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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(6): 1687-1697, dic. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528806

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: In response to the threat posed by new variants of SARS-CoV-2 and the urgent need for effective treatments in the absence of vaccines, the aim of this study was to develop a rapid and cost-effective hyperimmune serum (HS) derived from sheep and assess its efficacy. The utilization of a halal-certified, easily maintained in certain geographic regions, easy-to-handle animal such as sheep could provide a viable alternative to the expensive option of horses. Sheep were immunized with a whole inactivated SARS-CoV- 2 antigen to produce HS, which was evaluated for neutralizing potency using the PRNT50 assay. K18-hACE2 transgenic mice (n=35) were divided into three groups: control, SARS-CoV-2 exposure through inhalation, and SARS-CoV-2 exposed mice treated with HS. HS efficacy was assessed through serum proinflammatory cytokine levels, qRT-PCR analysis, histopathological examination of lungs and hearts, and transmission electron microscopy. Purified HS exhibited significant neutralizing activity (1/24,576). The SARS-CoV-2+HS group showed lower levels of TNF-α, IL-10, and IL-6 (P<0.01) and relatively lower levels of MCP-1 compared to the SARS-CoV-2 group. HS prevented death, reduced viral RNA levels in the lungs and hearts, protected against severe interstitial pneumonia, preserved lung tissue integrity, and prevented myocyte damage, while the SARS-CoV-2 group exhibited viral presence in the lungs. This study successfully developed a sheep-derived HS against the entire SARS-CoV-2 virus, resulting in a significant reduction in infection severity, inflammation, and systemic cytokine production. The findings hold promise for treating severe COVID-19 cases, including emerging viral variants, and immunocompromised patients.


En respuesta a la amenaza que suponen las nuevas variantes del SARS-CoV-2 y la urgente necesidad de tratamientos eficaces en ausencia de vacunas, el objetivo de este estudio fue desarrollar un suero hiperinmune (HS) rápido y rentable derivado de ovejas. y evaluar su eficacia. La utilización de un animal con certificación halal, de fácil mantenimiento en determinadas regiones geográficas y de fácil manejo, como las ovejas, podría proporcionar una alternativa viable a la costosa opción de los caballos. Las ovejas fueron inmunizadas con un antígeno de SARS-CoV-2 completamente inactivado para producir HS, cuya potencia neutralizante se evaluó mediante el ensayo PRNT50. Los ratones transgénicos K18-hACE2 (n = 35) se dividieron en tres grupos: control, exposición al SARS-CoV-2 mediante inhalación y ratones expuestos al SARS-CoV-2 tratados con HS. La eficacia de HS se evaluó mediante niveles de citoquinas proinflamatorias en suero, análisis qRT-PCR, examen histopatológico de pulmones y corazones y microscopía electrónica de transmisión. El HS purificado exhibió una actividad neutralizante significativa (1/24,576). El grupo SARS-CoV-2+HS mostró niveles más bajos de TNF-α, IL-10 e IL-6 (P<0,01) y niveles relativamente más bajos de MCP-1 en comparación con el grupo SARS-CoV-2. HS evitó la muerte, redujo los niveles de ARN viral en los pulmones y el corazón, protegió contra la neumonía intersticial grave, preservó la integridad del tejido pulmonar y evitó el daño de los miocitos, mientras que el grupo SARS-CoV-2 exhibió presencia viral en los pulmones. Este estudio desarrolló con éxito un HS derivado de ovejas contra todo el virus SARS-CoV-2, lo que resultó en una reducción significativa de la gravedad de la infección, la inflamación y la producción sistémica de citocinas. Los hallazgos son prometedores para el tratamiento de casos graves de COVID- 19, incluidas las variantes virales emergentes y los pacientes inmunocomprometidos.


Subject(s)
Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Immune Sera/administration & dosage , Respiratory System/drug effects , Respiratory System/ultrastructure , Sheep , Vaccines, Inactivated , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Flow Cytometry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Heart/drug effects , Horses , Immunotherapy/methods , Multiple Organ Failure/prevention & control , Myocardium/ultrastructure
2.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 16(4): 130-133, 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1512179

ABSTRACT

La tiroiditis subaguda (TSA) es un trastorno inflamatorio autolimitado de la glándula tiroides. Es más común en mujeres y se caracteriza por dolor cervical, síntomas inflamatorios sistémicos y disfunción tiroidea. La TSA se ha asociado a una infección viral previa, generalmente respiratoria o enteral. Múltiples virus se han relacionado con TSA. Desde mayo de 2020 se reportaron casos de TSA relacionados con la infección por SARS-CoV-2. Describimos 3 casos de SAT después de la vacuna COVID-19. Dos casos fueron inoculados con vacuna SARS-CoV-2 inactivada (CoronaVac) y uno con vacuna de ARNm Pfizer-BioNTech. Los síntomas clínicos comenzaron pocas semanas después de la inoculación. Presentaron dolor cervical anterior, fiebre, astenia y tirotoxicosis transitoria. En todos los casos la evolución fue favorable. Hasta donde sabemos, estos son los primeros casos de SAT posteriores a la vacuna COVID-19 descritos en Chile.


Subacute thyroiditis (SAT) is a self-limited inflammatory disorder of the thyroid gland. The disease is more common in women and is characterized by neck pain, systemic symptoms, and thyroid dysfunction. SAT It has been associated with viral, respiratory or enteral infection. Multiple viruses had been related to SAT. Since May 2020, cases of SAT related to SARS-CoV-2 infection were reported. We describe 3 cases of SAT following COVID-19 vaccine. Two cases were inoculated with inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (CoronaVac) and one with mRNA vaccine Pfizer­BioNTech. The clinical symptoms began few weeks after inoculation. They presented with neck pain, fever, general malaise and transient thyrotoxicosis. All cases revered spontaneously. To our knowledge, these are the first cases of SAT following COVID-19 vaccine described in Chile.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Thyroiditis, Subacute/chemically induced , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects
3.
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1442250

ABSTRACT

The present work aims to establish a new alternative protocol to evaluate in vitro potency of inactivated Newcastle disease virus vaccine using Real Time PCR. Aqueous phases of seven inactivated Newcastle disease virus vaccines batches of different manufacturers were extracted by isopropyl myristate. The Newcastle disease virus antigen of each vaccine sample was determined by a standard Real Time PCR assay. Vaccines were inoculated into separate groups of 3-week-old specific pathogen free chickens using the recommended dose of vaccine. The immunogenicity was assessed for each vaccine by the Newcastle disease virus hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers. Individual serum samples were collected 4 weeks post vaccination, then vaccine efficacy and protection rates were recorded after challenge test of birds vaccinated with the virulent Newcastle disease virus. There is the possibility of using the Real Time PCR as an in vitro assay for vaccine evaluation. The Cycle Threshold values were ranged between 21.17 and 25.23. On the other hand, the hemagglutination inhibition titers ranged between 7.1 log2 to 6.2. The comparison between the Cycle Threshold values of the antigen extracts and the corresponding results of challenge test and in vivo hemagglutination inhibition assays using sera of vaccinated birds proved a strong correspondence between the in vitro and in vivo results(AU)


El presente trabajo pretende establecer un nuevo protocolo alternativo para la evaluación in vitro de la potencia de la vacuna de virus inactivado contra la enfermedad de Newcastle mediante PCR en tiempo real. Las fases acuosas de siete lotes de vacunas inactivadas contra el virus de la enfermedad de Newcastle de distintos fabricantes se extrajeron mediante miristato de isopropilo. El antígeno del virus de la enfermedad de Newcastle de cada muestra de vacuna se determinó mediante un ensayo estándar de PCR en tiempo real. Las vacunas se inocularon en grupos separados de pollos libres de patógenos específicos de 3 semanas de edad utilizando la dosis recomendada de vacuna. La inmunogenicidad se evaluó para cada vacuna mediante los títulos de anticuerpos de inhibición de la hemaglutinación del virus de la enfermedad de Newcastle. Se recogieron muestras individuales de suero 4 semanas después de la vacunación y, a continuación, se registraron la eficacia de la vacuna y los índices de protección tras la prueba de reto de las aves vacunadas con el virus virulento de la enfermedad de Newcastle. Existe la posibilidad de utilizar la PCR en tiempo real como ensayo in vitro para la evaluación de vacunas. Los valores del umbral de ciclo oscilaron entre 21,17 y 25,23. Por otra parte, los títulos de anticuerpos inhibidores de la hemaglutinación oscilaron entre 7,1 log2 y 6,2. La comparación entre los valores del umbral de ciclo de los extractos de antígeno con los resultados correspondientes de la prueba de reto y los ensayos de inhibición de la hemaglutinación in vivo, utilizando sueros de aves vacunadas, demostró una fuerte correspondencia entre los resultados in vitro e in vivo(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Vaccines, Inactivated , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Newcastle Disease/epidemiology
4.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 16(1): 17-19, 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1442333

ABSTRACT

Luego del inicio de las campañas de vacunación masiva contra la infección por COVID-19, se han publicado una serie de reportes que muestran la posible asociación entre la vacuna y alteraciones de la función tiroidea. Desde entonces, múltiples teorías han intentado explicar este hallazgo, en su mayoría de índole autoinmune. Dentro de estas destaca el síndrome autoinmune-autoinflamatorio secundario a adyuvantes (ASIA), que podría generar desórdenes tiroideos de novo o exacerbar los ya existentes. Presentamos dos casos de enfermedad de Graves Basedow posterior al uso de Coronavac. Ambas pacientes presentaron características similares a las descritas en la literatura y cumplen con los criterios de ASIA. No obstante, los beneficios de las vacunas superan los posibles riesgos asociados.


After the beginning of COVID-19 vaccination campaigns, a number of reports have shown the potential association between vaccines and thyroid disfunction. Since then several theories have tried to explain this finding, mostly autoinmmune. One of them is the autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants, that could trigger or exacerbate thyroid disease. We present two cases of Graves' disease post Coronavac vaccination. Both pacients share similar features than cases published previously and meet criteria for ASIA syndrome. Nevertheless, the benefts of vaccination largely outweigh any adverse events associated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Autoimmune Diseases/etiology , Graves Disease/etiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects , Adjuvants, Immunologic/adverse effects
5.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 561-567, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985527

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the vaccination status of enterovirus type 71 (EV71) inactivated vaccines in China from 2017 to 2021 and provide evidence for making policy on immunization strategy against hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Methods: Using the reported dose number of EV71 vaccination and birth cohort population data collected by the China immunizaiton program information system to estimate the cumulative coverage of EV71 vaccine by the end of 2021 among the birth cohorts since 2012 at national, provincial, and prefecture levels, and analyze the correlation between the vaccination coverage and the potential influencing factors. Results: As of 2021, the estimated cumulative vaccination coverage of the EV71 vaccine was 24.96% in birth cohorts since 2012. The cumulative vaccination coverage was between 3.09% and 56.59% in different provinces, between 0 and 88.17% in different prefectures. There was a statistically significant correlation between vaccination coverage in different regions and the region's previous HFMD prevalence and disposable income per capita. Conclusions: Since 2017, the EV71 vaccines have been widely used nationwide, but the coverage of EV71 vaccination varies greatly among regions. Vaccination coverage is higher in relatively developed regions, and the intensity of previous epidemic of HFMD may have a certain impact on the acceptance of the vaccine and the pattern of immunization service. The impact of EV71 vaccination on the epidemic of HFMD requires further studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Enterovirus A, Human , Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease/prevention & control , Vaccines, Inactivated , Viral Vaccines , Enterovirus , Vaccination , China/epidemiology
6.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 281-285, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969879

ABSTRACT

Seasonal influenza has a high disease burden, and children infected with influenza are prone to multiple complications. Influenza vaccination is effective in preventing infection and reducing risks of severe diseases and complications. Influenza vaccines are trivalent and quadrivalent, depending on the components of the vaccine. According to the hemagglutinin content, it can be divided into full dose and half dose of influenza vaccine for children. The findings from clinical trials and real-world studies suggested, the full-dose influenza vaccine as in adults has the same safety profile and higher immunogenicity in children aged 6 to 35 months. The application of full-dose influenza vaccine in children aged 6 to 35 months can greatly improve the flexibility and convenience of vaccination, and help reduce the workload in the process.


Subject(s)
Child , Adult , Infant , Humans , Child, Preschool , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated , Antibodies, Viral
7.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 554-560, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935324

ABSTRACT

Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus is the leading cause of vaccine-preventable encephalitis in Asia and the Western Pacific, which mainly invades central nervous system. Vaccination is the most important strategy to prevent JE. Currently, both live attenuated Japanese encephalitis vaccines (JE-L) and inactivated vaccines (JE-I) are in use. Due to the supply of vaccines and the personal choice of recipients, there will be a demand for interchangeable immunization of these two vaccines. However, relevant research is limited. By reviewing domestic and foreign research evidence, this article summarizes the current situation of the interchangeable use of JE-L and JE-I, and makes recommendations when the interchangeable immunization is in urgent need, so as to provide reference for practical vaccination and policymaking in China.


Subject(s)
Humans , Encephalitis Virus, Japanese , Encephalitis, Japanese/prevention & control , Immunization , Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated
8.
Med. infant ; 28(2): 181-193, Julio - Diciembre 2021. ilus, Tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1358853
9.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1289-1298, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878153

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The significant morbidity and mortality resulted from the infection of a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) call for urgent development of effective and safe vaccines. We report the immunogenicity and safety of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, KCONVAC, in healthy adults.@*METHODS@#Phase 1 and phase 2 randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trials of KCONVAC were conducted in healthy Chinese adults aged 18 to 59 years. The participants in the phase 1 trial were randomized to receive two doses, one each on Days 0 and 14, of either KCONVAC (5 or 10 μg/dose) or placebo. The participants in the phase 2 trial were randomized to receive either KCONVAC (at 5 or 10 μg/dose) or placebo on Days 0 and 14 (0/14 regimen) or Days 0 and 28 (0/28 regimen). In the phase 1 trial, the primary safety endpoint was the proportion of participants experiencing adverse reactions/events within 28 days following the administration of each dose. In the phase 2 trial, the primary immunogenicity endpoints were neutralization antibody seroconversion and titer and anti-receptor-binding domain immunoglobulin G seroconversion at 28 days after the second dose.@*RESULTS@#In the phase 1 trial, 60 participants were enrolled and received at least one dose of 5-μg vaccine (n = 24), 10-μg vaccine (n = 24), or placebo (n = 12). In the phase 2 trial, 500 participants were enrolled and received at least one dose of 5-μg vaccine (n = 100 for 0/14 or 0/28 regimens), 10-μg vaccine (n = 100 for each regimen), or placebo (n = 50 for each regimen). In the phase 1 trial, 13 (54%), 11 (46%), and seven (7/12) participants reported at least one adverse event (AE) after receiving 5-, 10-μg vaccine, or placebo, respectively. In the phase 2 trial, 16 (16%), 19 (19%), and nine (18%) 0/14-regimen participants reported at least one AE after receiving 5-, 10-μg vaccine, or placebo, respectively. Similar AE incidences were observed in the three 0/28-regimen treatment groups. No AEs with an intensity of grade 3+ were reported, expect for one vaccine-unrelated serious AE (foot fracture) reported in the phase 1 trial. KCONVAC induced significant antibody responses; 0/28 regimen showed a higher immune responses than that did 0/14 regimen after receiving two vaccine doses.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Both doses of KCONVAC are well tolerated and able to induce robust immune responses in healthy adults. These results support testing 5-μg vaccine in the 0/28 regimen in an upcoming phase 3 efficacy trial.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#http://www.chictr.org.cn/index.aspx (No. ChiCTR2000038804, http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=62350; No. ChiCTR2000039462, http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=63353).


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Double-Blind Method , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects
11.
Vaccimonitor (La Habana, Print) ; 29(3)sept.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | CUMED, LILACS | ID: biblio-1139852

ABSTRACT

La vacunación continúa siendo una de las vías más sostenibles y utilizadas en el control de enfermedades infectocontagiosas en medicina veterinaria, dado por su mayor factibilidad económica y por el problema que representa el residuo de antibióticos en productos animales de consumo humano. El surgimiento de vacunas de nuevas generaciones ha motivado la instrumentación de medidas de bioseguridad y la necesidad de realizar estudios de evaluaciones de los riesgos que acometemos en la obtención y producción de vacunas, existiendo puntos críticos importantes en el proceso de obtención de las mismas. El área de vacunas inactivadas que se encuentra ubicada en la Empresa Productora de Vacunas Virales y Bacterianas UP-7, perteneciente al grupo empresarial LABIOFAM de La Habana, Cuba, se encarga de la producción y control de la calidad de las vacunas y los medios diagnósticos. Las inspecciones previas realizadas a dicha área mostraron, en el personal involucrado, desconocimiento y baja percepción del riesgo biológico existente en los procesos productivos que allí se llevan a cabo, lo que sugirió la realización de la presente investigación. Se identificaron y caracterizaron los peligros y se realizó una evaluación del riesgo, utilizando una matriz de estimación del riesgo; mediante un método cualitativo de posibilidad de ocurrencia del peligro y se evaluó de bajo, moderado o alto. Se identificaron las vulnerabilidades presentes empleando para ello una lista de chequeo, detectándose, entre otras, aquellas relacionadas con el diseño del área, con el tratamiento de los desechos y la organización de la bioseguridad, lo que confirmó puntos críticos dentro del proceso productivo con riesgo alto y moderado(AU)


Vaccination continues being one of the most sustainable and used ways in the control of infectious and contagious diseases in veterinary medicine because of both its greater economic feasibility and thwarting animal products from having antibiotics residues, a big-time issue for human ingestion. The appearance of new generation vaccines has motivated the application of biosafety measures and the need to carry out studies of risk assessments that we undertake to obtaining and producing vaccines, being important critical points in the process of acquiring them. The inactivated vaccines' area is located in the UP-7 Viral and Bacterial Vaccine Production Company, belonging to LABIOFAM business group in Havana, Cuba; this area is responsible for vaccines, diagnostic means production and quality control. Previous checkups carried out showed that the personnel involved had lack of knowledge and low perception of the existing biological risk in the productive processes carried out there; leading to suggest the investigation. Hazards were identified and characterized and a risk assessment was carried out, using a qualitative estimate risk matrix. Such hazards were assessed as low, moderate or high. Vulnerabilities were identified using a checklist to this purpose, detecting those related to area design, treatment of waste and the biosafety organization, which established the existence of critical points within the production process with high and moderate risk(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Risk Management/organization & administration , Occupational Risks , Containment of Biohazards , Vaccines , Vaccines, Inactivated , Cuba
12.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 31(3/4): 256-269, mayo.-ago. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223737

ABSTRACT

Las vacunas son altamente efectivas en prevenir enfermedades infecciosas a través del desarrollo en el individuo de una respuesta inmune protectora, sin desarrollar la enfermedad. Los distintos tipos de vacunas producen diferentes tipos de respuestas inmunes y variadas estrategias se han desarrollado para mejorar esta respuesta. El sistema inmune sufre cambios con la edad y esta inmunosenecencia altera la capacidad de responder frente a ellas. Por otro lado, si bien el sistema inmune puede reconocer elementos presentes en las vacunas y montar respuestas de hipersensibilidad ante ellos, las alergias a las vacunas son raras, teniendo que distinguirlas adecuadamente de otro tipo de reacciones. En caso que un paciente presente una reacción compatible con alergia, es importante conocer todos los componentes de la vacuna para realizar un estudio adecuado.


Vaccines are highly effective in preventing infectious diseases through the development in the individual a protective immune response, without developing the disease. Different types of vaccines produce different types of immune responses, and varied strategies have been developed to improve this response. The immune system undergoes changes with age, and this inmunosenescence alters the ability to respond to them. On the other hand, although the immune system can recognize elements present in vaccines and establish hypersensitivity responses to them, vaccine allergies are rare, having to properly distinguish them from other types of reactions. In the event that a patient has an allergy-compatible reaction, it is important to know all the components of the vaccine to conduct a proper study.


Subject(s)
Humans , Vaccines/adverse effects , Vaccines/immunology , Immunization/adverse effects , Hypersensitivity/immunology , Immunity/immunology , Vaccines, Attenuated/adverse effects , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Immunosenescence , Anaphylaxis/immunology , Antigens/immunology
13.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 31(3/4): 304-316, mayo.-ago. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223757

ABSTRACT

Los pacientes inmunosuprimidos presentan un riesgo mayor de infecciones, debido a sus disfunciones inmunes, producto de la actividad de su enfermedad y la terapia inmunosupresora. El uso de vacunas disminuye este riesgo, otorgando protección directa e indirecta, a través de la vacunación del paciente y sus contactos. Las vacunas inactivadas han demostrado un perfil de seguridad adecuado en estos pacientes, por lo que no están contraindicadas, aunque su respuesta inmune puede ser inadecuada. Las vacunas vivas atenuadas, formalmente contraindicadas, poseen una información creciente que permite evaluar su riesgo/beneficio de manera individual. Por este motivo es necesario procurar mantener el calendario de vacunas actualizado y complementado, evitando el retraso en esquemas de vacunación y poniéndolo al día lo antes posible, con estrategias basadas en el individuo. Para llevar a cabo esto, se debe conocer y considerar los intervalos entre las vacunas, los esquemas acelerados, la solicitud de vacunas especiales, las aprobaciones vigentes y, finalmente, sus contraindicaciones.


Immunecompromised patients are at higher risk of infections due to their immune dysfunction caused by ongoing disease processes and immunosuppressive therapy. Patient vaccination or vaccination of the people in contact with patients diminishes their risk of infection. Although the immune response of immunocompromised patients might be impaired, the use of inactivated vaccines is safe and it is not contraindicated in these patients. Formerly, live attenuated vaccines were contraindicated in immunecompromised patients, but recently more data supports their use when evaluating case by case the risks and benefits of their application. Thus, it is important to keep and up-to-date, taylor-based and enhanced vaccination schedule in these cases. For this, specialists need to be informed about the availability of regular and special vaccines, their current approvals, vaccine administration protocols under specific situations and vaccine contraindications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Immunosuppression Therapy , Immunocompromised Host , Vaccines, Attenuated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Immunization Schedule , Vaccines, Live, Unattenuated/administration & dosage
14.
Vaccimonitor (La Habana, Print) ; 29(2)mayo.-ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1127512

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Spirulina platensis (SP) powder supplementation on immune response in SPF chickens. For this purpose, 120 SPF chicks were randomly clustered into six groups consisting of 20 birds each which assigned to five groups vaccinated by commercial inactivated Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine at 21 days of age. The four groups were supplemented with 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 g of SP per kg of ration at 7 day of age and other group as control treatment group. Control unvaccinated group still without any treatment. Individual blood samples were collected weekly from all groups, and NDV-HI antibodies were measured using Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. After 28 days post-vaccination, ten birds from all groups were challenged intramuscularly at a dose 0.5 mL/bird containing 106 EID50 of local NDV genotype VII. Challenge virus shedding was detected using real time qrt-PCR of oropharyngeal swabs that were collected from all challenged chicken groups of at 3, 5, 7 and 10 days post challenge. Obtained results showed that vaccinated groups of SPF-chickens either supplied with Spirulina or control treatment group induced positive serological response as NDV-HI antibody were measured in sera of immunized chicks (7.6, 8, 8.3, 8.9 and 7.4 log2, respectively) at 4 weeks post vaccination (WPV). Significant differences were observed at 2 WPV in the vaccinated SPF chickens consumed 1, 1.5 and 2 g of SP/kg of ration, compared to untreated vaccinated group (p<0.05). Immunized SPF chickens supplied with different SP concentration confer satisfactory protection against heterologous challenge virus (90 percent, 100 percent, 100 percent and 100 percent respectively), in contrast to untreated vaccinated chickens. Different percentages of reduction of viral shedding (55 percent, 65 percent, 76 percent and 87 percent) of treated vaccinated chickens with different concentration of SP were detected, despite untreated group were reduced 46 percent from total viral shedding. These findings suggest that dietary Spirulina has immune-stimulatory effects on the immune system of SPF chickens. One gram from SP per kg of ration was minimum recommended concentration that able to exhibit optimum immune response, increase protection against heterologous strains and able to reduce viral shedding(AU)


El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar los efectos de la suplementación con polvo de Spirulina platensis (SP) sobre la respuesta inmune en pollos SPF. Para este propósito se agruparon al azar 120 polluelos SPF en seis grupos de 20 aves cada uno, que se asignaron a cinco grupos vacunados con la vacuna comercial inactivada contra la enfermedad de Newcastle (ND) a los 21 días de edad. Cuatro grupos se suplementaron con 0,5; 1; 1,5 y 2 g de SP por kg de ración a los 7 días de edad, un grupo vacunado sin suplemento y un grupo sin ningún tratamiento. Semanalmente, se recogieron muestras de sangre individuales de todos los grupos y se midieron los anticuerpos hemaglutinantes contra el virus Newcastle (NDV-HI) mediante la prueba de inhibición de la hemaglutinación (HI). 28 días después de la vacunación, fueron retadas diez aves de cada grupo por vía intramuscular a una dosis 106 EID50 del genotipo VII del NDV local en un volumen de 0,5 mL/ave. Se detectó la eliminación del virus mediante qrt-PCR en hisopos orofaríngeos que se recolectaron en todos los grupos a los 3, 5, 7 y 10 días después del reto. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que los grupos vacunados de pollos y suplementados con Espirulina y el grupo de control vacunado, indujeron una respuesta serológica positiva cuando se determinaron los anticuerpos NDV-HI en los pollitos inmunizados (7,6; 8; 8,3; 8,9 y 7,4 log2 respectivamente) a las 4 semanas después de la vacunación (SPV). Se observaron diferencias significativas a las 2 SPV en los pollos vacunados que consumieron 1, 1,5 y 2 g de SP/kg de ración, en comparación con el grupo vacunado no tratado (p<0,05). Los pollos inmunizados que recibieron diferentes concentraciones de SP mostraron una protección satisfactoria contra el desafío heterólogo viral (90 por ciento, 100 por ciento y 100 por ciento respectivamente), en contraste con los pollos vacunados no tratados. Se observaron diferentes porcentajes de reducción de la diseminación viral (55 por ciento, 76 por ciento y 87 por ciento) entre los pollos vacunados tratados con diferente concentración de SP. En el grupo no tratado se redujo al 46 por ciento. Estos hallazgos sugieren que la Espirulina en la dieta tiene efectos inmunoestimuladores sobre el sistema inmunitario de los pollos. Un gramo de SP por kg de ración fue la concentración mínima recomendada para una respuesta inmune óptima, y de esta forma aumentar la protección contra las cepas heterólogas y disminuir la diseminación viral(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Newcastle disease virus/pathogenicity , Vaccines, Inactivated , Chickens , Spirulina , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Newcastle Disease/diagnosis , Birds
15.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 655-663, May-June, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1128611

ABSTRACT

This study was designed to evaluate the extent of the protection for bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 (BVDV-2) infection, afforded by vaccination with a combo inactivated vaccine, which contains bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 (BVDV-1) and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV). Five 3-4-month-old calves were intramuscularly vaccinated with a single dose of the combo vaccine and boosted with same dose three weeks after the first vaccination, with five mock immunized calves serving as a control group. Twenty-one days after the second vaccination, all calves were challenged with BVDV-2 SX08 strain by spray into nostril. The unvaccinated animals developed typical clinical signs of high rectal temperature, diarrhoea with erosions and a dramatic drop in leukocyte counts. These signs occured markedly less in all vaccinated animals, the rectal temperature, leukopenia and virarmia of which, were significantly less than the mock immunized calves. It can be concluded that vaccination with the combo inactivated vaccine affords cross-protection against clinical effects of a challenge-infection with BVDV-2 SX08 strain, although it was part protection.(AU)


Este estudo foi desenvolvido para avaliar a extensão da proteção contra a infecção pelo vírus da diarréia viral bovina tipo 2 (BVDV-2) através da vacinação com uma vacina combinada inativada contendo o vírus da diarréia viral bovina tipo 1 (BVDV-1) e vírus da rinotraqueíte de bovinos infecciosos (IBRV). Cinco bezerros com 3 a 4 meses de idade foram vacinados via intramuscular com uma dose única da vacina combinada e reforçados com a mesma dose três semanas após a primeira vacinação, com cinco bezerros imunizados em simulação servindo como grupo controle. Vinte e um dias após a segunda vacinação, todos os bezerros foram desafiados com a cepa BVDV-2 SX08 por spray na narina. Os animais não vacinados desenvolveram sinais clínicos típicos, como alta temperatura retal, diarréia com erosões e queda drástica na contagem de leucócitos. Estes sinais tiveram ocorrência significativamente menor em todos os animais vacinados, cuja temperatura retal, leucopenia e virarmia eram significativamente menores do que os bezerros simulados. É possível concluir que a vacinação com a vacina combinada inativada proporciona proteção cruzada contra os efeitos clínicos de uma infecção provocada pela cepa BVDV-2 SX08, embora tenha sido parcialmente protegida.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Vaccination , Vaccines, Combined/analysis , Diarrhea Virus 1, Bovine Viral/immunology , Diarrhea Virus 2, Bovine Viral/immunology , Cross Protection , Vaccines, Inactivated , Leukocyte Count
16.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1378-1385, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826839

ABSTRACT

Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is zoonotic pathogen that can cause listeriosis, and vaccine is one of the effective methods to prevent this pathogen infection. In this study, we developed a novel vaccine that is a mixture of inactivated bacteria and Montanide™ ISA 61 VG, a mineral oil adjuvant, and evaluated the safety and immune response characteristics of this vaccine. The mice immunized with the ISA 61 VG adjuvant had high safety, and it could induce significantly higher titer of anti-listeriolysin O (LLO) antibody and higher value of IgG2a/IgG1 ratio compared with the group without the adjuvant. In particular, it could provide 100% immune protection against lethal doses of Lm challenge in mice. In summary, ISA 61VG adjuvant significantly enhanced the ability of inactivated listeria vaccine to induce humoral and cellular immune responses, thereby enhanced the protective immune response in the host, and it is a potential vaccine candidate for the prevention of Lm infection in humans and animals.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Pharmacology , Hemolysin Proteins , Allergy and Immunology , Pharmacology , Immunity, Cellular , Listeria monocytogenes , Allergy and Immunology , Listeriosis , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Vaccines, Inactivated , Allergy and Immunology
17.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 27-27, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826305

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Adjuvants used in inactivated vaccines often upregulate type 2 immunity, which is dominant in allergic diseases. We hypothesised that cumulative adjuvant exposure in infancy may influence the development of allergies later in life by changing the balance of type 1/type 2 immunity. We examined the relationship between immunisation with different vaccine types and later allergic disease development.@*METHODS@#We obtained information regarding vaccinations and allergic diseases through questionnaires that were used in The Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS), which is a nationwide, multicentre, prospective birth cohort study that included 103,099 pregnant women and their children. We examined potential associations between the initial vaccination before 6 months of age and symptoms related to allergies at 12 months of age.@*RESULTS@#Our statistical analyses included 56,277 children. Physician-diagnosed asthma was associated with receiving three (aOR 1.395, 95% CI 1.028-1.893) or four to five different inactivated vaccines (aOR 1.544, 95% CI 1.149-2.075), compared with children who received only one inactivated vaccine. Similar results were found for two questionnaire-based symptoms, i.e. wheeze (aOR 1.238, 95% CI 1.094-1.401; three vaccines vs. a single vaccine) and eczema (aOR 1.144, 95% CI 1.007-1.299; four or five vaccines vs. a single vaccine).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Our results, which should be cautiously interpreted, suggest that the prevalence of asthma, wheeze and eczema among children at 12 months of age might be related to the amount of inactivated vaccine exposure before 6 months of age. Future work should assess if this association is due to cumulative adjuvant exposure. Despite this possible association, we strongly support the global vaccination strategy and recommend that immunisations continue.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#UMIN000030786 .


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Asthma , Epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Dermatitis, Atopic , Epidemiology , Food Hypersensitivity , Epidemiology , Hypersensitivity , Epidemiology , Japan , Vaccines, Inactivated , Viral Vaccines
18.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2019. xxi, 150 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1026458

ABSTRACT

A vacina de febre amarela atenuada é uma das mais bem-sucedidas já desenvolvidas. Entretanto, restrições de administração para pacientes imunodeprimidos e raros eventos adversos associados são desvantagens que motivam o desenvolvimento de vacinas mais seguras. À medida que aumenta a segurança, a imunogenicidade diminui na ausência de replicação viral. Nesse contexto, adjuvantes são elementos chave na ativação da imunidade inata para modulação das respostas adaptativas e proteção. Adjuvantes de diferentes naturezas e mecanismos de ação têm sido estudados: imunoestimuladores como agonistas de TLR, carreadores de antígenos e agentes de efeito depósito. Nesse estudo pretendemos identificar adjuvantes promissores para o desenvolvimento de novos candidatos vacinais para febre amarela. Para isso, camundongos C57BL/6 foram imunizados com diferentes formulações de antígenos modelo (vírus inativado e proteínas de envelope recombinantes produzidas em diferentes sistemas de expressão) com os adjuvantes: Al(OH)3; Addavax (emulsão baseada em esqualeno); combinações de Al(OH)3 e Flagelina FliC (agonista de TLR5); e CAF01 (nanopartícula) em esquema de 2 doses (D0 e D28) ou 3 doses (D0, D14 e D28). Após a imunização, os camundongos foram desafiados com inóculo letal do vírus de febre amarela por via intracerebral para determinar as taxas de sobrevivência. Os soros foram analisados por ELISA e PRNT50 para detecção dos títulos de IgG total e anticorpos neutralizantes


O vírus FA17DD inativado apresentou o melhor desempenho como antígeno modelo, sendo capaz de induzir 100% de proteção ao desafio após imunização com 2 doses na formulação com o adjuvante Addavax e 70% de proteção na formulação com hidróxido de alumínio. Os demais adjuvantes avaliados (Al(OH)3/ Flagelina FliC e CAF01) não foram capazes de gerar incremento de proteção com os antígenos avaliados. As formulações experimentais com melhor desempenho (FA17DD inativado/Addavax e FA17DD inativado/Al(OH3) foram avaliadas em um segundo ensaio para melhor caracterização das respostas imunológicas envolvidas na proteção. Ambas foram capazes de induzir apenas níveis basais de anticorpos neutralizantes; porém altos títulos de IgG para o vírus da febre amarela com predomínio do subtipo IgG1. A caracterização das respostas celulares locais (ELISpot citocinas e células B) no sítio de inoculação nos tempos pré e pós-desafio revelou níveis superiores de IFNγ nos animais sobreviventes. Após o desafio, todos os animais sobreviventes apresentaram altos títulos de anticorpos neutralizante e IgG total, com incremento do subtipo IgG2a. O uso de Addavax como adjuvante para vacinas não vivas para febre amarela surge como uma alternativa promissora de induzir proteção com menor número de doses. A aplicação do modelo de desafio murino para febre amarela na avaliação de novos adjuvantes se mostrou uma abordagem promissora para a avaliação de novos adjuvantes para uso neste modelo, bem como na geração de conhecimentos extrapoláveis para outros candidatos vacinais em desenvolvimento. (AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Biological Assay , Recombinant Proteins , Vaccines, Inactivated , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Yellow Fever Vaccine
19.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(1): 63-70, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839185

ABSTRACT

Abstract The World Health Organization influenza forecast now includes an influenza B strain from each of the influenza B lineages (B/Yamagata and B/Victoria) for inclusion in seasonal influenza vaccines. Traditional trivalent influenza vaccines include an influenza B strain from one lineage, but because two influenza B lineages frequently co-circulate, the effectiveness of trivalent vaccines may be reduced in seasons of influenza B vaccine-mismatch. Thus, quadrivalent vaccines may potentially reduce the burden of influenza compared with trivalent vaccines.In this Phase III, open-label study, we assessed the immunogenicity and safety of Southern Hemisphere inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine (Fluarix™ Tetra) in Brazilian adults (NCT02369341). The primary objective was to assess hemagglutination-inhibition antibody responses against each vaccine strain 21 days after vaccination in adults (aged ≥18–60 years) and older adults (aged >60 years). Solicited adverse events for four days post-vaccination, and unsolicited adverse events and serious adverse events for 21 days post-vaccination were also assessed.A total of 63 adults and 57 older adults received one dose of inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine at the beginning of the 2015 Southern Hemisphere influenza season. After vaccination, in adults and older adults, the hemagglutination-inhibition titers fulfilled the European licensure criteria for immunogenicity. In adults, the seroprotection rates with HI titer ≥1:40 were 100% (A/H1N1), 98.4% (A/H3N2), 100% (B/Yamagata), and 100% (B/Victoria); in older adults were 94.7% (A/H1N1), 96.5% (A/H3N2), 100% (B/Yamagata), and 100% (B/Victoria). Pain was the most common solicited local adverse events in adults (27/62) and in older adults (13/57), and the most common solicited general adverse events in adults was myalgia (9/62), and in older adults were myalgia and arthralgia (both 2/57). Unsolicited adverse events were reported by 11/63 adults and 10/57 older adults.The study showed that inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine was immunogenic and well-tolerated in Brazilian adults and older adults.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Time Factors , Brazil , Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests , Influenza Vaccines/adverse effects , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Reproducibility of Results , Age Factors , Vaccination/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Hemagglutination, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood
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