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1.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 462-466, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985784

ABSTRACT

Active surveillance, as a first-line treatment strategy for low-risk papillary thyroid microcarcinoma, has been recommended by guidelines worldwide. However, active surveillance has not been widely accepted by doctors and patients in China. In view of the huge challenges faced by active surveillance, doctors should improve their understanding of the "low risk" of papillary thyroid micropapillary cancer, identify some intermediate or high-risk cases, be familiar with the criteria and methods of diagnosis for disease progression, and timely turn patients with disease progression into more active treatment strategies. By analyzing the long-term cost-effectiveness of active surveillance, it is clear that medical expense is only one cost form of medical activities, and the health cost (thyroid removal and surgical complications) paid by patients due to"over-diagnosis and over-treatment" is the most important. Moreover, the weakening of the patients' social function caused by surgical procedures is a more hidden and far-reaching cost. The formulation of health economic policies (including medical insurance) should promote the adjustment of diagnosis and treatment behavior to the direction which is conducive to the long-term life and treatment of patients, improving the overall health level of society and reducing the overall cost. At the same time, doctors should stimulate the subjective initiative of patients, help them fully understand the impact of various treatment methods on their psychological and physical status, support patients psychologically, and strengthen their confidence in implementing active surveillance. By strengthening multi-disciplinary treatment team and system support, doctors can achieve risk stratification of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma, accurate judgment of disease progress, timely counseling for psychological problems, and long-term adherence to active surveillance. Improving the treatment level of advanced thyroid cancer is the key point of improve the prognosis. It is important to promote the development of active surveillance for low-risk papillary thyroid microcarcinoma. In the future, it is necessary to carry out multi-center prospective research and accumulate research evidence for promoting the standardization process of active surveillance. Standardized active surveillance will certainly benefit specific papillary thyroid microcarcinoma patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroidectomy/methods , Prospective Studies , Watchful Waiting/methods , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Disease Progression , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/surgery
2.
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 351-357, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986894

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the efficacies between open surgery and axillary non-inflatable endoscopic surgery in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 343 patients with unilateral PTC treated by traditional open surgery (201 cases) and transaxillary non-inflating endoscopic surgery (142 cases) from May 2019 to December 2021 in the Head and Neck Surgery of Sichuan Cancer Hospital. Among them, 97 were males and 246 were females, aged 20-69 years. 1∶1 propensity score matching (PSM) was performed on the enrolled patients, and the basic characteristics, perioperative clinical outcomes, postoperative complications, postoperative quality of life (Thyroid Cancer-Specific Quality of Life), aesthetic satisfaction and other aspects of the two groups were compared after successful matching. SPSS 26.0 software was used for statistical analysis. Results: A total of 190 patients were enrolled after PSM, with 95 cases in open group and 95 cases in endoscopic group. Intraoperative blood losses for endoscopic and open groups were [20 (20) ml vs. 20 (10) ml, M (IQR), Z=-2.22], postoperative drainage volumes [170 (70)ml vs. 101 (55)ml, Z=-7.91], operative time [135 (35)min vs. 95 (35)min, Z=-7.34], hospitalization cost [(28 188.7±2 765.1)yuan vs. (25 643.5±2 610.7)yuan, x¯±s, t=0.73], postoperative hospitalization time [(3.1±0.9)days vs. (2.6±0.9)days, t=-3.24], and drainage tube placement time [(2.5±0.8) days vs. (2.0±1.0)days, t=-4.16], with statistically significant differrences (all P<0.05). There was no significant difference in surgical complications (P>0.05). There were significant diffferences between two groups in the postoperative quality of life scores in neuromuscular, psychological, scar and cold sensation (all P<0.05), while there were no statistically significant differences in other quality of life scores (all P>0.05). In terms of aesthetic satisfaction 6 months after surgery, the endoscopic group was better than the open group, with statistically significant difference (χ2=41.47, P<0.05). Conclusion: Endoscopic thyroidectomy by a gasless unilateral axillary approach is a safe and reliable surgical method, which has remarkable cosmetic effect and can improve the postoperative quality of life of patients compared with the traditional thyroidectomy.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Quality of Life , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Endoscopy , Thyroidectomy/methods
3.
Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 370-374, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982751

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the risk factors of recurrence after surgical resection of differentiated thyroid carcinoma combined with iodine-131 and TSH(Thyroid stimulating hormone) inhibition therapy. Methods:From January 2015 to April 2020, the clinical data of patients with structural recurrence and without recurrence were retrospectively collected after surgical treatment combined with iodine-131 and TSH inhibition therapy in the First Medical Center of PLA General Hospital. The general conditions of the two groups of patients were analyzed and the measurement data in line with the normal distribution was used for comparison between groups. For measurement data with non-normal distribution, the rank sum test was used for inter-group comparison. The Chi-square test was used for comparison between the counting data groups. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to determine the risk factors associated with relapse. Results:The median follow-up period was 43 months(range 18-81 months) and 100 patients(10.5%) relapsed among the 955 patients. Univariate analysis showed that tumor size, tumor multiple, the number of lymph node metastases>5 in the central region of the neck, and the number of lymph node metastases>5 in the lateral region were significantly correlated with post-treatment recurrence(P<0.001, P=0.018, P<0.001, P<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that tumor size(adjusted odds ratio OR: 1.496, 95%CI: 1.226-1.826, P<0.001), tumor frequency(adjusted odds ratio OR: 1.927, 95%CI: 1.003-3.701, P=0.049), the number of lymph node metastases in the central neck region>5(adjusted odds ratio OR: 2.630, 95%CI: 1.509-4.584, P=0.001) and the number of lymph node metastases in the lateral neck region>5(adjusted odds ratio OR: 3.074, 95%CI: 1.649-5.730, P=0.001) was associated with tumor recurrence. Conclusion:The study showed that tumor size, tumor multiple, the number of lymph node metastases in the central region of the neck>5 and the number of lymph node metastases in the side of the neck >5 are independent risk factors for recurrence of differentiated thyroid cancer after surgical resection combined with iodine-131 and TSH inhibition therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/surgery , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Neck Dissection , Thyroidectomy/adverse effects , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Risk Factors , Adenocarcinoma , Thyrotropin , Lymph Nodes/pathology
4.
Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 365-369, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982750

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the relationship between parathyroid hormone(PTH) level and permanent hypoparathyroidism(PHPP) on the first day after radical papillary thyroidectomy, and its predictive value. Methods:A total of 80 patients with papillary thyroid cancer who underwent total thyroid resection and central lymph node dissection were collected and analyzed from January 2021 to January 2022. According to whether PHPP occurred after surgery, the patients were divided into hypoparathyroidism group and normal parathyroid function group, and univariate and binary logistics regression were used to analyze the correlation between PTH and serum calcium levels and PHPP on the first day after surgery in two groups. The dynamic changes of PTH at different time points after operation were analyzed. The area under the receiver operating characteristic was used to evaluate the predictive power of PTH on the development of PHPP after surgery. Results:Among the 80 patients with papillary thyroid cancer, 10 cases developed PHPP, with an incidence rate of 12.5%. Binary logistics regression analysis showed that PTH on the first postoperative day(OR=14.534, 95%CI: 2.377-88.858, P=0.004) was an independent predictive risk factor for postoperative PHPP. Taking PTH=8.75 ng/L on the first postoperative day as the cut-off value, the AUC of the area under the curve was 0.874(95%CI: 0.790-0.958, P<0.001), the sensitivity was 71.4%, the specificity was 100%, and the Yoden index was 0.714. Conclusion:PTH level on the first day after total thyroid papillary carcinoma surgery is closely related to PHPP, and is an independent predictor of PHPP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Calcium , Hypoparathyroidism/surgery , Parathyroid Glands , Parathyroid Hormone , Postoperative Complications/surgery , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/complications , Thyroidectomy
5.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 154-158, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935594

ABSTRACT

Objective: To examine the safety and feasibility of gasless submental-transoral combined appoach endoscopic thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Methods: A retrospective analysis of the clinical data of 41 patients with PTC who underwent the gasless submental-transoral combined appoach endoscopic thyroidectomy at the Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine from November 2020 to April 2021. There were 5 males and 36 females with the age of (35.0±8.7) years (range: 19 to 58 years). A horizontal incision with a length of 2.0 cm is made under the chin as an observation hole, a 10 mm Trocar and a self-developed retractor are inserted, and two 5 mm longitudinal incisions are made on the labial side in the vestibule of the oral cavity as an operation hole, each inserting a 5 mm Trocar, the operation direction is from the cranial side to the caudal side. The sensation of the lower lip and chin was measured on the first day and one month postoperative. The operation time, hospital stay, the number of lymph nodes dissected and postoperative complications were recorded. Results: Surgical procedures in all cases were successfully completed under endoscopic approach without transfering to open surgery. The operation time was (99±34) minutes (range: 50 to 180 minutes) and the postoperative hospital stay was (3.4±2.2) days (range: 2 to 16 days). The maximum diameter of PTC was (7.6±5.8) mm (range: 2 to 30 mm), and the number of lymph nodes of the central compartment dissection was 6(5) (M(IQR)) (range: 1 to 25). The duration of follow-up is 1 month after operation, and the follow-up method is adopted in outpatient clinic. Postoperation complications included 2 cases of transient hypoparathyroidism, One case of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury (continue to follow up to assess whether it is a temporary injury). Postoperative minor chyle leak, seroma, and local redness and swelling in 1 case each were cured after conservative treatment. 1 case of transient minor numbness of the lower lip was observed. No permanent hypoparathyroidism, postoperative bleeding and numbness of the chin was observed. Conclusion: The gasless submental-transoral combined appoach endoscopic thyroidectomy is a feasible approach in selected PTC patients and has clinical application value.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Endoscopy , Neck Dissection , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroidectomy
6.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 15(2): 75-77, 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391818

ABSTRACT

El microcarcinoma papilar de tiroides es definido como un tumor de un cm o menos de diámetro mayor. La mayoría permanecen ocultos clínicamente, siendo un hallazgo en autopsias hasta en 36%. La presentación oculta ocurre hasta en un 10 a 26% de todas las neoplasias malignas de tiroides y se define como la presencia de ganglios metastásicos de carcinoma papilar de tiroides en ausencia de lesión primitiva tiroidea evidente durante la exploración clínica y ecográfica. El objetivo de este trabajo es el reporte de dos casos donde el diagnóstico de cáncer de tiroides se realizó a través de su presentación metastásica cervical, siendo el estudio anatomopatológico de la pieza de resección quirúrgica el que devela la presencia de un microcarcinoma papilar. Si bien el tratamiento del de estas lesiones es controversial, existen elementos que sellan la necesidad de resolución quirúrgica. En el debut metastásico ganglionar cervical, está indicada la tiroidectomía total con el vaciamiento ganglionar cervical radical modificado ipsilateral y central. El raidioyodo postquirúrgico será empleado en forma complementaria ante la persistencia, recurrencia o elementos de alto riesgo.


Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma is defined as a tumor one cm or less in diameter. Most remain clinically hidden, being an autopsy finding in up to 36%. Occult presentation occurs in up to 10% to 26% of all thyroid malignancies and is defined as the presence of metastatic nodes from papillary thyroid carcinoma in the absence of a primitive thyroid lesion evident on clinical and ultrasound examination. The objective of this work is the report of two cases where the diagnosis of thyroid cancer was made through its cervical metastatic presentation, being the pathological study of the surgical resection specimen that reveals the presence of a papillary microcarcinoma. Although the treatment of these lesions is controversial, there are elements that seal the need for surgical resolution. In cervical lymph node metastatic debut, total thyroidectomy with modified ipsilateral and central radical cervical lymph node dissection is indicated. Post-surgical radiation iodine will be used in a complementary way in the event of persistence, recurrence or high-risk elements.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/pathology , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/surgery , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/diagnosis , Lymph Nodes , Lymphatic Metastasis
7.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 15(1): 19-22, 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359334

ABSTRACT

El cáncer papilar constituye aproximadamente el 80% de todos los casos de cáncer de tiroides y el 85% de los tumores diferenciados. La variante de células altas representa el 1,3 al 12% del cáncer papilar siendo la variante agresiva más común de estos tumores. Posee un comportamiento agresivo, con mayor incidencia de invasión extratiroidea, linfovascular y metástasis a distancia, responsables de tasas de recurrencia más altas y peor pronóstico. Los casos aquí reportados reflejan las características que hacen sospechar mayor agresividad tumoral, desde el diagnóstico. Describimos dos pacientes de sexo femenino, entre 40 y 50 años, con historia de corta evolución, cuya presentación fue con síntomas de compresión locorregional y adenopatías metastásicas en cuello. Con hallazgos ecográficos e intraoperatorios de relevancia en cuanto la agresividad tumoral que hicieron sospechar la presencia de una variante agresiva del cáncer papilar. La histopatología de la variante de células altas posee una base molecular diferente respecto al papilar clásico que le confiere mayor morbi-mortalidad, constituyendo un factor de pronóstico independiente para la recurrencia. El tratamiento quirúrgico es la tiroidectomía total con vaciamiento profiláctico de los ganglios linfáticos centrales y eventualmente vaciamiento lateral de cuello según valoración preoperatoria, con posterior ablación postoperatoria de restos tiroideos mediante yodo radiactivo.


Papillary cancer constitutes approximately 80% of all thyroid cancer cases and 85% of differentiated tumors. The tall cell variant represents 1.3 to 12% of papillary cancers, being the most common aggressive variant of these tumors. It has an aggressive behavior, showing a higher incidence of extrathyroid and lymphovascular invasion and distant metastasis, responsible for higher recurrence rates and a worse prognosis. The cases reported here reflect characteristics that make us suspect tumor aggressiveness. These are female patients, between 40 and 70 years old, with a history of short evolution. They present locoregional symptoms or metastatic adenopathies, with ultrasound and intraoperative findings of relevance in terms of tumor aggressiveness that led to the suspicion of the presence of an aggressive variant of papillary cancer. The histopathology of the tall cell variant has a different molecular basis that confers its own morbidity and mortality, being an independent prognostic factor for recurrence. Total thyroidectomy is recommended with prophylactic dissection of the central lymph nodes and eventually lateral neck dissection according to preoperative evaluation followed by postoperative ablation with radioactive iodine.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Papillary/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Papillary/pathology , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/diagnosis , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/pathology , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Carcinoma, Papillary/surgery , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/surgery , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
8.
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 751-754, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942514

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the feasibility of endoscopic lateral neck dissection via the breast and transoral approaches (ELNDBTOA) for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Methods: From February 2015 to April 2019, 10 patients with PTC (cN1b) including 1 male and 9 females aged from 22 to 53 years old received ELNDBTOA in the General Surgery Department of Zhongshan Hospital, Xiamen University. Total thyroidectomy, the central lymph node dissection and the selective neck dissection (levels Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ) were performed endoscopically via the breast approach, and then the residual lymph nodes were dissected via transoral approach. The medical records, operation time, blood loss, complications and postoperative follow-up outcomes were analyzed retrospectively. SPSS 22.0 software package was used for statistical processing of clinical data of patients. Results: All cases were successfully treated with ELNDBTOA without transfer to open surgery. The average operative time was (362.5±79.7) min, the blood loss was (23.0±14.9) ml, and the postoperative hospital stay was (5.1±1.3) days. The mean number of harvested cervical lymph nodes were (34.2±25.8), and the mean number of positive lymph nodes were (6.5±4.9). Lymph nodes were dissected by the further dissection via oral approach in 6 patients and a total of 9 lateral lymph nodes were havested from 2 of the 6 patients, with 3 positive lymph nodes. Two patients had transient skin numbness in the mandibular area and recovered within two weeks. One patient developed transient hypoparathyroidism and recovered within two months. No secondary bleeding, recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis, chylous leakage, neck infection, permanent hypoparathyroidism or other complications were observed. The follow-up time was from 16 to 66 months with a median of 42.5 months, no tumor recurrence or metastasis occurred, and also no obvious deformity, abnormal sensation or movement in the chest, neck and mouth was observed. Conclusions: ELNBTOA is safe and feasible, with good cosmetic outcome.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Lymph Nodes , Neck Dissection , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroidectomy
9.
Rev. guatemalteca cir ; 27(1): 29-37, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1371870

ABSTRACT

El cáncer de tiroides es la neoplasia maligna más frecuente del sistema endocrino, siendo el más frecuente el cáncer bien diferenciado (papilar y folicular). El propósito de este trabajo es recoger nuestra experiencia clínica en el manejo y resultados del cáncer diferenciado de tiroides. Material y métodos: Estudio retrospectivo de 50 casos de pacientes con tumores malignos tiroideos, intervenidos de tiroidectomía total por nuestro servicio durante el periodo de 2015 a 2018. Se han recogido variables clínico-epidemiológicas que han sido procesadas con el programa SPSS versión 25. Se realiza estudio descriptivo y de asociación entre las diferentes variables según el tipo anatomo-patológico de tumor. Se analiza la probabilidad de recidiva del cáncer de tiroides y se utiliza el modelo de Cox para ajustar los efectos sobre la recidiva de diferentes variables en un modelo predictivo. Resultados: El 84% eran carcinoma papilar y 16% eran carcinoma folicular. Al finalizar el periodo de seguimiento (72 meses), el 14% presentaba recidiva, y habían fallecido el 8%. El carcinoma folicular fue el que mostró menor supervivencia. El tiempo medio sin recaída, fue de 129 meses. Las variables que influían en la supervivencia fueron: existencia de complicaciones en el postoperatorio, valor de tiroglobulina y antitiroglobulina y TIRADS. Conclusión: Coincidimos con el resto de autores en los aspectos epidemiológicos y clínicos. El carcinoma papilar es el más frecuente y tiene mejor pronóstico. Entre los factores que influyen en la supervivencia destacan el sexo y el tipo anatomo-patológico. Otros factores a considerar son: la existencia de complicaciones en el postoperatorio, la categoría TIRADS previa al tratamiento, y los valores de tiroglobulina y antitiroglobulina en los controles postoperatorios. (AU)


Thyroid cancer is the most frequent malignant neoplasm of the endocrine system, with well-differentiated cancer (papillary and follicular) being the most frequent. The purpose of this work is to collect our clinical experience in the management and results of well-differentiated thyroid cancer. Material and methods: Retrospective study of 50 cases of patients with malignant thyroid tumors, who underwent total thyroidectomy by our service during the period from 2015 to 2018. Clinical-epidemiological variables were collected and processed using the SPSS version 25 program. We have conducted a descriptive and association study between different variables according to anatomo-pathological tumor type. The probability of recurrence of thyroid cancer is analyzed and Cox model is used to adjust the effects on recurrence of different variables in a predictive model. Results: 84% were papillary carcinoma, and 16% were follicular carcinoma. At the end of the follow-up period (72 months), 14% had recurrence, and 8% had died. Follicular carcinoma showed the lowest survival. The mean time without relapse was 129 months. The variables that influenced survival were existence of postoperative complications, thyroglobulin and antithyroglobulin value, and TIRADS. Conclusion: We agree with the rest of the authors in the epidemiological and clinical aspects. Papillary carcinoma is the most frequent and has a better prognosis. Among the factors that influence survival, sex and anatomo-pathological type stand out. Other factors to consider are the existence of complications in the postoperative period, TIRADS category prior to treatment, and thyroglobulin and antithyroglobulin values in postoperative controls. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular/surgery , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/surgery , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Neoplasms/epidemiology , Multivariate Analysis , Regression Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular/epidemiology , Disease-Free Survival , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/epidemiology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
10.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(6): 764-771, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142213

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: The intermediate-risk (IR) category includes tumors with different degrees of aggression. We aimed to identify the risk factors associated with unfavorable response to initial treatment and compare the effect of low/high radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy. Subjects and methods: A total of 614 IR patients were selected from a database, during 1972-2015. All patients underwent total thyroidectomy and RAI therapy and were reclassified after 12-18 months into the favorable (complete/indeterminate) response group and the unfavorable (biochemical/incomplete structural) response group. A total of 92 patients were assessed for late response (mean: 9.19 ± 5.73 years). Age, gender, tumor size, histology, multifocality, vascular invasion, extrathyroidal extension, presence and number of lymph node metastasis, and stimulated thyroglobulin at ablation (sTg) were evaluated. Results: Mean age at diagnosis was 41.47 ± 15.81 years, and 83.6% of the patients were female. Within 12-18 months after initial therapy, unfavorable response was detected in 41.2% of the patients and was associated, in multivariate analysis, with lymph node metastasis (p = 0.041; odds ratio [OR] = 1.9), presence of more than five metastatic lymph nodes (p = 0,017; OR = 2.6), and sTg > 10 ng/mL (p = 0.005; OR = 10.0). For patients with a longer follow-up, sTg >10 ng/mL was associated with unfavorable response (p = 0.002; OR = 6.8). A higher RAI dose was not related to better prognosis at the end of the follow-up. Conclusion: A sTg level of >10 ng/mL and lymph node metastasis were associated with an unfavorable response 12-18 months after initial treatment. A RAI dose below 150 mCi was proven sufficient to treat IR patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Thyroid Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Thyroid Neoplasms/ultrastructure , Iodine Radioisotopes/therapeutic use , Prognosis , Thyroglobulin , Thyroidectomy , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/surgery
11.
Rev. medica electron ; 42(6): 2621-2632, nov.-dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | CUMED, LILACS | ID: biblio-1150042

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: el cáncer de tiroides representa un 1% del total de todos los tipos de cáncer. Su incidencia parece aumentar un 4% cada año, y en la actualidad es el octavo cáncer más frecuente en mujeres. Objetivo: evaluar el resultado del tratamiento quirúrgico en el cáncer de tiroides. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y retrospectivo que incluye todos los pacientes operados de cáncer tiroides en el servicio de Cirugía General del Hospital Universitario "Comandante Faustino Pérez Hernández", en el período desde enero de 1993 a diciembre del 2018. Se empleó un modelo recolector de datos con las variables de interés para el estudio y los resultados se presentaron en tablas de frecuencia, números y porciento. Resultados: el cáncer de tiroides fue más frecuente en el grupo etario de 31 a 50 años, predomino el sexo femenino, la variedad histológica papilar fue la más frecuente, la técnica quirúrgica más empleada fue la tiroidectomía total. El hipotiroidismo fue la complicación más encontrada. Conclusiones: el cáncer de tiroides es más frecuente en pacientes relativamente jóvenes y del sexo femenino, la variedad papilar, la tiroidectomía total y el hipotiroidismo como complicación posquirúrgica son los de más incidencia (AU).


SUMMARY Introduction: thyroid cancer represents 1% of the total of all kinds of cancer. Its incidence seems to increase 4% every year, and at the present time it is the eighth more frequent cancer in women. Objective: to evaluate the results of the thyroid cancer surgical treatment. Materials and methods: a retrospective, descriptive, observational study was carried out including all patients who underwent a surgery of thyroid cancer in the service of General Surgery of the University Hospital ¨Comandante Faustino Perez Hernandez¨ in the period from January 1993 to December 2018. A data collector model was used with the variables of interest for the study and the results were presented by charts of frequency, numbers and percent. Results: the thyroid cancer was more frequent in the age group of 31 to 50 years; the female sex prevailed; the most frequent variety was the histological papillary one; the most used surgical technique was total thyroidectomy. Hypothyroidism was the most commonly found complication. Conclusions: thyroid cancer is more frequent in relatively young, female patients; the papillary variety, total thyroidectomy and hypothyroidism as surgical complication are the ones with higher incidence (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Endocrine Surgical Procedures/methods , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Postoperative Complications/therapy , Thyroidectomy/methods , Thyroid Neoplasms/rehabilitation , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/surgery , Hypothyroidism
12.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(7): 1025-1030, jul. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139405

ABSTRACT

Pancreatic metastases of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) are exceptional. We report a 80-year-old man consulting for obstructive jaundice and dysphonia. Abdominal ultrasonography showed biliary dilation and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a pancreatic head mass of 36 mm. A left vocal cord paralysis was confirmed and cervical computed tomography (CT) showed multiple thyroid nodules of up to 35 mm associated with bilateral cervical lymph nodes (LN). Positron emission tomography ( 18 F-FDG PET/CT) evidenced hyper-metabolic activity in bilateral cervical LN, lungs, pancreas and left intercostal soft tissue, as well as left gluteus. Thyroid biopsy reported a tall-cell variant of PTC, and endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) of pancreatic mass confirmed PTC metastasis. The molecular study was positive for BRAFV600E. Pancreatic metastasis from PTC can be accurately diagnosed with 18 F-FDG PET/CT and EUS-FNA, which is consistent with a predominant expression of BRAFV600E mutation and, thus, an aggressive presentation with poor short-term survival.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pancreatic Neoplasms/secondary , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/pathology , Pancreatectomy , Pancreatic Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/surgery , Lymph Node Excision , Lymphatic Metastasis
13.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(3): 289-291, jun. 2020. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125082

ABSTRACT

El hipoparatiroidismo (hipoPTH) es una enfermedad infrecuente caracterizada por hipocalcemia y niveles inapropiadamente bajos o ausentes de parathormona. Presentamos el caso de un hombre de 25 años, deportista de alto rendimiento, con antecedente de hipoPTH secundario a tiroidectomía total dos años antes por cáncer papilar multifocal bilateral tiroideo, estadificado como T3 N1b M0, derivado por hipocalcemia sintomática. Presentaba calcemias promedio de 7mg%, síntomas de hipocalcemia en reposo y múltiples internaciones. Inicialmente, se optimizó tratamiento convencional con aporte de calcio vía oral hasta 12g/día, vitamina D y calcitriol, sin mejoría clínica ni bioquímica. Se descartaron malabsorción y complicaciones crónicas de hipoPTH. Se evidenció a través de cuestionario de salud SF-36 disminución de la calidad de vida. Se indicó sustitución con parathormona recombinante humana [rhPTH(1-84)] 50μg/día subcutánea con posterior ascenso a 75μg y reducción progresiva de la medicación por vía oral. Actualmente se encuentra asintomático, sin requerimiento de calcio ni vitamina D, mantiene calcemias de 9mg%, realiza actividad deportiva y demuestra marcada mejoría en la calidad de vida según cuestionario SF-36 (36-Item Short Form Health Survey).


Hypoparathyroidism (HypoPT) is a rare disease characterized by low calcium and inappropriately low circulating parathormone levels. We present the case of a 25-year-old high-performance athlete male, with history of HypoPT after total thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma (T3 N1b M0) two years before, who was referred to our clinic for symptomatic hypocalcemia. The patient reported serum calcium average levels of 7mg%, presented symptoms of hypocalcemia at rest and had multiple hospital admissions. First, standard treatment was optimized by calcium supplementation up to 12g/d and active vitamin D, not showing clinical or biochemical improvement. Malabsorption and complications of chronic HypoPT were ruled out. The 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) demonstrated an impaired quality of life (QoL). Full-length recombinant human parathyroid hormone [rhPTH(1-84)] therapy was started with 50μg/d subcutaneous, and later adjusted to 75μg/d and the oral treatment gradually decreased. Currently, he is asymptomatic, with serum calcium levels above 9mg%, without receiving oral medication. He performs sports activity and shows marked improvement in quality of life according to SF-36 questionnaire.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Parathyroid Hormone/therapeutic use , Hypoparathyroidism/drug therapy , Thyroidectomy/adverse effects , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Calcitriol/therapeutic use , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/complications , Hormone Replacement Therapy/methods , Calcium-Regulating Hormones and Agents/therapeutic use , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/surgery , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/complications , Hypoparathyroidism/etiology
14.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(3): 251-256, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131079

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective We aimed to evaluate the impact of minimal extrathyroidal extension (mETE) alone on the risk of recurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). The impact of other factors, including multifocality, age, tumor size, and stimulated thyroglobulin (sTg) values was also assessed. Subjects and methods We retrospectively analyzed 1,108 PTC patients from a medical institution, who presented tumors ≤ 4 cm without any adverse characteristics other than mETE. Patients were classified according to their response to initial treatment 12 to 24 months after surgery as proposed by the 2015 American Thyroid Association (ATA) guideline. Statistical analysis was performed using multivariate logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, mETE did not have an impact on the response to initial treatment (p = 0.44), similar to multifocality, age, and tumor size. Initial Tg value was the only variable associated with a poor response (p < 0.01, odds ratio = 1.303, 95% confidence interval 1.25-1.36). The ROC analysis revealed that Tg was significant (area under curve = 0.8750); the cutoff value of sTg as a predictor of poor response was 10 ng/mL (sensitivity = 72.2%, specificity = 98.5%). Conclusion For low-risk PTC presenting mETE as the only aggressive feature, the initial sTg value is essential to identify patients who may have a poor response after initial treatment and benefit from further treatment. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2020;64(3):251-6


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/pathology , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Random Allocation , Retrospective Studies , Tumor Burden , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/surgery , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Neoplasm Staging
15.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(2): 179-184, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131073

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Most papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) harbor excellent prognosis. Although rare, distant metastases normally occur in lungs and/or bones. Here we describe a rare case of pancreatic metastasis presenting with rapid onset cholestatic syndrome. A literature review was also performed. A 73-year-old man with a high risk PTC was submitted to total thyroidectomy (TT) followed by radioiodine therapy. After initial therapy, he persisted with progressive rising serum thyroglobulin levels but with no evidence of structural disease. Recently, the patient presented with a rapid onset and progressive cholestatic syndrome. A 4 cm lesion in pancreas was identified, with echoendoscopy fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) confirming a pancreatic metastasis from PTC. The patient was submitted to a successful pancreaticoduodenectomy. Pancreatic metastases of PTC are rare and few long-term follow-up data are available to guide management. Fourteen cases were former reported, mean age was 65.7 years-old with mean time between PTC and pancreatic metastasis diagnosis of 7.9 years. Nine of them had another distant metastasis, nine were diagnosed by FNAB and just two received sorafenib.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Pancreatic Neoplasms/complications , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Cholestasis/etiology , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/pathology , Pancreatic Neoplasms/surgery , Pancreatic Neoplasms/secondary , Syndrome , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Cholestasis/diagnosis , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/surgery
16.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(2): 144-149, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131074

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives Evaluate the impact of microscopic extrathyroid extension (MEE) on outcome and therapy response in patients with cT1 and cT2 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Subjects and methods Retrospective study of 970 consecutive patients, who underwent surgery for PTC between 2000 and 2016. All patients had: tumours ≤ 4 cm, apparent complete tumour resection, without clinically apparent lymph node or distant metastasis at diagnosis and nonaggressive histologic variant. Results Based on the finding of MEE, 175 (18.0%) patients were upstaged to T3. They were older (53.9 versus 50.6 years; P = 0.004) and were more prone to have multifocal tumours (38.2% versus 24.8%; P = 0.001). Radioiodine ablation therapy (RAI) was administered more often to MEE patients (92% versus 40.5%; P < 0.001), as well as prophylactic lymph node resection (35.4% versus 28.6%, P = 0.048). They were more likely to have biochemical incomplete response (4% versus 0.3%; P = 0.03) at the end of the follow-up period. There was no significant association between MEE and recurrence rate, persistence of disease or disease-specific mortality. Conclusion These results support the changes made to the latest edition of the TNM staging system, regarding MEE. Although incomplete biochemical response is more common in these patients, it does not seem to affect their prognosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/surgery , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/pathology , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging
17.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 771-775, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878676

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the short-term outcome of T1bN0M0 papillary thyroid cancer after ultrasonography-guided radiofrequency ablation(RFA). Methods Eighty-nine patients with T1bN0M0 papillary thyroid cancer who were treated with ultrasonography-guided RFA in our center from April 2014 to January 2019 were retrospectively analyzed.Trans-isthmus approach and moving shot technique were used during the RFA procedure.Ultrasonography and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography were performed before ablation,and immediately,1,3,6 and 12 months after ablation and then every 6 months thereafter. Results RFA was performed in 89 cases of papillary thyroid cancer,and no major complications were observed during the RFA.The mean follow-up was(18.8±7.3)months.The ablation zones decreased gradually during follow-up,and 38 ablation zones(42.7%)completely disappeared.The volume reduction rate was(99.2±2.3)% 30 months after ablation.During follow-up,2 patients(2.2%)developed tumor recurrence and 1 patient(1.1%)developed cervical lymph node metastasis. Conclusion Ultrasonography-guided RFA may be a safe and effective method for patients with T1bN0M0 papillary thyroid cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Catheter Ablation , Lymphatic Metastasis , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Radiofrequency Ablation , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Ultrasonography
18.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 13(4): 145-149, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1123619

ABSTRACT

Es bien conocido que ha existido en las últimas décadas un incremento en los casos de cáncer diferenciado de tiroides, especialmente los microcarcinomas. Diversos factores han contribuido a pesquisar pequeños cánceres como el aumento de la disponibilidad de exámenes imagenológicos. Estos pequeños cánceres tiroideos pueden tener un comportamiento no agresivo y no producir letalidad; esto es lo que se conoce como sobrediagnóstico. Esto último tiene implicancias tanto médicas como económicas por terapias agresivas. Así, desde el año 2015, un grupo de expertos cambia la nomenclatura en anatomía patológica del carcinoma papilar tiroideo variante folicular encapsulado (NIEFVPTC de sus siglas en inglés) por Neoplasia folicular tiroidea no invasiva con características nucleares de tipo papilar (NIFTP de sus siglas en inglés). Este cambio se basó en un estudio de Nikiforov donde los NIEFVPTC no tenían efectos adversos ni mortalidad en su seguimiento. Así, la intención inicial del cambio de nomenclatura es eliminar la palabra cáncer y evitar los sobretratamientos innecesarios. Presentamos un caso clínico de una paciente que se sometió a cirugía por un nódulo tiroideo clasificado Bethesda III donde la biopsia definitiva posterior a cirugía evidenció que se trataba de un NIFTP. A raíz de este caso analizamos la literatura hasta la fecha de esta nueva entidad y hacemos un repaso histórico de los carcinomas papilares tiroideos variante folicular. Además, desarrollamos nuevas interrogantes que se plantean desde este nuevo diagnóstico anatomopatológico, de cómo sospecharlo previo a una cirugía, cuál es la cirugía de elección, y cómo debiera ser el seguimiento una vez diagnosticado.


It is well known that there has been an increase in cases of differentiated thyroid cancer in recent decades, especially microcarcinomas. Several factors have contributed to diagnose small cancers such as the increased availability of imaging tests. These small thyroid cancers can have a non-aggressive behavior and not cause lethality, this is what is known as overdiagnosis. The latter has medical as well as economic implications for aggressive therapies. Thus, since 2015, a group of experts has changed the nomenclature in pathological anatomy of encapsulated variant papillary thyroid carcinoma (NIEFVPTC) for non-invasive thyroid follicular neoplasia with papillary nuclear characteristics (NIFTP). This change was based on a Nikiforov study where the NIEFVPTC had no adverse effects or mortality in their follow-up; thus, the initial intention of the nomenclature change is to eliminate the word cancer and avoid unnecessary over-treatments. We present a clinical case of a patient who underwent surgery for a thyroid nodule classified Bethesda III where the definitive biopsy after surgery showed that it was a NIFTP. Following this case, we analyze the literature to date of this new entity and make a historical review of the follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinomas. In addition, we develop new questions that arise from this new pathological diagnosis, how to suspect it prior to surgery, what is the surgery of choice, and what should the follow-up once diagnosed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/diagnosis , Biopsy , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Ultrasonography , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/surgery , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/pathology
19.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 47: e20202545, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1136550

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: papillary thyroid carcinoma is a tumor with good prognosis. However, some patients treated present neck recurrence. Objective: to evaluate the risk factors for neck recurrence. Methods: a retrospective study enrolled 89 patients (68 women and 21 men) diagnosed with papillary carcinoma who underwent total thyroidectomy. In 21 patients, neck dissection was performed and 62 patients underwent radioiodinetherapy. Twelve patients relapsed with metastasis in this period with an average of 3.6 years. Results: out of 89 patients, 76.4% were female. Relapse occurred in nine (13.23%) women and three (14.28%) men. The average age of the patients was 44 years in the control group and in patients with relapsed. Eighteen patients (23.37%) in the control group and eight (64.28%) who relapsed had positive lymph nodes at initial diagnosis. The tumor size was significantly larger in the group of patients with cervical recurrence (3.3cm vs. 1.6cm - p=0.008, Student t test), whereas the presence of metastatic lymph nodes at the moment of the first operation was also significant (p=0.004 -Fisher exact test). The tumor size was an independent risk factor for recurrence at the multivariate anaylsis (OR=2.4, IC95%:1.3-4.6 - p=0,007, logistic regression). Conclusion: there is an increase in the risk of lymph node recurrence during the follow up of 2.4 folds for each increase of 1cm in the longer nodule diameter.


RESUMO Introdução: o carcinoma papilífero da tireoide é um tumor com bom prognóstico. Entretanto, alguns pacientes tratados evoluem com recidiva cervical. Objetivo: avaliar os fatores de risco para recidiva cervical. Métodos: um estudo retrospectivo arrolou 89 pacientes (68 mulheres e 21 homens) diagnosticados com carcinoma papilífero, submetidos à tireoidectomia total. Em 21 pacientes, realizou esvaziamento cervical e, em 62, radioiodoterapia. Doze pacientes apresentaram recorrência linfonodal no período, com media de 3,6 anos. Resultados: dos 89 pacientes, 76,4% eram mulheres. A falha ocorreu em nove mulheres (13,23%) e três homens (14,28%). A média etária tanto dos pacientes recidivados como do grupo-controle foi de 44 anos. Dezoito pacientes (23,37%) no grupo-controle e oito (64,28%) dentre os que recidivaram tinham linfonodos positivos ao diagnóstico inicial. O tamanho tumoral foi significativamente maior no grupo de pacientes que apresentaram recidiva cervical (3,3 cm vs. 1,6cm - p=0,008, teste t de Student), o mesmo foi observado para a presença de linfonodos metastáticos quando da primeira cirurgia (p=0,004 - teste exato de Fisher). À análise multivariada, o tamanho tumoral foi fator de risco independente de recidiva (OR=2,4, IC95%:1,3-4,6 - p=0,007, regressão logística. Conclusão: para cada aumento de 1cm no maior diâmetro da lesão, há um aumento de 2,4 vezes no risco de recidiva linfonodal ao longo do acompanhamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Neck Dissection , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Carcinoma, Papillary/surgery , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/surgery , Prognosis , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Papillary/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
20.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(5): 462-469, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038501

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives To determine the percentage of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) who accepted active surveillance as an alternative to surgery in our clinical practice and to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with Bethesda category V and VI thyroid nodules who chose active surveillance. Subjects and methods We included 136 PTC patients from the Hospital de Clínicas, University of Buenos Aires without (i) US extrathyroidal extension, (ii) tumors adjacent to the recurrent laryngeal nerve or trachea, and/or (iii) US regional lymph-node metastasis or clinical distant metastasis. PTC progression was defined as the presence of i) a tumor larger than ≥ 3 mm, ii) novel appearance of lymph-node metastasis, and iii) serum thyroglobulin doubling time in less than one year. For patients with these features, surgery was recommended. Results Only 34 (25%) of 136 patients eligible for active surveillance accepted this approach, and around 10% of those who accepted abandoned it due to anxiety. The frequency of patients with tumor enlargement was 17% after a median of 4.6 years of follow-up without any evidence of nodal or distant metastases. Ten patients who underwent surgical treatment after a median time of 4 years of active surveillance (AS) had no evidence of disease after a median of 3.8 years of follow-up after surgery. Conclusion Although not easily accepted in our cohort of patients, AS would be safe and easily applicable in experienced centers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Watchful Waiting/methods , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/diagnostic imaging , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Follow-Up Studies , Tumor Burden , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/surgery , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/pathology
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