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2.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 44(9): 821-829, Sept. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1423289

ABSTRACT

Abstract Regulations for the vaccination of pregnant women in Brazil occurred in March 2021. Despite the absence of robust data in the literature on the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccinations in pregnant women, it is understood that the benefit-risk ratio tends to be favorable when considering the pandemic and the high burden of the disease. However, it is still important to monitor for Events Supposedly Attributable to Vaccination or Immunization (ESAVI) and to draw safety profiles of the different platforms used in pregnant and postpartum women. The present study aims to describe the main characteristics of ESAVIs related to COVID-19 vaccines occurring in pregnant women in the first months of the vaccination campaign in Brazil. During the evaluation period, 1,674 notifications of ESAVIs in pregnant women were recorded, and 582 notifications were included for the analysis. Of the 582 ESAVIs identified, 481 (82%) were classified as non-serious adverse events and 101 (17%) as serious adverse events. Ten deaths were identified, including one death which was considered to be causally related to the vaccine. The other nine maternal deaths had causality C, that is, without causal relationship with the vaccine, and most were due to complications inherent to pregnancy, such as pregnancy-specific hypertensive disorder (PSHD) in 4 cases and 3 due to COVID-19. Despite some limitations in our study, we believe it brings new insights into COVID-19 vaccines in this group and will add to the available evidence.


Resumo As determinações vacinação nas gestantes foram estabelecidas em março de 2021, no Brasil. Apesar da ausência de dados robustos na literatura da vacinação contra coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) nesse grupo, entende-se que a relação de benefício versus risco tende a ser favorável considerando a situação pandêmica e a elevada carga de doença, tendo justificado o uso dessas vacinas em ampla escala nas gestantes de todo o mundo. Entretanto, o monitoramento dos eventos adversos pós vacinação (EAPVs) torna-se ainda mais importante para traçar um perfil de segurança das diferentes plataformas nas gestantes e puérperas. O presente estudo tem como objetivo descrever as principais características dos EAPVs contra COVID-19 ocorridos nas gestantes nos primeiros meses de campanha da vacinação no Brasil. Foram identificadas 1.674 notificações em gestantes, com a inclusão de 582 EAPVs analisados. Dos 582 EAPVs identificados, 481 (82%) foram classificados como eventos adversos não-graves e 101 (17%) como eventos adversos graves, sendo 10 (9,9%) destes referentes aos óbitos. Apenas um caso de óbito materno teve relação causal com a vacinação comprovada (causalidade A1), e foi secundário à síndrome trombocitopênica trombótica (TTS) após a vacina AstraZeneca/Fiocruz. Os outros nove óbitos maternos tiveram causalidade C, ou seja, sem relação causal com a vacina, e a maioria por complicações inerentes à gravidez, como a doença hipertensiva específica da gestação (DHEG) e COVID-19. Apesar de algumas limitações em nosso estudo, acreditamos que ele traz dados importantes sobre as vacinas COVID-19 neste grupo aumentando as evidências disponíveis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Brazil , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects
3.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 22(3): 537-547, July-Sept. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1406671

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to analyze a decade of spatio-temporal behavior of pertussis in Brazil and its epidemiological characteristics. Methods: ecological time series study of pertussis cases and deaths from the Notifable Diseases Information System in Brazil (2010-2019). The method of generalized linear analysis of Prais-Winsten and the Kernel analysis were used. Results: 32,849 cases were reported, of which 466 (1.42%) evolved to death, with a prevalence of 1.63/100,000 inhabitants and a mortality rate of 0.023/100,000 inhabitants. In the temporal analysis, the cyclical behavior of pertussis was evidenced, with trend variations in the period in 2014. Most cases occurred in children under 1 year of age (60.16%, p<0.01), sex female (55.28%, p=0.066) and white (48.42%, p=0.14). The largest share of deaths was in children aged <1 year (98.07, p<0.01), females (56.01%, p=0.066) and whites (43.78%, p=0.14). In the Kernel of prevalence, the South, Southeast and Northeast regions stood out with high density; while for mortality, the Southeast and Northeast stood out. Conclusions: the cyclical behavior of pertussis was observed, with a decreasing trend in recent years and the concentration of cases in children. This reinforces the importance of strengthening the population's immunization process.


Resumo Objetivos: analisar uma década do comportamento espaço-temporal da coqueluche no Brasil e as suas características epidemiológicas. Métodos: estudo ecológico de série temporal dos casos e óbitos por coqueluche do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação no Brasil (2010-2019). Utilizou-se o método de análise linear generalizada de Prais-Winsten e a análise de Kernel. Resultados: notificaram-se 32.849 casos, desses 466 (1,42%) evoluíram para óbito, com prevalência de 1,63/100.000 habitantes e coeficiente de mortalidade de 0,023/100.000 habitantes. Na análise temporal, evidenciou-se o comportamento cíclico da coqueluche com variações de tendência no período em 2014. A maioria dos casos ocorreu em menores de 1 ano (60,16%, p<0,01), sexo feminino (55,28%, p=0,066) e brancos (48,42%, p=0,14). A maior parcela dos óbitos foi em crianças <1 ano (98,07, p<0,01), sexo feminino (56,01%, p=0,066) e brancos (43,78%, p=0,14). No Kernel da prevalência, destacaram-se as regiões Sul, Sudeste e Nordeste com alta densidade; enquanto para mortalidade, sobressaíram-se Sudeste e Nordeste. Conclusão: observou-se o comportamento cíclico da coqueluche, com tendência de decréscimo nos últimos anos e a concentração de casos no público infantil. O que reforça a importância de fortalecer o processo de imunização da população.


Subject(s)
Humans , Whooping Cough/prevention & control , Whooping Cough/epidemiology , Ecological Studies , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , Brazil/epidemiology , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases
4.
J. Hum. Growth Dev. (Impr.) ; 31(3): 387-397, Sep.-Dec. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1356357

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: with the current situation of measles outbreak in Brazil and the sharp drop in immunization coverage nationwide, it is necessary to think about ways to intervene in the face of so many difficulties, since the expansion of immunization coverage is the most effective and safe for the control of infectious diseases OBJECTIVE: to analyze vaccine coverage of two National Campaigns during the COVID-19 pandemic in Vitória/ES. METHODS: a descriptive experience report on the implementation of an intervention plan to expand vaccination coverage of two National Vaccination Campaigns in 2020 in a Family Health Unit (FHU) during the Curricular Internship I (EC-I). It was based on the Situational Strategic Planning. Descriptive and bivariate statistical analyzes were performed RESULTS: there was an increase of 5.79 times in the vaccination coverage of the National Measles Vaccination Campaign 2020 in the territory, from 0.86% (vaccination coverage of the triple viral before the start of EC-I) to 4.98% at the end of EC-I (p = 0.438). When comparing the vaccination coverage of the National Multivaccination Campaign 2020 of immunobiologicals administered before and after the EC-I period at the FHU, we observed that there was a statistically significant difference (p = 0.0049). CONCLUSION: the proposed and implemented intervention plan had a positive outcome on the FHU, as the vaccination coverage of the two campaigns were expanded, despite all the challenges of the pandemic


INTRODUÇÃO: com a conjuntura atual do sarampo no Brasil, além da queda acentuada da cobertura vacinal em âmbito nacional, faz-se necessário pensar sobre as formas de intervir frente a tantos desafios, compreendendo que a ampliação da cobertura vacinal é a forma mais efetiva e segura para o controle de doenças infectocontagiosas. OBJETIVO: analisar a cobertura vacinal de duas Campanhas Nacionais durante a pandemia de COVID-19 em Vitória/ES. MÉTODO: relato de experiência descritivo, sobre a implementação de um plano de intervenção de ampliação de cobertura vacinal de duas Campanhas Nacionais de Vacinação em 2020 em uma Unidade de Saúde da Família (USF) durante a Disciplina de Estágio Curricular I (EC-I). O plano de intervenção foi alicerçado no Planejamento Estratégico Situacional. Análises estatísticas descritivas e bivariadas foram realizadas. RESULTADOS: houve um aumento de 5,79 vezes da cobertura vacinal da Campanha Nacional de Vacinação contra o Sarampo 2020, passando de 0,86% (em março de 2020) para 4,98% no final de outubro de 2020 (p=0,438). Ao comparar a cobertura da Campanha Nacional Multivacinação 2020 dos imunobiológicos administrados antes e após o plano de intervenção, observamos que houve uma diferença estatisticamente significante (p=0,0049). CONCLUSÃO: verificou-se um aumento nas coberturas vacinais da Campanha Nacional de Vacinação contra o Sarampo 2020 e da Campanha Nacional Multivacinação 2020. O plano de intervenção proposto e implementado surtiu efeito positivo na USF, pois, foi ampliado a cobertura vacinal das duas Campanhas, mesmo com todos os desafios da pandemia.


Subject(s)
Vaccination Coverage , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , COVID-19/prevention & control
6.
San Salvador; MINSAL; jul. 23, 2021. 80 p. ilus.
Non-conventional in Spanish | BISSAL, LILACS | ID: biblio-1292034

ABSTRACT

La prevención y control de enfermedades inmunoprevenibles, constituye uno de los elementos claves en la atención integral de salud, tendientes a disminuir la taza de morbimortalidad en la población y grupos prioritarios de riesgo en El Salvador. Por lo cual se diseñaron los presentes lineamientos, a fin de establecer las disposiciones técnicas al personal de salud del Sistema Nacional Integrado de Salud en los procesos de conservación, transporte y aplicación de la vacuna a la población objetivo


The prevention and control of immuno-preventable diseases constitutes one of the key elements in comprehensive health care, tending to reduce the rate of morbidity and mortality in the population and priority risk groups in El Salvador. Therefore, these guidelines were designed in order to establish the technical provisions for health personnel of the National Integrated Health System in the processes of conservation, transport and application of the vaccine to the target population


Subject(s)
Vaccination , SARS-CoV-2 , Risk Groups , Vaccines , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases
8.
Abuja; Federal Ministry of Health; 1; 2021. 43 p. figures.
Non-conventional in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1410835

ABSTRACT

Vaccines are recognised globally for their importance in the reduction of vaccines preventable diseases to improve the quality of life of the entire population. The importance of vaccines has been further demonstrated with the COVID-19 outbreak with countries scrambling to produce vaccines to combat the effect of the pandemic amongst their citizens. The purpose of this Vaccine Policy is to address the goal and objectives of achieving availability, self-sufficiency and vaccine security in the country. It is hoped that the development of this Policy will complement the already existing Immunisation Policy and provide the platform for the amelioration of vaccine-preventable diseases in Nigeria. Highlights of the Policy include: its vision, mission, goal, objectives, targets and implementation strategies for achieving local vaccines production and ownership of the vaccines supply chain management processes towards vaccine availability and security in the country. To achieve these, the Policy needs to be implemented and monitored hence the Policy provides for the establishment of appropriate governing structures to oversee the implementation process. The governing council and its various structures will pursue the achievement of the goal and objectives of the Policy. They will mobilise resources from the governments across all levels, individuals, the international communities, donor agencies. Other critical areas include the resuscitation of local production of vaccines, intensification of research and development and strengthening of the legislature and regulatory agencies to support the quality and safety of vaccines in Nigeria. It is recommended that all stakeholders responsible for implementing this policy should work collaboratively to ensure the goal and objectives are met


Subject(s)
Vaccines , Vaccination , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , Safety , Total Quality Management , Public-Private Sector Partnerships , Health Policy
9.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; nov. 21, 2020. 15 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1129660

ABSTRACT

Después de más de ocho meses de la pandemia de COVID-19 en la Región de las Américas, y con todos los países de las subregiones de América del Norte, América Central y América del Sur (con excepción de Uruguay) reportando transmisión comunitaria, los sistemas de salud están siendo sometidos a constantes desafíos y las actividades de inmunización de rutina se están posponiendo en la mayoría de los países. La pandemia ha comprometido el cumplimiento de los indicadores de vigilancia integrada de sarampión / rubéola y Parálisis Flácida Aguda (PFA). Por otro lado, las restricciones impuestas a la circulación de las personas, así como el temor de las personas por adquirir la infección, han limitado las actividades de atención primaria de la salud, incluidos los servicios de prevención, como la vacunación. Las restricciones de movimiento también tuvieron un impacto en la aparición de brotes de enfermedades prevenibles por vacunación (EPV) y / o contribuyeron a la interrupción de la transmisión de estas enfermedades. Sin embargo, la reactivación de las actividades económicas y de las fronteras puede volver a incrementar el riesgo, el cual puede ser aún mayor, dado el impacto de la COVID-19 en la capacidad de los sistemas de salud. A la luz de esta situación y considerando estos factores, se alerta sobre el riesgo de la ocurrencia en las Américas de nuevos brotes de enfermedades prevenibles por vacunación, de diversa magnitud y se considera que el riesgo para la Región es muy alto.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases/prevention & control , Americas/epidemiology , Vaccination Coverage
11.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; mayo 21, 2020. 6 p.
Non-conventional in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1100171

ABSTRACT

Provide recommendations regarding vaccination as an essential service at the primary care level in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Primary Health Care/organization & administration , Immunization/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases/prevention & control
12.
Palmas; [S.n]; 2020. 15 p.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS, CONASS, ColecionaSUS, SES-TO | ID: biblio-1140431

ABSTRACT

Apresenta o informe epidemiológico do Tocantins dando alusão aos Número de Casos de Beribéri, Doenças Crônicas, Taxa de óbitos por acidente de transporte terrestre, Acidentes de Trânsito, Coberturas das Vacinas, casos confirmados de meningites por etiologia, Hanseníase, tuberculose, doenças diarreica aguda, Toxoplasmose Gestacional e Congênita, HIV/AIDS, hepatites virais no ano de 2020.


It presents the epidemiological report of Tocantins alluding to the Number of Beriberi Cases, Chronic Diseases, Death rate due to land transport accidents, Traffic Accidents, Vaccine Coverage, confirmed cases of meningitis by etiology, Hansen's disease, tuberculosis, acute diarrheal diseases, Gestational and Congenital Toxoplasmosis, HIV / AIDS, viral hepatitis in 2020.


Presenta el informe epidemiológico de Tocantins referido al Número de Casos de Beriberi, Enfermedades Crónicas, Tasa de mortalidad por accidentes de transporte terrestre, Accidentes de tráfico, Cobertura de vacunas, Casos confirmados de meningitis por etiología, Enfermedad de Hansen, Tuberculosis, Enfermedades diarreicas agudas Toxoplasmosis gestacional y congénita, VIH / SIDA, hepatitis viral en 2020.


Il présente le rapport épidémiologique de Tocantins faisant allusion au nombre de cas de béribéri, aux maladies chroniques, au taux de mortalité dû aux accidents de transport terrestre, aux accidents de la circulation, à la couverture vaccinale, aux cas confirmés de méningite par étiologie, à la maladie de Hansen, à la tuberculose, aux maladies diarrhéiques aiguës, Toxoplasmose gestationnelle et congénitale, VIH / SIDA, hépatite virale en 2020.


Subject(s)
Humans , Accidents, Traffic/statistics & numerical data , Annual Report , Tuberculosis , Toxoplasmosis , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , HIV , Dysentery , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , Leprosy , Meningitis
14.
Vaccimonitor (La Habana, Print) ; 28(2)mayo.-ago. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1094623

ABSTRACT

Los problemas de salud que enfrenta la comunidad internacional actual, no se resuelven mediante abordajes individuales de países. La falta de fronteras reales para los retos en salud más ingentes, hace necesario que la comunidad regional y global cambie sus metodologías de enfrentar y prevenir estos retos, siempre respetando la soberanía de los Estados y estableciendo lazos de integración y cooperación.1 La búsqueda de nuevos mecanismos de concertación, diálogo e intercambio en materia de salud entre los diferentes sectores de la sociedad, entre países de una región o inclusive a nivel global ha obligado a reescribir el discurso tanto para los contextos nacionales, como internacionales.2 No sé puede vivir y alcanzar los objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible, en especial el encaminado a lograr estándares de salud equitativos y de calidad, sin la adecuada voluntad política de tener salud para todos y de una forma sostenible.3 En un mundo cambiante y complejo, donde la interconectividad hace que las barreras de antaño sean difusas, es nuestro deber como hacedores de políticas públicas, y agentes de comunicación entre diferentes Ministerios, hacer nuestro discurso práctico, viable y objetivo, algo que estamos lejos de alcanzar.4 Establecer efectivos mecanismos regionales y nacionales de vigilancia, fortalecer a partir del conocimiento de las debilidades y fortalezas de nuestros países, hace que nuestra mirada como Región se vuelva más enfocada y objetiva. Dejemos de lado discursos banales y reconozcamos lo que nos hace diferentes a cada uno para poder dialogar de una forma franca...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Global Health , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases/epidemiology , Health Policy
15.
Av. enferm ; 37(2): 217-226, mai.-ago. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | COLNAL, BDENF, LILACS | ID: biblio-1038778

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo: descrever o conhecimento dos adolescentes do 9o ano do ensino fundamental de escolas públicas sobre vacinas, as doenças imunopre-veníveis e as doenças transmissíveis. Método: estudo epidemiológico transversal, descritivo, desenvolvido com 605 adolescentes de 22 escolas públicas de um município de grande porte do estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Resultados: as fontes de informação mais citadas pelos adolescentes sobre infecções transmissíveis e formas de prevenção foram: escola (65,1 %), comunicação de massa (48,4 %) e pai e mãe (29,9 %). Sobre o conhecimento de infecções/doenças imunopreveníveis, 61,5 % dos adolescentes citaram a febre amarela (EA) e 5,6 % o papilomavírus humano (VPH). Além disso, 607 % relataram serem vacinados contra a paralisia infantil, 56 % contra a EA e 5 % contra o VPH. A cobertura vacinal média identificada na coleta de dados foi de 45,1 %, aumentando para 91 % após a vacinação. Considerando as respostas dos adolescentes sobre as vacinas presentes no cartão e com qual imunobiológico já tinham sido vacinados, a análise de Kappa evidenciou uma concordância substancial em relação à vacina contra EA e uma concordância moderada entre as demais vacinas. Conclusão: evidenciou-se (des)infor-mação dos adolescentes sobre vacinas, doenças transmissíveis e as imunopre-veníveis e baixa cobertura vacinal (41 %). A comunicação/informação em saúde foram efetivas na decisão dos adolescentes de se vacinarem, aumentando a cobertura vacinal (91 %).


Resumen Objetivo: describir el conocimiento que tienen los adolescentes de grado noveno de escuelas públicas sobre vacunas, enfermedades inmunoprevenibles y enfermedades transmisibles. Método: estudio epidemiológico transversal, descriptivo, desarrollado con 605 adolescentes de 22 escuelas públicas de un municipio de gran porte del estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Resultados: las fuentes de información más citadas por los adolescentes sobre infecciones transmisibles y formas de prevención fueron: escuela (65,1 %), comunicación de masas (48,4 %) y padre y madre (29,9 %). Sobre el conocimiento de infecciones/enfermedades inmunoprevenibles, el 61,5 % de los adolescentes refirió la fiebre amarilla (EA) y el 5,6 % el virus del papiloma humano (VPH). Además, el 60,7 % reportó ser vacunado contra la parálisis infantil, el 56 % contra la EA y el 5 % contra el VPH. La cobertura vacunal media identificada en la recolección de datos fue del 45,1 %, aumentando al 91 % después de la vacunación. Considerando las respuestas de los adolescentes sobre las vacunas presentes en el carné de vacunación y con cuál inmunobiológico ya se habían vacunado, el análisis de Kappa evidenció una concordancia sustancial en relación con la vacuna contra la EA y una concordancia moderada entre las demás vacunas. Conclusión: se evidenció (des)información de los adolescentes sobre vacunas, enfermedades transmisibles e inmunoprevenibles y baja cobertura de vacunación (41 %). La comunicación/ información en salud fueron efectivas en la decisión de los adolescentes de vacunarse, aumentando la cobertura vacunal (91 %).


Abstract Objective: to describe the knowledge adolescents of ninth grade of public schools have about vaccines, vaccine-preventable diseases and transmissible diseases. Method: epidemiological cross-sectional and descriptive study, developed with 605 adolescents of 22 public schools in a municipality of large size of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Results: the sources of information most cited by adolescents about transmissible infections and forms of prevention were: school (65.1 %), mass communication (48.4 %), and father and mother (29.9 %). Regarding knowledge of vaccine-preventable diseases/infections, 61.5 % of the adolescents referred the yellow fever (EA), and 5.6 % referred human papillomavirus (HPV). In addition, 60.7 % reported to have been vaccinated against infantile paralysis, 56 % against the EA and 5 % against HPV. Average immunization coverage identified in data collection was 45.1 %, rising to 91 % after the vaccination. Considering the answers of adolescents about vaccines existing in the card and those which had already been applied, Kappa analysis showed a substantial match in relation to the EA vaccine, and moderate match among all other vaccines. Conclusion: it was evident disinformation of adolescents about immunization, transmissible diseases and vaccine-preventable diseases, and low coverage of vaccination (41%). Communication/information in health were effective in the decision of adolescents about being vaccinated, increasing immunization coverage (91%).


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Papilloma , Vaccines , Adolescent , Disease Prevention , Vaccination Coverage , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases , Papillomaviridae , Viruses , Yellow Fever , Brazil , Health , Communicable Diseases , Immunization , Communication , Knowledge , Education, Primary and Secondary
16.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 39(supl.2): 130-143, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038834

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Serological surveillance (serosurveillance) provides the most direct measure of herd immunity of vaccine-preventable diseases. Little is known about the opportunities and challenges of serosurveillance experiences, particularly pertussis. Objective: To describe the process of serosurveillance for vaccine-preventable diseases with an emphasis on the experience of pertussis in the metropolitan area of Antioquia (Valle de Aburrá) in 2015 and 2016 and analyze the contributions and challenges for its sustainability. Materials and methods: We described the planning and conduction of serosurveillance of pertussis antibodies of mothers and in the umbilical cord at the time of delivery in eight hospitals based on random sampling and their capacity to advance the serosurveillance periodically. We compared the contributions and the challenges of this experience with other probabilistic and non-probabilistic programs. Results: We achieved the participation of hospitals and mothers respecting the delivery care process. We established a serum bank following ethical and technical guidelines. This program based on the random selection of hospitals and mothers has enabled the estimation of antibodies prevalence in mothers and in the umbilical cord, which has been possible given the high coverage of hospital care during childbirth at a lower cost and fewer risks than a population-based survey in conflictive areas. The main challenges for the sustainability of this program are the creation of stable jobs and access to funding and legal and methodological long-term frameworks. Conclusions: Hospital serosurveillance as described is an option to monitor the impact of vaccination on the population. Our experience could be reproduced in other regions under similar conditions if the above-mentioned challenges are solved.


Resumen Introducción. La vigilancia serológica es la forma más directa de medir la inmunidad de rebaño frente a las enfermedades prevenibles por vacunación. Poco se sabe acerca de las oportunidades y los desafíos de las experiencias de serovigilancia, en general y, específicamente, la de la tosferina. Objetivo. Describir el proceso de serovigilancia de enfermedades prevenibles por vacunación con énfasis en la experiencia en el caso de la tosferina en el área metropolitana de Antioquia (Valle de Aburrá) en el 2015 y el 2016 y analizar lo que dicha experiencia ha aportado y los desafíos que persisten para su sostenibilidad. Materiales y métodos. Se describió el proceso de planeación y el desarrollo de la serovigilancia de tosferina en el momento del parto en ocho hospitales seleccionados al azar, así como la capacidad para adelantar el programa de manera periódica. Se compararon los aportes y los desafíos en el curso de esta experiencia con los de otros programas poblacionales probabilistas e institucionales no probabilistas. Resultados. Se logró la participación de los hospitales y de las madres con pleno respeto del proceso de atención del parto, y se conformó un banco de sueros siguiendo lineamientos éticos y técnicos. El programa permitió estimar la prevalencia de anticuerpos en la madre y en el cordón umbilical, lo que se facilitó por la alta cobertura de atención hospitalaria del parto, a un menor costo y menos riesgos que los programas poblacionales en zonas conflictivas. Los principales desafíos para la sostenibilidad del programa son la estabilidad laboral del personal de salud, así como normas y una financiación de largo plazo. Conclusiones. La serovigilancia hospitalaria es una opción para monitorizar el impacto poblacional de la vacunación. Esta experiencia se podría extender a otras regiones en condiciones similares si se resuelven los retos mencionados.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Whooping Cough/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Urban Population , Bordetella pertussis/immunology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Whooping Cough/blood , Whooping Cough/prevention & control , Sampling Studies , Models, Statistical , Colombia/epidemiology , Immunity, Herd , Vaccination Coverage , Fetal Blood/immunology , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases/blood , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases/prevention & control , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood
17.
Actual. SIDA. infectol ; 25(96): 70-79, 20170000. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1355243

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La infección por influenza puede conllevar a graves compli-caciones, y poner en riesgo la vida. El objetivo de este trabajo fue des-cribir las características de los casos graves confirmados de influenza en la Provincia de Santa Fe durante el año 2016. Materiales y métodos: Descripción epidemiológica a partir de los datos de las fichas individuales ETI (enfermedades tipo influenza) de los casos de síndrome gripal atendidos en los servicios de salud de la provincia. Resultados: De un total de 211 casos graves confirmados, 63 fallecie-ron. El subtipo viral detectado con mayor frecuencia fue influenza A H1N1 (87,67 %). La mayor letalidad se produjo entre los mayores de 65 años (57,58 %). La chance de morir fue 2,7 veces mayor en los ca-sos en los que la administración del antiviral se demoró más de 48 horas de iniciados los síntomas (IC: 1,01-7,40; P < 0,05). Los facto-res de riesgo con mayor prevalencia fueron: EPOC (28,48 %), edad me-nor de 5 años y pacientes obesidad (23,84 %). La chance de morir fue 2,4 mayor en aquellos que presentaban al menos un factor de riesgo(OR: 2,397; 1,119-5,132; p < 0,05). De 22 vacunados, 4 fallecieron (18,18 %), todos con algún factor de riesgo asociado, mientras que de 148 no-vacunados, 50 fallecieron (33,78 %), 40 con al menos algún factor de riesgo asociado. Conclusión: La información epidemiológica recaba-da es importante para organizar y priorizar los re-cursos de salud de manera eficiente, principalmen-te en aquellos grupos en los que la gravedad de la enfermedad puede llevar a la muerte


ntroduction: Influenza infection can lead to serious complications and put life at risk. The objective of this work was to describe the characteristics of the severe cases of influenza in Santa Fe province during the year 2016. Materials and methods: An epidemiological description of severe cases of influenza was conducted based on data from the individual ETI (influenza-like-Diseases) files of the cases of influenza syndrome treated in the health services of the province. Results: Of a total of 211 confirmed severe cases, 63 died. The most frequently detected viral subtype was influenza AH1N1 (87.67%). The highest lethality occurred among those patients over 65 years old (57.58%). The chance of dying was 2.7 times higher in cases in which the administration of the antiviral was delayed for more than 48 hours after initiation of symptoms (CI: 1.01-7.40, P <0.05). The most prevalent risk factors were COPD (28.48%), age under 5 years and patients with obesity (23.84%). The chance of dying was 2.4 higher in those who had at least one risk factor (OR: 2.377, 1.119-5.132, p <0.05). Of 22 vaccinated patients, 4 died (18.18%), all had some associated risk factor. Of 148 non-vaccinated patients, 50 died (33.78%), 40 with at least one associated risk factor. Conclusion: The epidemiological information collected is important to organize and prioritize health resources efficiently, especially in those groups where the severity of the disease can lead to death


Subject(s)
Humans , Preventive Health Services , Epidemiologic Studies , Risk Factors , Health Organizations , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/mortality , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases
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