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Rev. cuba. cir ; 62(1)mar. 2023.
Article in Spanish | CUMED, LILACS | ID: biblio-1515259


Introducción: En las últimas décadas la incidencia del cáncer tiroideo en el curso de la enfermedad nodular se ha incrementado debido a las novedosas técnicas de diagnóstico; sin embargo, la tasa de mortalidad se ha mantenido muy baja. Objetivo: Evaluar las características clínicas, epidemiológicas y quirúrgicas de pacientes con afecciones nodulares tiroideas. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo observacional de cohorte prospectivo, longitudinal con los pacientes operados de afecciones tiroideas durante el período comprendido entre enero del 2008 y diciembre del 2018. El universo y la muestra quedaron constituidos por 467 pacientes que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. Resultados: Predominaron el sexo femenino (89,5 por ciento) y el grupo etario de 45-60 años (29,5 por ciento). Asociaron comorbilidades 338 pacientes y algún factor de riesgo de malignidad (6,2 por ciento). Un total de 174 pacientes manifestaron síntomas y 264 mostraron algún signo. Predominaron los reportes ecográficos (TI-RADS) y citológicos (Bethesda) tipo II (54,3 por ciento) y (55,5 por ciento), respectivamente. La hemitiroidectomía fue el procedimiento más realizado (59,9 por ciento) y la disfonía la complicación más encontrada (1,9 por ciento). Conclusiones: El diagnóstico oportuno del cáncer tiroideo en el curso de una enfermedad nodular contribuye a individualizar todas las decisiones terapéuticas atendiendo a las características de cada paciente y sus circunstancias(AU)

Introduction: In recent decades, the incidence rates of thyroid cancer in the course of nodular disease has increased due to novel diagnostic techniques; however, the mortality rate has remained very low. Objective: To evaluate the clinical, epidemiological and surgical characteristics of patients with nodular thyroid disease. Methods: A descriptive, observational, of prospective cohort, longitudinal and observational study was conducted with patients operated on for thyroid disorders during the period from January 2008 to December 2018. The study universe and sample consisted of 467 patients who met the inclusion criteria. Results: The female sex (89.5 percent) and the age group 45-60 years (29.5 percent) predominated. Comorbidities were present in 338 patients, as well as some risk factor for malignancy in 6.2 percent. A total of 174 patients manifested symptoms and 264 showed some sign. There was a predominance of echography (TI-RADS) and cytology (Bethesda) type II reports, accounting for 54.3 percent and 55.5 percent, respectively. Hemithyroidectomy was the most performed procedure (59.9 percent), while dysphonia was the most encountered complication (1.9 percent). Conclusions: Timely diagnosis of thyroid cancer in the course of nodular disease contributes to individualizing all therapeutic decisions considering the characteristics of each patient and their circumstances(AU)

Humans , Thyroid Diseases/epidemiology , Thyroid Neoplasms/epidemiology , Thyroidectomy/methods , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Observational Studies as Topic
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 227-231, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970185


Objective: To compare the surgical outcome of robotic thyroidectomy through transoral approach and the bilateral breast-axillary approach. Methods: Retrospective analysis was made on the clinical data of patients who performed transoral robotic thyroidectomy (TORT group) or bilateral breast-axillary approach (BABA group) in the Department of Thyroid and Breast Surgery, the 960th Hospital of People's Liberation Army from July 2020 to May 2022. Both groups received lobectomy with lymph node dissection of the central region. A total of 100 cases were included in the study, including 48 cases in the TORT group and 52 cases in the BABA group. The propensity score matching method was used for 1∶1 matching of patients between the 2 groups, with a match tolerance of 0.03. There were 31 patients in each group successfully matched. In the TORT group, there were 5 males and 26 females, aged (33.2±7.9) years (range: 21 to 53 years). While there were 4 males and 27 females in the BABA group, aged (34.6±9.2) years (range: 19 to 58 years). The t test, Mann-Whitney U test, χ2 test or Fisher exact test were used to compare the clinical efficacy between the two groups. Results: All the patients successfully completed robotic thyroid surgery without conversion to open surgery. Compared with BABA group, the TORT group had longer operation time ((211.3±57.2) minutes vs. (126.2±37.8) minutes, t=6.915, P<0.01), shorter drainage tube retention time ((5.4±1.0) days vs. (6.4±1.2) days, t=-3.544, P=0.001), shorter total hospital stay ((6.6±1.2) days vs. (7.4±1.3) days, t=-2.353, P=0.022), and higher cosmetic score (9.46±0.25 vs. 9.27±0.26, t=2.925, P=0.005). There was no significant difference between the two groups in the number of lymph nodes dissection, metastasis in the central compartment, and the incidence of postoperative complications (all P>0.05). Conclusions: Compared with the bilateral breast-axillary approach, the transoral vestibular approach of robotic thyroidectomy is also safe and effective. It shows similar surgical results to the bilateral breast-axillary approach in strictly selected patients, but the postoperative recovery speed is much faster, and the hospital stay is shorter. Transoral robotic thyroidectomy is a more recommended surgical method for patients with high aesthetic demand.

Male , Female , Humans , Robotic Surgical Procedures/methods , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroidectomy/methods , Retrospective Studies , Neck Dissection/methods , Axilla/pathology , Treatment Outcome
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 351-357, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986894


Objective: To compare the efficacies between open surgery and axillary non-inflatable endoscopic surgery in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 343 patients with unilateral PTC treated by traditional open surgery (201 cases) and transaxillary non-inflating endoscopic surgery (142 cases) from May 2019 to December 2021 in the Head and Neck Surgery of Sichuan Cancer Hospital. Among them, 97 were males and 246 were females, aged 20-69 years. 1∶1 propensity score matching (PSM) was performed on the enrolled patients, and the basic characteristics, perioperative clinical outcomes, postoperative complications, postoperative quality of life (Thyroid Cancer-Specific Quality of Life), aesthetic satisfaction and other aspects of the two groups were compared after successful matching. SPSS 26.0 software was used for statistical analysis. Results: A total of 190 patients were enrolled after PSM, with 95 cases in open group and 95 cases in endoscopic group. Intraoperative blood losses for endoscopic and open groups were [20 (20) ml vs. 20 (10) ml, M (IQR), Z=-2.22], postoperative drainage volumes [170 (70)ml vs. 101 (55)ml, Z=-7.91], operative time [135 (35)min vs. 95 (35)min, Z=-7.34], hospitalization cost [(28 188.7±2 765.1)yuan vs. (25 643.5±2 610.7)yuan, x¯±s, t=0.73], postoperative hospitalization time [(3.1±0.9)days vs. (2.6±0.9)days, t=-3.24], and drainage tube placement time [(2.5±0.8) days vs. (2.0±1.0)days, t=-4.16], with statistically significant differrences (all P<0.05). There was no significant difference in surgical complications (P>0.05). There were significant diffferences between two groups in the postoperative quality of life scores in neuromuscular, psychological, scar and cold sensation (all P<0.05), while there were no statistically significant differences in other quality of life scores (all P>0.05). In terms of aesthetic satisfaction 6 months after surgery, the endoscopic group was better than the open group, with statistically significant difference (χ2=41.47, P<0.05). Conclusion: Endoscopic thyroidectomy by a gasless unilateral axillary approach is a safe and reliable surgical method, which has remarkable cosmetic effect and can improve the postoperative quality of life of patients compared with the traditional thyroidectomy.

Male , Female , Humans , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Quality of Life , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Endoscopy , Thyroidectomy/methods
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 462-466, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985784


Active surveillance, as a first-line treatment strategy for low-risk papillary thyroid microcarcinoma, has been recommended by guidelines worldwide. However, active surveillance has not been widely accepted by doctors and patients in China. In view of the huge challenges faced by active surveillance, doctors should improve their understanding of the "low risk" of papillary thyroid micropapillary cancer, identify some intermediate or high-risk cases, be familiar with the criteria and methods of diagnosis for disease progression, and timely turn patients with disease progression into more active treatment strategies. By analyzing the long-term cost-effectiveness of active surveillance, it is clear that medical expense is only one cost form of medical activities, and the health cost (thyroid removal and surgical complications) paid by patients due to"over-diagnosis and over-treatment" is the most important. Moreover, the weakening of the patients' social function caused by surgical procedures is a more hidden and far-reaching cost. The formulation of health economic policies (including medical insurance) should promote the adjustment of diagnosis and treatment behavior to the direction which is conducive to the long-term life and treatment of patients, improving the overall health level of society and reducing the overall cost. At the same time, doctors should stimulate the subjective initiative of patients, help them fully understand the impact of various treatment methods on their psychological and physical status, support patients psychologically, and strengthen their confidence in implementing active surveillance. By strengthening multi-disciplinary treatment team and system support, doctors can achieve risk stratification of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma, accurate judgment of disease progress, timely counseling for psychological problems, and long-term adherence to active surveillance. Improving the treatment level of advanced thyroid cancer is the key point of improve the prognosis. It is important to promote the development of active surveillance for low-risk papillary thyroid microcarcinoma. In the future, it is necessary to carry out multi-center prospective research and accumulate research evidence for promoting the standardization process of active surveillance. Standardized active surveillance will certainly benefit specific papillary thyroid microcarcinoma patients.

Humans , Thyroidectomy/methods , Prospective Studies , Watchful Waiting/methods , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Disease Progression , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/surgery
Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 288-292, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982734


Objective:To explore the safety and feasibility of bilateral axillo-breast approach (BABA) robot in the operation of thyroid cancer in obese women. Methods:The clinical data of 81 obese female patients who underwent da Vinci robotic thyroid cancer surgery(robotic group) at the Department of Thyroid and Breast Surgery, PLA 960 Hospital from May 2018 to December 2021 were retrospectively analyzed and compared with the clinical data of 106 obese female thyroid cancer patients who underwent open surgery(open group) during the same period. The age, body mass index(BMI), mean time of surgery, mean postoperative drainage, tumor diameter, postoperative tumor stage, number of lymph node dissection in the central and lateral cervical regions, number of positive lymph nodes in the central and lateral cervical regions, postoperative cosmetic outcome satisfaction score, mean postoperative hospital stay and postoperative complications of all patients were counted. The results were analyzed using SPSS 26.0 statistical software, and the count data were compared using the χ² test, and the measurement data were compared using the t test. Results:All patients completed the operation successfully, and there was no conversion in the robot group, postoperative pathological results were all composed of papillary thyroid carcinoma. The operation time in the robot group was(144.62±36.38) min, which was longer than that in the open group(117.06±18.72) min(P<0.05). The average age of the robot group was(40.25±9.27) years, which was lower than that of the open group(49.59±8.70) years(P<0.05). The satisfactory score of cosmetic effect in the robot group(9.44±0.65) was higher than that in the open group(5.23±1.07)(P<0.05). There was no significant difference in tumor diameter, BMI, average postoperative drainage, temporary hypoparathyroidism and recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, number of central and lateral cervical lymph node dissection, number of positive lymph nodes in the central and lateral cervical regions, and average postoperative hospital stay between the two groups. There was no permanent hypoparathyroidism and recurrent laryngeal nerve injury in both groups. Conclusion:The application of BABA pathway robot in thyroid cancer surgery in obese women is safe and feasible, and the cosmetic effect is better after operation.

Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Robotics/methods , Retrospective Studies , Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Injuries , Thyroidectomy/methods , Carcinoma, Papillary/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Neck Dissection , Treatment Outcome
Rev. cuba. cir ; 61(3)sept. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1441508


Introducción: El cáncer de tiroides es el tumor más común de los malignos originados en órganos endocrinos (más del 92 por ciento) y comprende un grupo de tumores que son diferentes clínicamente, epidemiológicamente y en cuanto a pronóstico. Objetivo: Caracterizar a los enfermos con cáncer de tiroides operados en el Hospital Clínico Quirúrgico General "Freyre de Andrade". Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo de corte longitudinal en el Hospital Clínico Quirúrgico General "Freyre de Andrade" en el período 2014-2019. El universo estuvo constituido por 32 enfermos operados de cáncer de tiroides. Fueron analizadas variables sociodemográficas, clasificación de Bethesda, diagnóstico histológico, técnica quirúrgica empleada y complicaciones. Resultados: El cáncer de tiroides predominó en mujeres (87,5 por ciento) entre 51 - 60 años (25,0 por ciento). Según la clasificación de Bethesda prevaleció la categoría VI (15,62 por ciento). Predominó el carcinoma papilar (65,62 por ciento). A todos los enfermos se le realizó una tiroidectomía total y las complicaciones fueron el hematoma posoperatorio (6,25 por ciento) y el granuloma (6,25 por ciento). Conclusiones: El cáncer tiroideo predomina en mujeres entre la quinta y sexta década de la vida. La técnica quirúrgica que se utiliza es la tiroidectomía total con baja morbilidad. Predomina la variante histológica del carcinoma papilar(AU)

Introduction: Thyroid cancer is the most common malignant tumor originating in endocrine organs (more than 92 percent) and comprises a group of clinically, epidemiologically and prognostically different tumors. Objective: To characterize patients with thyroid cancer operated on at Freyre de Andrade General Clinical Surgical Hospital. Methods: A descriptive, retrospective and longitudinal study was carried out at Freyre de Andrade General Clinical Surgical Hospital in the period 2014-2019. The universe consisted of 32 patients operated on for thyroid cancer. Sociodemographic variables, Bethesda classification, histological diagnosis, used surgical technique and complications were analyzed. Results: Thyroid cancer predominated in women (87.5 percent) between 51 and 60 years of age (25.0 percent). According to the Bethesda classification, category VI prevailed (15.62 percent). Papillary carcinoma predominated (65.62 percent). All patients underwent total thyroidectomy, while the complications were postoperative hematoma (6.25 percent) and granuloma (6.25 percent. Conclusions: Thyroid cancer predominates in women between the fifth and sixth decades of life. The used surgical technique is total thyroidectomy, reporting low morbidity. The histological variant of papillary carcinoma predominates(AU)

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Thyroidectomy/methods , Thyroid Neoplasms/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Papillary/etiology , Hematoma/complications , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Granuloma/complications
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 82(1): 65-69, mar. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389832


Resumen El tiroides ectópico es una alteración congénita infrecuente que presenta una prevalencia entre 1/100.000-1/300.000. En el 90% de los casos se encuentra en la línea media cervical, siendo los casos de tiroides ectópico cervical lateral muy infrecuentes. Presentamos el caso de una paciente de 44 años que consultó por presentar una tumoración submandibular izquierda de más de seis meses de evolución. Las pruebas de imagen (ecografía, tomografía computarizada y gammagrafía) sugirieron un bocio ectópico multinodular; la punción aspiración con aguja fina (PAAF) informó de tejido tiroideo sin atipias (Bethesda II) y el estudio sanguíneo de hormonas tiroideas fue normal, orientando finalmente el caso como un bocio multinodular ectópico submandibular eutiroideo. Ante la ausencia de síntomas y signos sugerentes de malignidad, en conjunto con una PAAF con características de benignidad, se decidió realizar seguimiento. En el momento que presentó clínica por efecto masa se decidió realizar la exéresis de la lesión, que confirmó el diagnóstico de bocio multinodular ectópico. Los casos descritos en la literatura de bocio multinodular ectópico submandibular como único tejido tiroideo funcionante son excepcionales. El tiroides ectópico se debe considerar en el diagnóstico diferencial de una masa submandibular. Aunque actualmente no existe un consenso en relación con el manejo de dicha patología, el crecimiento de la masa puede contribuir a la decisión de una exéresis completa del tiroides ectópico, aun tratándose del único tejido tiroideo funcionante.

Abstract Ectopic thyroid is an uncommon congenital disorder with a prevalence between 1/100,000-1/300,000. In 90% of cases, it is placed in cervical midline, being the cases of lateral cervical ectopic thyroid very infrequent. We present the case of a 44-year-old female patient who had a left submandibular mass during more than six months. Imaging tests (ultrasound, computed tomography and scintigraphy) suggested a multinodular ectopic goiter; fine needle aspiration (FNA) reported thyroid tissue without atypia (Bethesda II) and the thyroid hormone blood tests were normal, finally orienting the case as a euthyroid submandibular ectopic multinodular goiter. In the absence of symptoms and signs suggestive of malignancy, together with an FNA with benign characteristics, it was decided to follow up. When the patient presented clinical symptoms due to mass effect, it was decided to perform excision of the lesion, which confirmed the diagnosis of ectopic multinodular goiter. There are very few cases described in the literature of submandibular ectopic multinodular goiter as the only functioning thyroid tissue. Ectopic thyroid should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a submandibular mass. Although there is currently no consensus on the management of this pathology, the growth of the mass may contribute to the decision of a complete excision of the ectopic thyroid, even if it is the only functioning thyroid tissue.

Humans , Female , Adult , Choristoma/diagnostic imaging , Goiter, Nodular/diagnostic imaging , Thyroidectomy/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Choristoma/surgery , Goiter, Nodular/surgery
Int. j. morphol ; 40(4): 1018-1024, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405232


SUMMARY: The aim of this study is to reveal the morphometry of the mental nerve to describe a safe zone for minimizing mental nerve damage during transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy-vestibular approach (TOETVA). This study was performed on 12 cadavers. Localization of mental foramen according to teeth, distances of buccogingival sulcus-lip (BG-L), mental foramen-midline (MF-Midline), mental foramen - buccogingival sulcus (MF - BG), commissure - branching point (Cm - Br), branching point - vertical projection of branching point on lower lip (Br - LVP), vertical projection of branching point on lower lip - commissure (LVP - Cm), commissure - midline (Cm - midline), angles of mental (AM), angular (AA) and labial branches (AL) and branching patterns were recorded. Type 1 was mostly found as branching pattern in this study (45.8 %). A new branching pattern (type 9) was found on one cadaver. Mental foramen was mostly located at level of second premolar teeth. According to morphometric results of this study; supero- lateral to course of angular branch and infero-medial to course of mental branch of mental nerve on lower lip after exiting the mental foramen were described as safe zones during surgery for preserving mental nerve and its branches.

RESUMEN: El objetivo de este estudio fue revelar la morfometría del nervio mental o mentoniano para describir una zona segura y de esta manera, minimizar el daño de este nervio durante la tiroidectomía endoscópica transoral-abordaje vestibular (TOETVA). Este estudio se realizó en 12 cadáveres. Se realizó la localización del foramen mentoniano según los dientes, distancias surco gingival-labio (BG-L), foramen mentoniano-línea mediana (MF-Midline), foramen mentoniano-surco gingival (MF-BG), comisura-punto de ramificación (Cm-Br), punto de bifurcación - pro- yección vertical del punto de bifurcación en el labio inferior (Br - LVP), proyección vertical del punto de bifurcación en el labio inferior - comisura (LVP - Cm), comisura - línea mediana (Cm - línea mediana), ángulos del mentón (AM). Se registraron ramos angulares (AA) y labiales (AL) y patrones de ramificación. El tipo 1 se encontró principalmente como patrón de ramificación en el 45,8 %. Se describe un nuevo patrón de ramificación (tipo 9) encontrado en un cadáver. El foramen mentoniano se localizaba mayoritariamente a nivel de los segundos premolares. Según los resultados morfométricos, supero-lateral al curso de la rama angular e infero-medial al curso de la rama mentoniana del nervio mentoniano en el labio inferior, después de salir del foramen mentoniano, se describieron las zonas seguras, para la cirugía y preservación del nervio mentoniano y de sus ramos.

Humans , Thyroidectomy/methods , Mandibular Nerve Injuries/prevention & control , Mandibular Nerve/anatomy & histology , Cadaver , Endoscopy , Anatomic Landmarks
Rev. cuba. cir ; 60(4)dic. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408208


Introducción: Las enfermedades tiroideas son relativamente frecuentes que puede tener carácter benigno o maligno. El algoritmo para el diagnóstico de los nódulos tiroideos se dirige principalmente a definir la presencia o no de un carcinoma de la glándula. El tratamiento quirúrgico puede incluir técnicas convencionales, parciales y totales, y mínimamente invasivas. Objetivo: Describir los resultados del tratamiento quirúrgico de las enfermedades tiroideas en el Hospital General Docente "Enrique Cabrera" entre enero 2013 y diciembre de 2020. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo ambispectivo, en el mencionado centro, entre el 1ro de enero de 2013 hasta el 31 de diciembre de 2020. El universo se conformó por todos los pacientes con enfermedades de tiroides que fueron tratados quirúrgicamente. La muestra quedó constituida por 96 pacientes. Resultados: La edad media fue 48,1 años. Predominó el sexo femenino (83,3 por ciento). El diagnóstico más frecuente fue el bocio con síntomas compresivos (39,6 por ciento), seguido del carcinoma tiroideo (25 por ciento), en este último el más observado fue el carcinoma papilar (66,6 por ciento). Se realizó tiroidectomía total en 40,6 por ciento, con pocas complicaciones posoperatorias (7,3 por ciento), siendo la parálisis recurrencial la más frecuente de ellas. Conclusiones: El tratamiento quirúrgico de las enfermedades tiroideas en el Hospital General Docente "Dr. Enrique Cabrera" tuvo buenos resultados, tanto en enfermedades benignas como en el cáncer tiroideo(AU)

Introduction: Thyroid diseases are relatively frequent and can be benign or malignant. The algorithm for the diagnosis of thyroid nodules is mainly aimed at defining the presence or absence of a carcinoma in the gland. Surgical treatment can include conventional, partial or total, as well as minimally invasive, techniques. Objective: To describe the outcomes of surgical treatment for thyroid diseases at Enrique Cabrera General Teaching Hospital between 2013 and 2020. Methods: An ambispective and descriptive study was carried out, between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2020, in the aforementioned center. The universe was made up of all patients with thyroid diseases treated surgically. The sample consisted of 96 patients. Results: The mean age was 48.1 years. The female sex predominated (83.3 percent). The most frequent diagnosis was goiter with compressive symptoms (39.6 percent), followed by thyroid carcinoma (25 percent); among the latter, the most observed was papillary carcinoma (66.6 percent). Total thyroidectomy was performed in 40.6 percent, with few postoperative complications (7.3 percent), recurrent paralysis being the most frequent of them. Conclusions: The surgical treatment for thyroid diseases at Dr. Enrique Cabrera General Teaching Hospital had good outcomes, both in benign diseases and in thyroid cancer(AU)

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Thyroid Diseases/surgery , Thyroidectomy/methods , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Goiter/diagnosis
Rev. cuba. cir ; 60(4)dic. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408217


Introducción: El carcinoma medular de tiroides, representa aproximadamente entre el 5 - 10 por ciento de todos los carcinomas tiroideos, aparece con más frecuencia entre los 25 y 60 años y en el sexo femenino. Se distinguen dos tipos: el esporádico (no hereditario) y el familiar (hereditario). La localización más frecuente es la unión del tercio superior de lóbulo tiroideo con el tercio medio, que es la zona de mayor concentración de células C. Objetivo: Presentar el caso de paciente masculino operado de carcinoma medular de tiroides, tipo esporádico, en la provincia de Cienfuegos. Caso clínico: Paciente masculino de 60 años de edad, piel blanca, que acudió a la consulta; refiere aumento de volumen del cuello acompañado de disfonía y disfagia a los alimentos sólidos. Al examen físico se constató la presencia del nódulo tiroideo. Se le realizó ultrasonido que corrobora la presencia de un nódulo en el lóbulo derecho del tiroides. La biopsia por aspiración con aguja fina informó el nódulo como sospechoso de malignidad. Se le realizó tiroidectomía total, informándose por la biopsia por parafina de la pieza como un carcinoma medular del tiroides. En la actualidad lleva 6 meses de operado con evolución favorable. Conclusiones: El carcinoma medular de tiroides constituye una entidad rara y agresiva más frecuente en los pacientes mayores de 45 años, cuyo tratamiento de elección es la cirugía(AU)

Introduction: Medullary thyroid carcinoma accounts for approximately 5-10 percent of all thyroid carcinomas. It appears more frequently at ages 25-60 years and in females. Two types are distinguished: sporadic (nonhereditary) and familial (hereditary). The most common location is the union of the upper third of the thyroid lobe to the middle third, the area with the highest concentration of C cells. Objective: To present the case of a male patient operated on for medullary thyroid carcinoma, of sporadic type, in the Cienfuegos Province. Clinical case: A 60-year-old male patient of white skin attended consultation. He reported an increase in neck volume accompanied by dysphonia and dysphagia for solid food. The physical examination revealed the presence of the thyroid nodule. Ultrasound was performed, which confirmed the presence of a nodule in the right lobe of the thyroid. Fine needle aspiration biopsy reported the nodule as suspicious for malignancy. A total thyroidectomy was performed, after which, paraffin biopsy of the specimen permitted to report a medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. At present, he has been operating for six months, with favorable evolution. Conclusions: Medullary thyroid carcinoma is a rare and aggressive entity, more frequent in patients over 45 years of age, whose treatment of choice is surgery(AU)

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Thyroidectomy/methods , Thyroid Neoplasms/etiology , Carcinoma, Medullary/epidemiology , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Selection of the Waste Treatment Site , Research Report
Rev. méd. hondur ; 89(1, supl): 39-45, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1281200


Las enfermedades tiroideas han presentado un auge en los últimos tiempos, aumentando consigo mismo el reporte de las intervenciones quirúrgicas. La tiroidectomía es una de las cirugías más practicadas en endocrinología y tras su realización se han descrito complicaciones, siendo éstas vinculadas a ciertos factores de riesgos que potencian su aparición. Se realizó búsqueda bibliográfica en el período comprendido entre febrero de 2018 a diciembre de 2019, en bases de datos internacionales (PubMed, Cochrane, SCIELO, LILACS y Redalyc) y búsqueda manual en Google Scholar, utilizando los términos complicaciones de tiroidectomías, complicaciones post-quirúrgicas, cirugía de tiroides y tiroidectomías. Se identificaron tres agrupaciones generales de factores de riesgo postquirúrgico: Factores intrínsecos de la enfermedad, comorbilidades del paciente y asociados al procedimiento quirúrgico. Es indispensable identificar y corregir comorbilidades para la prevención de complicaciones postquirúrgicas, puesto que las complicaciones continúan siendo una causa de considerable preocupación.

Humans , Thyroid Diseases/prevention & control , Thyroidectomy/methods , Endocrine Surgical Procedures/methods , Databases, Bibliographic
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 48: e20202557, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155373


ABSTRACT The thyroidectomy is the most frequently executed procedure in head and neck surgery. Since its first description by Kocher, the transverse cervical incision has been the main access to the thyroid site, as it provides broad exposure of the central neck compartment. Despite the meticulous suture of the incision, the development of a scar with variable dimensions is unavoidable and, hence, some patients might not agree to the approach, due to this consequence. The transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy vestibular access (TOETVA) gains importance as an alternative to the traditional surgery, since it avoids the formation of visible scars. The objective of this study is to develop a systematic review on the currently available literature to evaluate possible complications related to the TOETVA. The systematic review was based on the databases of Medline, Cochrane library, Embase and Scielo/Lilacs, resulting in the selection of six studies, which were compared in regard of the type of study duration of the study and identified complications. Our study showed that TOETVA is related to complications similar to the ones identified in the conventional approach, such as hematoma, seroma, recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, hypoparathyroidism, surgical site infection. The TOETVA was associated to a higher risk of thermic injury of the skin and mentual nerve paresthesia. Moreover, it was possible to conclude that TOETVA is a safe procedure for well selected patients, with favorable conditions and concerned about the aesthetic outcome. The risk of complications of the procedure should always be explained to those patients.

RESUMO A tireoidectomia é o procedimento cirúrgico mais frequentemente realizado na cirurgia de cabeça e pescoço. Desde sua descrição por Kocher, a incisão cervical transversa constitui o principal acesso à loja tireoideana e permite ampla exposição à região central do pescoço. Apesar do fechamento meticuloso da incisão, uma cicatriz de dimensões variáveis é inevitável, e certos pacientes podem discordar de tal abordagem. A tireoidectomia vestibular endoscópica transoral (TOETVA) ganha importância como alternativa à cirurgia tradicional, pois evita a formação de cicatrizes visíveis. O objetivo de estudo é realizar uma revisão sistemática da literatura das possíveis complicações da TOETVA. Foi realizada revisão sistemática da literatura nas bases de dados Medline, The Cochrane Library, Embase e SciElo/Lilacs, sendo selecionados seis artigos e tabulados os dados de tipo de estudo, período do estudo e complicações apresentadas. O estudo mostra que a TOETVA apresenta complicações semelhantes à técnica convencional, como hematoma, seroma, lesão de nervo laríngeo recorrente, hipoparatireoidismo, além de infecção de sítio cirúrgico, com maior risco de lesão térmica da pele e parestesia por lesão do nervo mentual. Em adição, foi possível concluir que a TOETVA é uma técnica segura para pacientes bem selecionados, com condições favoráveis e com especial preocupação com resultados estéticos, devendo sempre ser orientados sobre possíveis complicações.

Humans , Thyroid Gland/surgery , Thyroidectomy/methods , Natural Orifice Endoscopic Surgery/adverse effects , Hypoparathyroidism/surgery , Postoperative Complications , Thyroidectomy/adverse effects , Hematoma
Rev. medica electron ; 42(6): 2621-2632, nov.-dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | CUMED, LILACS | ID: biblio-1150042


RESUMEN Introducción: el cáncer de tiroides representa un 1% del total de todos los tipos de cáncer. Su incidencia parece aumentar un 4% cada año, y en la actualidad es el octavo cáncer más frecuente en mujeres. Objetivo: evaluar el resultado del tratamiento quirúrgico en el cáncer de tiroides. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y retrospectivo que incluye todos los pacientes operados de cáncer tiroides en el servicio de Cirugía General del Hospital Universitario "Comandante Faustino Pérez Hernández", en el período desde enero de 1993 a diciembre del 2018. Se empleó un modelo recolector de datos con las variables de interés para el estudio y los resultados se presentaron en tablas de frecuencia, números y porciento. Resultados: el cáncer de tiroides fue más frecuente en el grupo etario de 31 a 50 años, predomino el sexo femenino, la variedad histológica papilar fue la más frecuente, la técnica quirúrgica más empleada fue la tiroidectomía total. El hipotiroidismo fue la complicación más encontrada. Conclusiones: el cáncer de tiroides es más frecuente en pacientes relativamente jóvenes y del sexo femenino, la variedad papilar, la tiroidectomía total y el hipotiroidismo como complicación posquirúrgica son los de más incidencia (AU).

SUMMARY Introduction: thyroid cancer represents 1% of the total of all kinds of cancer. Its incidence seems to increase 4% every year, and at the present time it is the eighth more frequent cancer in women. Objective: to evaluate the results of the thyroid cancer surgical treatment. Materials and methods: a retrospective, descriptive, observational study was carried out including all patients who underwent a surgery of thyroid cancer in the service of General Surgery of the University Hospital ¨Comandante Faustino Perez Hernandez¨ in the period from January 1993 to December 2018. A data collector model was used with the variables of interest for the study and the results were presented by charts of frequency, numbers and percent. Results: the thyroid cancer was more frequent in the age group of 31 to 50 years; the female sex prevailed; the most frequent variety was the histological papillary one; the most used surgical technique was total thyroidectomy. Hypothyroidism was the most commonly found complication. Conclusions: thyroid cancer is more frequent in relatively young, female patients; the papillary variety, total thyroidectomy and hypothyroidism as surgical complication are the ones with higher incidence (AU).

Humans , Male , Female , Endocrine Surgical Procedures/methods , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Postoperative Complications/therapy , Thyroidectomy/methods , Thyroid Neoplasms/rehabilitation , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/surgery , Hypothyroidism
Rev. cuba. cir ; 59(1): e894, ene.-mar. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126404


RESUMEN Introducción: La enfermedad nodular tiroidea es motivo de consulta médica, la decisión quirúrgica viene marcada por la sospecha de malignidad, el aumento de tamaño, presencia de clínica compresiva, e incluso motivos estéticos. Objetivo: Describir las características clínicas y quirúrgicas, de los pacientes con patología tiroidea, operados en el hospital "Comandante Pinares". Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, ambispectivo de los pacientes intervenidos quirúrgicamente del tiroides en el Hospital "Comandante Pinares", en el período comprendido desde enero 2014 a diciembre 2018. Se tomó una muestra de 85 pacientes que cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. Los datos fueron obtenidos de las historias clínicas en un formulario diseñado para la investigación. Se midieron variables demográficas, epidemiológicas, clínicas, paraclínicas y quirúrgicas utilizándose métodos estadísticos para variables cuantitativas y cualitativas. Resultados: Las afecciones quirúrgicas de tiroides fueron más frecuentes en el sexo femenino, entre 50 y 59 años, predominándose los nódulos benignos. La forma clínica más frecuente de presentación fue la nodular sólida y los nódulos malignos se presentaron mayormente en tumores menores de 2 cm. El diagnóstico definitivo según resultados de la biopsia por parafina mostró que la mayoría de las lesiones fueron benignas, predominándose el bocio nodular y en la biopsia aspirativa con aguja fina. El resultado más frecuente fue el negativo. La técnica quirúrgica más empleada fue la Tiroidectomía total en un tiempo. La mayoría de los pacientes no presentaron complicaciones. Conclusiones: El tratamiento de las afecciones quirúrgicas del tiroides muestra resultados satisfactorios, predominándose las afecciones en el sexo femenino, de etiología benigna(AU)

ABSTRACT Introduction: Nodular thyroid disease is a reason for medical consultation, the surgical decision is marked by the suspicion of malignancy, an increase in size, the presence of a compression symptoms, and even aesthetic reasons. Objective: To describe the clinical and surgical characteristics of patients with thyroid disease, operated at the "Comandante Pinares" hospital. Methods: A descriptive, ambispective study of patients undergoing thyroid surgery at the "Comandante Pinares" Hospital was performed in the period from January 2014 to December 2018. A sample was taken of 85 patients who met the inclusion criteria. Data was obtained from medical records in a form designed for research. Demographic, epidemiological, clinical, paraclinical and surgical variables were measured using statistical methods for quantitative and qualitative variables. Results: Surgical thyroid conditions were more frequent in females, between 50 and 59 years of age, with benign nodules prevailing. The most frequent clinical form of presentation was solid nodular, and malignant nodules appeared mainly in tumors smaller than 2 cm. The definitive diagnosis according to the results of the paraffin biopsy showed that the majority of the lesions were benign, with a predominance of nodular goiter and fine needle aspiration biopsy. The most frequent result was negative. The most widely used surgical technique was Total Thyroidectomy at one time. Most of the patients did not present complications. Conclusions: The treatment of surgical thyroid conditions shows satisfactory results, predominating the conditions in the female sex, of benign etiology(AU)

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Thyroidectomy/methods , Biopsy, Fine-Needle/methods , Goiter, Nodular/etiology , Thyroid Diseases/diagnosis , Epidemiology, Descriptive
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 80(1): 39-47, mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099200


INTRODUCCIÓN: En el tratamiento del hipertiroidismo se recurre a la cirugía en casos de bocio grande, fracaso del tratamiento médico o indicación social de tratamiento definitivo. OBJETIVO: Analizar los resultados en cuanto a función tiroidea del tratamiento del hipertiroidismo mediante tiroidectomía total (TT). MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Estudio retrospectivo de 26 pacientes con hipertiroidismo, intervenidos en el Hospital de la Plana durante 2015-2018, con seguimiento de 36 meses. Tras estudio estadístico descriptivo e inferencial, se analizó la probabilidad de recidiva del hipertiroidismo mediante el método de Kaplan-Meier, y se utilizó el modelo de Cox para ajustar los efectos sobre la recidiva de las diferentes variables. RESULTADOS: El 73,1% tenían normofunción tiroidea; el 19,2%, hiperfunción, y en otro 7,7% existía hipofunción. El tiempo medio de supervivencia (normofunción) fue de 25,87 meses (IC: 17,52-34,21). En el estudio de supervivencia con el log-rank en función de la variable anatomía patológica y complicaciones, no hay diferencias estadísticamente significativas en la supervivencia de ambos grupos. DISCUSIÓN: Coincide con otros trabajos publicados. CONCLUSIÓN: La TT es un método efectivo de tratamiento para el hipertiroidismo, con baja incidencia de complicaciones. Sin embargo, no hemos encontrado ninguna variable que nos permita predecir el resultado.

INTRODUCTION: Surgery is used in the management of hyperthyroidism in cases of large goiter, failure of medical treatment or social indication of definitive treatment. AIM: To analyze the results of the treatment of hyperthyroidism by total thyroidectomy (TT) regarding to thyroid function. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective study of 26 patients with hyperthyroidism, operated on the Hospital de la Plana during 2015-2018, with a follow-up of 36 months. After a descriptive and inferential statistical study, the probability of recurrence of hyperthyroidism was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method, and the Cox model was used to adjust the effects on recurrence of the different variables. RESULTS: 73.1% had thyroid normofunction; in 19.2% there was hyperfunction, and in another 7.7% there was hypofunction. The average survival time (normofunction) was 25,87 months (CI: 17,52-34,21). In the study of survival with the log-rank depending on the pathological results and complications, there are no statistically significant differences in the survival of both groups. DISCUSSION: This coincides with other published works. CONCLUSION: TT is an effective method of treatment for hyperthyroidism, with a low incidence of complications. However, we have not found any variable that allows us to predict the result.

Humans , Male , Female , Thyroidectomy/methods , Hyperthyroidism/surgery , Survival Analysis , Graves Disease , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Hyperthyroidism/physiopathology
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(2): 109-111, Feb. 2020. graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS | ID: biblio-1136168


SUMMARY Goiter is a localized or generalized thyroid hypertrophy. It can remain within the cervical region or grow down until it invades the mediastinum. The signs and symptoms depend on the size and location of the goiter. Although drugs and radioactive iodine are often used to treat thyroid disease, the presence of symptomatic substernal goiter is a clear indication for surgery. Death or postoperative complications rarely occur. We present a case of a 71-year-old man with recurrent thyroid pathology in the form of substernal goiter and hyperthyroidism even after partial thyroidectomy. The importance of this relates to the clinical evolution, volume, and location of the goiter as well as the surgical and pharmacological approach.

RESUMO O bócio é a hipertrofia da glândula tiroide localizada ou generalizada. Esta pode localizar-se na região cervical ou crescer através do mediastino. Os sinais e sintomas dependem do tamanho e da localização do bócio. Embora os fármacos e o iodo radioativo sejam frequentemente usados para tratar doenças tireoidianas, a presença do bócio subesternal sintomático é uma clara indicação para a cirurgia. A morte ou complicações pós-operatórias são raras. Apresentamos o caso de um homem de 71 anos com recorrência de patologia tireoidiana sob a forma de bócio subesternal e hipertireoidismo após tireoidectomia parcial. A importância desse caso relaciona-se com a evolução clínica, o volume e a localização do bócio e a abordagem cirúrgica e farmacológica desse tipo de patologia.

Humans , Male , Aged , Thyroidectomy/methods , Goiter, Substernal/surgery , Goiter, Substernal/pathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Treatment Outcome , Goiter, Substernal/diagnostic imaging
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 13(4): 159-165, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1123622


Introducción: El cáncer diferenciado de tiroides (CDT), es actualmente la neoplasia endocrina más frecuente. Su tratamiento estándar es la resolución quirúrgica, asociado a ablación con radioyodo (RI) según la clasificación propuesta por la American Thyroid Association (ATA). Las indicaciones y dosis de este último, han ido variando en los últimos años según avanzan las investigaciones en este ámbito. Objetivo: En el siguiente estudio se compararon las dosis de RI utilizadas previo y posterior a la implementación de las últimas guías de la ATA. Materiales y métodos: Estudio retrospectivo observacional de 70 pacientes con diagnóstico de CDT del Hospital Clínico de la Universidad de Chile entre 2012 y 2017. Se agruparon los pacientes en dos cohortes, los operados entre los años 2012-2015 y los 2016-2017 clasificándolos según riesgo ATA, TNM y riesgo de recurrencia. Se consignaron las dosis de RI utilizadas y se compararon entre las cohortes. Análisis estadístico: Mann Whithney. Resultados: Al comparar la dosis de RI entre ambas cohortes, según TNM y riesgo ATA, se obtuvo los siguientes resultados: los pacientes T1b de la cohorte 2012-2015 presentaron dosis de RI significativamente mayores que los de la cohorte 2016-2017; también se evidenció que en pacientes N0 hubo una diferencia estadísticamente significativa, mostrando una tendencia a disminuir la dosis de RI; además, en los pacientes de la cohorte 2012-2015 con riesgo ATA intermedio, se obtuvo que las dosis de RI fueron significativamente mayores que las utilizadas en la cohorte 2016-2017. Conclusión: Se concluye que las variaciones de las dosis de RI utilizadas en pacientes con CDT en un hospital universitario van acorde a las recomendaciones internacionales actuales, particularmente la publicación de la guía ATA 2015, aplicándose radioablación con menor dosis de RI. Dado este cambio, se ha evidenciado igualdad de efectos con dosis menores de RI y consecuentemente menos efectos adversos.

Introduction: Differentiated thyroid cancer (CDT) is currently the most frequent endocrine neoplasia. Its standard of care is surgical treatment, associated with radioiodine ablation (IR) according to the classification proposed by the American Thyroid Association (ATA). The indications and doses of the latter have changed in recent years as research in this area advances. Objective: In the following study, the doses of IR used before and after the implementation of the latest ATA guidelines were compared. Materials and methods: Retrospective observational study of 70 patients with a diagnosis of CDT from the Clinical Hospital of the University of Chile between 2012 and 2017. Patients were grouped into two cohorts, those surgically intervened between the years 2012-2015 and 2016-2017, classifying them according to ATA risk, TNM and recurrence risk. The IR doses used were reported and compared between the cohorts. Statistical analysis: Mann Whithney. Results: When comparing the IR dose between both cohorts, according to TNM and ATA risk, the following results were obtained: T1b patients in the 2012-2015 cohort had significantly higher IR doses than those in the 2016-2017 cohort; It was also evidenced that N0 patients showed a statistically significant tendency to decrease the IR dose; In addition, the 2012-2015 cohort with intermediate ATA risk, revealed IR doses significantly higher than those used in the 2016-2017 cohort. Conclusion: It is concluded that the variations in IR doses, used in patients with CDT in a university hospital, are in accordance with current international recommendations, particularly the publication of the ATA 2015 guidelines, applying radioablation with a lower dose of IR. Given this change, equality of effects has been evidenced with lower doses of IR and consequently fewer adverse effects.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Radiation Dosage , Radiotherapy/standards , Thyroid Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Endocrinology/standards , Iodine Radioisotopes/administration & dosage , Thyroidectomy/methods , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Risk Assessment , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Endocrinology/methods , Ablation Techniques/methods , Iodine Radioisotopes/adverse effects
Rev. argent. cir ; 112(2): 185-188, 2020. ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125800


La cirugía endoscópica transluminal a través de orificios naturales (NOTES) ha sido aplicada por primera vez por K. Witzel en el año 2008, introduciendo el abordaje transoral para la patología tiroidea en cadáveres y puercos. En el año 2016, A. Anuwong publicó la primera serie de casos en seres humanos por abordaje vestibular. Referimos en esta ocasión el caso de una paciente de 37 años, quien acudió a la consulta por presentar una tumoración cervical anterior de dos meses de evolución. Ecografía tiroidea con bocio polinodular. Punción aspiración con aguja fina: lesión con hiperplasia folicular en lóbulo derecho e izquierdo. Se decide realizar tiroidectomía transoral endoscópica por abordaje vestibular. La duración de la intervención fue de 180 minutos, la pérdida sanguínea fue de 20 mL. El dolor, escaso y el tiempo de internación, 36 horas. En el presente trabajo se propone el desarrollo de esta técnica y la experiencia en nuestro primer caso de tiroidectomía total en patología tiroidea benigna.

Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) was applied for the first time by K. Witzel in 2008, introducing the transoral endoscopic resection of the thyroid gland in human cadavers and living pigs. In 2016, A. Anuwong published the first case series using the vestibular approach in humans. We report the case of a 37-year-old female patient with a mass in the anterior aspect of the neck which appeared two months before consultation. The thyroid ultrasound reported multinodular goiter. The fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy reported hyperplastic follicular nodule in both lobes. The patient underwent transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy by vestibular approach. Operative time was 180 minutes and blood loss was 20 mL. Pain was minimal and hospital stay was 36 hours. We report our first experience with total thyroidectomy in a patient with benign thyroid nodules.

Humans , Female , Adult , Thyroidectomy/methods , Natural Orifice Endoscopic Surgery/methods , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology