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3.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 42(1): 37-40, mar. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1369159

ABSTRACT

El sangrado genital en niñas prepúberes es un signo poco frecuente y siempre requiere determinar su causa. Se necesitan una detallada anamnesis y examen físico, con el conocimiento adecuado de la anatomía uroginecológica, y, en muchos casos, estudios de imágenes y exámenes complementarios, para arribar al diagnóstico. Se presenta el caso de una niña de 7 años con sangrado genital, cuyo examen físico y estudios complementarios fueron poco concluyentes, y que requirió un procedimiento invasivo para su resolución. (AU)


Genital bleeding in prepubertal girls is a rare sign and always requires determining its cause. A detailed history and physical examination are needed, with adequate knowledge of urogynecological anatomy, and in many cases, imaging studies and complementary tests, to arrive at the diagnosis. We present the case of a 7-year-old girl with genital bleeding, whose physical examination and complementary studies were inconclusive, requiring an invasive procedure for its resolution. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Uterine Hemorrhage/etiology , Vagina/injuries , Foreign Bodies/diagnostic imaging , Paper , Ultrasonography , Gynecological Examination
4.
Rev. Méd. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 60(1): 44-51, 17-feb-2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359826

ABSTRACT

Introducción: durante la pandemia por COVID-19, la radiografía portátil de tórax y la ultrasonografía se han usado ampliamente para el seguimiento de pacientes hospitalizados. Sin embargo, es escasa la información sobre la relación entre los signos que se observan mediante cada método en pacientes con COVID-19. Objetivo: estimar la correlación entre imágenes concurrentes obtenidas por ultrasonografía de pulmón y por radiografía portátil de tórax durante el seguimiento de pacientes hospitalizados por COVID-19. Material y métodos: se realizaron 113 estudios de ultrasonografía y los correspondientes 113 de radiografía portátil de tórax durante el seguimiento de 44 pacientes (30 hombres/14 mujeres, edad 30-85 años) con COVID-19 (RT-qPCR). Las imágenes se resguardaron en un sistema de comunicación para su evaluación independiente por dos especialistas en cada método. El análisis se hizo con correlación gamma y prueba t (significancia de 0.05). Resultados: el signo por ultrasonido más frecuente fue el de líneas B-confluentes en correlación con los signos radiológicos de imagen en vidrio deslustrado y consolidación. Se observó correlación inversa entre líneas A (pulmón aireado) y líneas B7 (sugerentes de edema intersticial); las líneas B-confluentes mostraron correlación inversa y fuerte con líneas A (a mayor frecuencia de líneas B-confluentes, menor frecuencia de líneas A), correlación inversa moderada con líneas B7 y correlación inversa débil con líneas B3. Conclusión: en el seguimiento de pacientes hospitalizados por COVID-19, los signos por ultrasonografía pulmonar y por radiografía portátil de tórax pueden ser complementarios para identificar las características del daño pulmonar


Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, portable chest radiography (portable CRx) and lung ultrasonography (LUS) have been widely used to follow up hospitalized patients. Yet, it is scarce the information about the relation between the signs observed by means of each method in patients with COVID-19. Objective: To assess the correlation between concurrent images acquired by LUS and portable CRx during the follow-up of hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Material and methods: We performed 113 LUS and 113 corresponding CRx during the follow-up of 44 patients (30 men/14 women, 30-85 years old) with COVID-19 (RT-qPCR). Images were stored in a picture communication system and were revised by two specialists of each imaging method independently. Statistical analysis was performed using Gamma correlation and t test (significance level of 0.05). Results: The most frequent LUS sign was confluent B lines, and it was related to the most frequent portable CRx signs (ground-glass opacities and consolidations). An inverse relationship was observed between A lines (gas in the lungs) and B7 lines (suggestive of interstitial edema). Confluent B lines also showed a strong inverse correlation with A lines (more frequent confluent B lines were related to low frequent A lines), a moderate inverse correlation with B7 lines, and a mild inverse correlation with B3 lines. Conclusion: During the follow-up of hospitalized patients with COVID-19, LUS and portable CRx may complement each other to provide information about lung damage


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Diagnostic Imaging , COVID-19 , Radiography , Ultrasonography , Mexico
5.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 98(1): 99-103, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360561

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: In this study, the authors aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the vena cava distensibility index and pulse pressure variation as dynamic parameters for estimating intravascular volume in critically ill children. Methods: Patients aged 1 month to 18 years, who were hospitalized in the present study's pediatric intensive care unit, were included in the study. The patients were divided into two groups according to central venous pressure: hypovolemic (< 8mmHg) and non-hypovolemic (central venous pressure ≥ 8 mmHg) groups. In both groups, vena cava distensibility index was measured using bedside ultrasound and pulse pressure variation. Measurements were recorded and evaluated under arterial monitoring. Results: In total, 19 (47.5%) of the 40 subjects included in the study were assigned to the central venous pressure ≥ 8 mmHg group, and 21 (52.5%) to the central venous pressure < 8 mmHg group. A moderate positive correlation was found between pulse pressure variation and vena cava distensibility index (r = 0.475, p < 0.01), while there were strong negative correlations of central venous pressure with pulse pressure variation and vena cava distensibility index (r = -0.628, p < 0.001 and r = -0.760, p < 0.001, respectively). In terms of predicting hypovolemia, the predictive power for vena cava distensibility index was > 16% (sensitivity, 90.5%; specificity, 94.7%) and that for pulse pressure variation was > 14% (sensitivity, 71.4%; specificity, 89.5%). Conclusion: Vena cava distensibility index has higher sensitivity and specificity than pulse pressure variation for estimating intravascular volume, along with the advantage of non-invasive bedside application.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Vena Cava, Inferior/diagnostic imaging , Critical Illness , Blood Pressure , Central Venous Pressure , Ultrasonography
6.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 140(2): 310-319, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366053

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Teleradiology consists of electronic transmission of radiological images from one location to another, including between countries, for interpretation and/or consultation. It is one of the most successful applications of telemedicine. Combining this methodology with ultrasound (called telesonography) can accelerate the process of making diagnoses. Despite this rationale, the quality of the evidence about the effectiveness and accuracy of teleradiology remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on the evidence that exists regarding use of telemedicine for ultrasound in situations of synchronous transmission. DESIGN AND SETTING: Narrative review conducted within the evidence-based health program at a federal university in São Paulo (SP), Brazil. METHODS: A search of the literature was carried out in April 2020, in the online databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Tripdatabase, CINAHL and LILACS, for original publications in all languages. The reference lists of the studies included and the main reviews on the subject were also evaluated. RESULTS: We included ten studies that assessed procedures performed by different healthcare professionals, always with a doctor experienced in ultrasound as a distant mentor. Among these, only one study assessed disease diagnoses in relation to real patients. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the promising position of telesonography within telemedicine, no studies with reasonable methodological quality have yet been conducted to demonstrate its effectiveness.


Subject(s)
Telemedicine , Brazil , MEDLINE , Ultrasonography
7.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(1): 70-77, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356275

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the use of transperineal ultrasonography while diagnosing stress urinary incontinence (SUI) by comparing the urethral angle (α), posterior urethrovesical angle (β), and bladder neck descent (BND) during rest and Valsalva maneuver in continent women and women with SUI. Materials and methods: This prospective observational study was conducted with 50 women with SUI and 50 continent women. Transperineal ultrasonography was performed at rest and during Valsalva maneuver. Q-tip test was performed. Results: During the Valsalva maneuver, both α and β angles were significantly higher in women with SUI (p <0.001). The difference between Valsalva and rest measurements of α and β angles (R α, R β) were also significantly higher in women with SUI (p <0.001). The cut-off point determined for the R α in the diagnosis of stress incontinence was 16° (80% sensitivity, 98% specificity). A statistically significant strong correlation was found between Q-tip test angle and R α value (p=0.000; r=0.890). Q-tip VAS pain scores were significantly higher than ultrasonography VAS pain scores (p <0.001). In relation to the bladder neck descent comparison between the two groups showed that BND was significantly higher in SUI group (p <0.001). The cut-off point determined for BND in the diagnosis of SUI was >11mm (90% sensitivity, 98% specificity). Conclusion: Transperineal ultrasonography is a practical, reliable, non-invasive and comfortable method for evaluation of SUI. It has the advantage of dynamic evaluation during the Valsalva maneuver. Rotation angles and BND have high sensitivity and specificity for detection of SUI. The change in α angle with Valsalva (Rα) can be used as an alternative to Q-tip test.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Urinary Incontinence, Stress/diagnostic imaging , Bandages , Urethra/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , Ultrasonography
8.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 49: e20223202, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365382

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Percutaneous tracheostomy has been considered the standard method today, the bronchoscopy-guided technique being the most frequently performed. A safe alternative is ultrasound-guided percutaneous tracheostomy, which can be carried out by the surgeon, avoiding the logistical difficulties of having a specialist in bronchoscopy. Studies prove that the efficacy and safety of the ultrasound-guided technique are similar when compared to the bronchoscopy-guided one. Thus, it is of paramount importance that surgeons have ultrasound-guided percutaneous tracheostomy as a viable and beneficial alternative to the open procedure. In this article, we describe eight main steps in performing ultrasound-guided percutaneous tracheostomy, highlighting essential technical points that can reduce the risk of complications from the procedure. Furthermore, we detail some precautions that one must observe to reduce the risk of aerosolization and contamination of the team when percutaneous tracheostomy is indicated in patients with COVID-19.


RESUMO A traqueostomia percutânea tem sido considerada o método padrão atualmente, sendo a técnica guiada por broncoscopia a mais realizada. Uma alternativa segura é a traqueostomia percutânea guiada por ultrassonografia, que pode ser feita pelo próprio cirurgião, evitando-se as dificuldades logísticas de disponibilidade de um especialista em broncoscopia. Estudos comprovam que a eficácia e a segurança da técnica guiada por ultrassonografia, comparada à guiada por broncoscopia, são semelhantes. Assim, é de suma importância que os cirurgiões tenham a traqueostomia percutânea guiada por ultrassonografia como alternativa viável e benéfica em relação ao procedimento aberto. Neste artigo, descrevemos oito passos principais da realização da traqueostomia percutânea ecoguiada, destacando pontos técnicos essenciais que podem reduzir o risco de complicações do procedimento. Ainda, detalhamos alguns cuidados que devem ser observados, com o intuito de reduzir o risco de aerolização e contaminação da equipe, quando a traqueostomia percutânea é indicada no paciente com COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tracheostomy/methods , COVID-19 , Bronchoscopy/methods , Ultrasonography , Ultrasonography, Interventional/methods
9.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 20: eRC5584, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360405

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT A 2-year-old female patient, admitted in the emergency room, presented diarrhea for 5 days and bloody stools in the last 24 hours. Physical examination revealed no significant findings. Ultrasound was initially performed, showing an elongated, well delimited and solid mass occupying since right hypocondrium until left iliac fossa, displacing adjacent structures. In sequence, magnetic resonance imaging was performed for confirmation of findings suggestive of omentum lipoma. After 1 week, the surgical resection was performed by videolaparoscopic acess. During 2-year follow-up, there was no sign of recurrence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Omentum/surgery , Omentum/diagnostic imaging , Lipoma/surgery , Lipoma/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Ultrasonography
10.
MedUNAB ; 24(3): 375-383, 202112.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353532

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La preeclampsia es la primera causa de muerte materna directa en Colombia y la segunda a nivel mundial. El desarrollo de estrategias de predicción y prevención puede disminuir las complicaciones y secuelas ocasionadas por dicha enfermedad. El Doppler de arterias uterinas entre las semanas 11 y 13+6 como prueba independiente o en combinación con factores maternos o pruebas bioquímicas permite tasas de detección de preeclampsia temprana ≥ 90% a partir de la implementación de distintos cribados. La validez de dicha prueba diagnóstica presenta una sensibilidad del 47.8% y especificidad del 92.1% para la detección de preeclampsia temprana; con una sensibilidad del 26.4% y especificidad del 93.4% para predecir preeclampsia en cualquier etapa. División de los temas tratados. En esta revisión de tema se aborda la utilidad de esta medición, se habla de la realización de la técnica en cuestión y, por último, se revisan las herramientas estandarizadas que están disponibles en la actualidad junto con su accesibilidad y precisión. Conclusiones. La evidencia empírica que respalda la validez de las herramientas disponibles hoy en día para el tamizaje de preeclampsia a través de la evaluación por ultrasonografía Doppler de las arterias uterinas es significativa. Al ser Colombia un país que presenta una prevalencia alta de preeclampsia, conocer la utilidad de esta medición favorece una vigilancia temprana y oportuna, lo que disminuye los posibles desenlaces desfavorables para las maternas.


Introduction. Preeclampsia is the primary cause of direct maternal death in Colombia and the second globally. The development of prediction and prevention strategies can reduce complications and consequences caused by this disease. The uterine arteries Doppler between weeks 11 and 13+6 as an independent test or in combination with maternal factors or biochemical tests allows for early detection rates for preeclampsia of ≥90% from the implementation of different sieving. The validity of this diagnostic test has a sensitivity of 47.8% and specificity of 92.1% for the early detection of preeclampsia; with a sensitivity of 26.4% and specificity of 93.4% to predict preeclampsia at any stage. Division of Covered Topics. This topic review covers the usefulness of this measurement. It discusses the performance of the technique in question and, lastly, the standardized tools currently available are reviewed together with the accessibility and accuracy. Conclusions. The empirical evidence that supports the validity of the tools available today for the screening of preeclampsia via Doppler ultrasound evaluation of the uterine arteries is significant. As Colombia is a country with a high prevalence of preeclampsia, knowing the usefulness of this measurement favors early and timely surveillance, which reduces possible unfavorable outcomes for mothers.


Introdução. A pré-eclâmpsia é a principal causa de morte materna direta na Colômbia e a segunda no mundo. O desenvolvimento de estratégias de predição e prevenção pode reduzir as complicações e sequelas causadas pela doença. O Doppler da artéria uterina entre as semanas 11 e 13+6 como um teste independente ou em combinação com fatores maternos ou testes bioquímicos permite taxas de detecção de pré-eclâmpsia precoce≥90% a partir da implementação de diferentes exames. A validade desse teste diagnóstico tem sensibilidade de 47,8% e especificidade de 92,1% para a detecção de pré-eclâmpsia precoce; com uma sensibilidade de 26,4% e especificidade de 93,4% para prever pré-eclâmpsia em qualquer fase. Divisão dos tópicos abordados. Esta revisão de tópicos aborda a utilidade desta medição, discute a realização da técnica em questão e, por fim, são revisadas as ferramentas padronizadas que estão disponíveis atualmente, juntamente com sua acessibilidade e precisão. Conclusões. A evidência empírica que apoia a validade das ferramentas disponíveis atualmente para rastreamento de pré-eclâmpsia por meio da avaliação de ultrassom Doppler das artérias uterinas é significativa. Como a Colômbia é um país com alta prevalência de pré-eclâmpsia, conhecer a utilidade dessa medição favorece a vigilância precoce e oportuna, o que reduz possíveis resultados desfavoráveis para mulheres maternas.


Subject(s)
Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Pre-Eclampsia , Prenatal Care , Prenatal Diagnosis , Ultrasonography , Uterine Artery , Fetal Growth Retardation , Noninvasive Prenatal Testing
11.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(12): 911-918, Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357089

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective Currently, there are up to three different classifications for diagnosing septate uterus. The interobserver agreement among them has been poorly assessed. To assess the interobserver agreement of nonexpert sonographers for classifying septate uterus using the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology/European Society for Gynaecological Endoscopy (ESHRE/ESGE), American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM), and Congenital Uterine Malformations by Experts (CUME) classifications. Methods A total of 50 three-dimensional (3D) volumes of a nonconsecutive series of women with suspected uterine malformation were used. Two nonexpert examiners evaluated a single 3D volume of the uterus of each woman, blinded to each other. The following measurements were performed: indentation depth, indentation angle, uterine fundal wall thickness, external fundal indentation, and indentation-to-wall-thickness (I:WT) ratio. Each observer had to assign a diagnosis in each case, according to the three classification systems (ESHRE/ESGE, ASRM, and CUME). The interobserver agreement regarding the ESHRE/ESGE, ASRM, and CUME classifications was assessed using the Cohen weighted kappa index (k). Agreement regarding the three classifications (ASRM versus ESHRE/ESGE, ASRM versus CUME, ESHRE/ESGE versus CUME) was also assessed. Results The interobserver agreement between the 2 nonexpert examiners was good for the ESHRE/ESGE (k = 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.55-0.92) and very good for the ASRM and CUME classification systems (k = 0.95; 95%CI: 0.86-1.00; and k = 0.91; 95%CI: 0.79-1.00, respectively). Agreement between the ESHRE/ESGE and ASRM classifications was moderate for both examiners. Agreement between the ESHRE/ESGE and CUME classifications was moderate for examiner 1 and good for examiner 2. Agreement between the ASRM and CUME classifications was good for both examiners. Conclusion The three classifications have good (ESHRE/ESGE) or very good (ASRM and CUME) interobserver agreement. Agreement between the ASRM and CUME classifications was higher than that for the ESHRE/ESGE and ASRM and ESHRE/ESGE and CUME classifications.


Resumo Objetivo Atualmente, existem até três classificações diferentes para o diagnóstico de útero septado. A concordância interobservador entre eles tem sido pouco avaliada. Avaliar a concordância interobservador de ecografistas não especialistas para classificar úteros septados usando as classificações European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology/European Society for Gynaecological Endoscopy (ESHRE/ESGE, na sigla em inglês), American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM, na sigla em inglês) e Congenital Uterine Malformations by Experts (CUME, na sigla em inglês). Métodos Foram utilizados50volumes tridimensionais (3D)deuma série não consecutiva de mulheres com suspeita de malformação uterina. Dois examinadores não especialistas avaliaram um único volume 3D do útero de cada mulher, mutuamente cegos. As seguintes medidas foram aferidas: profundidade de indentação, ângulo de indentação, espessura da parede do fundo uterino, indentação externa do fundo e relação entre indentação e a espessura da parede (I:WT, na sigla em inglês). Cada observador teve que atribuir um diagnóstico em cada caso, de acordo com os três sistemas de classificação (ESHRE/ESGE, ASRM e CUME). A concordância interobservador em relação às classificações ESHRE/ESGE, ASRM e CUME foi avaliada usando o índice kappa ponderado de Cohen (k). A concordância em relação às três classificações (ASRM versus ESHRE/ESGE, ASRM versus CUME e ESHRE/ ESGE versus CUME) também foi avaliada. Resultados A concordância interobservador entre os 2 examinadores não especialistas foi boa para a classificação ESHRE/ESGE (k = 0,74, intervalo de confiança [IC] 95%: 0,55-0,92) e muito boa para os sistemas de classificação ASRM e CUME (k = 0,95; IC 95%: 0,86-1,00; e k = 0,91; IC95%: 0,79-1,00, respectivamente). A concordância entre as classificações ESHRE/ESGE e ASRM foi moderada para ambos os examinadores. A concordância entre as classificações ESHRE/ESGE e CUME foi moderada para o examinador 1 e boa para o examinador 2. A concordância entre as classificações ASRM e CUME foi boa para ambos os examinadores. Conclusão As três classificações apresentam concordância interobservador boa (ESHRE/ESGE) ou muito boa (ASRM e CUME). A concordância entre as classificações ASRM e CUME foi maior do que entre as classificações ESHRE/ESGE e ASRM e ESHRE/ESGE e CUME.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Urogenital Abnormalities/diagnostic imaging , Uterus/diagnostic imaging , Observer Variation , Reproducibility of Results , Ultrasonography
12.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(6): e643-e647, dic. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1353061

ABSTRACT

Las neoplasias ginecológicas en niñas son raras. Representan menos del 5 % de todos los cánceres en pediatría. No existen estadísticas sobre la incidencia de tumores de vagina en esta etapa de la vida. Se presenta el caso de una niña de 9 meses con sangrado por genitales. La ecografía evidencia una masa sólida en vagina, y la vaginoscopia, un tumor friable. Presenta valores de α-fetoproteína elevados, por lo que se diagnostica tumor de saco vitelino, confirmado por biopsia. Se realiza tratamiento quimioterápico. A menos de 1 año del diagnóstico, se encuentra en remisión completa. Este caso resulta de interés no solo por la rareza, sino también porque el diagnóstico rápido de tumor de saco vitelino permite mejorar los resultados y la sobrevida de las pacientes


Gynecological neoplasms in girls are rare and represent only less than 5 % of all childhood tumors. There are no statistics on the incidence of vaginal tumors at this stage in life. We present a 9-month-old girl evaluated for genital bleeding. Ultrasound reveals a vaginal solid mass and vaginoscopy reports a friable tumor. AFP is elevated. A yolk sac tumor is confirmed by biopsy she receives chemotherapy. Within a year after diagnosis, she remains tumor-free. This is a case of interest, not only because of its rarity, but also because a rapid diagnosis of a yolk sac tumor improves outcomes and patient's survival rates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant , Vaginal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Endodermal Sinus Tumor/diagnosis , Ultrasonography , Hemorrhage
13.
Prensa méd. argent ; 107(8): 393-396, 20210000. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1358639

ABSTRACT

El epitelio corneal es una importante barrera de defensa que impide el ingreso de una gran variedad de microorganismos. Cualquier alteración de la superficie ocular facilita la invasión bacteriana de la córnea. El germen más frecuentemente identificado es Staphylococcus aureus. Se presenta una paciente con enfermedad debida al virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) con diagnóstico de sida, absceso corneal bilateral y lesiones cutáneas. S.aureus meticilino resistente se aisló en hemocultivos y en material obtenido por raspado de la córnea. El absceso corneal es una entidad poco frecuente en pacientes con infección por VIH y síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida.


The corneal epithelium is an important defense barrier that prevents the entry of great variety of microorganisms. Any alteration of the ocular surface facilitates bacterial invasion of the cornea. The most frequently reported germ is Staphylococcus aureus. Here, we present a patient with a diagnosis of HIV/ AIDS disease, who developed bilateral corneal abscess and skin lesions. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from blood cultures and corneal scrapings. Corneal abscess is a rare entity in patients with HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , AIDS Serodiagnosis , Eye Infections/therapy , Corneal Ulcer/classification , Ultrasonography , Cornea/surgery , Abscess/etiology , Eye Manifestations
15.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 56(6): 796-803, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357140

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To evaluate the role of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and ultrasonography (USG) in monitoring the progress of treatment in diaphyseal non-unions. Methods This prospective observational cohort study included adult patients with diaphyseal fractures of major long bones previously treated with internal fixation and eventually resulting in non-union. Following the definitive treatment for non-union, the patients were followed-up periodically for six months, and serial monitoring of the levels of ALP and USG were performed along with radiographs (X-rays) to ascertain the status of the union. Results After an initial rise at seven weeks, ALP levels declined to normal values in fractures which united, whereas they remained high in cases of persistent non-union. Similarly, after an elevation of the vascular resistive index (RI) at around 12 weeks in all the patients, it decreased in cases progressing to union, while it remained persistently high even at 24 weeks in fractures failing to unite. Cases of persistent non-union continued to show hypoechogenic callus at 24 weeks instead of converting into hyperechogenic callus, as observed in cases which progressed to union. Conclusion Significant changes suggestive of union appeared simultaneously on the X-rays, USG and ALP levels during the follow-up. However, a serial examination of the ALP levels and USG during the follow-up gave a hint of the direction of progress in the healing process of fracture non-union. Their role in monitoring the outcome of nonunion is more complimentary than supplementary to the X-rays.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar o papel da concentração sérica de fosfatase alcalina (FA) e da ultrassonografia no monitoramento do progresso do tratamento da ausência de consolidação em fraturas diafisárias. Métodos Este estudo de coorte observacional prospectivo incluiu pacientes adultos com fraturas diafisárias dos principais ossos longos previamente submetidas a fixação interna sem consolidação. Após o tratamento definitivo, os pacientes foram avaliados periodicamente por seis meses, com realização seriada de ultrassonografia, determinação da concentração de FA e radiografias para verificar a presença de consolidação. Resultados Após um aumento inicial em sete semanas, os níveis de FA voltaram ao valor normal em pacientes com fraturas consolidadas, mas continuaram elevados nos casos de ausência de consolidação. Da mesma forma, após uma elevação do índice de resistência (IR) vascular em cerca de 12 semanas em todos os pacientes, o IR diminuiu nos casos que progrediram para consolidação, mas continuou alto até as 24 semanas em fraturas não consolidadas. Os casos com ausência de consolidação ainda apresentavam calo hipoecogênico às 24 semanas, que não se converteu no calo hiperecogênico observado nos casos que progrediram para consolidação. Conclusão Alterações significativas sugestivas de consolidação foram simultaneamente observadas nas radiografias, na ultrassonografia e na concentração de FA durante o período de acompanhamento. No entanto, a realização seriada de exames da concentração de FA e de ultrassonografia durante o acompanhamento indicou o progresso da consolidação da fratura. Seu papel no monitoramento da ausência de consolidação é mais complementar do que suplementar à radiografia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Bony Callus , Ultrasonography , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Alkaline Phosphatase , Fractures, Bone/therapy , Fractures, Ununited
16.
Prensa méd. argent ; 107(7): 381-392, 20210000. fig, tab
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1358982

ABSTRACT

El estudio tuvo como objetivo comparar el grupo de hidrodisección de solución salina normal guiada por ultrasonido más esteroides y el grupo de hidrodisección de solución salina normal guiada por ultrasonido sola en pacientes con síndrome del túnel carpiano (STC), y determinar su relevancia clínica en relación con los resultados del tratamiento. Realizamos 60 hidrodisecciones guiadas por ecografía con solución salina normal con y sin inyecciones de corticosteroides en 51 pacientes con STC y evaluamos los resultados de la ecografía antes y después de la inyección. Clasificamos estas inyecciones en dos grupos según la solución salina normal más corticosteroide (grupo de esteroides). solución salina normal (grupo de control) y también registramos datos clínicos que incluían el sexo, la edad, el lado de la inyección, el peso corporal y la duración de las molestias relacionadas con el STC antes de la inyección. Los resultados se midieron mediante la escala analógica visual que se asignó para evaluar el resultado primario. Los resultados secundarios se evaluaron mediante el cuestionario del síndrome del túnel carpiano de Boston, el área transversal del nervio mediano y estudios electrofisiológicos. La evaluación se realizó antes de la inyección y 1, 3 y 6 meses después de la inyección, y se comparó el alivio de los síntomas para los pacientes que recibieron la inyección de solución salina normal y de esteroides. Comparamos las hidrodisecciones con la solución salina normal y las inyecciones de corticosteroides. Los datos clínicos, las puntuaciones de CSA-MN antes de la inyección en la entrada del túnel carpiano y las puntuaciones de BCTQ antes de la inyección no mostraron diferencias significativas entre los grupos (p> 0,05). Todos los pacientes (datos de 30 muñecas en cada grupo) completaron el estudio. En comparación con el grupo de control, en todos los momentos posteriores a la inyección, ambos grupos tuvieron una reducción significativa del dolor y la discapacidad, una mejora en las medidas de respuesta electrofisiológica y una disminución del área transversal del nervio mediano. Nuestro estudio revela que la solución salina normal guiada por ecografía con y sin hidrodisección de corticosteroides tiene un efecto terapéutico en los pacientes con STC. Se demostró que la hidrodisección nerviosa es potencialmente beneficiosa para los pacientes con STC antes de la cirugía. La hidrodisección es un procedimiento simple y mínimamente invasivo que se puede realizar utilizando únicamente NS. Además, en comparación con la inyección a ciegas, la hidrodisección bajo guía ecográfica puede reducir las posibilidades de lesión nerviosa


The study aimed to compare Ultrasound-Guided Normal saline plus steroid hydrodissection group and Ultrasound-Guided normal saline alone hydrodissection group in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), and to determine their clinical relevance in relation to treatment outcomes. We performed 60 US-guided hydrodissections Normal saline with and without corticosteroid injections in 51 patients with CTS and evaluated their pre- and post-injection US findings. We categorized these injections into two groups based on the normal saline plus corticosteroid (steroid group). normal saline (control group) and we also recorded clinical data including gender, age, side of injection, BW, and the duration of preinjection CTS related discomfort. The outcomes were measured using the visual analog scale was assigned to assess the primary outcome. The secondary outcomes were assessed using the Boston Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Questionnaire, cross-sectional area of the median nerve, and electrophysiological studies. The assessment was performed prior to injection, and 1-, 3-, and 6-months' post-injection, and the symptom relief for the patients receiving normal saline and steroid injection were compared. We compared hydrodissections with normal saline and corticosteroid injections The clinical data, pre injection CSA-MN at the inlet of the carpal tunnel, and pre-injection BCTQ scores showed no significant intergroup differences (p > 0.05). All patients (data from 30 wrists in each group) completed the study. Compared both the control group, at all post-injection time points, both groups had a significant reduction in pain and disability, improvement on electrophysiological response measures, and decreased cross-sectional area of the median nerve. Our study reveals that ultrasound-guided Normal saline with and without corticosteroid hydrodissection has therapeutic effect in patients CTS. Nerve hydrodissection was shown to be potentially beneficial for CTS patients' pre-surgery. Hydrodissection is a simple, minimally invasive procedure that can be performed using only NS. In addition, compared to blind injection, hydrodissection under ultrasound guidance can lower the chances of nerve injury


Subject(s)
Humans , Steroids/therapeutic use , Carpal Tunnel Syndrome/therapy , Ultrasonography , Controlled Clinical Trial , Saline Solution/therapeutic use , Injections
17.
San Salvador; MINSAL; oct. 21, 2021. 80 p. ilus, tab.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1353178

ABSTRACT

En el Ministerio de Salud (MINSAL), la ultrasonografía es una herramienta accesible en la mayoría de los hospitales extendiéndose cada vez más dentro de la Redes integrales e integradas de Salud RIIS, por lo que, el presente manual tiene la finalidad de unificar criterios que servirán para el fortalecimiento de especialistas en el área de la ginecología y obstetricia


In the Ministry of Health (MINSAL), ultrasonography is an accessible tool in the most hospitals expanding more and more within the Comprehensive networks and integrated Health RIIS, therefore, this manual has the purpose of unifying criteria that will serve to strengthen specialists in the area of gynecology and obstetrics


Subject(s)
Specialization , Ultrasonography , Gynecology , Hospitals , Obstetrics
18.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 97(5): 564-570, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340152

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the influence of intra-abdominal pressure on the cardiac index (CI) at different intra-abdominal hypertension grades achieved when performing an abdominal compression maneuver (ACM). Evaluating the effectiveness of the ACM in distending the left internal jugular vein (LIJV). Methods: Prospective observational study conducted in the PICU of a quaternary care teaching hospital. Participants underwent the ACM and the IAP was measured with an indwelling urinary catheter. At each IAH grade reached during the ACM, the CI was measured by transthoracic echocardiography and the LIJV cross-sectional area (CSA) was determined by ultrasonography. Results: Twenty-four children were included (median age and weight of 3.5 months and 6.37 kg, respectively). The median CI observed at baseline and during IAH grades I, II, III, and IV were 3.65 L/min/m2 (IQR 3.12−4.03), 3.38 L/min/m2 (IQR 3.04−3.73), 3.16 L/min/m2 (IQR 2.70−3.53), 2.89 L/min/m2 (IQR 2.38−3.22), and 2.42 L/min/m2 (IQR 1.91−2.79), respectively. A 25% increase in the LIJV CSA area was achieved in 14 participants (58%) during the ACM. Conclusion: The ACM significantly increases IAP, causing severe reversible impairment in the cardiovascular system and is effective in distending the LIJV in just over half of the subjects. Even low levels of HIA can result in significant cardiac dysfunction in children. Therefore, health professionals should be aware of the negative hemodynamic repercussions caused by the increased IAP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Critical Illness , Intra-Abdominal Hypertension , Prospective Studies , Ultrasonography , Hemodynamics
19.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(9): 710-712, Sept. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351779

ABSTRACT

Abstract With the widespread uptake of noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT), a larger cohort of women has access to fetal chromosomal sex, which increases the potential to identify prenatal sex discordance. The prenatal diagnosis of androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is an incidental and rare finding. We wish to present the diagnosis of a prenatal index case after NIPT of cell-free fetal DNA and mismatch between fetal sex and ultrasound phenotype. In this particular case, the molecular analysis of the androgen receptor (AR) gene showed the presence of a pathogenic mutation, not previously reported, consistent with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. Carrier testing for the mother revealed the presence of the same variant, confirming maternal hemizygous inheritance. Identification of the molecular basis of these genetic conditions enables the preimplantation or prenatal diagnosis in future pregnancies.


Resumo Com a utilização generalizada de testes pré-natais não invasivos (TPNIs), uma crescente porção de mulheres tem acesso ao sexo cromossômico fetal, o que aumenta o potencial para identificar discordância sexual pré-natal. O diagnóstico pré-natal da síndrome de insensibilidade androgénica é um achado incidental e raro. Pretendemos apresentar um caso índice de diagnóstico pré-natal por meio de DNA fetal livre e incompatibilidade entre sexo fetal e fenótipo ecográfico. Neste caso particular, a análise molecular do gene do receptor de andrógenios (RA) revelou a presença de uma mutação patogênica, não relatada anteriormente, consistente com a síndrome de insensibilidade completa aos androgênios. A mãe revelou ser portadora da mesma variante, confirmando a hereditariedade hemizigótica. A identificação da base genética permite o diagnóstico pré-implantação ou pré-natal em futuras gestações.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Androgen-Insensitivity Syndrome/diagnosis , Androgen-Insensitivity Syndrome/genetics , Phenotype , Prenatal Diagnosis , Ultrasonography , Mutation
20.
Rev. cuba. cir ; 60(3): e1147, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347386

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Dentro de la atención al lesionado con trauma torácico se cuenta con varios medios diagnósticos, entre ellos la evaluación por ecografía focalizada en trauma extendido a tórax, el cual ha mostrado una alta sensibilidad, aun realizado por médicos no radiólogos como cirujanos generales, emergencistas e intensivistas. Objetivo: Determinar la utilidad de la ecografía torácica extendida realizada por cirujanos en lesionados con traumatismo torácico. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo de evaluación de pruebas diagnósticas con un diseño transversal, en 1052 pacientes ingresados en la sala de emergencia. Se les realizó la evaluación por ecografía torácica extendida en el Hospital Universitario "General Calixto García", durante el período comprendido entre enero de 2020 y febrero de 2021. Resultados: Fueron realizados en un periodo de 1 año un total de 1052 ultrasonidos torácicos, 221 casos fueron positivos, de ellos 81 neumotórax (7,7 por ciento) y 62 hemoneumotórax (5,9 por ciento) todos confirmados por tomografía de tórax. La edad promedio fue de 45,27 (18-97), el sexo masculino prevaleció con 772 casos (73,4 por ciento). Los mecanismos productores de trauma más frecuentes fueron: caída de altura 273 casos (26 por ciento) y trauma contuso 181 casos (17,2 por ciento). La ecografía torácica extendida obtuvo una sensibilidad de un 95,24 por ciento y una especificidad de 99,88 por ciento en el diagnóstico lesiones torácicas. Conclusiones: La ecografía torácica extendida demostró que en manos de los cirujanos generales es una herramienta confiable, segura, no invasiva, poco costosa, repetible, que permite diagnosticar rápidamente lesiones torácicas y tratarlas(AU)


Introduction: Within care for the injured patient with thoracic trauma there are several diagnostic means. For example, extended focused assessment with sonography for thoracic trauma has shown high sensitivity, even when performed by non-radiologists such as general surgeons, emergency specialists and intensivists. Objective: To determine the usefulness of extended thoracic sonography performed by surgeons on injured patients with thoracic trauma. Methods: An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study of diagnostic tests assessment was carried out in 1052 patients admitted to the emergency room. They were assessed by extended thoracic sonography at General Calixto García University Hospital, during the period between January 2020 and February 2021. Results: A total of 1052 thoracic ultrasounds were performed in a period of one year, of which 221 cases were positive. Of them, 81 were pneumothorax (7.7 percent) and 62 were hemopneumothorax (5.9 percent), all confirmed by chest tomography. The average age was 45.27 (18-97). The male sex prevailed, with 772 cases (73.4 percent). The most frequent trauma-producing mechanisms were altitude fall, accounting for 273 cases (26 percent), and blunt trauma, accounting for 181 cases (17.2 percent). Extended thoracic ultrasound showed a sensitivity of 95.24 percent and a specificity of 99.88 percent in the diagnosis of thoracic injuries. Conclusions: Extended thoracic ultrasound showed that, in the hands of general surgeons, it is a reliable, safe, noninvasive, inexpensive and repeatable tool that allows rapid diagnosis and treatment of thoracic injuries(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Thoracic Injuries/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography/methods , Emergency Service, Hospital , Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma/methods , Hemopneumothorax/diagnostic imaging , Tomography/adverse effects , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , Observational Studies as Topic
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