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1.
Femina ; 51(6): 380-384, 20230630. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1512430

ABSTRACT

Transgênero (trans) é um termo que alberga toda a diversidade de gênero. A incongruência de gênero faz parte desse espectro e refere-se à pessoa cuja identidade de gênero é oposta ao sexo que lhe foi atribuído no nascimento. A terapia hormonal de afirmação de gênero, bem como a cirurgia de afirmação de gênero, é necessária para adequar o corpo ao gênero ao qual a pessoa se identifica. Os homens trans necessitam da terapia com testosterona, que visa reduzir as concentrações de estradiol e incrementar a testosterona circulante para níveis fisiológicos masculinos, resultando em masculinização. A mulher trans receberá o estradiol, associado ou não a um antiandrogênico, visando reduzir a testosterona e incrementar o estrogênio para níveis femininos, resultando em feminização. A cirurgia de afirmação de gênero é, frequentemente, requerida para completar as modificações fenotípicas para o homem e a mulher trans. O ginecologista e obstetra tem um papel crucial no provimento de cuidados a essa população. O presente artigo visa sistematizar algumas ações que o ginecologista e obstetra pode oferecer e que têm potencial para melhorar a qualidade de vida dos homens e mulheres trans. (AU)


Transgenero (trans) is an umbrella term that encompasses all gender diversity. Gender Incongruity is part of this spectrum and refers to the person whose gender identity is opposed to the sex assigned to them at birth. Gender-affirming hormone therapy as well as gender-affirming surgery are necessary to adapt the body to the gender to which the person identifies. Trans men require testosterone therapy to reduce estradiol concentrations and increase circulating testosterone to male physiological levels resulting in masculinization. Trans women will receive estradiol associated or not with an antiandrogenic to reduce testosterone and increase estrogen to female levels resulting in feminization. gender-affirming surgery is often required to complete phenotypic modifications for trans men and women. The gynecologist and obstetrician plays a crucial role in to provide care to this population. This article aims to systematize some actions that the gynecologist and obstetrician can offer to improve the quality of life of trans men and women. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Delivery of Health Care/ethics , Gynecology , Prostatic Neoplasms/prevention & control , Testosterone/administration & dosage , Breast Neoplasms/prevention & control , Contraception , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted , Estradiol/administration & dosage , Estrogens/administration & dosage , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Gynecologists , Obstetricians
3.
FEMINA ; 51(4): 250-256, 20230430. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1512404

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Apesar de 0,69% da população brasileira em idade reprodutiva se identificar como transgênero, os cuidados relacionados ao ciclo gravídico-puerperal e ao planejamento gestacional ainda são desconhecidos pelos profissionais de saúde. Métodos: Esta revisão narrativa avaliou o planejamento gestacional e contracepção; a possibilidade do emprego de técnicas de reprodução assistida segundo as recomendações do Conselho Federal de Medicina no Brasil; e a gestação, pré-natal e puerpério na população transgênero. Resultados: Dos 664 artigos encontrados no PubMed e Embase, 29 foram considerados para a confecção desta revisão. O uso da testosterona por trans masculinos, apesar de promover amenorreia, não é considerado um método contraceptivo. Contraindicações aos métodos hormonais devem seguir as mesmas orientações propostas para as mulheres cisgênero. Cuidados pré-natais não diferem dos habituais, Pessoas transgênero podem desejar amamentar. Conclusão: O desconhecimento das melhores práticas voltadas para o acolhimento e seguimento das pessoas transgênero pode resultar em negligência aos cuidados essenciais durante esse período. O conhecimento e a validação dessas identidades e o preparo das equipes são essenciais para melhorar o acesso dessa população às redes de saúde.


Objective: Although 0.69% of the Brazilian population of reproductive age identify themselves as transgender, care related to the pregnancy-puerperal cycle and pregnancy planning is still unknown to health professionals. Methods: This narrative review assessed pregnancy planning and contraception; the possibility of using Assisted Reproduction Technologies according to the recommendations of the Federal Council of Medicine in Brazil; and pregnancy, prenatal, and puerperium in the transgender population. Results: Of the 664 articles found in PubMed and Embase, 29 were considered for the compilation of this review. The use of testosterone by transgender male, despite promoting amenorrhea, is not considered a contraceptive method. Contraindications to hormonal methods should follow the same guidelines for cisgender women. Prenatal care and delivery should not differ from the usual. Transgender might be able to breastfeed. Conclusion: The lack of knowledge for transgender follow-up may result in neglect of prenatal care. Knowledge and validation of these identities and staff training are essential to improve the access of this population to health networks.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Contraception/methods , Prejudice , Testosterone/adverse effects , Breast Feeding , Health Personnel/education , Reproductive Health Services , Reproductive Health , Barriers to Access of Health Services
4.
Acta cir. bras ; 38: e387123, 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1527594

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To investigate the effects of chronic stress in the prostate of prepubertal and adult rats. Methods: Thirty-two male rats were assigned into four groups depending on the type of treatment (control or stressed) and the age at which stress was initiated (prepubertal or adult). Restraint stress stimuli were applied for six weeks. Stressed prepubertal and adult rats evaluated immediately after the last stress stimuli were named SP and SA groups, respectively. Age-matched rats were used as control groups (CP and CA). At the end of the experiment, the rats were euthanized, and prostate morphological parameters were evaluated and statistically compared. Results: Application of stress stimuli to the SP group resulted in reduced body weight, but no prostate morphological modification was noted. The SA group showed reduced testosterone level and prostatic epithelium surface density, in comparison to CA group. Further, the prostatic lumen surface density was increased in adult stressed animals, in comparison to adult controls. Conclusions: The stress stimuli promoted changes in hormonal and morphological parameters in the prostate of adult stressed rats. Prepubertal stressed animals did not presented modifications of prostate morphology.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Prostate , Testosterone , Body Weight
5.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 577-584, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986964

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the mechanism underlying the inhibitory effect of quercetin against testicular oxidative damage induced by a mixture of 3 commonly used phthalates (MPEs) in rats.@*METHODS@#Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control group, MPEs exposure group, and MPEs with low-, median- and high-dose quercetin treatment groups. For MPEs exposure, the rats were subjected to intragastric administration of MPEs at the daily dose of 900 mg/kg for 30 consecutive days; Quercetin treatments were administered in the same manner at the daily dose of 10, 30, and 90 mg/kg. After the treatments, serum levels of testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and testicular malondialdeyhde (MDA), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were detected, and testicular pathologies of the rats were observed with HE staining. The expressions of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), Kelch-like ECH2 associated protein 1 (Keap1) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) in the testis were detected using immunofluorescence assay and Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the rats with MPEs exposure showed significant reductions of the anogenital distance, weight of the testis and epididymis, and the coefficients of the testis and epididymis with lowered serum testosterone, LH and FSH levels (P < 0.05). Testicular histological examination revealed atrophy of the seminiferous tubules, spermatogenic arrest, and hyperplasia of the Leydig cells in MPEs-exposed rats. MPEs exposure also caused significant increments of testicular Nrf2, MDA, SOD, CAT and HO-1 expressions and lowered testicular Keap1 expression (P < 0.05). Treatment with quercetin at the median and high doses significantly ameliorated the pathological changes induced by MPEs exposure (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Quercetin treatment inhibits MPEs-induced oxidative testicular damage in rats possibly by direct scavenging of free radicals to lower testicular oxidative stress and restore the regulation of the Nrf2 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , Testis , Quercetin/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Testosterone/pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Follicle Stimulating Hormone , Luteinizing Hormone
6.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 113-118, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971002

ABSTRACT

Male patients with prolactinomas usually present with typical hyperprolactinemia symptoms, including sexual dysfunction and infertility. However, clinical factors related to sexual dysfunction and surgical outcomes in these patients remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the outcomes of male patients with prolactinomas after transsphenoidal surgery and the risk factors affecting sexual dysfunction. This study was conducted on 58 male patients who underwent transsphenoidal surgery for prolactinomas between May 2014 and December 2020 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. We evaluated the sexual function of patients before and after surgery through International Index of Erectile Function-5 scores, libido, and frequency of morning erection. Of the 58 patients, 48 (82.8%) patients had sexual intercourse preoperatively. Among those 48 patients, 41 (85.4%) patients presented with erectile dysfunction. The preoperative International Index of Erectile Function-5 scores in patients with macroprolactinomas were significantly higher than those in patients with giant prolactinomas (17.63 ± 0.91 vs 13.28 ± 1.43; P = 0.01). Postoperatively, the incidence of erectile dysfunction was 47.9%, which was significantly lower than that preoperatively (85.4%; P = 0.01). Twenty-eight (68.3%) patients demonstrated an improvement in erectile dysfunction. Tumor size and invasiveness were significantly correlated with the improvement of erectile dysfunction. Preoperative testosterone <2.3 ng ml-1 was an independent predictor of improvement in erectile dysfunction. In conclusion, our results indicated that tumor size and invasiveness were important factors affecting the improvement of sexual dysfunction in male patients with prolactinoma. The preoperative testosterone level was an independent predictor related to the improvement of erectile dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Prolactinoma/surgery , Erectile Dysfunction/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Sexual Dysfunction, Physiological/complications , Testosterone , Pituitary Neoplasms/pathology
7.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 98-102, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970988

ABSTRACT

Body mass index (BMI) has been increasing globally in recent decades. Previous studies reported that BMI was associated with sex hormone levels, but the results were generated via linear regression or logistic regression, which would lose part of information. Quantile regression analysis can maximize the use of variable information. Our study compared the associations among different regression models. The participants were recruited from the Center of Reproductive Medicine, The First Hospital of Jilin University (Changchun, China) between June 2018 and June 2019. We used linear, logistic, and quantile regression models to calculate the associations between sex hormone levels and BMI. In total, 448 men were included in this study. The average BMI was 25.7 (standard deviation [s.d.]: 3.7) kg m-2; 29.7% (n = 133) of the participants were normal weight, 45.3% (n = 203) of the participants were overweight, and 23.4% (n = 105) of the participants were obese. The levels of testosterone and estradiol significantly differed among BMI groups (all P < 0.05). In linear regression and logistic regression, BMI was associated with testosterone and estradiol levels (both P < 0.05). In quantile regression, BMI was negatively associated with testosterone levels in all quantiles after adjustment for age (all P < 0.05). BMI was positively associated with estradiol levels in most quantiles (≤80th) after adjustment for age (all P < 0.05). Our study suggested that BMI was one of the influencing factors of testosterone and estradiol. Of note, the quantile regression showed that BMI was associated with estradiol only up to the 80th percentile of estradiol.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Gonadal Steroid Hormones , Regression Analysis , Estradiol , Testosterone
8.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 60-75, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970291

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#This study investigated the effects of bis (2-butoxyethyl) phthalate (BBOP) on the onset of male puberty by affecting Leydig cell development in rats.@*METHODS@#Thirty 35-day-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to five groups mg/kg bw per day that were gavaged for 21 days with BBOP at 0, 10, 100, 250, or 500 mg/kg bw per day. The hormone profiles; Leydig cell morphological metrics; mRNA and protein levels; oxidative stress; and AKT, mTOR, ERK1/2, and GSK3β pathways were assessed.@*RESULTS@#BBOP at 250 and/or 500 mg/kg bw per day decreased serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone levels mg/kg bw per day (P < 0.05). BBOP at 500 mg/kg bw per day decreased Leydig cell number mg/kg bw per day and downregulated Cyp11a1, Insl3, Hsd11b1, and Dhh in the testes, and Lhb and Fshb mRNAs in the pituitary gland (P < 0.05). The malondialdehyde content in the testis significantly increased, while Sod1 and Sod2 mRNAs were markedly down-regulated, by BBOP treatment at 250-500 mg/kg bw per day (P < 0.05). Furthermore, BBOP at 500 mg/kg bw per day decreased AKT1/AKT2, mTOR, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and GSK3β and SIRT1 levels mg/kg bw per day (P < 0.05). Finally, BBOP at 100 or 500 μmol/L induced ROS and apoptosis in Leydig cells after 24 h of treatment in vitro (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#BBOP delays puberty onset by increasing oxidative stress and apoptosis in Leydig cells in rats.@*UNLABELLED@#The graphical abstract is available on the website www.besjournal.com.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , Leydig Cells/metabolism , Testosterone , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sexual Maturation , Testis , Oxidative Stress , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Apoptosis
9.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 40-44, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969945

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the therapeutic effect of governor vessel moxibustion combined with wenyang yiqi qiwei decoction on erectile dysfunction (ED) with spleen-kidney deficiency and to explore the possible mechanism.@*METHODS@#A total of 130 ED patients with spleen-kidney deficiency were randomized into an observation group (65 cases, 2 cases dropped off) and a control group (65 cases, 3 cases dropped off). The control group was given wenyang yiqi qiwei decoction orally, one dose daily. On the basis of the treatment in the control group, governor vessel moxibustion was applied from Dazhui (GV 14) to Yaoshu (GV 2) in the observation group, 110 min a time, once a day. The treatment of 4 weeks was required in both groups. Before and after treatment, 5-question international index of erectile function (IIEF-5) score, erection quality scale (EQS) score, erectile hardness assessment (EHS) score, TCM syndrome score, serum testosterone (T) level and vascular endothelial function indexes (prostaglandin I2 [PGI2], endothelin-1 [ET-1] and nitric oxide [NO] levels) were observed respectively, and the clinical efficacy was evaluated in both groups.@*RESULTS@#After treatment, the scores of IIEF-5, EQS, EHS and serum levels of T, PGI2, NO were increased compared before treatment (P<0.01), the TCM syndrome scores and serum ET-1 levels were decreased compared before treatment (P<0.01) in the two groups; the scores of IIEF-5, EQS, EHS and serum levels of T, PGI2, NO in the observation group were higher than those in the control group (P<0.01, P<0.05), the TCM syndrome score and serum ET-1 level were lower than those in the control group (P<0.01, P<0.05). The total effective rate was 88.9% (56/63) in the observation group, which was superior to 74.2% (46/62) in the control group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Governor vessel moxibustion combined with wenyang yiqi qiwei decoction can improve the erectile function and increase the erection hardness and quality in ED patients with spleen-kidney deficiency, its mechanism may relate to improving serum T level and vascular endothelial function.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Administration, Oral , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Erectile Dysfunction/therapy , Kidney/pathology , Kidney Diseases/complications , Moxibustion , Spleen/pathology , Splenic Diseases/complications , Testosterone/blood , Combined Modality Therapy
10.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 403-410, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982711

ABSTRACT

Male infertility is a significant cause of psychosocial and marital distress in approximately 50% of couples who are unable to conceive, with male factors being the underlying cause. Guijiajiao (Colla Carapacis et Plastri, CCP) is a Traditional Chinese Medicine commonly used to treat male infertility. The present study aimed to investigate the potential mechanisms underlying the preventive effects of CCP on male infertility. An infertile male rat model was established using cyclophosphamide (CTX), and CCP was administered for both treatment and prevention. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) was also performed to explore the role of gut microbiota in the CCP-mediated prevention of male infertility in rats. Sperm motility and concentration were determined using a semi-automatic sperm classification analyzer. Subsequently, histopathological analysis using HE staining was performed to examine the changes in the small intestine and testis. Moreover, the serum levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and testosterone were measured by ELISA. In addition, immunohistochemistry was conducted to detect CD3 expression in the small intestine, while RT-qPCR was employed to assess the expressions of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3), Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL-10) in the small intestine and epididymis. Finally, gut microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing. CCP improved sperm motility, number, and concentration in CTX-induced infertile male rats. CCP increased the serum testosterone level, inhibited the immune cell infiltration of the intestinal lamina propria, and promoted the aggregation of CD3+ T cells in CTX-induced male infertility rats. CCP also inhibited the expressions of MCP-1, CXCL-10, and IL-1β in the epididymis of male infertility rats. At the genus level, CTX led to a reduction in the abundance of Lactobacillus, Clostridia_UCG.014, and Romboutsia in the intestinal tract of rats. In contrast, CCP decreased the abundance of Ruminococcus and increased the abundance of Romboutsia in infertile male rats. Additionally, FMT experiments proved that the gut microbiota of CCP-treated rats facilitated testicular tissue recovery and spermatogenesis while also reducing the serum LPS level in infertile male rats. CCP improves the spermatogenic ability of infertile male rats by restoring gut microbiota diversity and inhibiting epididymal inflammation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rats , Male , Animals , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Semen , Sperm Motility , Infertility, Male/prevention & control , Testosterone
11.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 309-313, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981943

ABSTRACT

Transmasculine individuals, considering whether to undergo total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingectomy, have the option to have a concomitant oophorectomy. While studies have evaluated hormone changes following testosterone therapy initiation, most of those patients have not undergone oophorectomy. Data are currently limited to support health outcomes regarding the decision to retain or remove the ovaries. We performed a retrospective chart review of transmasculine patients maintained on high-dose testosterone therapy at a single endocrine clinic in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Twelve transmasculine individuals who underwent bilateral oophorectomy and had presurgical and postsurgical serum data were included. We identified 12 transmasculine subjects as controls, who were on testosterone therapy and did not undergo oophorectomy, but additionally matched to the first group by age, testosterone dosing regimen, and body mass index. There was a statistically significant decrease in the estradiol levels of case subjects postoophorectomy, when compared to presurgical estradiol levels (P = 0.02). There was no significant difference between baseline estradiol levels between control and case subjects; however, the difference in estradiol levels at follow-up measurements was significant (P = 0.03). Total testosterone levels did not differ between control and case subjects at baseline and follow-up (both P > 0.05). Our results demonstrate that oophorectomy further attenuates estradiol levels below what is achieved by high-dose exogenous testosterone alone. Correlated clinical outcomes, such as impacts on bone health, were not available. The clinical implications of oophorectomy versus ovarian retention on endocrinological and overall health outcomes are currently limited.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Testosterone/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Ovariectomy , Hysterectomy/methods , Estradiol
12.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 382-388, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981939

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has yet to be proven to alter male reproductive function, particularly in the majority of mild/asymptomatic patients. The purpose of this study was to explore whether mild/asymptomatic COVID-19 affects semen quality and sex-related hormone levels. To find suitable comparative studies, a systematic review and meta-analysis was done up to January 22, 2022, by using multiple databases (Web of Science, PubMed, and Embase). Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were used to identify and choose the studies. Meta-analysis was used to examine the semen parameters and sex-related hormones of mild/asymptomatic COVID-19 patients before and after infection. The effects of semen collection time, fever, and intensity of verification on semen following infection were also investigated. A total of 13 studies (n = 770) were included in the analysis, including three case-control studies, six pre-post studies, and four single-arm studies. A meta-analysis of five pre-post studies showed that after infection with COVID-19, sperm concentration (I2 = 0; P = 0.003), total sperm count (I2 = 46.3%; P = 0.043), progressive motility (I2 = 50.0%; P < 0.001), total sperm motility (I2 = 76.1%; P = 0.047), and normal sperm morphology (I2 = 0; P = 0.001) decreased. Simultaneously, a systematic review of 13 studies found a significant relationship between semen collection time after infection, inflammation severity, and semen parameter values, with fever having only bearing on semen concentration. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in sex-related hormone levels before and after infection in mild/asymptomatic patients. Mild/asymptomatic COVID-19 infection had a significant effect on semen quality in the short term. It is recommended to avoid initiating a pregnancy during this period of time.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Male , Semen Analysis , Semen , Infertility, Male , Sperm Motility , COVID-19 , Sperm Count , Spermatozoa , Testosterone , Gonadal Steroid Hormones
13.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 686-692, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984762

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the association between the urinary arsenic level and serum total testosterone in Chinese men aged 18 to 79 years. Methods: A total of 5 048 male participants aged 18 to 79 years were recruited from the China National Human Biomonitoring (CNHBM) from 2017 to 2018. Questionnaires and physical examinations were used to collect information on demographic characteristics, lifestyle, food intake frequency and health status. Venous blood and urine samples were collected to detect the level of serum total testosterone, urinary arsenic and urinary creatinine. Participants were divided into three groups (low, middle, and high) based on the tertiles of creatinine-adjusted urinary arsenic concentration. Weighted multiple linear regression was fitted to analyze the association of urinary arsenic with serum total testosterone. Results: The weighted average age of 5 048 Chinese men was (46.72±0.40) years. Geometric mean concentration (95%CI) of urinary arsenic, creatinine-adjusted urinary arsenic and serum testosterone was 22.46 (20.08, 25.12) μg/L, 19.36 (16.92, 22.15) μg/g·Cr and 18.13 (17.42, 18.85) nmol/L, respectively. After controlling for covariates, compared with the low-level urinary arsenic group, the testosterone level of the participants in the middle-level group and the high-level group decreased gradually. The percentile ratio (95%CI) was -5.17% (-13.14%, 3.54%) and -10.33% (-15.68%, -4.63). The subgroup analysis showed that the association between the urinary arsenic level and testosterone level was more obvious in the group with BMI<24 kg/m2 group (Pinteraction=0.023). Conclusion: There is a negative association between the urinary arsenic level and serum total testosterone in Chinese men aged 18 to 79 years.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Arsenic/urine , Creatinine , East Asian People , Testosterone/blood , Urinalysis
14.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1207-1215, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980845

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#LY01005 (Goserelin acetate sustained-release microsphere injection) is a modified gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist injected monthly. This phase III trial study aimed to evaluated the efficacy and safety of LY01005 in Chinese patients with prostate cancer.@*METHODS@#We conducted a randomized controlled, open-label, non-inferiority trial across 49 sites in China. This study included 290 patients with prostate cancer who received either LY01005 or goserelin implants every 28 days for three injections. The primary efficacy endpoints were the percentage of patients with testosterone suppression ≤50 ng/dL at day 29 and the cumulative probability of testosterone ≤50 ng/dL from day 29 to 85. Non-inferiority was prespecified at a margin of -10%. Secondary endpoints included significant castration (≤20 ng/dL), testosterone surge within 72 h following repeated dosing, and changes in luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and prostate specific antigen levels.@*RESULTS@#On day 29, in the LY01005 and goserelin implant groups, testosterone concentrations fell below medical-castration levels in 99.3% (142/143) and 100% (140/140) of patients, respectively, with a difference of -0.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], -3.9% to 2.0%) between the two groups. The cumulative probabilities of maintaining castration from days 29 to 85 were 99.3% and 97.8%, respectively, with a between-group difference of 1.5% (95% CI, -1.3% to 4.4%). Both results met the criterion for non-inferiority. Secondary endpoints were similar between groups. Both treatments were well-tolerated. LY01005 was associated with fewer injection-site reactions than the goserelin implant (0% vs . 1.4% [2/145]).@*CONCLUSION@#LY01005 is as effective as goserelin implants in reducing testosterone to castration levels, with a similar safety profile.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04563936.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/therapeutic use , East Asian People , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone/agonists , Goserelin/therapeutic use , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Testosterone
15.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 28(6): 775-777, Nov.-Dec. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376766

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction This paper studies physiological and biochemical indicators in the systematic training of sprinters. This paper analyzes the data measured during the athletes' training process and studies the detailed data of their physical functions. Objective This study aimed to find a link between exercise data and biochemical indicator data in sprinter athletes. By analyzing the data from this article, the researchers were able to find the optimal training program for the athletes. Methods High-intensity aerobic training tests were performed with statistical analysis of various physiological and biochemical indicators. Results Hemoglobin data were shown to be highly sensitive to intensity. The researchers found that long-term high-load training in athletes can lead to physical fatigue. This fatigue production is positively correlated with the intensity of the training load. Conclusion There is a strong positive correlation between biochemical and physiological indicators on performance levels in sprinter athletes. Evidence Level II; Therapeutic Studies - Investigating the results.


RESUMO Introdução Este artigo estuda o monitoramento de indicadores fisiológicos e bioquímicos no treino sistemático de velocistas. Este documento analisa os dados medidos durante o processo de treino das atletas e estuda os dados detalhados de suas funções físicas. Objetivo O objetivo deste estudo foi encontrar uma ligação entre os dados de exercício e os dados de indicadores bioquímicos nas atletas velocistas. Ao analisar as informações deste artigo, os pesquisadores conseguiram encontrar um programa de treino ideal para as atletas. Métodos Foram empegadas experiências de treino aeróbico de alta intensidade, com análise estatística de vários indicadores fisiológicos e bioquímicos. Resultados Os dados de hemoglobina mostraram-se altamente sensíveis à intensidade. Os pesquisadores descobriram que o treino a longo prazo de alta carga em atletas pode acarretar numa fadiga física. Essa produção de fadiga está positivamente correlacionada com a intensidade da carga de treino. Conclusão Há uma forte correlação positiva entre indicadores bioquímicos e fisiológicos nos níveis de desempenho em atletas velocistas. Nível de evidência II; Estudos Terapêuticos - Investigação de Resultados.


RESUMEN Introducción Este trabajo estudia el seguimiento de los indicadores fisiológicos y bioquímicos en el entrenamiento sistemático de los velocistas. Este artículo analiza los datos medidos durante el proceso de entrenamiento de los atletas y estudia los datos detallados de sus funciones físicas. Objetivo El objetivo de este estudio fue encontrar una relación entre los datos del ejercicio y los datos de los indicadores bioquímicos en los atletas velocistas. Al analizar las informaciones de este artículo, los investigadores pudieron encontrar un programa de entrenamiento óptimo para los atletas. Métodos Se realizaron pruebas de entrenamiento aeróbico de alta intensidad con análisis estadístico de varios indicadores fisiológicos y bioquímicos. Resultados Los datos de la hemoglobina se mostraron muy sensibles a la intensidad. Los investigadores descubrieron que el entrenamiento de alta carga a largo plazo en los atletas puede conducir a la fatiga física. Esta producción de fatiga está positivamente correlacionada con la intensidad de la carga de entrenamiento. Conclusión Existe una fuerte correlación positiva entre los indicadores bioquímicos y fisiológicos en los niveles de rendimiento de los atletas velocistas. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos - Investigación de resultados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Running/physiology , Athletes , Endurance Training , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Testosterone/blood , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Hemoglobins/analysis , Hydrocortisone/blood , Radioimmunoassay
16.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 9(3): 1-16, sept. 2022. graf, tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1518675

ABSTRACT

Cyperus esculentus L. (tiger nut) is a tuberous plant that promotes and protects reproductive functions, which are usually hampered in diabetics. The present study investigated the effect of Cyperus esculentus tuber extract (CETE) on testicular histology and sperm viability of alloxan-induced hyperglycaemic Wistar rats. Twenty-five adult male Wistar rats weighing 150-200g and grouped into five (n=5): Group 1, the control, administered tap water (20mL/kg), while groups 2-5 were administered a single intraperitoneal dose (120mg/kg b.w.) of alloxan, and each further received orally tap water (20mL/kg), CETE (100mg/kg), CETE (500 mg/kg) and metformin (500 mg/kg), respectively for 21 days. The animals were sacrificed, their sperm collected for analysis, while the testes were harvested, and processed for histology. Results showed significantly increased (p<0.05) blood glucose and testosterone, and significantly decreased (p<0.05) sperm pH, motility, count, morphology and density, as well as disruptions and hypertrophy of the spermatogenic and Sertoli cells of the hyperglycaemic group. There were significant (p<0.05) blood glucose decline, while the sperm parameters and testicular weight improved with normal testicular histology in the 100 mg/kg CETE, 500 mg/kg CETE, and metformin-treated groups compared to the control and hyperglycaemic group. Treatment with CETE showed blood glucose amelioration and improved sperm quality, as well as testicular damage attenuation.


Cyperus esculentus L. es una planta tuberosa que promueve y protege las funciones reproductivas, que generalmente se ven afectadas en los diabéticos. El presente estudio investigó el efecto del extracto de tubérculo de Cyperus esculentus (CETE) sobre la histología testicular y la viabilidad de los espermatozoides de ratas wistar con hiperglicemia inducida por alloxan. Veinticinco ratas Wistar macho adultas que pesaban 150-200 g y se agruparon en cinco (n = 5): el grupo 1, el control, administró agua del grifo (20ml / kg), mientras que los grupos 2-5 se les administró una dosis intraperitoneal única (120 mg / kg p.v.) de alloxan, y agua del grifo por vía oral (20ml/kg), CETE (100 mg/kg), CETE (500 mg/kg) y metformina (500 mg/kg), respectivamente durante 21 días. Los animales fueron sacrificados, su esperma recolectada para su análisis, mientras que los testículos fueron retirados y procesados para histología. Los resultados mostraron un aumento significativo (p<0,05) de la glucosa en sangre y la testosterona, y una disminución significativa (p<0,05) del pH, la motilidad, el recuento, la morfología y la densidad de los espermatozoides, así como interrupciones e hipertrofia de las células espermatogénicas y sertoli del grupo hiperglucémico. Hubo una disminución significativa (p<0,05) de la glucosa en sangre, mientras que los parámetros espermáticos y el peso testicular mejoraron con la histología testicular normal en los grupos de 100 mg / kg de CETE, 500 mg / kg de CETE y tratados con metformina en comparación con el grupo de control e hiperglucémico. El tratamiento con CETE mostró una mejora de la glucosa en sangre y una mejora de la calidad de los espermatozoides, así como atenuación del daño testicular.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Testis/drug effects , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Cyperus/chemistry , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Organ Size , Sperm Count , Sperm Motility/drug effects , Spermatozoa/drug effects , Testosterone , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Body Weight , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Analysis of Variance , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Alloxan , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Metformin/administration & dosage
17.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 44(9): 884-890, Sept. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1423280

ABSTRACT

Abstract Although almost 0.7% of the Brazilian population identifies as transgender, there is currently no training for healthcare professionals to provide comprehensive care to these patients, including the discussion of reproductive planning. The use of testosterone promotes amenorrhea in the first months of use; however, this effect does not guarantee contraceptive efficacy, and, consequently, increases the risks of unplanned pregnancy. The present article is an integrative review with the objective of evaluating and organizing the approach of contraceptive counseling for the transgender population who were assigned female at birth. We used the PubMed and Embase databases for our search, as well as international guidelines on care for the transgender population. Of 88 articles, 7 were used to develop the contraceptive counseling model. The model follows the following steps: 1. Addressing the information related to the need for contraception; 2. Evaluation of contraindications to the use of contraceptive methods (hormonal and nonhormonal); and 3. Side effects and possible discomfort associated with the use of contraception. The contraceptive counseling model is composed of 18 questions that address the indications and contraindications to the use of these methods, and a flowchart to assist patients in choosing a method that suits their needs.


Resumo Apesar de 0,7% da população brasileira se identificar como transgênera, não existe treinamento para que o profissional de saúde realize um acolhimento de maneira integral a estes pacientes, incluindo a discussão do planejamento reprodutivo. O uso de testosterona promove a amenorreia nos primeiros 6 meses de uso; entretanto, este efeito não garante eficácia contraceptiva, e, consequentemente, aumenta os riscos de uma gravidez não planejada. O presente artigo é uma revisão integrativa com o objetivo de avaliar e organizar uma abordagem do aconselhamento contraceptivo na população transgênera que foi designada mulher ao nascimento. Para a estratégia de busca, foram pesquisados os bancos de dados PubMed e Embase, incluindo diretrizes internacionais sobre cuidados à população transgênera. De 88 artigos, 7 foram utilizados para desenvolver o modelo de aconselhamento contraceptivo. O modelo segue as seguintes etapas: 1. Abordagem das informações relacionadas à necessidade de contracepção; 2. Avaliação das contraindicações ao uso dos métodos contraceptivos (hormonais e não hormonais); 3. Efeitos colaterais e possíveis desconfortos associados ao uso do contraceptivo. O modelo de aconselhamento contraceptivo é composto por 18 questões que abordam as indicações e contraindicações ao uso destes métodos e um fluxograma que auxilia na escolha dentre os métodos permitidos ao paciente de acordo com a sua necessidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Testosterone , Contraception , Transgender Persons
19.
São Paulo med. j ; 140(2): 163-170, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366043

ABSTRACT

Abstract BACKGROUND: Because normal male sexual differentiation is more complex than normal female sexual differentiation, there are more cases of disorders of sex development (DSDs) with 46,XY karyotype that have unclear etiology. However, Leydig and Sertoli cell markers are rarely used in distinguishing such individuals. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the function of Leydig and Sertoli cells in individuals with genital ambiguity, 46,XY karyotype, palpable gonads and normal testosterone secretion. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Case-control study with 77 patients, including eight with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome, eight with 5α-reductase deficiency type 2 (5ARD2) and 19 with idiopathic 46,XY DSD, and 42 healthy controls, from the Interdisciplinary Study Group for Sex Determination and Differentiation (GIEDDS), at the State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, Brazil. METHODS: Baseline levels of gonadotropins, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), inhibin B, insulin-like 3 (INSL3), testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in cases, and AMH, inhibin B, and INSL3 levels in controls, were assessed. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in age between cases and controls (P = 0.595). AMH and inhibin B levels were significantly lower in cases than in controls (P = 0.031 and P < 0.001, respectively). INSL3 levels were significantly higher in cases than in controls (P = 0.003). Inhibin B levels were lower in 5ARD2 patients (P = 0.045) and idiopathic patients (P = 0.001), in separate comparisons with the controls. CONCLUSION: According to our findings, we can speculate that inhibin B levels may be used to differentiate among DSD cases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Sertoli Cells/metabolism , Disorders of Sex Development , Testosterone/metabolism , Case-Control Studies , Karyotype , Gonads/metabolism
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