervention, the vagina prolapsed twice. Subsequent to the re-insertion of the vaginal tissue the agouti was euthanized. The third case was also that of a dystocia. However, the fetuses weighed 235 g and 165 g respectively and were in normal presentation, posture and positioning. The fetus however was unable to pass via the vagina and was trapped in the pelvic cavity. This caused secondary uterine inertia which was the cause of death. The causes of reproductive diseases in these cases are unknown but the feeding management and space allowance given to the agouti in late gestation may be contributing factors.


Resumo As doenças reprodutivas têm sido bem documentadas em rebanhos domésticos, como ovinos, caprinos, bovinos e suínos. Porém, há muito pouca informação sobre essas doenças na cutia (Dasyprocta leporina). A cutia é usada como carne na América do Sul e no Caribe. Mais recentemente, a criação intensiva desse animal está sendo praticada na região neotropical., Há escassez de informações sobre distocia e prolapsos vaginais na cutia. Este documento relata três casos de doenças reprodutivas em cutias criadas em cativeiro em Trinidad e Tobago. O primeiro caso foi de uma cutia de aproximadamente 3 kg que estava na última fase de gestação, encontrada morta em sua gaiola. A vulva da mãe tinha as patas traseiras salientes do feto. A avaliação necroscópica da carcaça revelou pouco tecido adiposo e a mãe tinha dois fetos no corno direito do útero. Cada feto pesava aproximadamente 200 g. Os fetos eram bem formados com pelos, dentes e olhos. A placenta foi presa a cada feto. Os achados patológicos sugeriram que a distocia resultou de inércia uterina secundária, que foi a causa da morte da cutia adulta. O segundo caso foi o de uma cutia adulta pesando 2,5 kg. Essa fêmea deu à luz uma cria três semanas antes e foi observado que tinha prolapso vaginal., A cirurgia foi realizada e a vagina prolapsada foi colocada de volta na cavidade pélvica. Após essa intervenção, a vagina prolapsou duas vezes. Após a reinserção do tecido vaginal, a cutia foi eutanasiada. O terceiro caso também foi de distocia. No entanto, os fetos pesavam 235 g e 165 g e estavam em apresentação, postura e posicionamento normais. O feto, entretanto, não conseguiu passar pela vagina e ficou preso na cavidade pélvica. Isso causou inércia uterina secundária, que foi a causa da morte. As causas das doenças reprodutivas nesses casos são desconhecidas, mas o manejo da alimentação e o espaço concedido à cutia no final da gestação podem ser fatores contribuintes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Dasyproctidae , South America , Swine , Trinidad and Tobago , Cattle , Sheep , Caribbean Region
5.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 20: eAO6318, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360397

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To describe the technical specificities and feasibility of simulation of minimally invasive spine surgery in live pigs, as well as similarities and differences in comparison to surgery in humans. Methods A total of 22 Large White class swine models, weighing between 60 and 80kg, were submitted to surgical simulations, performed during theoretical-practical courses for training surgical techniques (microsurgical and endoscopic lumbar decompression; percutaneous pedicular instrumentation; lateral access to the thoracic spine, and anterior and retroperitoneal to the lumbar spine, and management of complications) by 86 spine surgeons. For each surgical technique, porcine anatomy (similarities and differences in relation to human anatomy), access route, and dimensions of the instruments and implants used were evaluated. Thus, the authors describe the feasibility of each operative simulation, as well as suggestions to optimize training. Study results are descriptive, with figures and drawings. Results Neural decompression surgeries (microsurgeries and endoscopic) and pedicular instrumentation presented higher similarities to surgery on humans. On the other hand, intradiscal procedures had limitations due to the narrow disc space in swines. We were able to simulate situations of surgical trauma in surgical complication scenarios, such as cerebrospinal fluid fistulas and excessive bleeding, with comparable realism to surgery on humans. Conclusion A porcine model for simulation of minimally invasive spinal surgical techniques had similarities with surgery on humans, and is therefore feasible for surgeon training.


Subject(s)
Animals , Spinal Fusion/methods , Intervertebral Disc Degeneration , Swine , Treatment Outcome , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures/methods , Lumbar Vertebrae , Lumbosacral Region
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e231838, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153467

ABSTRACT

Abstract Use of antibiotics inevitably leads to antimicrobial resistance. Selection for resistance occurs primarily within the gut of humans and animals as well as in the environment through natural resistance and residual antibiotics in streams and soil. We evaluated antimicrobial resistance in Gram negative bacteria from a river system in a rural community in Bahia, Brazil. Water was collected from the Jiquiriçá and Brejões rivers and the piped water supply. Additionally, stools were collected from a random sample of residents, cows, pigs and horses near the river. The samples were screened for bacteria resistant to ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime, and meropenem and identified biochemically at the genus and species levels. Microbial source tracking demonstrated that ruminant and human fecal contamination increased as the rivers neared the village center and decreased after the last residence. Antibiotic bacteria were identified from all samples (n = 32). No bacteria were resistant to carbapenems, but the majority of the enterobacteria were resistant to ciprofloxacin, even though this class of antibiotics is not commonly used in food animals in this region. Considering these facts, together with the pattern of human fecal contamination, a human source was considered most likely for these resistant isolates.


Resumo O uso de antibióticos inevitavelmente leva à resistência antimicrobiana. A seleção para resistência antimicrobiana ocorre principalmente no intestino de seres humanos e animais, bem como no meio ambiente, através da resistência natural e resíduos de antibióticos nos esgotos e no solo. Avaliamos a resistência antimicrobiana em bactérias Gram-negativas de um sistema fluvial em uma comunidade rural da Bahia, Brasil. A água foi coletada nos rios Jiquiriçá e Brejões e no abastecimento de água encanada. Além disso, foram coletadas amostras randomizadas de fezes de moradores, vacas, porcos e cavalos próximos ao rio. As amostras foram triadas para bactérias resistentes à ciprofloxacina, cefotaxima e meropenem e identificadas bioquimicamente nos níveis de gênero e espécie. O rastreamento de fontes microbianas demonstrou que a contaminação fecal de ruminantes e humanos aumentou à medida que os rios se aproximavam do centro da vila e diminuía após a última residência. Bactérias resistentes a antibióticos foram identificadas em todas as amostras (n = 32). Nenhuma bactéria demonstrou ser resistente aos carbapenêmicos testados, contudo, foi encontrado enterobactérias resistentes à ciprofloxacina, ainda que essa classe de antibióticos não seja comumente usada na medicina veterinária dos animais dessa região. Considerando esses fatos, juntamente com o padrão de contaminação fecal avaliado, a fonte de contaminação humana foi considerada a mais provável na interação desses isolados resistentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rivers , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Rural Population , Swine , Brazil , Cattle , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Drug Resistance, Bacterial
7.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 49: e2022EDIT01, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365381

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Are presented results of experimental pig kidney xenotransplantation in Brazil, which aims to reduce the waiting list mortality due to shortage of organs. Recent clinical results obtained abroad are commented.


RESUMO Apresentam-se resultados de xenotransplante suíno de rim experimental no Brasil que visa reduzir as listas de espera nas quais falecem muitos inscritos à espera do transplante. Comentam-se os recentes resultados clínicos obtidos no exterior.


Subject(s)
Animals , Kidney Transplantation , Swine , Transplantation, Heterologous/methods , Brazil , Waiting Lists , Kidney
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928999

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Heparin is mainly used as an anticoagulant in clinic, and it also has a certain anti-inflammatory effect. At present, after portal vein islet transplantation in diabetic patients, heparin is mainly infused through the peripheral veins of the limbs to achieve the purpose of anticoagulation and protection of the graft, rather than through the portal vein. In this study, animal experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of heparin infusion via the portal vein and marginal ear vein on the instant blood-mediated inflammatory reaction (IBMIR) after portal vein islet transplantation, which is the choice of anticoagulation methods for clinical islet transplantation to provide a basis for decision-making.@*METHODS@#A total of 50 neonatal pigs (Xeno-1 type, 3-5 days) were selected. Islets were isolated and purified from the pancreas of neonatal pigs. Ten non-diabetic Landrace pigs (1.5-2.0 months) served as recipients, and 12 000 IEQ/kg neonatal porcine islets were transplanted into the liver through the portal vein. All recipients received bolus injection of 50 U/kg of heparin 10 minutes before transplantation. After the bolus injection of heparin, the experimental group received heparin via the portal vein [10 U/(kg·h), 5 recipients], and the control group received heparin via the marginal ear vein [10 U/(kg·h), 5 recipients]. The superior vena cava blood was collected from the 2 groups pre-operation at 1, 3, 24 h post-operation of the transplantation. The portal vein blood was collected from the experimental group at 1 and 3 h after the transplantation as well. The levels of complement C3a, C5a, thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT), β-thromboglobulin (β-TG), and D-dimer as well as activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) in superior vena cava blood from 1 and 3 h post-transplantation were detected in the 2 groups, and the levels of anti-Xa and anti-IIa in the portal vein and superior vena cava blood from 1 and 3 h post-transplantation in the experimental group were detected. Twenty four hours after the transplantation, the liver tissues in the 2 groups were collected for pathological examination to observe the inflammatory cell infiltration and peripheral thrombosis around the islets graft in liver.@*RESULTS@#Before transplantation, there was no statistically significant difference in C3a, C5a, TAT, β-TG, D-dimer levels and APTT between the 2 groups (all P>0.05). At 1 and 3 h after transplantation, the C3a, TAT, and D-dimer levels in the experimental group were significant decreased than those in the control groups (all P<0.05), and at 3 h after transplantation the C5a was significant decreased than that in the control group (P<0.05). At 1 and 3 h after transplantation, the anti-Xa and anti-IIa levels in the portal vein blood were significantly increased than those in the superior vena cava blood in the experimental group (all P<0.05). Pathological results showed the presence of islet cell clusters in the liver blood vessels. The thrombus formation and neutrophil infiltration around islet graft was not obvious in the experimental group, while massive thrombus formation and neutrophil infiltration in the control group.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Compared with marginal ear vein infusion of heparin, the direct infusion of heparin in the portal vein has a certain inhibitory effect on complement system, coagulation system activation and inflammatory cell infiltration in portal vein islet transplantation, which may attenuate the occurrence of IBMIR.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Islets of Langerhans/pathology , Islets of Langerhans Transplantation/physiology , Portal Vein , Swine , Vena Cava, Superior
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928231

ABSTRACT

Cartilage surface fibrosis is an early sign of osteoarthritis and cartilage surface damage is closely related to load. The purpose of this study was to study the relationship between cartilage surface roughness and load. By applying impact, compression and fatigue loads on fresh porcine articular cartilage, the rough value of cartilage surface was measured at an interval of 10 min each time and the change rule of roughness before and after loading was obtained. It was found that the load increased the roughness of cartilage surface and the increased value was related to the load size. The time of roughness returning to the initial condition was related to the load type and the load size. The impact load had the greatest influence on the roughness of cartilage surface, followed by the severe fatigue load, compression load and mild fatigue load. This article provides reference data for revealing the pathogenesis of early osteoarthritis and preventing and treating articular cartilage diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cartilage, Articular , Fatigue , Osteoarthritis/pathology , Pressure , Swine
10.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1994-2002, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927833

ABSTRACT

Avicel is made of a mixture of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), and used for virus plaque assay. The avicel in common use is produced by FMC Biopolymer. Due to the relatively fixed proportion of MCC and CMC, avicel in common use is not suitable for plaque determination experiment of all types of viruses. In this study, we evaluated the effect of avicel made of different proportions of MCC and CMC on virus plaque assay, and developed an improved avicel virus plaque assay featured with simple and convenient operation, good practicability and high stability. To generate avicel overlays with different proportions of MCC and CMC, twelve different 2×avicel solutions were prepared. Their overall viscosity and bottom viscosity were measured to evaluate the ease of operation. The results showed that most of the 2×avicel solutions (except the 4.8% MCC+1.4% CMC and 4.8% MCC+1.0% CMC group) were easy to absorb and prepare nutrient overlap than 2×CMC solution. In order to find the best scheme to detect the titer of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), these avicel overlay solutions with different proportion of MCC and CMC were used as a replacement in the standard plaque assay. By comparing the size, clarity, stability and titer accuracy of virus plaque, we identified that 0.6% MCC and 0.7% CMC was the most preferable composition of avicel overlay for PEDV plaque assay. In conclusion, we developed an improved virus plaque assay based on avicel, which may facilitate the research of virus etiology, antiviral drugs and vaccines.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium/chemistry , Cellulose/chemistry , Swine
11.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1837-1846, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927821

ABSTRACT

We researched the mechanism of African swine fever virus (ASFV) protein E248R in regulating the cGAS-STING pathway. First, we verified via the dual-luciferase reporter assay system that E248R protein inhibited the secretion of IFN-β induced by cGAS-STING or HT-DNA in a dose-dependent manner. The relative quantitative PCR analysis indicated that the overexpression of E248R inhibited HT-DNA-induced transcription of IFN-b1, RANTES, IL-6, and TNF-α in PK-15 cells. Next, we found that E248R interacted with STING by co-immunoprecipitation assay and laser confocal microscopy. Finally, we demonstrated that E248R inhibited the expression of STING protein by using Western blotting. We demonstrated for the first time that the E248R protein of ASFV suppressed the host innate immune response via inhibiting STING expression. The results are pivotal in extending the understanding of the ASFV immune escape and can guide the design of vaccines against ASFV.


Subject(s)
African Swine Fever Virus/genetics , Animals , DNA , Immunity, Innate , Nucleotidyltransferases/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Swine
12.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1824-1836, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927820

ABSTRACT

In order to construct a recombinant replication deficient human type 5 adenovirus (Ad5) expressing a foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsid protein, specific primers for P12A and 3B3C genes of FMDV-OZK93 were synthesized. The P12A and 3B3C genes were then amplified and connected by fusion PCR, and a recombinant shuttle plasmid pDC316-mCMV-EGFP-P12A3B3C expressing the FMDV-OZK93 capsid protein precursor P12A and 3B3C protease were obtained by inserting the P12A3B3C gene into the pDC316-mCMV-EGFP plasmid. The recombinant adenovirus rAdv-P12A3B3C-OZK93 was subsequently packaged, characterized and amplified using AdMaxTM adenovirus packaging system, and the expression was verified by infecting human embryonic kidney cell HEK-293. The humoral and cellular immunity levels of well-expressed and purified recombinant adenovirus immunized mice were evaluated. The results showed that rAdv-P12A3B3C-OZK93 could be stably passaged and the maximum virus titer reached 1×109.1 TCID50/mL. Western blotting and indirect immunofluorescence showed that rAdv-P12A3B3C-OZK93 expressed the FMDV-specific proteins P12A and VP1 in HEK-293 cells. In addition, the PK cell infection experiment confirmed that rAdv-P12A3B3C-OZK93 could infect porcine cells, which is essential for vaccination in pigs. Comparing with the inactivated vaccine group, the recombinant adenovirus could induce higher FMDV-specific IgG antibodies, γ-IFN and IL-10. This indicates that the recombinant adenovirus has good immunity for animal, which is very important for the subsequent development of foot-and-mouth disease vaccine.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae/genetics , Adenoviruses, Human/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Capsid/metabolism , Capsid Proteins , Foot-and-Mouth Disease/prevention & control , Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus/genetics , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mice , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Serogroup , Swine , Viral Proteins , Viral Vaccines/genetics
13.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1096-1111, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927766

ABSTRACT

Pigs are considered as ideal donors for xenotransplantation because they have many physiological and anatomical characteristics similar to human beings. However, antibody-mediated immunity, which includes both natural and induced antibody responses, is a major challenge for the success of pig-to-primate xenotransplantation. Various genetic modification methods help to tailor pigs to be appropriate donors for xenotransplantation. In this study, we applied transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) to knock out the porcine α-1, 3-galactosyltransferase gene GGTA1, which encodes Gal epitopes that induce hyperacute immune rejection in pig-to-human xenotransplantation. Meanwhile, human leukocyte antigen-G5 gene HLA-G5, which acts as an immunosuppressive factor, was co-transfected with TALEN into porcine fetal fibroblasts. The cell colonies of GGTA1 biallelic knockout with positive transgene for HLA-G5 were chosen as nuclear donors to generate genetic modified piglets through a single round of somatic cell nuclear transfer. As a result, we successfully obtained 20 modified piglets that were positive for GGTA1 knockout (GTKO) and half of them expressed the HLA-G5 protein. Gal epitopes on the cell membrane of GTKO/HLA-G5 piglets were completely absent. Western blotting and immunofluorescence showed that HLA-G5 was expressed in the modified piglets. Functionally, the fibroblasts from the GTKO/HLA-G5 piglets showed enhanced resistance to complement-mediated lysis ability compared with those from GTKO-only or wild-type pigs. These results indicate that the GTKO/HLA-G5 pigs could be a valuable donor model to facilitate laboratory studies and clinics for xenotransplantation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Genetically Modified , Gene Knockout Techniques , HLA Antigens , Humans , Nuclear Transfer Techniques , Swine , Transplantation, Heterologous
14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 185-195, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927703

ABSTRACT

Clostridium difficile is an important zoonotic intestinal pathogen, which is widely present in humans and a variety of animals. The ST11 type C. difficile is one of the most widespread and harmful subtypes in the world. As a large country in pig farming, China lacks efficient methods for detecting C. difficile of porcine origin, leaving hidden dangers for the prevention and control of C. difficile. The aim of this study was to develop a specific and sensitive double-antibody sandwich ELISA for the epidemiological investigation of ST11 type C. difficile of porcine origin. Firstly, a 97 kDa receptor binding domain (RBD) was expressed in a prokaryotic host and purified. A hybridoma cell line AE2D3 capable of stably secreting monoclonal antibody targeting the RBD was screened, and the antibody subtype was determined to be IgG2b (κ). Secondly, a double antibody sandwich ELISA method was developed, where the monoclonal antibody targeting the RBD was used as a detection antibody, and the rabbit polyclonal antibody was used as a capture antibody. The chessboard method was used to determine the matching concentration of the capture antibody and the detection antibody, the antigen coating conditions, the blocking conditions, the incubation conditions for detection antibody and samples to be tested, as well as the reaction conditions of HRP-conjugated and reaction conditions of TMB chromogenic solution. The negative cutoff OD450 was 0.152, and no cross-reaction with 13 strains of non-ST11 type C. difficile was found. The minimum detection concentration of RBD was 8.83 ng/mL. This specific and sensitive double-antibody sandwich ELISA provides a reliable serological detection method for epidemiological investigation of the ST11 type C. difficile in pig industry.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Toxins , Clostridioides difficile , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Hybridomas , Swine
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927669

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to examine the effects of microcirculatory dysfunction and 654-1 intervention after cardiopulmonary resuscitation on myocardial injury.@*Methods@#Landrace pigs were divided into a sham operation group (S group, n= 6), ventricular fibrillation control group (VF-C group, n= 8) and 654-1 intervention group (VF-I group, n= 8). Hemodynamics was recorded at baseline, at recovery of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), and 1 h, 2 h, 4 h and 6 h thereafter. Sidestream dark field (SDF) technology was used to evaluate and monitor the microcirculation flow index, total vessel density, perfusion vessel ratio, De-Backer score, and perfusion vessel density in animal viscera at various time points.@*Results@#After administration of 654-1 at 1.5 h post-ROSC, the hemodynamics in the VF-I group, as compared with the VF-C group, was significantly improved. The visceral microcirculation detected by SDF was also significantly improved in the VF-I group. As observed through electron microscopy, significantly less myocardial tissue injury was present in the VF-I group than the VF-C group.@*Conclusion@#Administration of 654-1 inhibited excessive inflammatory by improving the state of visceral microcirculation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Microcirculation , Swine , Ventricular Fibrillation/therapy
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927643

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To establish a sensitive, simple and rapid detection method for African swine fever virus (ASFV) B646L gene.@*METHODS@#A recombinase-aided amplification-lateral flow dipstick (RAA-LFD) assay was developed in this study. Recombinase-aided amplification (RAA) is used to amplify template DNA, and lateral flow dipstick (LFD) is used to interpret the results after the amplification is completed. The lower limits of detection and specificity of the RAA assay were verified using recombinant plasmid and pathogenic nucleic acid. In addition, 30 clinical samples were tested to evaluate the performance of the RAA assay.@*RESULTS@#The RAA-LFD assay was completed within 15 min at 37 °C, including 10 min for nucleic acid amplification and 5 minutes for LFD reading results. The detection limit of this assay was found to be 200 copies per reaction. And there was no cross-reactivity with other swine viruses.@*CONCLUSION@#A highly sensitive, specific, and simple RAA-LFD method was developed for the rapid detection of the ASFV.


Subject(s)
African Swine Fever/virology , African Swine Fever Virus/isolation & purification , Animals , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Recombinases/chemistry , Sensitivity and Specificity , Swine , Viral Proteins/genetics
17.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(2): e20210081, 2022. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339657

ABSTRACT

Gilts represent a group risk for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vertical transmission in swine herds. Therefore, parity segregation can be an alternative to control M. hyopneumoniae infections. The study evaluated the effect of parity segregation on M. hyopneumoniae infection dynamics and occurrence and severity of lung lesions at slaughter. For that, three multiple site herds were included in the study. Herd A consisted of the farm where gilts would have their first farrowing (parity order (PO) 1). After the first farrowing PO 1 sows were transferred to herd B (PO2-6). Herd C was a conventional herd with gilt replacement (PO1-6). Piglets born in each herd were raised in separated nursery and finishing units. Sows (n = 33 (A), 37 (B), 34 (C)) in all herds were sampled prior to farrowing and piglets (n = 54 (A), 71 (B), 66 (C)) were sampled longitudinally at 21, 63, 100, 140 days of age and at slaughter for M. hyopneumoniae detection by PCR and lung lesions scoring. M. hyopneumoniae prevalence in sows did not differ among herds. Prevalence of positive piglets was higher at weaning in the PO1 herd (A) (P < 0.05). However, prevalence of positive pigs from 100 days of age to slaughter age was higher in the PO2-6 herd (B) (P < 0.05). Lung lesion occurrence and severity were higher in herd B. The authors suggested that the lack of a proper gilt acclimation might have influenced the results, leading to sows being detected positive at farrowing, regardless of the parity.


As leitoas consistem em um grupo de risco na transmissão vertical de Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae dentro do sistema de produção de suínos. Dessa forma, a segregação de partos poderia ser utilizada como alternativa para controlar as infecções por M. hyopneumoniae. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da segregação de partos sobre a dinâmica de infecção de M. hyopneumoniae e a ocorrência e severidade das lesões pulmonares ao abate. Para isso três sistemas de produção de suínos com três sítios cada foram incluídos no estudo. A granja A consistia da unidade onde as leitoas tem o primeiro parto, ou seja, alojava somente de fêmeas de ordem de parto 1 (Granja OP1). Após o primeiro parto as fêmeas OP1 foram transferidas para a granja B (Granja OP2-6), ou seja, consistia de fêmeas de ordem de parto 2 a 6, e a granja C consistiu em uma granja convencional com reposição de leitoas (Granja OP1-6), com fêmeas de ordem de parto 1 a 6. Os leitões nascidos de cada granja foram transferidos e criados em creches e terminações segregadas. As matrizes (n = 33 (A), 37 (B), 34 (C)) de todas as granjas do estudo foram amostradas previamente ao parto e os leitões (n = 54 (A), 71 (B), 66 (C)) foram amostrados longitudinalmente aos 21, 63, 100 e 140 dias de idade e ao abate. Em todos os momentos de coleta, as amostras foram avaliadas por PCR para detecção de M. hyopneumoniae. As lesões pulmonares foram avaliadas e escores de lesão foram atribuídos ao abate. A prevalência de matrizes positivas para M. hyopneumoniae não diferiu entre as granjas (P > 0,05). A prevalência ao desmame foi maior na granja A (OP1) (P < 0,05). No entanto, dos 100 dias de idade até o abate a prevalência de leitões positivos para M. hyopneumoniae foi maior na granja B (OP2-6) (P < 0,05). A ocorrência e severidade de lesões pulmonares foram maiores na granja B. Os autores sugerem que a falta de uma aclimatação adequada das leitoas pode ter influenciado nos resultados, levando à detecção de matrizes positivas ao parto, independente da ordem de parto.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Swine/injuries , Swine/microbiology , Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae/isolation & purification , Pneumonia of Swine, Mycoplasmal/prevention & control , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/veterinary , Birth Setting
19.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(6): 1274-1276, Nov.-Dec. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340015

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Surgical training models prepare the resident for a more ethical surgical practice as well as providing a less steep learning curve. In urology, there are well-known models of pyeloplasty simulation, urethro-vesical anastomosis and nephrectomy, which have helped in the training of urology residents (1-3). Learning laparoscopic prostatectomy is a difficult surgery and requires advanced surgical skill from the surgeon (4), requires operate without a direct view of the surgical field in a two-dimensional space and with longer instruments (5). Laparoscopic prostatectomy step by step makes the surgeon's learning curve less difficult, lead to less intraoperative complications, such as blood loss, while also enabling shorter operative time and less positive surgical margins (6). The objective of surgical models is to simulate surgical procedures in a reliable way thus preparing the surgeon for his daily practice, surgical simulations in animal models have been described to compensate for inadequate clinical exposure (7). The canine model of prostate cancer has many similarities with humans. Despite trying to develop a model that is as credible as possible, there are ethical issues in several countries, such as Brazil, that do not allow the use of live dogs for scientific experimentation and there is a difficulty in not standardizing the animals used (8, 9). The swine surgical training model is widely known, accepted and used as a valuable tool in the teaching of new surgeons (10). The porcine video laparoscopic prostatectomy model allows the urologist in training to exercise the skills required in a real surgical situation, practicing them in a single session (10). We will present an experimental model in pigs for training urology residents in laparoscopic radical prostatectomy with current techniques (11-13). The limitations found are that the prostate has no limits as well defined as in humans, the urethra is long and coiled, the fat surrounding the pelvic organs is scarce and there is no postoperative follow-up for evaluating functionality after the procedure, as well as the effectiveness of the surgery with surgical margins. However, it is similar in surgical model presented, it is reproducible and can provide a realistic simulation environment to the beginner surgeon. Material and Methods: In this paper, according to the institutional protocol approved by the institutional ethics and research committee FMUSP n° 964/2017 and protocol was in accordance with current international regulations for the use of animals in Research: Reporting In Vivo Experiments (ARRIVE) guide. Ten male pigs weighing 20 to 22kg were used. The animals were anesthetized with a combination of Telazol (5mg/kg), Xylazine (1.5mg/kg), Cetamine (22mg/kg) and Atropine (0.04mg/kg) for orotracheal intubation followed by Isoflurane (2%). Animals were euthanized at the end of the procedure with a lethal dose of KCl (2mEq/kg). The trocar insertion points were marked using the epigastric vessels and umbilical region as reference points. Initially, urethral catheterization was performed using a hydrophilic Nitinol guidewire, followed by a perineal incision to dissect the tortuous urethra of the porcine model. A malleable urethral catheter 8Fr was inserted into their bladder. The animal was placed in the Trendelenburg position inserted and 12mm trocars were inserted in its umbilical region, utilizing 10mm in the surgeon's dominant hand, 5mm in his non-dominant hand of the surgeon, and 5mm in the first assistant's trocar. The surgeon replicates the steps performed in a laparoscopic radical prostatectomy in humans, including the bladder catheterization, dissection of the anterior bladder plane, the vesicular and prostatic dissection, the suture of the dorsal venous plexus, a prostatectomy, an urethral vesical anast omosis, as well as the waterproof test, even including the performing of surgical steps using current concepts of anterior urethral suspension as the reconstruction of the posterior plane of the rhabdosphincter. Results: All steps of surgery could be reproduced in all ten porcine cases. No significant bleeding was observed and the surgical time was gradually reduced fifty percent from case one to last cases. Conclusions: The porcine model allowed the surgeon to replicate all the steps usually performed in a laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. The junior surgeons are better prepared to such difficult surgery. However, further studies will be necessary to prove the impact of the animal model presented in urological clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Laparoscopy , Internship and Residency , Prostatectomy , Swine , Clinical Competence , Video-Assisted Surgery
20.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(6): 1357-1360, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355680

ABSTRACT

Cortisol is a steroid hormone, one of the glucocorticoids, made in the cortex of the adrenal glands and then released into the blood, which transports it in the entire body. Almost every cell contains receptors for cortisol and so cortisol can have lots of different actions depending on which sort of cells it is acting upon. These effects include controlling the body's blood sugar levels and thus regulating metabolism, acting as an anti-inflammatory product, controlling salt and water balance and influencing blood pressure. The study was conducted over a period of 3 months, between March-August 2020, in 2 swine farms in Iasi county, Romania, on a total of 46 pigs, 3 to 4 months old, both males and females, in order to investigate stress levels in finishing facilities. The study revealed higher levels of cortisol while eosinophil counts severely decreased, changes which are associated with a strong reaction to stress for individuals that were housed in finishing facilities.(AU)


O cortisol é um hormônio esteroide, um dos glicocorticoides, produzido no córtex das glândulas suprarrenais e, em seguida, liberado no sangue, que o transporta por todo o corpo. Quase todas as células contêm receptores para o cortisol e, portanto, ele pode ter muitas ações diferentes, dependendo do tipo de célula sobre a qual atua. Esses efeitos incluem controlar os níveis de açúcar no sangue do corpo e, assim, regular o metabolismo, atuando como um produto anti-inflamatório, controlando o equilíbrio de sal e água e influenciando a pressão arterial. O presente estudo foi realizado durante um período de três meses, entre março-agosto de 2020, em duas granjas de suínos no condado de Iasi, Romênia, em um número total de 46 porcos, de três a quatro meses de idade, machos e fêmeas, a fim de investigar níveis de estresse nas instalações de acabamento. O estudo revelou níveis mais elevados de cortisol, enquanto a contagem de eosinófilos diminuiu severamente, mudanças que são consideradas associadas a uma forte reação ao estresse para indivíduos que foram alojados em instalações de acabamento.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Swine/physiology , Hydrocortisone/analysis , Eosinophils , Leukocyte Count/veterinary , Romania , Farms
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