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1.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 700-707, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013158

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the application of China growth standard for children under 7 years of age (China standards) and World Health Organization child growth standards (WHO standards) in evaluating the prevalence of malnutrition in children aged 0-<6 years in China. Methods: The research data came from the national special program for science & technology basic resources investigation of China, named "2019-2021 survey and application of China's nutrition and health system for children aged 0-18 years". Multi-stage stratified random sampling was used to recruit 28 districts (regions) in 14 provinces, autonomous regions or municipalities across the country. Children (n=38 848) were physically measured and questionnaires were conducted in the guardians of the children. The indicators of stunting, underweight, wasting, overweight and obesity were evaluated by China standards and WHO standards respectively. Chi-square test was used to comparing the prevalence of each nutritional status between the two standards, as well as the comparison between the two standards by gender and age. Results: Among the 38 848 children, 19 650 were boys (50.6%) and 19 198 were girls (49.4%), 19 480 urban children (50.1%) and 19 368 rural children (49.9%). The stunting, underweight and wasting cases in the study population were 2 090 children (5.4%), 1 354 children (3.5%) and 1 276 children (3.3%) according to the China standards, and 1 474 children (3.8%), 701 children (1.8%) and 824 children (2.1%) according to the WHO standards, respectively; the above rates according to the China standards were slightly higher than those to the WHO standards (χ2=111.59, 213.14, and 99.99, all P<0.001). The overweight and obesity cases in the study population were 2 186 children (5.6%) and 1 153 children (3.0%) according to the China standards, and 2 210 children (5.7%) and 1 186 children (3.1%) according to the WHO standards, with no statistically significant differences (χ2=0.14 and 0.48, P=0.709 and 0.488, respectively). Compared to the results based on WHO standards, the China standards showed a lower prevalence of overweight and obesity in boys (χ2=14.95 and 5.85, P<0.001 and =0.016, respectively), and higher prevalence of overweight in girls (χ2=12.60, P<0.001); but there was no statistically significant differences in girls' obesity prevalence between the two standards (χ2=2.62, P=0.106). Conclusions: In general, the prevalence of malnutrition among children aged 0-<6 years based on China standards is slightly higher than that on WHO standards. To evaluate the nutritional status of children, it is advisable to select appropriate child growth standards based on work requirements, norms or research objectives.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Child , Humans , Child, Preschool , Nutritional Status , Overweight/epidemiology , Thinness/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Growth Disorders/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Prevalence
2.
Singapore medical journal ; : 550-556, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007292

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#The growing years are paramount for bone growth and mineral accrual. Children with long-term neurological condition (LTNC) have multiple risk factors for poor bone health and fragility fractures. In Singapore, this has not been studied systematically. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the risk factors associated with fragility fractures in children with LTNC.@*METHODS@#In this study, the search for fragility fractures was done by a retrospective review of patients with LTNC on follow-up in the paediatric neurology clinic and patients who presented with fracture to the paediatric orthopaedic clinic. Information on patients' demographics, medical history, intervention, biochemical bone markers and fracture history was collected.@*RESULTS@#In a tertiary clinic population of 136 patients with LTNC, 65% were dependent on mobility (Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS] V), 60% were underweight and 60% were fed via gastrostomy or nasogastric tube, or were on oral pureed diet. Furthermore, 60% were on anticonvulsants. The fracture rate was 3% in this population and was associated with low-impact activities such as transfer and dressing. Only 7.4% and 33% of the patients had undergone measurements of vitamin D and calcium levels, respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#The local prevalence of fragility fractures in children with LTNC on follow-up at the neurology clinic was found to be 3%. Risk factors identified were limited ambulation and compromised nutritional status associated with feeding difficulty. Recommendations to optimise bone health in children with LTNC were made. These include promoting weight-bearing activities, looking out for underweight children, avoiding vitamin D deficiency and ensuring adequate calcium intake.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Bone Density , Calcium , Thinness/epidemiology , Fractures, Bone/etiology , Risk Factors
3.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 899-904, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985493

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the incidence of preterm birth based on pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) stratification and explore the associated factors of preterm birth among pregnant women at different BMI stratifications. Methods: From February 2018 to December 2020, pregnant women who participated in China Birth Cohort Study (CBCS) and gave birth at Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital were enrolled as the study subjects. Electronic Data Capture System and standard structured questionnaires were used to collect data related to pre-pregnancy, pregnancy, and delivery for pregnant women. Pregnant women were divided into the low-weight group, normal-weight group and overweight group based on their pre-pregnancy BMI. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to analyze the associated factors of preterm birth among pregnant women with different BMI before pregnancy. Results: A total of 27 195 singleton pregnant women were included, with a preterm birth rate of 5.08% (1 381/27 195). The preterm birth rates in the low-weight group, normal-weight group and overweight group were 4.29% (138/3 219), 4.63% (852/18 390) and 7.00% (391/5 586) respectively (P<0.001). After adjusting for relevant factors, the Cox proportional hazards model showed that the risk of preterm birth in the overweight group was 1.457 times higher than that in the normal-weight group (95%CI: 1.292-1.643). Preeclampsia-eclampsia (HR=2.701, 95%CI: 1.318-5.537) was the associated factor for preterm birth in the low-weight group. Advanced maternal age (HR=1.232, 95%CI: 1.054-1.441), history of preterm birth (HR=4.647, 95%CI: 3.314-6.515), vaginal bleeding in early pregnancy (HR=1.613, 95%CI: 1.380-1.884), and preeclampsia-eclampsia (HR=3.553, 95%CI: 2.866-4.404) were associated factors for preterm birth in the normal-weight group. Advanced maternal age (HR=1.473, 95%CI: 1.193-1.818), history of preterm birth (HR=3.209, 95%CI: 1.960-5.253), vaginal bleeding in early pregnancy (HR=1.636, 95%CI: 1.301-2.058), preeclampsia-eclampsia (HR=2.873, 95%CI:2.265-3.643), and pre-gestational diabetes mellitus (HR=1.867, 95%CI: 1.283-2.717) were associated factors for preterm birth in the overweight group. Conclusion: Pre-pregnancy overweight is an associated factor for preterm birth, and there are significant differences in the associated factors of preterm birth among pregnant women with different BMI before pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Female , Humans , Body Mass Index , Overweight/epidemiology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Pre-Eclampsia/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Eclampsia , Incidence , Risk Factors , Thinness/epidemiology
4.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 30(spe): e3664, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1409632

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo: analisar a associação entre uso de drogas e a insatisfação com a imagem corporal de adolescentes em três cidades brasileiras. Método: estudo transversal, aninhado em um ensaio controlado randomizado para avaliar o programa de prevenção ao uso de drogas em escolas brasileiras #TamoJunto2.0 do Ministério da Saúde. A amostra foi de 5.213 alunos de 73 escolas de três cidades brasileiras. O desfecho satisfação corporal foi analisado por meio da escala de Silhuetas de Stunkard e as variáveis explicativas foram o uso de drogas e dados sociodemográficos. Resultados: os adolescentes tinham entre 12 e 14 anos e cerca de 69,9% relataram insatisfação corporal, e no último ano 35,67% utilizaram álcool. A insatisfação por sobrepeso foi maior nas meninas (41,5%) e por baixo peso nos meninos (33,1%). Os adolescentes que usavam maconha apresentaram 39% (OR=1,39) mais chance de insatisfação por baixo peso e ser menina aumentou em 24% (OR=1,24) as chances de insatisfação por sobrepeso. Conclusão: os níveis de insatisfação corporal merecem atenção no cuidado de enfermagem hebiátrica e reforçam a necessidade de estratégias educativas abordando a imagem corporal e uso de drogas, a relacionando aos vários atributos subjetivos que podem afetar a saúde dos adolescentes, seja na comunidade ou escola.


Abstract Objective: analyze the association between drug use and body dissatisfaction among adolescents in three Brazilian cities. Method: cross-sectional study, using a nested randomized controlled trial to evaluate the drug use prevention program #TamoJunto2.0 of the Ministry of Health in Brazilian schools. The sample consisted of 5,213 students from 73 schools in three Brazilian cities. The outcome body satisfaction was analyzed using the Stunkard scale and the explanatory variables were drug use and sociodemographic data. Results: the adolescents were between 12 and 14 years old; about 69.9% of them reported body dissatisfaction, and 35.67% used alcohol in the previous year. Dissatisfaction due to overweight was higher among girls (41.5%) and dissatisfaction due to underweight was higher among boys (33.1%). Adolescents who used marijuana were 39% (OR=1.39) more likely to feel dissatisfied due to underweight and being a girl increased the chances of feeling dissatisfied due to overweight by 24% (OR=1.24). Conclusion: the levels of body dissatisfaction deserve attention in hebiatric nursing care and reinforce the importance of educational strategies addressing body image and drug use, relating them to the various subjective attributes that can affect the health of adolescents, whether in the community or at school.


Resumen Objetivo: analizar la asociación entre uso de drogas y la insatisfacción con la imagen corporal de adolescentes en tres ciudades brasileñas. Método: estudio transversal, anidado en un ensayo controlado aleatorio para evaluar el programa de prevención del uso de drogas en escuelas brasileñas #TamoJunto2.0 del Ministerio de la Salud. La muestra fue de 5.213 alumnos de 73 escuelas de tres ciudades brasileñas. El desenlace satisfacción corporal se analizó mediante la escala de Siluetas de Stunkard y las variables explicativas fueron el consumo de drogas y los datos sociodemográficos. Resultados: los adolescentes tenían entre 12 y 14 años y alrededor del 69,9% relató insatisfacción corporal, y en el último año el 35,67% consumió alcohol. La insatisfacción por sobrepeso fue mayor en las niñas (41,5%) y por bajo peso en los niños (33,1%). Los adolescentes que consumían marihuana tenían un 39% (OR=1,39) más de probabilidades de estar insatisfechos con el bajo peso y ser niña aumentó en un 24% (OR=1,24) las chances de insatisfacción por sobrepeso. Conclusión: los niveles de insatisfacción corporal merecen atención en el cuidado de enfermería hebiátrica y refuerzan la necesidad de estrategias educativas abordando la imagen corporal y el uso de drogas, relacionándola a los varios atributos subjetivos que pueden afectar la salud de los adolescentes, ya sea en la comunidad o en la escuela.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Thinness/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Overweight/epidemiology , Body Dissatisfaction
5.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(supl.1): e00149721, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374858

ABSTRACT

Nutritional status has evolved in a dual trend worldwide: underweight has become a minor or local issue while overweight or obesity has risen to play a major role in the global burden of disease. In 2014, Brazil was ranked as the third country with the highest absolute number of obese men. Our aim was to estimate trends of underweight and obesity among Brazilian adults using a comprehensive set of surveys from 1974 to 2019. The data used in the study originate from subjects aged ≥ 18 in six Brazilian national surveys, presented in chronological order: Brazilian National Survey on Household Expenses (ENDEF 1974-1975); Brazilian National Survey on Health and Nutrition (PNSN 1989); Brazilian Household Budget Survey (POF 2002-2003, 2008-2009); and Brazilian National Health Survey (PNS 2013 and 2019). All six surveys were designed to sample household complexes that were representative of the Brazilian population. Body mass index was calculated (kg/m2). The nutritional status of individuals was classified following the standards. We have modeled obesity trend according to income and education strata. The trajectories of underweight and obesity over time in Brazil draw the classical "X" of nutrition transition. From 1975 to 2019 underweight has decreased from 9.1% to 2.5% among men and 12.2% to 3.4% among women. On the other hand, obesity trajectories have scaled up from 3% to 22% among men and from 9% to 30% among women. The increase in obesity rate is directly and negatively proportional to income quintiles. Sociodemographic (income and education) improvement is associated with an increase in obesity. All public policies intending to stop the obesity spread in Brazil have been ineffective or too small to be effective.


O estado nutricional tem evoluído em duas direções no mundo: o baixo peso se tornou uma questão menor ou local, enquanto o sobrepeso ou obesidade passou a ter papel preponderante na carga global de doença. Em 2014, o Brasil ocupou terceiro lugar no mundo em número absoluto de homens obesos. O estudo teve como objetivo estimar as tendências nas taxas de baixo peso e obesidade entre adultos brasileiros, tendo como base um conjunto abrangente de inquéritos entre 1974 e 2019. Os dados utilizados no estudo se referem a indivíduos com 18 anos ou mais em seis pesquisas nacionais, apresentadas em ordem cronológica: Estudo Nacional de Despesa Familiar (ENDEF 1974-1975); Pesquisa Nacional sobre Saúde e Nutrição (PNSN 1989); Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares (POF 2002-2003, 2008-2009) e Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS 2013 e 2019). Todos os 6 inquéritos foram desenhados para obter amostras de complexos de domicílios que fossem representativas da população brasileira. O ídice de massa corporal foi calculado (kg/m2). O estado nutricional dos indivíduos foi classificado de acordo com as normas da Organização Mundial da Saúde. Modelamos a tendência da obesidade de acordo com as faixas de renda e escolaridade. As trajetórias de baixo peso e obesidade no Brasil ao longo do tempo mostram a forma clássica em "X" da transição nutricional. Entre 1975 e 2019, a taxa de baixo peso diminuiu de 9,1% para 2,5% entre homens e de 12,2% para 3,4% entre mulheres. Inversamente, as trajetórias da obesidade aumentaram de 3% para 22% entre homens e de 9% para 30% entre mulheres. O incremento na obesidade está relacionado diretamente e de maneira negativamente proporcional aos quintis de renda. A melhoria sociodemográfica (de renda e escolaridade) está associada ao aumento da obesidade. Todas as políticas públicas para interromper a expansão da obesidade no Brasil têm sido ineficazes, ou pequenas demais para ser eficazes.


El estatus nutricional ha evolucionado en una doble tendencia alrededor del mundo: el bajo peso se ha convertido en un problema menor o local, mientras que el sobrepeso o la obesidad ha aumentado desempeñando un papel importante en la carga global de la enfermedad. En 2014, Brasil se situó como el tercer país con la mayor carga absoluta de hombres obesos. Nuestro objetivo fue estimar las tendencias de bajo peso y obesidad entre brasileños adultos, utilizando un conjunto completo de encuestas desde 1974 a 2019. Los datos usados en el estudio procedieron de individuos con ≥18 años en 6 encuestas nacionales brasileñas, presentadas en orden cronológico: Estudio Nacional sobre Gasto Familiar (ENDEF 1974-1975); Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición (PNSN 1989); Encuestas sobre Presupuesto Familiar (POF 2002-2003, 2008-2009); y Encuesta Nacional de Salud (PNS 2013 y 2019). Las 6 encuestas se diseñaron para las muestras complejas de hogares que eran representativas de la población brasileña. Se calculó el indice de masa corporal (kg/m2). El estatus nutricional de los individuos se clasificó siguiendo los estándares de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Hemos modelado la tendencia a la obesidad según el nivel de ingresos y educación. Las trayectorias de bajo peso y obesidad a lo largo del tiempo en Brasil dibujaron la clásica "X" de transición nutricional. Desde 1975 a 2019, ha decrecido el bajo peso de 9,1% a 2,5% entre hombres y de 12,2% a 3,4% entre mujeres. Las trayectorias de obesidad, en cambio, escalan desde el 3% al 22% entre hombres, y desde el 9% al 30% entre mujeres. El incremento en la tasa de obesidad es directamente y negativamente proporcional a los quintiles de ingresos. La mejora sociodemográfica (ingresos y educación) está asociada con un incremento en la obesidad. Todas las políticas públicas puestas en práctica para intentar detener la propagación de la obesidad en Brasil han sido inefectivas o demasiado pequeñas para ser efectivas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Thinness/epidemiology , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Prevalence , Overweight/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology
6.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 26(7): 2613-2624, jul. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278789

ABSTRACT

Resumo Trata-se de um estudo ecológico que objetivou analisar a tendência do estado nutricional de gestantes adolescentes beneficiárias do programa brasileiro de transferência condicionada de renda, Bolsa Família, no período 2008-2018. Foram avaliados dados secundários de gestantes adolescentes beneficiárias do Programa Bolsa Família no período de janeiro de 2008 a dezembro de 2018, extraídos dos relatórios públicos do Sistema de Vigilância Alimentar e Nutricional WEB. Foram consultados os relatórios de acompanhamento das condicionalidades de saúde consolidados de acesso público do Programa Bolsa Família, sempre considerando a 2ª vigência. Observou-se uma variação anual de -1,2% (IC95%: [-1,6; -0,8] p<0,01) na prevalência de baixo peso na amostra estudada. Com relação as prevalências de sobrepeso e obesidade no país, observou-se variações anuais de 2,9% (IC95%: [2,0; 3,7] p<0,01) e 7,5% (IC95%: [5,7; 9,3] p<0,01), respectivamente. Conclui-se que, no período avaliado, a prevalência de baixo peso entre as gestantes adolescentes beneficiárias do Programa Bolsa Família apresentou uma tendência decrescente, ao passo que as prevalências de sobrepeso e obesidade apresentam uma tendência crescente em todo o Brasil.


Abstract This ecological study aimed to analyze the trend of the nutritional status of pregnant adolescent beneficiaries of the Brazilian Bolsa Família conditional cash transfer program in the 2008-2018 period. We evaluated secondary data of pregnant adolescent beneficiaries of the Bolsa Família Program from January 2008 to December 2018, extracted from the public reports of the WEB Food and Nutrition Surveillance System. We accessed the monitoring reports on the consolidated public-access health conditionalities of the Bolsa Família Program, always considering the second validity. An annual variation of -1.2% (95%CI: [-1.6; -0.8] p<0.01) was observed in the prevalence of underweight in Brazil in the studied sample. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in the country had annual variations of 2.9% (95%CI: [2.0; 3.7] p<0.01) and 7.5% (95%CI: [5.7; 9.3] p<0.01), respectively. We conclude by saying, that, in the evaluated period, the prevalence of underweight among pregnant adolescent beneficiaries of the Bolsa Família Program showed a decreasing trend, while the prevalence of overweight and obesity increased throughout Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Thinness/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Nutritional Status , Overweight/epidemiology , Obesity
7.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 39: e2019293, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136761

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the prevalence of underweight and exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) in children aged zero to six months followed by Primary Care in Brazil in 2017, identifying their spatial distribution. Methods: This was an observational, descriptive and ecological study based on data analysis of the Food and Nutrition Surveillance System. The distribution of records obtained was compared to the population estimates of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). In order to evaluate the EBF, Primary Health Care teams used food ingestion from the previous day. As for underweight, we used: Length-for-age (L/A), Weight-for-age (W/A) and BMI-for-age (BMI/A), according to World Health Organization (WHO) references. Confidence Intervals were calculated 95% (95%CI) for prevalences obtained, being plotted on maps by Federation Unit. Results: Data were obtained from 88.7 and 32.2% of Brazilian municipalities regarding anthropometry and food consumption, corresponding to 167,393 and 66,136 children, respectively. Compared to population distribution, the number of records was underestimated in the North and Northeast for anthropometry/consumption, with distinct proportions in the South for anthropometry and Southeast for consumption. The prevalences found were: EBF - 56.6% (95%CI 56.2-56.9); under L/A - 10.6% (95%CI 10.5-10.8); under W/A - 9.0% (95%CI 8.9-9.1); and under BMI/A - 5.8% (95%CI 5.7-6.0). Conclusions: The estimate of EBF in Brazil was similar to previous studies, but food consumption data still have low coverage, compromising the estimate in some locations. Regarding anthropometry, high rates of low L/A, W/A and BMI/A stood out in some states, considerably above the previous national estimate.


RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever as prevalências de baixo peso e aleitamento materno exclusivo (AME) em crianças de zero a seis meses acompanhadas na Atenção Básica no Brasil em 2017, identificando sua distribuição espacial. Métodos: Tratou-se de um estudo observacional, descritivo e ecológico a partir da análise de dados do Sistema de Vigilância Alimentar e Nutricional. A distribuição de registros obtidos foi comparada às estimativas populacionais do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE). Para avaliação do AME, equipes da Atenção Básica utilizaram marcadores de consumo alimentar do dia anterior. Quanto ao baixo peso, usou-se: estatura/idade (E/I), peso/idade (P/I) e índice de massa corpórea (IMC)/idade (IMC/I), conforme referências da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS). Foram calculados os intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC95%) para prevalências obtidas, sendo plotadas em mapas, por Unidade da Federação (UF). Resultados: Obteve-se dados de 88,7 e 32,2% dos municípios brasileiros em relação à antropometria e ao consumo alimentar, correspondendo a 167.393 e 66.136 crianças, respectivamente. Em comparação à distribuição populacional, o número de registros esteve subestimado nas regiões Norte e Nordeste para antropometria/consumo e com proporções distintas na região Sul para antropometria e na região Sudeste para consumo. As prevalências encontradas foram: AME - 56,6% (IC95% 56,2-56,9); baixa E/I - 10,6% (IC95% 10,5-10,8); baixo P/I - 9,0% (IC95% 8,9-9,1); e baixo IMC/I - 5,8% (IC95% 5,7-6,0). Conclusões: A estimativa de AME no Brasil aproximou-se de estudos anteriores, mas dados de consumo alimentar ainda possuem baixa cobertura, comprometendo a estimativa em algumas localidades. Referente à antropometria, destacaram-se elevadas taxas de baixos E/I, P/I e IMC/I em alguns Estados, consideravelmente acima da estimativa nacional anterior.


Subject(s)
Thinness/epidemiology , Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , Primary Health Care , Brazil/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Population Surveillance , Nutritional Status
8.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(5): 548-558, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131129

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the determinants of socio-economic inequality in the prevalence of short stature and underweight in Iranian children and adolescents. Subjects and methods: This cross-sectional nationwide study was conducted on 36,486 participants, aged 6-18 years. This school-based surveillance (CASPIAN- IV) program and its complementary part on weight disorders evaluation was conducted in urban and rural areas of 30 provinces in Iran. In addition to physical examination, a validated questionnaire was completed from students and their parents. Socio-economic status (SES) was determined using principal component analysis, and was classified in quintile scale. Inequality in the prevalence of underweight and short stature was assessed using concentration (C) index and slop index of inequality (SII) by the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method. Results: The prevalence (95% CI) of underweight and short stature at national level was 10.89 (10.55, 11.23) and 4.15 (3.94, 4.38), respectively; it had a downtrend from the lowest to highest SES quintile. Furthermore, the value of C for underweight and short stature was negative, i.e. inequality was in favor of high SES groups. Moreover, the prevalence gap of underweight and short stature in the first and fifth quintiles of SES was 6.58% and 5.80%, respectively. The highest proportion of this gap was explained by living area. In the multiple logistic model, odds of underweight and short stature were significantly lower in individuals with higher SES. Compared to boys, odds of underweight were decreased in girls, whereas odds of short stature were increased in them. Odds of underweight and short stature were increased in participants from rural areas than in urban areas. With increasing age, the odds of underweight and short stature decreased significantly. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that inequality in the prevalence of short stature and underweight was in favor of high SES groups. Moreover, living area was one of the most important determinants that explained this inequality. Therefore, this issue needs to be considered in health promotion policies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Thinness/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Iran/epidemiology
9.
Salud pública Méx ; 62(3): 279-287, May.-Jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377314

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivo: Estimar las prevalencias municipales de mala nutrición en población preescolar en México, y describir su variabilidad y su relación con la cobertura del Programa Nacional México Sin Hambre. Material y métodos: A partir de datos de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición de 2012, la desigualdad del ingreso y marginación municipal se aplicó un modelo normal generalizado para obtener las distribuciones municipales de los indicadores de nutrición y estimar las prevalencias de mala nutrición. Resultados: Las prevalencias de talla baja variaron de 7.8% (IC95%: 5.9-8.9) a 64.2% (49.2-72.5), las de bajo peso de 0.6% (0.005-1.7) a 22.2% (13.5-34.9) y de sobrepeso u obesidad de 2.6% (0.2-3.9) a 14.4% (11.9-27.7). De los 554 municipios con prevalencias de talla baja mayor que 25%, 275 fueron cubiertos por el programa México Sin Hambre. Conclusiones: La estimación de prevalencias municipales de mala nutrición evidenció grandes diferencias al interior del país, mismas que podrían asistir la política pública.


Abstract: Objective: To estimate malnutrition prevalence of preschool children at the level of municipality in Mexico, describe prevalence heterogeneity and its relationship with the Programa Nacional México Sin Hambre´s coverage. Materials and methods: Using the 2012 Mexican National Survey of Health and Nutrition, municipal income inequality and marginality, we applied a generalized normal model to obtain municipal distributions of nutrition status indicators from which we estimated malnutrition prevalence. Results: Stunting prevalence ranged from 7.8% (95%CI: 5.9-8.9) to 64.2% (49.2-72.5), low weight prevalence ranged from 0.6% (0.005-1.7) to 22.2% (13.5-34.9) and overweight-obesity prevalence ranged from 2.6% (0.2-3.9) to 14.4% (11.9-27.7). A total of 275 out of 554 municipalities with stunting prevalence above 25% were covered by the Programa Nacional México Sin Hambre. Conclusions: Municipal malnutrition prevalence estimation showed wide differences within Mexico; this knowledge could assist public policy.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Nutritional Status , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Growth Disorders/epidemiology , Thinness/epidemiology , Nutrition Surveys , Prevalence , Cities/epidemiology , Income , Mexico/epidemiology , National Health Programs/statistics & numerical data
10.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 41(12): 682-687, Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057887

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The present study aims to understand to what extent obesity is related to adversematernal, obstetrical, and neonatal outcomes in a Portuguese obstetrical population. Methods A retrospective case-control study was conducted at the Department of Obstetrics of a differentiated perinatal care facility. The study compared 1,183 obese pregnant womenwith 5,399 normal or underweight pregnantwomen for the occurrence of gestational diabetes, hypertensive pregnancy disorders, and preterm birth. Mode of delivery, birthweight, and neonatal intensive care unit (ICU) admissionswere also evaluated. Mean blood glucose values were evaluated and compared between groups, in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. Only singleton pregnancies were considered. Results The prevalence of obesity was 13.6%. Obese pregnant women were significantly more likely to have cesarean sections (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.0, p< 0.001), gestational diabetes (aOR 2.14, p< 0.001), hypertensive pregnancy disorders (aOR 3.43, p< 0.001), and large-for-gestational age ormacrosomic infants (aOR 2.13, p< 0.001), and less likely to have small-for-gestational age newborns (aOR 0.51, p< 0.009). No significant differences were found in terms of pretermbirths, fetal/neonatal deaths, low birthweight newborns, and neonatal ICU admissions among cases and controls. Maternal obesity was significantly associated with higher mean blood glucose levels, in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. Conclusion Obesity is associated with increased risks of adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. These risks seem to increase progressively with increasing body mass index (BMI) class. Female obesity should be considered a major public health issue and has consequences on maternal-fetal health.


Resumo Objetivo O presente estudo pretende avaliar em que medida a obesidade influencia os desfechos maternos, obstétricos e neonatais em uma população obstétrica portuguesa. Métodos Um estudo caso-controle retrospectivo foi realizado no departamento de obstetrícia de um centro perinatal diferenciado. O estudo comparou 1.183 grávidas obesas com 5.399 grávidas normoponderais ou com baixo peso para a ocorrência de diabetes gestacional, doenças hipertensivas da gravidez e parto pré-termo. Via de parto, peso ao nascimento e admissão na unidade de cuidados neonatais também foram avaliados. Os valores glicêmicos médios foram avaliados e comparados entre os dois grupos, no primeiro e segundo trimestres de gravidez. Apenas as gravidezes unifetais foram avaliadas. Resultados A prevalência da obesidade foi de 13.6%. As grávidas obesas tiveramrisco significativamente superior a ter uma cesariana (odds ratio ajustado [Ora] 2.0, p < 0.001), diabetes gestacional (ORa 2.14, p < 0.001), doenças hipertensivas da gravidez (ORa 3.43, p < 0.001), recém-nascidos grandes para a idade gestacional ou macrossômicos (ORa 2.13, p < 0.001) e menor probabilidade de ter recém-nascidos pequenos para a idade gestacional (ORa 0.51, p < 0.009). Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa quanto aos partos pré-termo, mortes fetais/neonatais, baixo peso ao nascer e admissão à unidade de cuidados intensivos neonatais. O odds ratio foi ajustado para a idade, número de gestações, paridade, ganho ponderal, doenças hipertensivas da gravidez e diabetes gestacional. A obesidade materna esteve significativamente associada a valores glicêmicos médios superiores, no primeiro e segundo trimestres de gravidez. Conclusão A obesidade está associada a maior risco de desfechos adversos na gravidez e neonatais. Este risco parece aumentar progressivamente com o aumento do índice de massa corporal (IMC). A obesidade feminina deve ser considerada um importante problema de saúde pública e que tem repercussões na saúde maternofetal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Young Adult , Obesity, Maternal/complications , Obesity, Maternal/epidemiology , Portugal/epidemiology , Thinness/epidemiology , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Fetal Macrosomia/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome , Case-Control Studies , Comorbidity , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/epidemiology , Obesity, Maternal/blood
11.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(4): 435-442, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040341

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between health-related physical fitness and weight status in 13- to 15-year-old Latino adolescents. Method: The final sample consisted of 73,561 adolescents aged 13 -15 years (35,175 girls) from Chile (n = 48,771) and Colombia (n = 24,790). Cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal fitness were measured using 20-m shuttle run (relative peak oxygen uptake - VO2peak) and standing broad jump test (lower body explosive strength), respectively. The International Obesity Task Force definition was used to define weight status (i.e., underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese). Results: The present study found an inverted J-shape relationship between body mass index, cardiorespiratory fitness, and musculoskeletal fitness in both genders and all age groups (p < 0.01). Results also suggest that underweight adolescents, and not just overweight and obese adolescents, have lower odds of having a healthy cardiorespiratory fitness (based on new international criterion-referenced standards) profile when compared with their normal weight peers, except in girls aged 14 (p = 0.268) and 15 years (p = 0.280). Conclusions: The present results indicate low cardiorespiratory fitness and musculoskeletal fitness levels in underweight, overweight, and obese adolescents when compared with their normal weight peers. The findings appear to suggest that exercise programs should to decrease fat mass in overweight/obese adolescents and increase muscle mass in underweight adolescents.


Resumo Objetivo: Investigar a relação entre a aptidão física relacionada à saúde e o status do peso em adolescentes latinos de 13 a 15 anos. Método: A amostra final consistiu em 73.561 adolescentes entre 13 e 15 anos (35.175 meninas) do Chile (n = 48.771) e da Colômbia (n = 24.790). As aptidões cardiorrespiratória e musculoesquelética foram medidas com a corrida vaivém de 20 m (consumo máximo de oxigênio relativo - VO2máx.) e o teste de impulso horizontal (menor força explosiva do corpo), respectivamente. A definição Força-Tarefa Internacional de Obesidade foi usada para definir o status do peso (ou seja, abaixo do peso, peso normal, sobrepeso e obeso). Resultados: O presente estudo encontrou uma relação na forma de J invertido entre o índice de massa corporal, a aptidão cardiorrespiratória e a aptidão musculoesquelética em ambos os sexos e em todas as faixas etárias (p < 0,01). Os resultados também sugerem que os adolescentes abaixo do peso e não somente os adolescentes acima do peso e obesos têm menor chance de ter um perfil de aptidão cardiorrespiratória saudável (com base em novos padrões internacionais referenciados a critério) em comparação com os pares com peso normal, exceto em meninas de 14 (p = 0,268) e 15 anos (p = 0,280). Conclusões: Nossos resultados mostram baixos níveis de aptidão cardiorrespiratória e aptidão musculoesquelética em adolescentes abaixo do peso, acima do peso e obesos em comparação com os pares com peso normal. Os achados parecem sugerir que os programas de exercícios devam ser voltados para reduzir a massa gorda em adolescentes com sobrepeso/obesos e aumentar a massa muscular em adolescentes abaixo do peso.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Thinness/epidemiology , Overweight/epidemiology , Cardiorespiratory Fitness/physiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Body Weight , Body Mass Index , Chile/epidemiology , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Colombia/epidemiology , Exercise Test , Muscle Strength/physiology
12.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 24(7): 2443-2452, jul. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011844

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of underweight among older adults according to socio-demographic characteristics in different regions of Brazil as well as determine associated contextual and individual factors. Cross-sectional population-based study with older adults (≥ 65 years) interviewed by telephone survey in 2014. The body mass index was calculated based on weight and height. Associations were determined using Pearson's chi-square test, considering a 5% significance level. Adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated using multilevel Poisson regression. Mean age was 73.3 years and the prevalence of underweight was 15.6% (95%CI: 14.1-17.1%). Higher prevalence rates of underweight were found among women, individuals aged ≥ 80 years, smokers and those who reported the regular consumption of beans. The prevalence rate of underweight was lower among those who reported abusive alcohol intake and those with a medical diagnosis of hypertension. The northern region of the country had the highest prevalence of underweight after adjusting for associated individual factors. The findings demonstrate the subgroups with higher prevalence rates of underweight that demand greater attention from the health services in terms of recovering of an adequate nutritional status.


Resumo O objetivo foi estimar a prevalência de baixo peso em idosos, segundo características sociodemográficas nas regiões do país e verificar os fatores contextuais e individuais associados. Estudo transversal de base populacional com idosos (≥ 65 anos) entrevistados pelo Vigitel 2014. O Índice de Massa Corporal foi calculado com o peso e estatura referidos. Verificaram-se as associações pelo teste Qui-quadrado de Pearson, considerando-se um nível de significância de 5%. Razões de prevalência ajustadas foram obtidas por meio de regressão de Poisson multinível. A média etária dos idosos foi de 73,3 anos e a prevalência de baixo peso foi de 15,6% (IC95%:14,1-17,1). Verificaram-se prevalências mais elevadas de baixo peso no sexo feminino, nos que tinham ≥ 80 anos, nos fumantes e naqueles que referiram ingerir feijão regularmente. A prevalência de baixo peso foi menor nos indivíduos com consumo abusivo de álcool e diagnóstico médico de hipertensão arterial. A região Nordeste apresentou maior prevalência de baixo peso, mesmo após ajuste pelos fatores individuais associados ao baixo peso. Os resultados revelam os subgrupos com maiores prevalências de baixo peso e que demandam maior atenção dos serviços de saúde no monitoramento e recuperação do estado nutricional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Thinness/epidemiology , Smoking/epidemiology , Alcoholism/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Sex Factors , Nutritional Status , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Age Factors
13.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(6): 845-850, June 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012999

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of overweight and obesity and its association with sleep quality in university students from the Anhui province in China. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in China with 1328 participants. The prevalence of underweight and obesity in university students was estimated according to the reference working group on obesity in China. The sleep quality was evaluated using the standard PSQI (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index). RESULTS: This study included 470 male and 858 female students from a university in Anhui; 4.4% of the females and 17.7% of the males were overweight or obese. The prevalence of obesity in males was significantly higher than in females, and the prevalence of obesity in higher years was greater than in other years (p<0.05). In general, the mean score for sleep quality was 4.91±2.67; 36.5% of male and 39.1% of female students had poor sleep quality (PSQI score >5). Among the seven components of sleep quality, sleep duration and the use of sleep medication showed significant differences between male and female students and different years (p<0.05). An obvious correlation was found between sleep quality and body mass index (BMI)(p<0.000) in females who took hypnotic drugs. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the sleep quality of females is probably associated with their BMI. College students are a special group of young adults whose cause of poor sleeping quality and BMI may be significant to study, so the health status of university students can be improved.


RESUMO OBJETIVO: O objetivo do estudo era investigar a prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade e sua relação com a qualidade do sono em estudantes universitários da província de Anhui, China. METODOLOGIA: Um estudo transversal foi realizado na China com 1328 participantes. A prevalência de baixo peso e obesidade em estudantes universitários foi estimada com base nas referências do Grupo de Trabalho sobre Obesidade da China. A qualidade do sono foi avaliada utilizando o padrão PSQI (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index). RESULTADOS: O estudo incluiu 470 homens e 858 mulheres, todos estudantes universitários de Anhui; 4,4% das mulheres e 17,7% dos homens foram classificados com sobrepeso ou obesidade. A prevalência da obesidade em homens foi significativamente maior do que em mulheres, e a prevalência da obesidade nos últimos anos foi maior do que em outras categorias (P < 0, 05). Em geral, a pontuação média de qualidade do sono foi 4,91 ± 2,67; 36,5% dos homens e 39, 1% das mulheres tiveram uma qualidade de sono ruim (PSQI > 5). Considerando os sete componentes da qualidade do sono, a duração do sono e o uso de medicação para dormir apresentaram diferenças significativas entre estudantes homens e mulheres de anos diferentes (P < 0,05). Uma clara correlação foi encontrada entre a qualidade do sono e o Índice de Massa corporal (IMC) (P < 0.0000) em mulheres que usavam drogas hipnóticas. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo sugere que a qualidade do sono das mulheres está provavelmente associada com o IMC. Os universitários são um grupo especial de jovens adultos, por isso é importante para estudar a causa da sua má qualidade do sono e sua relação com o IMC, para que seja possível melhorar a saúde dos estudantes universitários.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Sleep/physiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/physiopathology , Students/statistics & numerical data , Thinness/physiopathology , Body Mass Index , Obesity/physiopathology , Reference Values , Sleep Wake Disorders/etiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Thinness/complications , Thinness/epidemiology , Time Factors , China/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology
14.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 24(5): 1875-1883, Mai. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001805

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o estado nutricional de crianças e mulheres indígenas Yanomami e elucidar fatores associados. Estudo transversal, realizado em 17 aldeias, em 2014. Para a avaliação do estado nutricional utilizou-se as curvas de crescimento de 2006 e os escores-Z (ESZ) de estatura/idade (E/I), peso/idade (P/I), peso/estatura (P/E), os quais foram gerados nos programas WHO-Anthro e WHO-AnthroPlus. Estatura inferior a 145cm foi o descritor de baixa estatura materna nas > 18 anos. A regressão de Poisson e as análises estatísticas foram efetuadas no software R, versão 3.1.2. Nos < 5 anos a prevalência de baixa E/I foi 83,8%, de baixo P/I 50%, de baixo P/E 5,4% e de sobrepeso 2,7%. Em 59,5% das crianças observou-se muito baixa E/I e em 68,1% das mães baixa estatura. As crianças de 36-59 meses apresentaram maior risco de baixa estatura severa, em comparação com as de 0,1-23 (RP = 1,3; IC 95%: 1,1-2,3), assim como os filhos de mães com estatura < 145cm, em relação aos filhos de mães com estatura > 144cm (RP = 2,1; IC 95%;1,2-3,6). As alarmantes prevalências de baixa estatura severa revelam a grave situação nutricional das crianças. Já a associação de baixa estatura severa nas crianças e baixa estatura materna reflete o caráter intergeracional do problema.


Abstract This study evaluates the nutritional status of children and women of an indigenous Yanomamigroup, and seeks to clarify associated factors. It was a cross-sectional study, carried out in 17 villages, in 2014. For evaluation of nutritional status we used 2006 growth standards to assign height-for-age (stunting)Z-scores (Z), weight-for-age Z (underweight) and weight-for-height Z (wasting and overweight), using the software WHO-Anthro and WHO-AnthroPlus. Short stature (SS) was defined as values lower 145cm for mothers over the age of 18. The Poisson regression was made in R software. Among children under 60 months the prevalences were: stunting 83.8%; underweight 50%; wasting 5.4%; and overweight 2.7%. In 59.5% of the children there was severe stunting, and 68.1% of the mothers were SS. Prevalence ratio (PR) for severe stunting was higher in age group 36-59 months, in comparison with age group 0.1-23 (PR = 1.3; CI 95%: 1.1-2.3), as did also children of mothers with SS, when compared to the children of mothers without SS (PR = 2.1; CI 95%; 1.2-3.6). The alarming rates of stunting and severe stunting reveal the seriousness of the nutritional situation children. The association of severe stunting in infants and in mothers reflects the intergenerational nature of the problem.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Indians, South American/statistics & numerical data , Nutritional Status , Growth Disorders/epidemiology , Thinness/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index , Body Height , Body Weight , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Overweight/epidemiology , Mothers/statistics & numerical data
15.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 24(4): 1299-1308, abr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001777

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi estimar a prevalência de insatisfação com a imagem corporal e verificar a associação entre a insatisfação pela magreza e pelo excesso de peso e componentes da aptidão física relacionada à saúde em adolescentes. Participaram 1.058 adolescentes (570 moças e 488 rapazes), com média de idade de 16,3(± 1,0) anos. As variáveis investigadas foram a insatisfação com a imagem corporal (escala de silhuetas), e as relativas à aptidão física relacionada à saúde: adiposidade corporal (dobras cutâneas), força muscular (preensão manual) e aptidão cardiorrespiratória (teste mCAFT). A associação entre a imagem corporal e as variáveis de aptidão física foi testada por meio da Regressão Multinomial. A prevalência de insatisfação corporal foi de 75,2% (moças = 79,5%; rapazes = 70,3%). Moças e rapazes com adiposidade corporal elevada tiveram menor chance de insatisfação pela magreza e maior chance de insatisfação pelo excesso de peso. Os que necessitavam melhorar a força muscular e a aptidão cardiorrespiratória tiveram maior chance de insatisfação pela magreza e pelo excesso de peso, respectivamente. Conclui-se que a aptidão física relacionada à saúde esteve associada à imagem corporal, sendo que os adolescentes com níveis menos saudáveis dos diferentes componentes foram os mais insatisfeitos.


Abstract The scope of this study was to estimate the prevalence of dissatisfaction with body image and verify the association between dissatisfaction with thinness or with overweight and health-related physical fitness components among adolescents. Participants included 1058 adolescents (570 girls and 488 boys), with mean age of 16.3 (±1.0) years. The investigated variables were dissatisfaction with body image (Figure Rating Scale), and health-related physical fitness: body fat (skin folds), muscle strength (handgrip strength) and cardiorespiratory fitness (mCAFT test). The association of body image and the health-related physical fitness variables was tested by Multinomial Regression analysis. The prevalence of body dissatisfaction was 75.2% (girls = 79.5%; boys = 70.3%). Girls and boys with high body fat were less likely to be dissatisfied with thinness and more likely to be dissatisfied with overweight. Those who needed to improve muscle strength and cardiorespiratory fitness were more likely to be dissatisfied with thinness and with overweight, respectively. In conclusion, physical fitness was associated with body image, with the adolescents with less healthy conditions of the components being more dissatisfied.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Thinness/psychology , Body Image/psychology , Physical Fitness/psychology , Pediatric Obesity/psychology , Thinness/epidemiology , Sex Factors , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Muscle Strength/physiology , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Cardiorespiratory Fitness/physiology
16.
São Paulo med. j ; 136(5): 454-463, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-979382

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: While the global prevalence of obesity is rapidly increasing, this pandemic has received less attention in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in the light of the persistent undernutrition that exists in the context of maternal and child health. We aimed to describe obesity trends among women of childbearing age over recent decades, along with trends in over and undernutrition among children under five years of age, in sub-Saharan African countries. DESIGN AND SETTING: Ecological study with temporal trend analysis in 13 sub-Saharan African countries. METHODS: This was a description of temporal trends in nutritional status: adult obesity, childhood overweight, low height-for-age (stunting), low weight-for-height (wasting), low weight-for-age (underweight) and low birth weight. Publicly available data from repeated cross-sectional national surveys (demographic and health surveys and multiple-indicator cluster surveys) were used. We chose 13 sub-Saharan African countries from which at least four surveys conducted since 1993 were available. We investigated women aged 15-49 years and children under five years of age. RESULTS: In multilevel linear models, the prevalence of obesity increased by an estimated 6 percentage points over 20 years among women of childbearing age, while the prevalence of overweight among children under 5 years old was stable. A major decrease in stunting and, to a lesser extent, wasting accompanied these findings. CONCLUSIONS: The upward trend in obesity among women of childbearing age in the context of highly prevalent childhood undernutrition suggests that the focus of maternal and child health in sub-Saharan Africa needs to be expanded to consider not only nutritional deficiencies but also nutritional excess.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Thinness/epidemiology , Nutritional Status , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Time Factors , Birth Weight , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , Overweight/epidemiology , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , Growth Disorders/epidemiology
17.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 23(8): 2555-2564, Aug. 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-952726

ABSTRACT

Resumo A doença renal crônica (DRC) é complexa, exigindo múltiplas abordagens em seu tratamento. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o impacto de um programa de intervenção nutricional sobre o estado nutricional e a qualidade de vida de idosos com DRC não dialítica. Foi realizada uma coorte prospectiva com 64 idosos, de ambos os sexos, com DRC estágio 3, atendidos em Unidade Básica de Saúde, em Diadema/SP. A intervenção nutricional consistiu em três encontros coletivos e um individual. O estado nutricional foi avaliado por antropometria, classificado pelo Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC) e o risco cardiovascular pela circunferência da cintura (CC). A qualidade de vida foi avaliada pelo WHOQOL-bref. Para as análises estatísticas, adotou-se nível de significância de 5%. A amostra apresentou idade média de 73,95 ± 7,84 anos, sendo a maioria do sexo feminino. Quanto ao estado nutricional, 21,9% apresentou baixo peso, 32,8% excesso de peso e 62,6% risco cardiovascular elevado ou muito elevado. O programa de intervenção proporcionou impacto positivo no estado nutricional, com redução do IMC e da CC, diminuindo o risco de desenvolvimento de doenças cardiovasculares e promoveu aumento da satisfação dos idosos em relação ao estado de saúde repercutindo na melhora da qualidade de vida.


Abstract Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is recognized as a complex disease that requires multiple approaches to its treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a nutritional intervention program on the nutritional status and quality of life of elderly pre-dialysis CKD patients. A prospective cohort study was carried out involving 64 elderly stage 3 CKD patients receiving treatment at a Primary Care Center in the Municipality of Diadema in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The nutritional intervention consisted of one individual and three group meetings. Nutritional status was assessed using anthropometric variables and classified according to Body Mass Index (BMI). Cardiovascular risk was classified according to Waist Circumference (WC). Quality of life was assessed using the WHOQOL-BREF. The data was analyzed adopting a significance level of 5%. Mean age was 73.95 ± 7.84 years and the majority of the sample were women, had a low level of schooling, and low monthly income. With respect to nutritional status, 21.9% of the sample were underweight, 32.8% overweight, and 62.6% were at a high or very high risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The nutritional intervention program had a positive impact on nutritional status, leading to a decline in BMI and WC, reduction in risk of developing heart disease, increased satisfaction with current state of health, and improved quality of life.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Quality of Life , Nutritional Status , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/physiopathology , Feeding Behavior , Thinness/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Nutrition Assessment , Health Status , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Patient Satisfaction , Overweight/epidemiology , Waist Circumference , Income , Middle Aged
18.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 23(4): 1143-1150, abr. 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-952618

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo foi estimar a prevalência de baixo peso em idosos segundo variáveis demográficas, socioeconômicas, de comportamentos relacionados à saúde, morbidades e estado de saúde. Trata-se de estudo transversal, multicêntrico, que envolveu 3.478 idosos da comunidade (≥ 65 anos). O Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC) foi calculado com informações aferidas de peso e altura. A variável dependente foi o baixo peso, classificada pelo IMC < 22kg/m2. Foram estimadas razões de prevalência ajustadas por meio de regressão múltipla de Poisson. A média de idade foi de 72,9 anos e a prevalência de baixo peso atingiu 12,0% (IC95%:10,9-13,1) dos indivíduos. Verificaramse prevalências mais elevadas de baixo peso nos idosos com idade ≥ 80 anos, nos ex-fumantes e fumantes, naqueles que apresentaram perda de apetite e nos classificados como pré-frágeis ou frágeis (RP = 1,41; IC95%:1,09-1,82). Menores prevalências de baixo peso foram observadas nos indivíduos que relataram ter recebido diagnóstico médico de hipertensão, de diabetes e de reumatismo. Os resultados indicam a importância de avaliar e monitorar o estado nutricional dos idosos, com ênfase nos subgrupos mais vulneráveis, em particular nos frágeis, levando em conta as consequências do baixo peso para o estado de saúde


Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of being underweight among the elderly according to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, health-related behaviors, diseases and health status. This was a cross-sectional multi-center study with 3,478 community-dwelling elders (≥ 65 years). The dependent variable was the prevalence of being underweight, classified by Body Mass Index < 22kg/m2. Adjusted prevalence rate ratios were estimated using multivariable Poisson regression. The mean age was 72.9 years and 12.0% of the elderly were underweight (CI95%:10.9-13.1). Aged elderly ≥ 80 years, former and current smokers, those who reported appetite loss and those classified as pre-frail or frail (PR=1.41; CI95%:1.09-1.82) presented a higher prevalence of being underweight. Individuals who received medical diagnosis of hypertension, diabetes and rheumatism had the lowest underweight prevalence observed. The results highlight the importance of nutritional status assessment and monitoring among the elderly, with emphasis on the most vulnerable subgroups, particularly the frail elderly, taking into account the health consequences of low weight.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Thinness/epidemiology , Smoking/epidemiology , Health Status , Frail Elderly , Brazil/epidemiology , Health Behavior , Body Mass Index , Poisson Distribution , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Cities
19.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 23(3): 891-901, Mar. 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-890553

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo foi descrever a evolução de curto prazo do índice de massa corporal (IMC) e analisar a associação entre este e variáveis sociodemográficas e de percepção familiar sobre a suficiência e o tipo dos alimentos consumidos em idosos brasileiros de ambos os sexos. Utilizaram-se dados das Pesquisas de Orçamentos Familiares (POF) coletados pelo Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE), em 2002/03 e em 2008/09. As prevalências de sobrepeso e obesidade aumentaram, e as de peso adequado e baixo peso diminuíram. Utilizaram-se modelos de regressão multinomial para 2008/09, a fim de analisar a associação entre o IMC e as características sociodemográficas e de percepção familiar sobre a suficiência e o tipo dos alimentos consumidos. Renda e idade se apresentaram mais associadas ao IMC. Sugere-se medidas de prevenção e monitoramento de saúde e nutrição por meio de políticas públicas, considerando a multifatorialidade do excesso de peso em idosos brasileiros.


Abstract This study aimed to describe BMI's short-term trends and analyze the association between the Body Mass Index (BMI) and the sociodemographic variables and variables of family perception of the sufficiency and type of food consumed by Brazilian elderly of both sexes. The authors used data from the Household Budget Surveys (HBS) collected by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) in 2002/03 and 2008/09. The prevalence of overweight and obesity increased, whereas normal and low weight decreased. Multinomial regression models were used for 2008/09 to analyze the association between BMI and sociodemographic variables and variables of family perception of the sufficiency and type of food intake. Income and age were more associated with BMI. We suggest that health and nutrition prevention and monitoring measures be implemented through public policies, considering multifactorial overweight in the Brazilian elderly.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Thinness/epidemiology , Eating , Overweight/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Public Policy , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Age Factors , Income , Middle Aged
20.
Rev. gastroenterol. Perú ; 37(4): 323-328, oct.-dic. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-991274

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Celiac disease (CD) is increasingly diagnosed and weight changes are common after adoption of a gluten- free diet (GFD) and there is concern that patients might gain further weight on a GFD. Objectives: This study examined to evaluate the impact of a GFD on the body mass index (BMI), whether favorable or unfavorable. Materials and methods: In this retrospective study, we reviewed electronic records of 44 patients with serologic study and intestinal biopsy confirmed CD who was visited in Nemazee hospital, Shiraz. All patients were put on GFD for 2 years and followed closely by pediatric gastroenterologist. BMIs were categories to four group underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese. Initial BMI and follow-up BMI was comparing together and also compared with general population. Result: At diagnosis, 27.27% of subjects were underweight, 63.64% normal and 9.09% were obese. On a GFD, 66.66% of underweight patients gained weight and became normal weight and 25% of normal weight and 75% of obese patients had increase weight; and the rest of the patients, BMI remained stable. The follow-up BMIs were statistically higher than initial BMIs (mean 17.17 vs. 15.62, p <0.0001). Conclusion: Individuals with celiac disease have lower BMI than the regional population at diagnosis. On the GFD, BMI is increased significantly in all categories


Introducción: La enfermedad celiaca está siendo cada vez más diagnosticada y los cambios en el peso corporal son comunes después de ponerlos en una dieta libre de Gluten (DLG) y hay preocupación de que sigan ganando peso con esta dieta. Objetivos: Este estudio evalúa el impacto de la DLG en el índice de masa corporal (IMC) ya sea este favorable o desfavorable. Materiales y métodos: En este estudio retrospectivo se revisaron las historias de 44 pacientes con estudio serológico y biopsia intestinal confirmatorios de enfermedad celiaca que llegaron al hospital en Nemazee en Shiraz. A todos los pacientes se les puso en una DLG por 2 años y fueron seguidos por un gastroenterólogo pediatra. El IMC fue dividido en cuatro categorías, peso bajo, normal, sobrepeso y obesos. El IMC inicial y su seguimiento fueron comparados también con la población general. Resultados: Al momento del diagnóstico, el 27,27% estaban con bajo peso, el 63,64% con peso normal y el 9,09% eran obesos. En una DLG, el 66,66% de los pacientes con bajo peso llegaron a su peso normal y el 25% de los de peso normal y el 75% de los obesos también ganaron peso. Esta variación de IMC fue estadísticamente significativa (media 17,17 vs. 15,62, p <0,0001). El resto de los pacientes permaneció con su IMC estable. Conclusión: Las personas con enfermedad celiaca tienen el IMC más bajo que la población de la región al momento del diagnóstico. Puestas en la DLG, el IMC aumenta significativamente en todas las categorías


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Body Mass Index , Celiac Disease/diet therapy , Diet, Gluten-Free , Thinness/epidemiology , Celiac Disease/diagnosis , Celiac Disease/epidemiology , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Overweight/epidemiology , Hospitals, Teaching , Iran/epidemiology
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