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1.
San Salvador; MINSAL; ene. 12, 2024. 102 p. ilus, graf.
Non-conventional in Spanish | BISSAL, LILACS | ID: biblio-1526427

ABSTRACT

La vacunación tiene la capacidad de salvar vidas, así como la prevención y control de las enfermedades inmunoprevenibles; dando la oportunidad a los niños y niñas de crecer saludables y con cariño. Para el cumplimiento de todo lo relacionado a la recepción, notificación, análisis, evaluación y seguimiento de acciones correctivas, las siguientes instancias; Dirección Nacional de Medicamentos DNM, Superintendencia de Productos Sanitarios, Dirección de Inmunizaciones, Dirección de Epidemiología y Laboratorio Nacional de Salud Pública, en conjunto con el Centro Nacional de farmacovigilancia (CNFV), deben establecer directrices que permitan notificar y realizar el seguimiento de cualquier evento supuestamente atribuible a la vacunación e inmunización. ESAVI y error programático relacionado a la vacunación y/o a la ejecución de las actividades de vacunación e inmunización


Vaccination has the capacity to save lives, as well as the prevention and control of immunopreventable diseases; giving children the opportunity to grow up healthy and caring. For the fulfilment of all matters related to the receipt, notification, analysis, evaluation and follow-up of corrective actions, the following instances; National Directorate of Medicines DNM, Superintendence of Medical Devices, Directorate of Immunizations, Directorate of Epidemiology and National Laboratory of Public Health, in conjunction with the National Pharmacovigilance Centre (CNFV)should establish guidelines for reporting and monitoring any event allegedly attributable to vaccination and immunization. ESAVI and programme error related to vaccination and/or the implementation of vaccination and immunization activities.


Subject(s)
Child , Vaccines , El Salvador
2.
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 58: 20230303, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1535167

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: This study aims to examine the risk perceptions of midwifery and nursing senior students regarding COVID-19 and compliance with vaccination and protective measures. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted in two academic years on senior midwifery and nursing students (n = 358). In the present study, the descriptive characteristics of the students and the COVID-19 risk perception scale were used. Results: The students' COVID-19 Risk Perception Scale scores were at a moderate level and a similar level in both years of this study. More than 80% of the students were fully vaccinated, and the family history of COVID-19 was positive in approximately half of them. In the second year of the pandemic, they paid less attention to social distance and avoidance of being indoors. Conclusion: Although the COVID-19 risk perceptions of future health professional students remained at a similar level during the examined period, it was found that in the second year of the pandemic, they started to get used to the process and paid less attention to social protective measures.


RESUMO Objetivo: Este estudo tem como objetivo examinar as percepções de risco de estudantes sêniores de obstetrícia e enfermagem em relação à COVID-19 e o cumprimento das medidas de vacinação e proteção. Método: Este estudo transversal foi realizado ao longo de dois anos acadêmicos com estudantes sêniores de obstetrícia e enfermagem (n = 358). No presente estudo, foram utilizadas as características descritivas dos estudantes e a escala de percepção de risco da COVID-19. Resultados: As pontuações dos estudantes na Escala de Percepção de Risco da COVID-19 situaram-se num nível moderado e semelhante em ambos os anos do estudo. Mais de 80% dos estudantes estavam totalmente vacinados, e aproximadamente metade deles tinha histórico familiar de COVID-19. No segundo ano da pandemia, prestaram menos atenção ao distanciamento social e aos hábitos de evitar permanência em espaços fechados. Conclusão: Embora as percepções de risco da COVID-19 dos futuros profissionais de saúde tenham permanecido em níveis semelhantes durante o período examinado, verificou-se que, no segundo ano da pandemia, começaram a acostumar-se com o processo e prestaram menos atenção às medidas de proteção social.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Este estudio tiene como objetivo examinar las percepciones de riesgo de los estudiantes seniors de obstetricia y enfermería con respecto a COVID-19 y su cumplimiento con la vacunación y las medidas de protección. Método: Este estudio transversal se llevó a cabo en dos años académicos con estudiantes seniors de obstetricia y enfermería (n = 358). En el presente estudio, se utilizaron las características descriptivas de los estudiantes y la escala de percepción de riesgo de COVID-19. Resultados: Las puntuaciones en la Escala de Percepción de Riesgo de COVID-19 de los estudiantes estaban en un nivel moderado y similar en ambos años de este estudio. Más del 80% de los estudiantes estaban completamente vacunados y la historia familiar de COVID-19 fue positiva en aproximadamente la mitad de ellos. En el segundo año de la pandemia, prestaron menos atención a la distancia social y a evitar estar en interiores. Conclusión: Aunque las percepciones de riesgo de COVID-19 de los futuros profesionales de la salud se mantuvieron en un nivel similar durante el período examinado, se encontró que en el segundo año de la pandemia, empezaron a acostumbrarse al proceso y prestaron menos atención a las medidas de protección social.


Subject(s)
Humans , Students , Vaccines , COVID-19 , Security Measures , Health Risk , Health Occupations
3.
Rev. Headache Med. (Online) ; 15(1): 7-12, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1551344

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In 2020, the first vaccines were approved, according to the WHO. However, speculations arose regarding their efficacy and post-vaccination adverse events (AEFV). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of headache as AEFI from the SARSCoV-2 vaccine in Piauí, Brazil. METHODS: This is a quantitative, observational, cross-sectional, and prevalence study. Data were provided by the Post-Vaccination Adverse Event Information System (SI-AEFV), from reported cases from January to September 2021. Data were analyzed, and the research was approved by the UFPI Research Ethics Committee. RESULTS: A total of 2,008 cases were analyzed. Headache was reported in 752 cases (27.99%) as an AEFV after vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. In most cases, patients were from Teresina (67.62%), of brown race/ethnicity (52.67%), female (79.00%), and the majority were not healthcare professionals (54.27%). The most common age of patients, with the original data, was 33 years. After data correction, the most common age was 28 years. The majority of these cases were not severe (96.44%), and the majority of cases were associated with the first dose of the Covid-19-Covishield-Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine (43.18%).CONCLUSION: Thus, it is concluded from the partial analysis of the results that headache is the most common adverse event after vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. The profile of patients with the most notifications was brown women aged 30 to 40 years who received the first dose of the Covid-19-Covishield-Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine. Regarding the severity of events, the vast majority were considered non-severe, and no deaths were mentioned, demonstrating the safety of immunobiologicals.


FUNDAMENTO: Em 2020, foram aprovadas as primeiras vacinas, segundo a OMS. No entanto, surgiram especulações quanto à sua eficácia e eventos adversos pós-vacinais (EAPV). OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência de cefaleia como EAPV da vacina SARSCoV-2 no Piauí, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo quantitativo, observacional, transversal e de prevalência. Os dados foram fornecidos pelo Sistema de Informação de Eventos Adversos Pós-Vacinação (SI-AEFV), dos casos notificados no período de janeiro a setembro de 2021. Os dados foram analisados ​​e a pesquisa foi aprovada pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da UFPI. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados ​​2.008 casos. Cefaleia foi relatada em 752 casos (27,99%) como EAPV após vacinação contra SARS-CoV-2. Na maioria dos casos, os pacientes eram procedentes de Teresina (67,62%), de raça/etnia parda (52,67%), do sexo feminino (79,00%) e a maioria não era profissional de saúde (54,27%). A idade mais comum dos pacientes, com os dados originais, era de 33 anos. Após correção dos dados, a idade mais comum foi 28 anos. A maioria desses casos não foi grave (96,44%), e a maioria dos casos esteve associada à primeira dose da vacina Covid-19-Covishield-Oxford/AstraZeneca (43,18%).CONCLUSÃO: Assim, conclui-se a partir da análise parcial dos resultados de que cefaleia é o evento adverso mais comum após vacinação contra SARS-CoV-2. O perfil dos pacientes com mais notificações foi de mulheres pardas com idade entre 30 e 40 anos que receberam a primeira dose da vacina Covid-19-Covishield-Oxford/AstraZeneca. Quanto à gravidade dos eventos, a grande maioria foi considerada não grave e não foram mencionados óbitos, demonstrando a segurança dos imunobiológicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Vaccines/immunology , Vaccination/adverse effects , COVID-19/virology , Patients/classification , Safety/standards , Health Personnel/organization & administration
4.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1551094

ABSTRACT

La urgente necesidad de desarrollar y producir vacunas seguras y efectivas para garantizar la reducción de la propagación del coronavirus de tipo 2 causante del síndrome respiratorio agudo severo, hizo que el Centro de Inmunología Molecular y el Instituto Finlay de Vacunas, desarrollaran dos vacunas y un candidato vacunal contra la COVID-19, que tienen como componente la molécula del dominio de unión al receptor (aa 319-541) del virus. Para establecer el proceso productivo, se realizaron experimentos en los posibles pasos del proceso de purificación de la molécula del dominio de unión al receptor (aa 319-541), con vistas a su posterior transferencia tecnológica a escala industrial. Dicha molécula está fusionada con una etiqueta de hexahistidina en su extremo C-terminal y presenta nueve residuos de cisteína en su secuencia que forman cuatro enlaces disulfuros intramoleculares, quedando una cisteína libre que permite obtener dos moléculas: dimérica y monomérica, antígenos que forman parte de las vacunas SOBERANA®02 y SOBERANA®Plus y el candidato vacunal SOBERANA 01. Se determinaron las mejores condiciones de adsorción de las matrices cromatográficas de afinidad por quelatos metálicos, intercambio catiónico y exclusión molecular. Se evaluó el desempeño del proceso a escala piloto y se caracterizó la molécula de acuerdo a sus propiedades físico-químicas y biológicas. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron un 60,02 ± 5,15por ciento de recuperación total de la proteína de interés, con más del 98% de pureza en ambas moléculas, una eficiente remoción de contaminantes y una antigenicidad mayor del 90por ciento referido al monómero control del dominio de unión al receptor con 99 por ciento de pureza, lo que demuestra que el proceso establecido es eficiente en la obtención de un producto con la calidad requerida(AU)


The urgent need to develop and produce safe and effective vaccines to guarantee the reduction of the spread of the type 2 coronavirus that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome, led the Center for Molecular Immunology and the Finlay Vaccine Institute to develop two vaccines and one candidate vaccine to combat the 2019 coronavirus pandemic. As part of the establishment of the production process, experiments were carried out on the possible steps of the purification process of the receptor binding domain molecule (aa 319-541) with a view to its subsequent technological transfer on an industrial scale. This molecule is fused with a hexahistidine tag at its C-terminal end and has nine cysteine residues in its sequence that form four intramolecular disulfide bonds; leaving a free cysteine that allows two molecules to be obtained: dimeric and monomeric, which constitute the antigens of the SOBERANA®02 and SOBERANA®Plus vaccines and the SOBERANA 01 vaccine candidate. The best adsorption conditions of the chromatographic matrices of affinity for metal chelates, cationic exchange and molecular exclusion were determined. The performance of the process was evaluated on a pilot scale and the molecule was characterized according to its physical-chemical and biological properties. The results obtained showed a 60.02 ± 5.15percent total recovery of the protein of interest with more than 98% purity in both molecules, an efficient removal of contaminants and an antigenicity greater than 90percent referred to the control monomer of the domain receptor binding with 99% purity; which demonstrates that the established process is efficient in obtaining a product with the required quality(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Adsorption/drug effects
5.
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1551093

ABSTRACT

Foot and mouth disease is a highly contagious viral disease that poses a significant economic threat to cloven-hoofed animals, including cattle and sheep. The emergence of a novel foot and mouth disease virus-A isolate, FMDV-A-Egy-AHRI-RL385-Ven-2022, in Egypt in 2022 has raised concerns about its potential impact on existing vaccination programs. Given that vaccination is a key strategy for foot and mouth disease virus control, the present study was aimed to assess the cross-protective efficacy of both local and imported inactivated vaccines against this new threat. Through challenge experiments and serum neutralization tests, we observed limited effectiveness of both vaccine types. The calculated r1-values at 28 days post-vaccination indicated a minimal immune response to FMDV-A-Egy-AHRI-RL385-Ven-2022 (0.176 and 0.175 for local and imported vaccines, respectively). Challenge experiments further confirmed these findings, revealing 0percent protection from the local vaccine and only 20percent rotection from imported vaccines by day 7 post-challenge. These results underscore the urgent need to update existing foot and mouth disease virus vaccines in Egypt by incorporating the newly circulating FMDV-A-Egy-AHRI-RL385-Ven-2022 strain. This proactive measure is crucial to prevent future outbreaks and ensure effective disease control(AU)


La fiebre aftosa es una enfermedad vírica muy contagiosa que supone una importante amenaza económica para los animales biungulados, entre ellos el ganado vacuno y ovino. La aparición de un nuevo aislado del virus A de la fiebre aftosa, el FMDV-A-Egy-AHRI-RL385-Ven-2022, en Egipto en 2022 ha suscitado preocupación por su posible impacto en los programas de vacunación existentes. Dado que la vacunación es una estrategia clave para el control del virus de la fiebre aftosa, el objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la eficacia protectora cruzada de las vacunas inactivadas locales e importadas frente a esta nueva amenaza. Mediante experimentos de desafío y pruebas de seroneutralización, observamos una eficacia limitada de ambos tipos de vacuna. Los valores r1 calculados a los 28 días posvacunación indicaron una respuesta inmunitaria mínima frente a FMDV-A-Egy-AHRI-RL385-Ven-2022 (0,176 y 0,175 para las vacunas local e importada, respectivamente). Los experimentos de provocación confirmaron aún más estos resultados, revelando un 0 por ciento de protección de la vacuna local y sólo un 20 por ciento de protección de las vacunas importadas al séptimo día después de la provocación. Estos resultados subrayan la urgente necesidad de actualizar las vacunas existentes contra el virus de la fiebre aftosa en Egipto incorporando la nueva cepa circulante FMDV-A-Egy-AHRI-RL385-Ven-2022. Esta medida proactiva es crucial para prevenir futuros brotes y garantizar un control eficaz de la enfermedad(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Disease Outbreaks , Livestock , Foot-and-Mouth Disease/epidemiology , Vaccines , Egypt
6.
RECIIS (Online) ; 17(3): 593-615, jul.-set. 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1517702

ABSTRACT

O impacto das fake news chegou à área da saúde e a desconfiança em relação às vacinas trouxe de volta doenças até então erradicadas. Mas como os discursos antivacinasão construídos nas redes sociais? Neste trabalho, 80fake news com foco nas vacinas foram coletadas de sites brasileiros que realizam debunking, uma estratégia de detecção e desmascaramento de desinformação e fake news. A partir da aplicação de um protocolo analítico, mapeamos as principais características presentes na elaboração dessas publicações. A análise de conteúdo revelou que o Facebook e o WhatsApp são as redes preferidas para esse tipo de compartilhamento. Cerca de 59% dos conteúdos são totalmente falsos e a maioria dos discursos destaca possíveis riscos das vacinas como estratégias de convencimento. As fontes mais referenciadas são supostamente médicos e cientistas, para criar confiabilidade. O levantamento aponta ainda que 60% das publicações apresentaram erros gramaticais e ortográficos na elaboração dos textos


The impact of fake news reached the health area and distrust in relation to vaccines brought back diseases that had been eradicated. But how are these anti-vaccine discourses constructed in social medias? In this paper, 80 fake news stories focusing on vaccines were collected through Brazilian websites that perform debunking, a strategy for detecting and unmasking misinformation and fake news. From the application of an analytical protocol, the main characteristics present in the elaboration of these publications were mapped. Content analysis revealed that Facebook and WhatsApp are the preferred medias for this type of sharing. About 59% of the contents are totally false and most of the speeches highlight the risks of vaccines as a convincing strategy. The most referenced sources are supposedly doctors and scientists to create re-liability. The survey also points out that 60% of publications have grammatical and spelling errors in the preparation of texts


El impacto de las fake news llegó al área de la salud y la desconfianza en las vacunas trajo de vuelta enfermedades erradicadas. Pero, ¿cómo se construyen los discursos antivacunas en las redes sociales? En este trabajo, se recopilaron 80 noticias falsas centradas en vacunas a través de sitios web brasileños que realizan debunking, una estrategia para detectar y desenmascarar información errónea y noticias falsas. A partir de la aplicación de un protocolo analítico, mapeamos las principales características presentes en la elaboración de estas publicaciones. El análisis de contenido reveló que Facebook y WhatsApp son las redes preferidas para este tipo de intercambio. Alrededor del 59% del contenido es completamente falso y la mayoría destaca los posibles riesgos de las vacunas como estrategias convincentes. Las fuentes más referenciadas son supuestamente médicos y científicos para crear confiabilidad. La encuesta señala que el 60% de las publicaciones tenían errores gramaticales y ortográficos


Subject(s)
Humans , Vaccines/history , Anti-Vaccination Movement , Disinformation , Information Dissemination/ethics , Health Communication/ethics , Social Networking
7.
RECIIS (Online) ; 17(3)jul.-set. 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1517703

ABSTRACT

A pesquisa pretende identificar elementos ideológicos e históricos diante das formações discursivas do discurso antivacina no Brasil, à luz do passado (Revolta da Vacina) e do presente (pandemia da covid-19). Metodologicamente, trata-se de uma pesquisa documental-qualitativa. O corpus de análise é composto por seis enunciados, três da Revolta da Vacina e três da covid-19, tendo como método a Análise do Discurso. Como resultado, foram identificadas três facetas do discurso antivacina: a) medo do desconhecido e desconfiança na eficácia dos imunizantes; b) honra em jogo e interesse institucional sobre a vacinação; c) liberdade e morte, obrigatoriedade da vacina. Conclui-se que, ainda que o discurso antivacina no Brasil seja tão antigo quanto o primeiro método de vacinação, é fundamental superar o fosso entre comunidade científica e sociedade em geral, a fim de combater desinformação com informação científica, levando o fantasma do discurso antivacina ao esquecimento


The research aims to identify ideological and historical elements in the face of the discursive formations of the anti-vaccine discourse in Brazil, in the light of the past (Vaccine Revolt) and the present (covid-19 pandemic). Methodologically, this is a documentary-qualitative research. The corpus of analysis is com-posed of six statements, three from the Vaccine Revolt and three from the covid-19, using Discourse Anal-ysis as method. A result, three facets of the anti-vaccine discourse were identified: a) fear of the unknown and distrust in the effectiveness of immunizers; b) honor at stake and institutional interest in vaccination; c) freedom and death, the mandatory vaccine. It is concluded that, although the anti-vaccination discourse in Brazil is as old as the first vaccination method, overcoming the gap between scientific community and society in general is essential, in order to fight misinformation with scientific information, taking the ghost from the anti-vaccine discourse to oblivion


La investigación tiene como objetivo identificar elementos ideológicos e históricos frente a las formaciones discursivas del discurso antivacunas en Brasil, la luz del pasado (Revuelta de las Vacunas) y del presente (pandemia de covid-19). Metodológicamente se trata de una investigación documental-cualitativa. El corpus consta de seis enunciados, tres de la Revuelta de las Vacunas y tres del covid-19, utilizando como método el Análisis del Discurso. Como resultado, se identificaron tres facetas del discurso antivacunas: a) miedo a lo desconocido y desconfianza en la efectividad de los inmunizadores; b) honor en juego e interés institucional en la vacunación; c) libertad y muerte, vacunación obligatoria. Se concluye que, aunque el discurso antivacunas en Brasil es tan antiguo como el primer método de vacunación, es fundamental superar la brecha entre la comunidad científica y la sociedad, para combatir con información científica la desinformación, liderando el fantasma de la el discurso antivacunas al olvido


Subject(s)
Humans , Research , Vaccines , Address , Disinformation , Public Health , Access to Information
9.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 56(1): 25-31, 20230401.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1426661

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: Determinar la predisposición a recibir esta vacuna contra SARS-CoV-2. Materiales y métodos: Se aplicó un diseño observacional de corte transversal en la población adulta del Paraguay entre mayo y octubre 2022. se aplicó el cuestionario de Kotta et al previamente validado, el cual fue difundido por redes sociales. Resultados: Se incluyeron 303 encuestados, con edad media 34 ± 12 años y predominio del sexo femenino (64,0%). En la muestra, 51,8% padeció COVID-19 y 97,3% ya recibió al menos una dosis de la vacuna. Se detectó que 58,4% aceptada la vacuna, 17,8% vacilaba en recibirla y 23,7% la rechazaba. La aceptación fue más frecuente en los varones (p 0,05). Conclusión: En el momento epidemiológico de disponibilidad universal de la vacuna y habiendo aún sujetos afectados por COVID-19, el rechazo a la misma fue 23,7%.


Objectives: To determine the predisposition to receive this vaccine against SARS-CoV-2. Materials and methods: An observational cross-sectional design was applied in the adult population of Paraguay between May and October 2022. The previously validated questionnaire of Kotta et al was applied, which was disseminated through social networks. Results: 303 respondents were included, with a mean age of 34 ± 12 years and predominance of the female sex (64.0%). In the sample, 51.8% suffered from COVID-19 and 97.3% have already received at least one dose of the vaccine. It was detected that 58.4% accepted the vaccine, 17.8% hesitated to receive it and 23.7% rejected it. Acceptance was more frequent in males (p 0.05). Conclusion: At the epidemiological moment of universal availability of the vaccine and with subjects still affected by COVID-19, rejection of it was 23.7%.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Vaccines , Surveys and Questionnaires , Dosage , Goals , Methods
10.
San Salvador; MINSAL; feb. 20, 2023. 20 p. ilus, graf.
Non-conventional in Spanish | BISSAL, LILACS | ID: biblio-1426052

ABSTRACT

La Dirección de Inmunizaciones, es una dirección especializada del Ministerio de Salud de El Salvador, que tiene asignada la rectoría de todos los aspectos relacionados a la vacunación e inmunización de la población salvadoreña. Esta Dirección es el resultado de una acción conjunta entre los países de la Región de las Américas y de organismos internacionales como la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), su interés es contribuir con acciones tendientes a lograr coberturas universales de vacunación, con el fin de disminuir las tasas de mortalidad y morbilidad causadas por las enfermedades inmunoprevenibles y está sujeta conforme a la Ley de Vacunas. En este sentido y para documentar la organización y funcionamiento de dicha Dirección, se ha elaborado el presente manual como un instrumento técnico normativo de gestión institucional, en el cual se integra la organización y funcionamiento de las diferentes dependencias que lo componen, se describen y establecen los objetivos generales y específicos, las relaciones de autoridad y dependencia de cada ambiente, así como las relaciones de trabajo internas y externas. Tiene el propósito de identificar con claridad las funciones de cada una de las áreas administrativas que la integran, evitar la duplicidad de funciones, conocer las líneas de comunicación y de mando; permitiendo así contar con un instrumento técnico administrativo integrado, que sirva de referencia y consulta a todo el personal laborando en la institución


The Immunization Directorate is a specialized department of the Ministry of Health of El Salvador, who is assigned the rectory of all aspects related to vaccination and immunization of the Salvadoran population. This Address is the result of an action collaboration between the countries of the Region of the Americas and international organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO), its interest is to contribute with actions aimed at achieving universal vaccination coverage, in order to reduce the rates of mortality and morbidity caused by vaccine preventable diseases and is subject to according to the Vaccination Law. In this sense and to document the organization and operation of said Directorate, has prepared this manual as a regulatory technical management instrument institution, which integrates the organization and operation of the different dependencies that compose it, describe and establish the general objectives and specific, the relationships of authority and dependency of each environment, as well as the internal and external working relationships. Its purpose is to clearly identify the functions of each of the areas that integrate it, avoid duplication of functions, know the lines of communication and command; thus allowing to have a technical administrative instrument integrated, that serves as a reference and consults all the personnel working in the institution


Subject(s)
Immunization , Manuals as Topic , Population , Vaccines , Vaccination , El Salvador , Vaccination Coverage
11.
Rev. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Quito) ; 48(1): 9-17, Ene 01, 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1526671

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La pandemia de COVID-19 evidenció la importancia de los trabajadores esen-ciales de la salud. Objetivo: Estimar la ocurrencia de la infección por el virus Sars_CoV2 en funcionarios de un hospital, antes y después de implementación del programa de vacunación institucional y la fracción preventiva atribuible a la vacunación. Material y métodos: Estudio de cohorte histórica, teniendo como punto de inicio la fecha del primer funcionario diagnosticado con la Covid19 en el Hospital. Alrededor de mil traba-jadores fueron examinados, durante el periodo de estudio comprendido entre junio de 2020 y octubre 2021. Se utilizó el estadístico de Kaplan-Meier, para comparar la velocidad de infección y la fracción preventiva atribuible al programa de vacunación. Resultados. Hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas en la reducción de casos según tipo de trabajo, los trabajadores asistenciales experimentaron una reducción del 58,1%, de 124 a 52 y la diferencia en la mediana de la velocidad de infección, antes y después, Log Rank = 127,4 gl = 1 p = 0,000; los administrativos 51,7% de 29 a 14, mediana log Rank = 34,4 gl = 1 p = 0,000, y los operativos 45,5% de 11 a 6, mediana Log Rank = 13,5 gl = 1 p = 0,000. La fracción atribuible preventiva entre los asistenciales fue 47,5% (37,4­54,9); 85,2% (77,7­88,9) en administrativos y una reducción no significativa de 43,6% (-20,7, 63,2) en operativos. Conclusiones: Los trabajadores asistenciales tienen un riesgo alto de contraer la infección por Sars_CoV2. Fue una acertada decisión vacunar a todos los trabajadores del hospital, el impacto es demostrable.


Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the importance of essential health care workers.Objective: To estimate the occurrence of Sars_CoV2 virus infection in hospital staff before and after implementation of the institutional vaccination program and the preventive fraction attributable to vaccination. Material and methods: Historical cohort study, having as starting point the date of the first employee diagnosed with Covid19 in the Hospital. About one thousand workers were exa-mined, during the study period from June 2020 to October 2021. The Kaplan-Meier statistic was used to compare the infection, rate and the preventive fraction attributable to the vac-cination program. Results: There were statistically significant differences in the reduction of cases according to type of work, with the assistential workers experiencing a reduction of 58.1%, from 124 to 52 and the difference in median infection rate, before and after, Log Rank = 127.4 gl = 1 p = 0.000; the administrative 51.7% from 29 to 14, median Log Rank = 34.4 gl = 1 p = 0.000, and the operatives 45.5% from 11 to 6, median Log Rank = 13.5 gl = 1 p = 0.000. The preventive attributable fraction among assistants was 47.5% (37.4-54.9); 85.2% (77.7-88.9) in adminis-trative and a non-significant reduction of 43.6% (-20.7, 63.2) in operatives.Conclusions: Healthcare workers are at high risk of contracting Sars_CoV2 infection. It was a wise decision to vaccinate all hospital workers, the impact is demonstrable.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Health Personnel , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Vaccines , Immunization Programs , COVID-19/prevention & control
12.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21769, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439514

ABSTRACT

Abstract Currently, mucosal vaccine administration has stood out as an easier and non-invasive application method. It can also be used to induce local and systemic immune responses. In the COVID-19 pandemic context, nasal and oral vaccines have been developed based on different technological platforms. This review addressed relevant aspects of mucosal vaccine administration, with emphasis on oral and nasal vaccinations, in addition to the importance of using nanotechnology-based delivery systems to enable these strategies.


Subject(s)
Vaccines/analysis , Vaccination/adverse effects , Nanotechnology/instrumentation , Immunity/immunology
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-9, 2023. graf, tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468946

ABSTRACT

Aeromonas hydrophila is a cause of infectious disease outbreaks in carp species cultured in South Asian countries including Pakistan. This bacterium has gained resistance to a wide range of antibiotics and robust preventive measures are necessary to control its spread. No prior use of fish vaccines has been reported in Pakistan. The present study aims to develop and evaluate inactivated vaccines against local strain of A. hydrophila in Pakistan with alum-precipitate as adjuvant. The immunogenic potential of vaccine was evaluated in two Indian major carps (Rohu: Labeo rohita, Mori: Cirrhinus mrigala) and a Chinese carp (Grass carp: Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish were vaccinated intraperitoneally followed by a challenge through immersion. Fish with an average age of 4-5 months were randomly distributed in three vaccinated groups with three vaccine concentrations of 108, 109 and 1010 colony forming unit (CFU)/ml and a control group. Fixed dose of 0.1ml was applied to each fish on 1st day and a booster dose at 15 days post-vaccination (DPV). Blood samples were collected on 14, 28, 35, 48 and 60 DPV to determine antibody titers in blood serum using compliment fixation test (CFT). Fish were challenged at 60 DPV with infectious A. hydrophila with 108 CFU/ml through immersion. Significantly higher levels of antibody titers were observed from 28 DPV in all vaccinated groups as compared to those in the control group. In challenge experiment the average RPS (relative percent survivability) was 71% for groups vaccinated with 109 and 1010 CFU/ml and 86% for 108 CFU/ml. Vaccine with 108 CFU/ml induced highest immune response followed by 109 and 1010 CFU/ml. The immune response of L. rohita and C. idella was better than that of C. mrigala. In general, normal histopathology was [...].


Aeromonas hydrophila é uma causa de surtos de doenças infecciosas em espécies de carpas cultivadas em países do sul da Ásia, incluindo o Paquistão. Essa bactéria ganhou resistência a uma ampla gama de antibióticos, e medidas preventivas robustas são necessárias para controlar sua disseminação. Nenhum uso anterior de vacinas para peixes foi relatado no Paquistão. O presente estudo tem como objetivo desenvolver e avaliar vacinas inativadas contra cepa local de A. hydrophila no Paquistão com precipitado de alúmen como adjuvante. O potencial imunogênico da vacina foi avaliado em duas carpas principais indianas (Rohu: Labeo rohita, Mori: Cirrhinus mrigala) e uma carpa chinesa (Grass Carp: Ctenopharyngodon idella). Os peixes foram vacinados por via intraperitoneal, seguido de um desafio por imersão. Peixes com idade média de 4-5 meses foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em três grupos vacinados com três concentrações de vacina de 108, 109 e 1010 unidades formadoras de colônias (UFC) / ml e um grupo de controle. Foi aplicada dose fixa de 0,1ml em cada peixe no 1º dia e dose de reforço 15 dias pós-vacinação (DPV). Amostras de sangue foram coletadas em 14, 28, 35, 48 e 60 DPV para determinar os títulos de anticorpos no soro sanguíneo usando o teste de fixação de elogio (CFT). Os peixes foram desafiados a 60 DPV com infecciosa A. hydrophila com 108 CFU / ml por imersão. Níveis significativamente mais elevados de títulos de anticorpos foram observados em 28 DPV em todos os grupos vacinados, em comparação com aqueles no grupo de controle. Na experiência de desafio, o RPS médio (sobrevivência percentual relativa) foi de 71% para os grupos vacinados com 109 e 1010 CFU / ml e 86% para 108 CFU / ml. A vacina com 108 UFC / ml induziu a maior resposta imune seguida por 109 e 1010 UFC / ml. A resposta imune de L. rohita e C. idella foi melhor do que a de C. mrigala. Em geral, histopatologia normal foi observada em diferentes [...].


Subject(s)
Animals , Aeromonas/pathogenicity , Carps , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/veterinary , Vaccines/analysis , Vaccines/therapeutic use
14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 159-176, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970366

ABSTRACT

Erythrocytes-camouflaged nanoparticles is an in vivo delivery system that uses erythrocytes or erythrocyte membrane nano vesicles as carriers for drugs, enzymes, peptides and antigens. This system has the advantages of good biocompatibility, long circulation cycle and efficient targeting. This review summarizes the type of carriers, their development history, the application of delivery strategies as well as their limitations and future challenges. Lastly, future directions and key issues in the development of this system are discussed.


Subject(s)
Pharmaceutical Preparations , Drug Delivery Systems , Vaccines , Erythrocytes , Nanoparticles
15.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 571-574, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981901

ABSTRACT

The concept of "ntigen"is a relative one. The narrow concept of it condenses the process of activation of adaptive immune response and re-recognition of the same antigen, revealing the protective mechanism of vaccines with great significance for research and development of vaccines. However, the narrow concept involves adaptive immune system members: B cells, T cells and their effector products, which is difficult for beginners to understand the inherent meaning. Meanwhile, antigen classification fully summarizes the immune response process, so a variety of classification approach increases the difficulty in learning. Our teaching team analyzes the difficulties of this chapter in depth, and we implements the strategy that takes antibody structure and function as the breakthrough point and simplified adaptive immune response process as the core in teaching. A mind map that includes the main contents of this chapter is made during the process, which promotes the effectiveness of classroom teaching greatly.


Subject(s)
Learning , Vaccines , Antibodies
16.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 564-570, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981900

ABSTRACT

Helicobacter pylori (Hp) is one of most common pathogens causing gastrointestinal disorder including gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer and gastric cancer, etc. It has been verified as class I carcinogen by WHO. Nowadays, combination antibiotics and proton pump inhibitor are mainly used to erase Hp in clinical application. However, with the increased resistance of Hp, the vaccine against Hp might become the best strategy to eradicate Hp. Elements including urease, virulence factor, outer membrane protein, flagella, play an important role in Hp infection, colonization and reproduction. They have become potential candidate antigens in the development of Hp vaccine, as reported in previous studies. Presently, these antigens-centric vaccines have been tested in animal models. Therefore, this article reviews the studies on Hp vaccine with urease, virulence genes, outer membrane protein and flagella as their candidate antigens, in an attempt to provide insights for research in this regard.


Subject(s)
Animals , Helicobacter pylori , Urease/genetics , Helicobacter Infections/prevention & control , Vaccines , Membrane Proteins
17.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1530571

ABSTRACT

En el Instituto Finlay de Vacunas se desarrolló el candidato vacunal SOBERANA 01 (FINLAY-FR-01) contra el coronavirus de tipo 2 causante del síndrome respiratorio agudo severo. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar la inmunogenicidad y posibles efectos toxicológicos del candidato vacunal SOBERANA 01 (FINLAY-FR-01 en Cercopithecus aethiops. Se utilizaron cinco primates no humanos (hembras), de 1-3 años de edad y 1-4 kg de peso corporal, distribuidos en dos grupos experimentales: Control (Solución Salina Fisiológica) y Tratado SOBERANA 01 (FINLAY-FR-01). El estudio se extendió por 84 días, en un esquema a dosis repetida de cuatro inmunizaciones los días 0, 28, 56 y 70. Se realizaron observaciones clínicas diarias, peso corporal, signos vitales (temperatura rectal, frecuencia respiratoria, y frecuencia cardíaca), exámenes electrocardiográficos, toma de la temperatura del sitio de inyección, musculometría e irritabilidad dérmica. Fueron realizados exámenes de hematología, bioquímica sanguínea, así como estudios inmunológicos. El ensayo concluyó con una supervivencia del 100por ciento, no se manifestaron signos de toxicidad, no hubo variaciones hematológicas, ni de la bioquímica sanguínea asociadas a la sustancia de ensayo. Además, no se observaron efectos locales en el sitio de administración. Por último, el candidato vacunal resultó inmunogénico, ya que se indujeron títulos altos de IgG anti-RBD, así como de la inhibición de la unión de RBD a ACE2(AU)


At Finlay Vaccine Institute has been developed the vaccine candidate SOBERANA 01 (FINLAY-FR-01) against SARS-CoV-2 virus, causing COVID-19. This work aims to evaluate the immunogenicity and possible toxicological effects of the SOBERANA 01 (FINLAY-FR-01) vaccine candidate in Cercopithecus aethiops. Five non-human primates (females) from 1-3 years old and 1-4 kg of body weight were distributed in two experimental groups: Control (Physiological Saline Solution) and Treated (SOBERANA 01 FINLAY-FR-01). The study extended through 84 days, in a repeated dose schedule of four immunizations on days 0, 28, 56, and 70. Daily clinical observations, body weight, vital signs (rectal temperature, respiratory rate, and heart rate), electrocardiographic examinations, temperature of the injection site, musculometry and dermic irritability, were performed. Hematological and blood biochemistry tests, as well as immunological studies were assessed. At the end of the assay 100percent survival was obtained, there were no signs of toxicity neither hematological or blood biochemistry variations associated with the test substance. In addition, no local effects were observed at the administration site. Finally, the vaccine candidate was immunogenic, since high titers of anti-RBD IgG, as well as inhibition of the RBD to ACE2 binding were induced(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Haplorhini , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Vaccines
18.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1530570

ABSTRACT

Bordetella pertussis es un patógeno exclusivo de humanos que causa la tos ferina, enfermedad respiratoria aguda que afecta principalmente a la población pediátrica. Existen dos tipos de vacunas comercializadas contra este patógeno: celulares y acelulares. Las vacunas celulares han sido extensamente utilizadas y siguen teniendo gran relevancia. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo la estandarización de un ELISA para la cuantificación de anticuerpos IgG contra células enteras de Bordetella pertussis. Para ello se determinó la concentración de recubrimiento, el rango lineal de la curva, los parámetros de precisión intra e interensayo, la especificidad, el valor de corte y el límite de detección. Se determinó como concentración de recubrimiento 0,5 UO/mL de células enteras. La curva estándar utilizando un suero de referencia internacional presentó un buen ajuste a una función polinómica en un intervalo entre las diluciones 1/100 y 1/24.300 con un coeficiente de correlación R2≥0,98. Los coeficientes de variación en los ensayos de precisión intra e interensayo estuvieron en los intervalos establecidos para cada uno (≤10 por ciento, ≤20 por ciento respectivamente). Los resultados obtenidos avalan el empleo de este ELISA cuantitativo para la evaluación de la respuesta a células enteras de Bordetella pertussis en ensayos clínicos(AU)


Bordetella pertussis is a pathogen exclusive to humans that causes pertussis, an acute respiratory disease that mainly affects the pediatric population. There are two types of vaccines commercially available against this pathogen: cellular and acellular. Cellular vaccines have been widely used and continue to be of great relevance. The aim of the present work was to standardize an ELISA for the quantification of IgG antibodies against whole cells of Bordetella pertussis. For this purpose, the coating concentration, the linear range of the curve, the intra- and inter-assay precision parameters, the specificity, the cut-off value and the detection limit were determined. The coating concentration was determined as 0.5 UO/mL of whole cells. The standard curve using an international reference serum presented a good fit to a polynomial function in a range between dilutions 1/100 and 1/24,300 with a correlation coefficient R2≥0.98. The coefficients of variation in the intra- and inter-assay precision tests were in the intervals established for each (≤10percent, ≤20percent respectively). The results obtained support the use of this quantitative ELISA for the evaluation of whole-cell response to Bordetella pertussis in clinical trials(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Immunoglobulin G , Whooping Cough/etiology , Bordetella pertussis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Vaccines/therapeutic use , Antibodies
19.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e248295, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1431129

ABSTRACT

Este ensaio propõe que a Covid-19 pode operar como um analisador, dentro da perspectiva da análise institucional, iluminando um determinado modo de organização social que promove profundas desigualdades e ameaça a vida em diversos níveis e revelando as condições sociais, institucionais e políticas de produção de sofrimento no corpo profissional de Enfermagem. A pandemia desvelou um conjunto de marcas relacionadas à profissão, agravadas pela crise sanitária, reforçando a naturalização das relações de cuidado atribuídas ao feminino, bem como um conjunto de clivagens e hierarquias internas à profissão a partir da sinergia de marcadores da diferença, como gênero, cor/raça, classe e geração. Além disso, este trabalho mostra a presença de uma necropolítica nas respostas à pandemia que banaliza a vida e permite morrer determinados grupos sociais. A ideia de "profissionais de linha de frente" é criticada em suas metáforas bélicas, mas tomada como figura de linguagem em sua potência para afirmar que existem corpos que, pelas marcas sociais e históricas e pela interdependência do cuidado, são mais presentes e exigidos e, portanto, mais vulneráveis à doença e ao sofrimento dela decorrente.(AU)


The essay proposes that Covid-19 can operate as an analyzer, within the perspective of institutional analysis, illuminating a certain mode of social organization that promotes profound inequalities and threatens life at various levels, revealing the social, institutional and political conditions for the production of suffering in the professional nursing body. The pandemic would unveil a set of marks related to the profession, aggravated by the sanitary crisis, reinforcing the naturalization of the care relations attributed to the feminine, as well as a set of cleavages and internal hierarchies to the profession from the synergy of markers of difference as gender, color/race, class and generation. The work shows the presence of necropolitics in responses to the pandemic, which trivializes life and allows certain social groups to die. The idea of "front-line professionals" is criticized in its war metaphors, but taken as a figure of speech in its potency to affirm that there are bodies that by social and historical marks, and by the interdependence of care, are more present and demanded, and therefore more vulnerable to disease and the resulting suffering.(AU)


El ensayo propone que el Covid-19 puede funcionar como analizador, desde la perspectiva del análisis institucional, revelando las condiciones sociales, institucionales y políticas de producción de sufrimiento de enfermeras. La pandemia revela algunas marcas relacionadas con la profesión, agravadas por la crisis de salud, reforzando la naturalización de la atribución del cuidado a lo femenino y un conjunto de jerarquías internas de la profesión. El trabajo también muestra la presencia de una necropolítica en las respuestas a la pandemia. La idea de "profesionales de primera línea" es criticada, pero tomada como una figura del lenguaje en su potencia para afirmar que hay cuerpos que, por las marcas sociales e históricas y por la interdependencia del cuidado, están más presentes y demandados, y por lo tanto más vulnerables a la enfermedad.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Nursing , Psychological Distress , Gender Identity , Self-Testing , COVID-19 , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pain , Patient Care Team , Patient Discharge , Patients , Politics , Primary Health Care , Psychology , Quality Assurance, Health Care , Quality of Life , Race Relations , Salaries and Fringe Benefits , Social Change , Social Isolation , Social Sciences , Socioeconomic Factors , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Women, Working , Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms , Population Characteristics , Nursing Theory , Occupational Risks , Burnout, Professional , Virus Diseases , Vaccines , Nursing Research , Accidents, Occupational , Carrier State , Mental Health , Mortality , Models, Nursing , Occupational Health , Workload , Professional Autonomy , Long-Term Care , Health Care Quality, Access, and Evaluation , Immunization Programs , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Continuity of Patient Care , Feminism , Critical Care , Disaster Vulnerability , Health Risk , Access to Information , Delivery of Health Care , Air Pollution , Health Care Economics and Organizations , Emergencies , Employment , Environment and Public Health , Essential Public Health Functions , Health Status Disparities , Ethics, Professional , Surveillance of the Workers Health , Program of Risk Prevention on Working Environment , Air Contamination Effects , Evidence-Based Nursing , Fear , Remuneration , Early Medical Intervention , Medicalization , Ambulatory Care , Personal Protective Equipment , Psychosocial Support Systems , Occupational Stress , Burnout, Psychological , Patient Care , Caregiver Burden , Models, Biopsychosocial , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Gender Equity , Vaccine Development , Community Resources , Intersectional Framework , Systemic Racism , Social Vulnerability , Humanitarian Crisis , Working Conditions , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Accident Prevention , Health Occupations , Health Services , Health Services Accessibility , Helping Behavior , Hierarchy, Social , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humanism , Life Support Care , Masks , Muscle Tonus , Night Care , Nursing Care , Nursing, Practical , Nursing, Team , Occupational Diseases
20.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 60: e210215, 2023. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1518145

ABSTRACT

Both pregnancy and obesity can influence significant changes in the immune system. On this basis, the present study proposes to evaluate the humoral immune response of overweight pregnant mares in response to a commercial vaccine. Thirty pregnant Crioulo mares were separated according to body condition score (BCS) into overweight (BCS≥7/9) or lean-control (BCS= 5-6/9). In each group, the animals were subdivided into vaccinated and controls. The mares were vaccinated against EHV-1 in two doses spaced 21 days apart and had their blood collected monthly, for five months, for antibody evaluation. Both vaccinated groups had an increase in specific neutralizing antibodies after the vaccine. However, after the second dose, there was no increase in antibodies in any of the groups. Vaccinated overweight and lean-control mares did not differ at any time point. Therefore, this study demonstrated that obesity does not influence the humoral immune response in pregnant Crioulo mares.(AU)


Tanto a gestação quanto a obesidade podem influenciar o desenvolvimento de alterações significativas no sistema imune, portanto, o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a resposta imune humoral de éguas gestantes com sobrepeso em resposta a uma vacina comercial. Trinta éguas Crioulas gestantes foram separadas de acordo com o escore de condição corporal (ECC) em éguas com sobrepeso (ECC≥7/9) e éguas controles (ECC=5-6/9) e, ainda, em cada grupo, os animais também foram separados em vacinados e controles. As éguas foram vacinadas contra o EHV-1 em duas doses com intervalo de 21 dias, sendo realizadas coletas de sangue mensalmente durante cinco meses para avaliação de anticorpos neutralizantes. Ambos os grupos vacinados tiveram aumento de anticorpos neutralizantes específicos após a vacina, porém, após a segunda dose, não foi observado aumento de anticorpos em nenhum dos grupos. Nenhuma diferença foi observada entre éguas vacinadas com sobrepeso e as éguas controles em nenhum momento. Assim, este estudo demonstrou que a obesidade não é um fator que influencia a resposta imune humoral de éguas Crioulas gestantes.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Vaccines/pharmacology , Immunity, Humoral/physiology , Horses/immunology , Pregnancy, Animal/physiology , Herpesvirus 1, Equid/pathogenicity , Overweight/veterinary
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