Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 44
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2265-2271, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981358


The leaves of Vernonia amygdalina Delile of the family Asteraceae(also known as "bitter leaf"), rich in biological activities, are used as both medicine and food for a long time in West tropical Africa. They have been introduced into Southeast Asia and Fujian and Guangdong provinces of China in recent years. However, little is known about the properties of the plant in traditional Chinese medicine(TCM), which limits its combination with other Chinese medicinal herbs. In this study, 473 articles on V. amygdalina leaves were selected from PubMed, Web of Science, CNKI, Wanfang Data and VIP to summarize their components, pharmacological effects and clinical research. V. amygdalina leaves presented anti-microbial, hypoglycemic, anti-hypertensive, lipid-lowering, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and other pharmacological effects. On the basis of the theory of TCM properties, the leaves were inferred to be cold in property and bitter and sweet in flavor, acting on spleen, liver, stomach and large intestine and with the functions of clearing heat, drying dampness, purging fire, removing toxin, killing insects and preventing attack of malaria. They can be used to treat dampness-heat diarrhea, interior heat and diabetes, malaria, insect accumulation and eczema(5-10 g dry leaves by decoction per day and an appropriate amount of crushed fresh leaves applying to the affected area for external use). Due to the lack of TCM properties, V. amygdalina leaves are rarely used medicinally in China. The determination of medicinal properties of the leaves is conducive to the introduction of new exotic medicinal herbs and the development of new TCM resources, which facilitated further clinical application and research and development of Chinese medicinal herbs.

Antioxidants , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves , Plants, Medicinal , Vernonia
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1606-1619, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970633


This study aimed to evaluate the biological effect and mechanism of Vernonia anthelmintica Injection(VAI) on melanin accumulation. The in vivo depigmentation model was induced by propylthiouracil(PTU) in zebrafish, and the effect of VAI on melanin accumulation was evaluated based on the in vitro B16F10 cell model. The chemical composition of VAI was identified according to the high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). Network pharmaco-logy was applied to predict potential targets and pathways of VAI. A "VAI component-target-pathway" network was established, and the pharmacodynamic molecules were screened out based on the topological characteristics of the network. The binding of active molecules to key targets was verified by molecular docking. The results showed that VAI promoted tyrosinase activity and melanin production in B16F10 cells in a dose-and time-dependent manner and could restore the melanin in the body of the zebrafish model. Fifty-six compounds were identified from VAI, including flavonoids(15/56), terpenoids(10/56), phenolic acids(9/56), fatty acids(9/56), steroids(6/56), and others(7/56). Network pharmacological analysis screened four potential quality markers, including apigenin, chrysoeriol, syringaresinol, and butein, involving 61 targets and 65 pathways, and molecular docking verified their binding to TYR, NFE2L2, CASP3, MAPK1, MAPK8, and MAPK14. It was found that the mRNA expression of MITF, TYR, TYRP1, and DCT in B16F10 cells was promoted. By UPLC-Q-TOF-MS and network pharmacology, this study determined the material basis of VAI against vitiligo, screened apigenin, chrysoeriol, syringaresinol, and butein as the quality markers of VAI, and verified the efficacy and internal mechanism of melanogenesis, providing a basis for quality control and further clinical research.

Animals , Vernonia/chemistry , Melanins/metabolism , Zebrafish/metabolism , Network Pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Apigenin/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 37: e37045, Jan.-Dec. 2021. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358931


The association between plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can be used to bioremediate areas contaminated by metals. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the lead (Pb2+) phytoaccumulation capacity, morpho-physiology and nutrition responses of Vernonia polyanthes exposed to a solution amended with concentrations of lead nitrate and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The treatments consisted of increasing doses of Pb2+ as lead nitrate [Pb(NO3)2], two strains of AMF and an absolute control without lead and AMF. Lead negatively affected some morphophysiological variables, reduced 27.3, 25.63, 30.60, and 56.60% shoot length, root collar diameter, number of leaves and leaf area, respectively, besides reducing decreasing chlorophyll a. Lead accumulated in the shoot and roots, the latter at the highest concentrations. However, the translocation factor was above 1, indicating low efficiency. The bioaccumulation factor referring to the roots were above 1. The fungi colonization rate was low, 3.31% for Gigaspora margarita and 2.33% for Acaulospora morrowiae. However, the absorption of lead increased, reflecting in lower values of chlorophyll a, dry mass of root and diameter. Results indicated that the arboreal species V. polyanthes tolerate high concentrations of lead and can accumulate significant amounts in the roots. AMF increase the accumulation of lead in the shoot and can be used in projects aimed at the phytoextraction of metals.

Vernonia/cytology , Vernonia/physiology , Vernonia/chemistry , Bioaccumulation
Rev. Asoc. Colomb. Cien. Biol. (En línea) ; 2(33): 102-112, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1379310


Introducción: En la región Caribe de Colombia hay presencia de especies nativas de gramíneas que aún no han sido evaluadas. Objetivo: Identificar taxonómicamente una gramínea de la región Sabanas de Sucre y estudiar la influencia de la edad sobre sus atributos morfológicos y de producción. Materiales y métodos: El estudio se ubicó en 9º12'38.59" N y 75º24'06.63", a 165 msnm. En 18 parcelas se evaluaron tres intervalos de corte (21, 28 y 35 días). Inicialmente, se identificó la gramínea. Fue evaluada la composición química, el número y longitud de las hojas, las relaciones entre material verde y seco y entre hojas y tallos, y su evolución, y la producción y tasa de acúmulo de MS. Resultados: La gramínea se identificó como Panicum cf. hispidifolium Swallen. El contenido de PB, NDT y cenizas disminuyeron (P<0,05) con el incremento en la edad, presentando valores medios de 12,3; 58,5 y 9,7%, respectivamente. Las fracciones MS, FDA y CNE aumentaron (P<0,05) con la edad, presentando valores medios de 21,6; 37,17 y 6,24%, respectivamente. La disponibilidad de MS y la tasa de acúmulo evolucionaron cuadráticamente (P<0,05), con mayor intensidad entre los días 21 y 28. El promedio de MS disponible fue de 8049,1 kg/ha y la tasa diaria de acúmulo fue de 281,2 kg/ha. Conclusión: Se concluye que P. hispidifolium es una gramínea con potencial forrajero para la región Sabanas de Sucre, y que se debe manejar con periodos de descanso de alrededor de 28 días, considerando la disponibilidad y calidad de la MS.

Introduction: In the Caribbean region of Colombia there are native species of grasses that have not yet been evaluated. Objective: To identify taxonomically a grass observed in the Savannas de Sucre region and study the influence of age on its morphological and production attributes. Materials and Methods: The study was located at 9º12'38.59"N and 75º24'06.63", at 165 meters above sea level. In 18 plots, three cut intervals were evaluated (21, 28 and 35 days). Initially, the grass was identified. The chemical composition, the number and length of the leaves, the relationships between green and dry material and between leaves and stems, and their evolution, and the production and accumulation rate of DM were tested. Results: The grass was identified as Panicum cf. hispidifolium Swallen. The content of PB, NDT and ash decreased (P <0.05) with increasing age, presenting mean values of 12.27; 58.5 and 9.7%, respectively. The MS, FDA and CNE fractions increased (P <0.05) with age, presenting mean values of 21.6; 37.17 and 6.24%, respectively. DM availability and accumulation rate evolved quadratically (P <0.05), with greater intensity between days 21 and 28. The average DM available was 8049.1 kg / ha and the daily accumulation rate was 281.2 kg / ha. Conclusion: It is concluded that P. hispidifolium is a grass with forage potential for the Savannas of Sucre region, and that it should be managed with rest periods of around 28 days, considering the availability and quality of the DM.

Panicum , Colombia , Vernonia
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 40(1): 61-66, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090837


Abstract Rationale: Disuse colitis is frequent in our country and the most effective treatment is high cost and there is a need for effective and low cost therapy. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of Baccharis dracunculifolia (field rosemary) in the treatment of exclusion colitis in rats. Method: Eighteen Wistar rats were anesthetized and submitted to colostomy; they were then distributed into two groups: Control Group, receiving intrarectal saline infusion (n = 8) and Group BD receiving intrarectal infusion ofBaccharis dracunculifolia extract (n = 10); after 21 days of treatment they were euthanized, the intestinal segment excluded from intestinal transit was resected and submitted to histopathological study, classifying the degree of inflammation and degree of vascular congestion from 0 to 3. Results: Mean inflammation was 2.7 in Control Group versus 2.1 in BD Group (p = 0.049), while mean vascular congestion was 2.3 and 2, respectively, in Control and BD groups (p = 0.1642). Conclusion: Intra-rectal infusion ofBaccharis dracunculifolia extract significantly minimized the inflammatory process in the exclusion colitis of rats submitted to colostomy, without altering the degree of vascular congestion.

Resumo Racional A colite de desuso é frequente em nosso meio e o tratamento de maior eficácia é de alto custo, havendo necessidade de se encontrar uma terapêutica eficaz e de baixo custo. Objetivo Avaliar a eficácia da Baccharis dracunculifolia (alecrim-do-campo) no tratamento da colite de exclusão em ratos. Método Utilizou-se 18 ratos Wistar, os quais foram anestesiados e submetidos à colostomia; em seguida distribuídos em 2 grupos: Grupo Controle, recebendo infusão intrarretal de solução salina (n = 8) e Grupo BD, recebendo infusão intrarretal de extrato de Baccharis dracunculifolia (n = 10); após 21 dias de tratamento foram submetidos a eutanásia, o segmento intesinal excluso de trânsito intestinal foi ressecado e submetido a estudo histopatológico classificando-se o grau de inflamação e grau de congestão vascular de 0 a 3. Resultados Verificou-se média de inflamação 2,7 no Grupo Controle vs. 2,1 no Grupo BD (p = 0,049), enquanto as médias de congestão vascular foram 2,3 e 2, respectivamente, nos grupos controle e BD (p = 0,1642). Conclusão A infusão intrarretal do extrato de Baccharis dracunculifolia minimizou significantemente o processo inflamatório na colite de exclusão de ratos submetidos à colostomia, sem alterar o grau de congestão vascular.

Animals , Rats , Colitis , Colitis/drug therapy , Plant Preparations , Vernonia , Phytotherapy , Plants, Medicinal , Colostomy , Vernonia/adverse effects
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190177, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132206


Abstract: This article describes the chemical composition of Vernonia chalybaea essential oil, and investigates its antimicrobial, antioxidant and hemolytic activities. The evaluation of the antifungal activity was performed by the broth microdilution method using strains of yeasts and dermatophytic fungi. The checkerboard technique to find antimicrobial modulatory effects was performed using ketoconazole as standard drug. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH scavenging assay and β-carotene/linoleic-acid system. The toxicity was characterized by the brine shrimp lethality test and hemolysis bioassays. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS method, showing to be rich in the sesquiterpenes β-caryophyllene (39.06%) and bicyclogermacrene (19.69%), and also demonstrated a relevant antifungal activity against strains of Trichophyton rubrum. In the modulatory activity assay, the essential oil of V. chalybaea and β-caryophyllene demonstrated a synergistic interaction with ketoconazole, with increasing of its antifungal action. The antioxidant activity was evidenced mainly by β-carotene/linoleic acid system, with IC50 value of 35.87 ± 0.32 µg/mL. The results suggest that V. chalybaea essential oil and β-caryophyllene are valuable natural medicinal agents with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

Humans , Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Vernonia/chemistry , Ketoconazole/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Artemia , Bacteria/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Linoleic Acid/pharmacology , beta Karyopherins/pharmacology , Fungi/classification , Fungi/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 910-915, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008518


This work aims to establish an HPLC specific chromatogram and determine six components of Vernonia anthelmintica with chlorogenic acid, isochlorogenic acid B, isochlorogenic acid A, isochlorogenic acid C, scutellarein and luteolin as index components. HPLC analysis was performed on a Waters Xbridge C_(18) column(4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm) with gradient elution of acetonitrile-0.05% trifluoroacetic acid solution at a flow rate of 1.0 mL·min~(-1). The detection wave length was 360 nm and the column temperature was 30 ℃. Chemometrics software Chempattern was employed to analyze the data. HPLC specific chromatogram of V. anthelmintica was established and six characteristic peaks were marked. Six characteristic peaks were simultaneously determined by HPLC within 50 min. The contents of the six components in 13 batch samples of V. anthelmintica were 0.14%-0.68%, 0.44%-0.74%, 0.63%-1.01%, 0.14%-0.71%, 0.15%-0.26% and 0.010%-0.030%, respectively. The HPLC specific chromatogram of V. anthelmintica, together with determination of six components showed strong specificity, and it can be used for the quality control of the crude drug.

Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Phytochemicals/analysis , Quality Control , Vernonia/chemistry
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 667-676, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771343


Cordyceps militaris exopolysaccharides (EPS) have many pharmacological activities such as boosting immunity and antifatigue. To obtain EPS efficiently, we added moderate Vernonia amygdalina leaf powder as inducer to the fermentation medium to promote the production of Cordyceps militaris EPS and studied the infrared absorption spectrum and antioxidant activities of the EPS after optimization. The optimum liquid fermentation conditions were as follows: addition of Vernonia amygdalina leaf powder of 8 g/L, fermentation duration of 9 d, initial pH of 6.5, inoculation quantity of 5.0 mL. Under such a condition, the yield of Cordyceps militaris EPS reached (5.24±0.28) mg/mL, increased by 205.20% compared to the control group without adding Vernonia amygdalina leaf powder. Results of infrared analysis and antioxidant activity showed that the Vernonia amygdalina leaves had little effect on the structure and activities of Cordyceps militaris EPS. The results of this research suggest that Vernonia amygdalina leaf can enhance the production of Cordyceps militaris EPS effectively, and provides a novel method for efficient production of EPS in Cordyceps militaris.

Antioxidants , Cordyceps , Plant Leaves , Polysaccharides , Vernonia
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(12): 2217-2223, dez. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-976433


Vernonia rubricaulis is a hepatotoxic plant found in the Pantanal biome. Under natural conditions, it is responsible for highly fatal poisonings in cattle. From January 1999 to December 2016, 33 outbreaks of V. rubricaulis poisoning were recorded, resulting in 1509 bovine deaths, of which 719 (47.6%) were adult females, 413 (27.4%) were adult males, 244 (16.2%) adult cattle with no information about sex and 133 (8.8%) calves. The coefficients of morbidity, mortality and lethality were respectively 2.79%, 2.77% and 99.24%. Most outbreaks occurred in properties containing up to 1,000 cattle, where the most significant economic impacts were also observed. Among the total recorded deaths, the total direct monetary loss was estimated at US$764,893.33, which represents an average of 3.05% of the total assets (US$25,090,683.51) of the herds involved in the outbreaks. The plant can cause more severe damage to properties with less than 500 cattle, and can reach 50% of the total value of the herd. In comparison to other methods, the methodology used in this study has an economic impact consistent with reality, not overestimating the losses. Toxic plants, such as V. rubricaulis, can cause significant economic losses in the extensive systemic livestock, and it is important decision-making and prophylactic management to avoid the occurrence of poisoning in the herds.(AU)

Vernonia rubricaulis é uma planta hepatotóxica encontrada no bioma Pantanal. Em condições naturais, é responsável por intoxicações altamente fatais em bovinos. De janeiro de 1999 a dezembro de 2016, foram registrados 33 surtos de intoxicação por V. rubricaulis em bovinos que resultaram em 1509 mortes, sendo 719 (47,6%) fêmeas adultas, 413 (27,4%) machos adultos, 244 (16,2%) bovinos adultos sem informação sobre o sexo e 133 (8,8%) bezerros. Os coeficientes de morbidade, mortalidade e letalidade foram respectivamente de 2,79%, 2,77% e 99,24%. A maioria dos surtos ocorreu em propriedades contendo até mil bovinos, onde também foram constatados os impactos econômicos mais significativos. Do total das mortes registradas, o prejuízo monetário direto total foi calculado em US$764.893,33, o que representa em média 3,05% do total do patrimônio (US$25.090.683,51) dos rebanhos envolvidos nos surtos. A planta pode causar prejuízos mais severos em propriedades com menos de 500 bovinos, podendo chegar a 50% do total do valor do rebanho. Em comparação aos outros métodos, a metodologia utilizada neste estudo afere um impacto econômico condizente com a realidade, não superestimando os prejuízos. Plantas tóxicas, como a V. rubricaulis, podem causar prejuízos econômicos significativos na pecuária extensiva, sendo importantes tomadas de decisões e manejos profiláticos para evitar a ocorrência de intoxicação nos rebanhos.(AU)

Animals , Cattle , Plant Poisoning/veterinary , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/economics , Mortality , Vernonia/poisoning
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 335-341, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-691058


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>This study investigated the acute and subacute toxicity of whole-plant aqueous extract of Vernonia mespilifolia Less. (AEVM) in rats for evaluating its safety profile.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>AEVM for the acute (2000 and 5000 mg/kg) and subacute (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg) toxicity studies was administered orally to rats according the guidelines 425 and 407 of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, respectively. Food and water intake as well as body and organ weight of animals were recorded. Signs of toxicity were assessed, and hematological, biochemical and histopathological analyses were performed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In the acute toxicity study, a single dose of the aqueous extract at 2000 or 5000 mg/kg caused no mortality in the animals, suggesting that the median lethal dose is greater than 5000 mg/kg. In the subacute toxicity study, administration of the extract for 28 d, at all doses, caused no significant changes in the body weights or organ weights of rats in the treated groups when compared with the control group. In addition, hematological and biochemical parameters also revealed no toxic effects of the extract on rats. Histological sections of the heart, liver and kidney from test animals showed no signs of degeneration.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>These results showed that AEVM at dosage levels up to 600 mg/kg is nontoxic and could also offer protection on some body tissues. AEVM could, therefore, be considered safe.</p>

Animals , Female , Male , Heart , Kidney , Lethal Dose 50 , Liver , Plant Extracts , Toxicity , Plant Leaves , Rats, Wistar , Toxicity Tests, Acute , Toxicity Tests, Subacute , Vernonia , Toxicity
Braz. j. biol ; 76(4): 928-936, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828084


Abstract Vernonanthura polyanthes (Spreng.) A.J. Vega & Dematt. (Asteraceae), known as “assa-peixe”, has been used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of various diseases such as bronchitis, pneumonia, hemoptysis, persistent cough, internal abscesses, gastric and kidney stone pain. Moreover, some studies demonstrated that species of Genus Vernonia present antifungal activity. Due to the biological relevance of this species, the aim of this study was to investigate the toxic, genotoxic, antigenotoxic and antifungal potential of V. polyanthes leaves aqueous extract in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster or against Candida spp. The aqueous extract of the plant showed no toxic, genotoxic and antigenotoxic activity in the experimental conditions tested using the wing somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART/wing). However, when the extract was associated with doxorubicin, used in this work as a positive control, the mutagenic potential of doxorubicin was enhanced, increasing the number of mutations in D. melanogaster somatic cells. In the other hand, no inhibitory activity against Candida spp. was observed for V. polyanthes leaves aqueous extract using agar-well diffusion assay. More studies are necessary to reveal the components present in the V. polyanthes leaves aqueous extract that could contribute to potentiate the doxorubicin genotoxicity.

Resumo Vernonanthura polyanthes (Spreng.) A.J. Vega & Dematt. (Asteraceae), conhecida como “assa-peixe”, tem sido utilizada na medicina popular para o tratamento de várias doenças, como bronquite, pneumonia, hemoptise, tosse persistente, abcessos internos, afecções gástricas e cálculo renal. Além disso, alguns estudos já demonstraram que espécies do Gênero Vernonia apresentam atividade antifúngica. Devido à relevância biológica dessa espécie, o objetivo deste estudo foi investigar os efeitos citotóxico, genotóxico, antigenotóxico e antifúngico do extrato aquoso das folhas de V. polyanthes em células somáticas de Drosophila melanogaster ou contra Candida spp. O extrato aquoso da planta não apresentou atividade citotóxica, genotóxica e antigenotóxica nas condições experimentais testadas usando o teste de recombinação e mutação somática em asa (SMART-asa). No entanto, quando o extrato foi associado com a doxorrubicina, utilizada neste trabalho como controle positivo, o potencial mutagênico da doxorrubicina foi potencializado, aumentando o número de mutações em células somáticas de D. melanogaster. Por outro lado, nenhuma atividade inibitória contra Candida spp. foi observada utilizando o extrato aquoso das folhas de V. polyanthes por meio do método de difusão em ágar. Mais estudos são necessários para desvendar os componentes presentes no extrato aquoso das folhas de V. polyanthes que possam contribuir para potencializar a genotoxicidade da doxorrubicina.

Animals , Candida/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Doxorubicin/pharmacology , Vernonia , Drosophila melanogaster/drug effects , Mutation/drug effects , DNA Damage/drug effects , Plant Leaves , Cell Culture Techniques , Drosophila melanogaster/cytology , Hybrid Cells , Mutagenicity Tests , Mutagens/pharmacology
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 18(1): 27-37, jan.-mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-780032


RESUMO Cyrtocymura scorpioides (sin. Vernonia scorpioides (Lam.) Pers.), Piracá é utilizada popularmente para tratamento de úlceras, traumatismos, candidíase, processos inflamatórios e dores musculares. Objetivou-se verificar nas plantas cultivadas na Vila Nair, Jardim São Dimas e Urbanova em São José dos Campos - SP, a influência da poluição veicular nos rendimentos da matéria seca (folhas), no óleo essencial, e no extrato bruto, bem como a ação citotóxica em células HEP-2 e L929, e identificar os componentes do óleo essencial e ação fungicida em Candida albicans. As estacas (54) foram cultivadas durante 6 meses em solo + adubo (2:1) na Universidade do Vale do Paraíba - UNIVAP, e distribuídas nas estações Dutra (E1 - tráfego intenso), Teotônio (E2 - tráfego médio) e Urbanova (E3 - tráfego baixo), onde 18 mudas foram cultivadas durante 6 meses, sendo 3 repetições de 6 plantas. O óleo essencial foi extraído por hidrodestilação e seus componentes identificados por cromatografia gasosa acoplado a espectrômetro de massas (CG-MS), através de indice de similaridade com a base de espectros Wiley L. O extrato bruto foi concentrado por rotavapor. A ação fúngica foi avaliada pelo teste de difusão em disco e a citotoxicidade pelo teste MTT. Em Urbanova (E3) verificouse maior rendimento da matéria seca, do extrato bruto e do óleo essencial. Identificou-se no óleo essencial: ß-cariofileno, α-cariofileno, germacreno D, delta-cadineno e cariofileno. O Óleo Essencial possui possui baixa ação fungicida em C. albicans, enquanto o extrato hidroalcóolico se mostrou citotóxico para L929 e HEp-2.

ABSTRACT Cyrtocymura scorpioides (syn. Vernonia scorpioides (Lam.) Pers.), known as Piracá, is popularly used for the treatment of ulcers, trauma, candidiasis, inflammatory disorders, and muscle pain. This study aimed to assess the influence of vehicular pollution on the yield of dry matter (leaves), essential oil, and crude extract, and the cytotoxic action in HEP-2 and L929 cells. This study also aimed to identify the components of the essential oil, and verify its fungicidal action against Candida albicans in plants grown in Vila Nair, Jardim São Dimas, and Urbanova, São José dos Campos - SP, Brazil. The seedlings (54) were grown in soil + fertilizer (2:1) at the Universidade do Vale do Paraiba - UNIVAP, and distributed to different stations, Dutra (E1 - heavy traffic), Teotônio (E2 - medium traffic), and Urbanova (E3 - low traffic), where 18 seedlings were cultivated for 6 months, with 3 replicates of 6 plants. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation and its components were identified by by Gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS), with a similarity index computed using the Wiley L spectra. The crude extract was concentrated in a Buchi Rotary Evaporator R-114, the fungicidal action and cytoptoxicity were evaluated using the disk diffusion method and the MTT test, respectively. In Urbanova (E3), high yields of dry matter, crude extract, and essential oil were obtained. The following components were identified in the oil: ß-caryophyllene, α -caryophyllene, germacrene D, delta-cardinene, and caryophyllene oxide. The oil was found to have low fungicidal action against C. albicans, while the hydroalcoholic extract was cytotoxic to L929 and HEP-2.

Vernonia/classification , Environmental Pollution/adverse effects , Oils, Volatile/classification , Cytotoxins/analysis
Braz. j. biol ; 75(1): 152-156, Jan-Mar/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744348


Leaf area estimation is an important biometrical trait for evaluating leaf development and plant growth in field and pot experiments. We developed a non-destructive model to estimate the leaf area (LA) of Vernonia ferruginea using the length (L) and width (W) leaf dimensions. Different combinations of linear equations were obtained from L, L2, W, W2, LW and L2W2. The linear regressions using the product of LW dimensions were more efficient to estimate the LA of V. ferruginea than models based on a single dimension (L, W, L2 or W2). Therefore, the linear regression “LA=0.463+0.676WL” provided the most accurate estimate of V. ferruginea leaf area. Validation of the selected model showed that the correlation between real measured leaf area and estimated leaf area was very high.

A estimativa de área foliar é um importante traço biométrico para avaliação do desenvolvimento foliar e do crescimento vegetal em experimentos de campo e casa-de-vegetação. Foi desenvolvido um modelo linear não destrutivo capaz de estimar a área foliar (AF) de Vernonia ferruginea usando o comprimento (C) e a largura (L) foliar. Diferentes combinações de equações lineares foram obtidas a partir de C, C2, L, L2, CL e C2L2. As regressões lineares usando o produto de dimensões CL foram mais eficientes para estimar a AF de V. ferruginea do que os modelos baseados em uma única dimensão (C, L, C2 ou L2). O modelo linear "AF = 0,463+0,676 CL" forneceu com maior precisão a AF de V. ferruginea em relação aos demais modelos testados. A validação do modelo selecionado revelou elevada correlação entre a área foliar real e a área foliar estimada pelo modelo.

Models, Biological , Plant Leaves/anatomy & histology , Vernonia/anatomy & histology , Linear Models , Vernonia/classification
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 17(1): 45-50, Jan-Mar/2015. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-742926


Além do valor como recurso terapêutico, plantas medicinais também possuem potencial para serem utilizadas como fonte de princípios ativos contra fitopatógenos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de óleos essenciais das espécies medicinais Baccharis dracunculifolia (alecrim-do-campo), Schinus terebinthifolius (aroeirinha) e Porophyllum ruderale (arnica-brasileira) sobre o crescimento dos fungos fitopatogênicos Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli (Fop), F. solani f. sp. phaseoli (Fsp), Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Ss), S. minor (Sm), Rhizoctonia solani (Rs), Sclerotium rolfsii (Sr) e Macrophomina phaseolina (Mp). Avaliou-se em placas de Petri o crescimento radial desses fungos em meio batata-dextrose-ágar (BDA) com cinco concentrações (0, 250, 500, 1000 e 3000 mg L-1) dos óleos essenciais. Discos de micélio (5 mm de diâmetro) de cada fungo em crescimento foram transferidos para placas de Petri que foram mantidas a 23°C no escuro por 48 horas. O óleo essencial de alecrim-do-campo foi o mais eficiente na redução do crescimento micelial de todos os fungos, com inibição completa quando se utilizou a concentração de 3000 mg L-1. A redução de crescimento variou de 29% (Fs) a 80% (Rs) a 250 mg L-1 do óleo essencial de alecrim-do-campo; a 500 mg L-1, variou de 29% (Fs) a 98% (Sr); e a 1000 mg L-1, de 41% (Fs) a 100% (Sr). A redução do crescimento dos fungos pelo óleo de aroeirinha na concentração de 3000 mg L-1 variou de 27% (Fsp) a 74% (Rs). Nessa concentração, o óleo de arnica-brasileira reduziu o crecimento micelial de Ss em 72%, o de Rs em 80% e o de Mp em 82%, sem efeitos significativos sobre o crescimento micelial de Fsp e Fop. Conclui-se que os óleos essenciais de alecrim-do-campo, aroeirinha e arnica-brasileira possuem potencial para o controle dos fungos fitopatogênicos estudados, com destaque para o óleo de alecrim-do-campo.

In addition to their value as therapeutic resources, medicinal plants also have the potential to be used as a source of alternative compounds against plant pathogens. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of essential oils extracted from the medicinal species Baccharis dracunculifolia, Schinus terebinthifolius and Porophyllum ruderale on the growth of the fungal plant pathogens Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli (Fop), F. solani f. sp. phaseoli (Fsp), Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Ss), S. minor (Sm), Rhizoctonia solani (Rs), Sclerotium rolfsii (Sr) and Macrophomina phaseolina (Mp). The radial mycelial growth of the fungi was evaluated on potato dextrose agar (PDA) in Petri dishes with five concentrations (0, 250, 500, 1000 and 3000 μL L-1) of the essential oils. Mycelial discs (5 mm diameter) of the growing colonies of each fungus were transferred to Petri dishes, which were maintained at 23 °C in the dark for 48 hours. The essential oil of B. dracunculifolia was the most effective oil in the reduction of the mycelial growth of all fungi. It completely inhibited their growth at 3000 mg L-1. At 250 mg L-1, the growth reduction caused by the oil of B. dracunculifolia varied from 29% (Fs) to 80% (Rs); at 500 mg L-1, it varied from 29% (Fs) to 98% (Sr); and at 1000 mg L-1, it varied from 41% (Fs) to 100% (Sr). The reduction of the mycelial growth caused by the oil of S. terebinthifolius at 3000 mg L-1 varied from 27% (Fsp) to 74% (Rs). At this concentration, the oil of P. ruderale reduced the mycelial growth of Ss by 72%, of Rs by 80% and of Mp by 82%, without significant effects on the mycelial growth of Fsp and Fop. We conclude that the essential oils of B. dracunculifolia, S. terebinthifolius and P. ruderale have the potential to be used to control the plant pathogens tested, especially the oil of B. dracunculifolia.

Oils, Volatile/analysis , Plants, Medicinal/classification , Arnica/anatomy & histology , Anacardiaceae/anatomy & histology , Vernonia/anatomy & histology , Fungi/classification
Vitae (Medellín) ; 22(1): 27-32, 2015. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-987819


Background: Vernonia species are widely consumed as vegetables or medicinal herbs for the treatment of various human diseases in Nigeria. Nevertheless, there exists a growing concern for consumption safety of those herbal plants, due to increasing environmental pollution. This is because plants can accumulate some heavy metals that constitute a potential risk to human health. Nonetheless, also essential elements may be accumulated in plants, which provide nutrients for combating diseases and maintaining human health. Objectives: The purpose of the study was to analyze some heavy metals and mineral elements on Vernonia ambigua, V. oocephala and V. pupurea commonly used in Northern Nigerian traditional medicine. Methods: Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) was used to determine the major elements (calcium and magnesium), trace elements (iron and manganese) and heavy metals (copper, cobalt, chromium, cadmium, lead and zinc). Results: We found a high Ca and Fe content in V. ambigua, Mg and Co in V. oocephala, and Cu and Cr in V. pupurea; in contrast, the last specie, showed low accumulation of Pb and Cd among all studied species. Conclusion: This study revealed that toxic elements concentrations are lower than the allowed dietary intake (ADI) in all the three Vernonia species. The quantitative estimation of these elements is important to understanding the pharmacological and/or toxicological actions of medicinal plants for safe use.

Antecedentes: Las especies de Vernonia son ampliamente consumidas como verduras o hierbas medicinales, para el tratamiento de diversas enfermedades humanas en Nigeria. Sin embargo, existe una creciente preocupación por la seguridad en el consumo de dichas plantas, debido al incremento en la contaminación. Esto es debido a que las plantas pueden acumular algunos metales pesados que constituyen un riesgo potencial para la salud humana. Sin embargo, algunos elementos esenciales también pueden acumularse en las plantas proporcionando nutrientes para combatir las enfermedades y mantener una buena salud. Objetivos: El objetivo del estudio fue analizar algunos metales pesados y minerales en Vernonia ambigua, V. oocephala y V. Pupurea, comúnmente utilizadas en la medicina tradicional del norte de Nigeria. Métodos: La espectrofotometría de absorción atómica (AAS) se utilizó para determinar elementos mayores (calcio y magnesio), elementos trazas (hierro, manganeso) y elementos pesados (cobre, cobalto, cromo, cadmio, plomo y zinc). Resultados: se encontraron altos contenidos de Ca y Fe en V. ambigua, y de Mg y Co en V. oocephala. La cantidad de Cu y Cr fueron altas en V. Pupurea; en contraste, esta última reportó las cantidades más bajas de Pb (0.01200 mg/100g) y Cd (0.00670 mg / 100g) entre las tres especies de Vernonia estudiadas. Conclusión: Este estudio demostró que las concentraciones de elementos tóxicos como Pb, Cd y Co detectadas, son inferiores a la ingesta dietética permitido (ADI) en las tres especies de Vernonia. Las estimaciones cuantitativas de elementos pesados, son importantes para la comprensión de las acciones farmacológicas y/o toxicológicas de plantas medicinales para su uso seguro.

Humans , Vernonia , Disease , Metals, Heavy , Minerals
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 17(4,supl.2): 909-914, 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-771153


ABSTRACT Vernonia polyanthes, known as “assa-peixe”, is a plant native to Brazil, and the decoction or infusion of its flowers, roots and leaves are used in folk medicine, being considered sources of diuretic, balsamic, anti-rheumatic substances, and are used in cases of bronchitis and persistent cough. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the extract/fractions obtained by methanol maceration and infusion of V. polyanthes flower, also including qualitative identification of flower compounds, through phytochemical evaluation, using colorimetric tests. Identification tests for the presence of anthraquinones, tannins, flavonoids, saponins and alkaloids were performed. Microbiological evaluation was made through agar diffusion assay, using Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonasaeruginosa as test organisms. From the performed colorimetric tests it was possible to verify the presence of tannins and flavonoids in both extracts. Alkaloids were also observed in the macerated extract. The ethyl acetate fraction from the agar diffusion assay, from both extracts, presented microbial activity over Staphylococcus aureus. It was possible to qualitatively identify the floral compounds, and to show the differences between extraction methods, being methanol considered the best solvent to the extraction.

RESUMO Vernonia polyanthes, conhecida como assa-peixe, é planta nativa do Brasil e suas flores, raízes e folhas, em decocção ou infusão, são empregadas na medicina caseira como diuréticas, balsâmicas, e anti-reumáticas, usadas nos casos de bronquite e tosse persistente. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana do extrato/frações obtidos por maceração em metanol e infusão de flores de V. polyanthes, incluindo também a identificação qualitativa dos compostos presentes nas flores, através da avaliação fitoquímica, empregando testes colorimétricos. Foram realizados testes para identificação de antraquinonas, taninos, flavonóides, saponinas e alcalóides. A avaliação microbiológica foi realizada por meio de ensaio de difusão em ágar, empregando Escherichia coli, Staphylococcusaureus e Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A partir dos testes colorimétricos foi possível verificar a presença de taninos e flavonóides em ambos os extratos. Ainda, no extrato macerado, foi observada a presença de alcalóides. No ensaio de difusão em ágar, a fração acetato de etila de ambos os extratos, apresentou atividade antimicrobiana sobre Staphylococcus aureus. Foi possível identificar qualitativamente os compostos da flor, demonstrando diferença entre as técnicas de extração, sendo que o metanol resultou em melhor poder extrativo.

Vernonia/classification , Phytochemicals/analysis , Anti-Infective Agents/analysis , Plants, Medicinal/classification , Methanol/chemistry
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 17(4,supl.3): 1177-1181, 2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-776595


RESUMO O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a propagação vegetativa do assa-peixe Vernonia polyanthes Less utilizando estacas apicais e diferentes substratos. O experimento foi conduzido em condições de casa de vegetação com irrigação controlada na Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas da UNESP campus Botucatu- SP. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com sete tratamentos (Solo de textura argilosa; 50% Solo de textura argilosa + 50% Húmus; Solo de textura média; 50% Solo de textura média + 50% Húmus; Solo de textura arenosa; 50% Solo de textura arenosa + 50% Húmus; Húmus) e quatro repetições, sendo 10 estacas por repetição. As características avaliadas foram: comprimento da maior raiz, comprimento da parte aérea, número de brotações, porcentagem de enraizamento, volume radicular, nota para qualidade das estacas e massa seca da parte aérea e das raízes. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância pelo teste F e as médias comparadas pelo teste de Scott & Knott a 5% de probabilidade. Para a análise estatística, utilizou-se o programa SISVAR ®. A partir da análise, observou-se efeito altamente significativo dos tratamentos utilizados para todas as variáveis analisadas, com exceção da massa seca da parte aérea, que não apresentou diferença significativa. Para obtenção de melhor enraizamento da espécie em questão, o recomendado é a utilização do substrato: solo de textura argilosa ou média, acrescido de húmus na proporção de 1:1.

ABSTRAT The current study aimed to evaluate the vegetative propagation of assa-peixe using apical cuttings and different substrates. The trial was conducted under greenhouse conditions with controlled irrigation, in the Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas of UNESP in Botucatu- SP campus. The experimental design was completely randomized, with seven treatments and four replications, with 10 cuttings per replicate. The characteristics were: longest root length, shoot length, number of shoots, rooting percentage, root volume, score of quality of cuttings and dry mass of shoots and roots. The data were subjected to analysis of variance by F test and the averages were compared by the Scott Knott test at 5% probability. For statistical analysis, we used the SISVAR ®. From the analysis, we observed highly relevant effect of the treatments used for all variables, with the exception of the dry weight of shoots, which did not present significant difference. In order to obtain a better rooting of the species concerned, the recommended method would be to use substrates such as clayey soil or medium plus humus in the ratio 1:1.

/analysis , Vernonia/classification , Plants, Medicinal/classification , Analysis of Variance , Grassland
Int. j. morphol ; 31(2): 662-667, jun. 2013. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-687121


Vernonia amygdalina (bitter-leaf) is native to West Africa but occurs mostly in its cultivated form in various parts of central and southern Nigeria. It is a dark-green leafy vegetable commonly used in cooking and as folkloric medicine for the management of several diseases in Nigeria. In the present study, the effects of varying doses of ethanolic leaf extract of Vernonia amygdalina on the rat testis histo-morphometry were investigated. Forty male wistar rats were divided into groups of four. Group A, as the control was given 10 ml/kg/day/oral distilled water while Group B, C and D subsequently treated with 100, 300 and 600 mg/kg/day/oral route Vernonia amygdalina leaves extract respectively for 56 days. Results showed that Group B rats had normal testis histology comparable to the control group. However, rats in Group C and D exhibited dose-dependent poor testes histo-morphometric profiles, with the higher dosage-group (D) providing a worse feature. Thus, there was a statistically significant (p < 0.05) reduction in the tubular diameter, cross-sectional area of the tubules, number of tubular profiles per unit area and the mean numerical density of seminiferous tubules of Group C and Group D animals compared to the control group. Our results therefore indicated that, while the lower dose (100 mg/kg) of Vernonia amygdalina leaves extract can be accommodated by rat testis, the higher doses (300 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg) demonstrate testicular toxicity in the rat.

La Vernonia amygdalina (hoja amarga) es originaria de África Occidental, pero se produce mediante cultivo en varias partes del Centro y Sur de Nigeria. Es una verdura, una hoja color verde oscuro, común en la cocina y como medicina alternativa en el manejo de varias enfermedades en Nigeria. Se investigaron los efectos de diferentes dosis de extracto etanólico de la hoja de Vernonia amygdalina para estudiar los efectos sobre la histomorfometría testicular en la rata. Cuarenta ratas Wistar macho se dividieron en 4 grupos. Grupo A, como control con el suministro de 10 ml/kg/día/agua destilada vía oral, y los Grupos B, C y D tratados con 100, 300 y 600 mg/kg/día/ vía oral del extracto de Vernonia amygdalina, durante 56 días. Los resultados mostraron que las ratas del grupo B tenían una histología testicular normal y comparable con el grupo control. Sin embargo, las ratas del grupo C y D mostraron bajos perfiles histomorfométricos testiculares, dependientes de la dosis, y con la dosis más elevada, grupo (D) se observaron característica aún menores. Hubo una reducción estadísticamente significativa (p<0,05) en el diámetro tubular, área de sección transversal de los túbulos, número túbulos por unidad de superficie y densidad numérica media de los túbulos seminíferos del Grupo C y D en comparación con el grupo de control. Nuestros resultados indicaron que dosis bajas (100 mg/kg) del extracto de Vernonia amygdalina pueden ser aceptables y no alteran el testículo de rata, pero con dosis altas (300 mg/kg y 600 mg/kg) se observa toxicidad testicular.

Male , Animals , Rats , Plant Extracts/toxicity , Testis , Testis/pathology , Vernonia/toxicity , Photomicrography , Rats, Wistar , Toxicity Tests
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 49(4): 719-727, Oct.-Dec. 2013. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-704103


Gymnanthemum amygdalinum (Delile) Sch.Bip. ex Walp. (Asteraceae), better known by its former name Vernonia amygdalina Delile, is a small shrub used in folk medicine as an antipyretic, laxative, antimalarial and anthelmintic. Studies have demonstrated that different vegetal extracts possess antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiparasitic activities. Among the bioactive metabolites, there are sesquiterpene lactones, saponins, polyphenols and flavonoids. This study investigated the leaf and stem microscopic characters of G. amygdalinum, aiming to expand the knowledge on this medicinal species and indicate anatomical structures. Plant material was fixed and sectioned by freehand and using a microtome. The sections were either stained or underwent standard histochemical tests. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to investigate epidermal relief. The leaf is amphistomatic with anomocytic stomata. There are striate cuticle, glandular and non-glandular trichomes and dorsiventral mesophyll. In transverse section, the midrib and the petiole have a plano-convex shape. Both show several collateral vascular bundles and few crystals of calcium oxalate. In the stem, the epidermis persists and the phellogen has a peripheral origin. It presents typical endodermis and sclerenchymatic caps adjoining the phloem. The aspects that contribute to characterizing the species are stomata on both leaf surfaces, midrib and petiole features, the endodermis and sclerenchymatic caps in the stem, as well as the different types of trichome on both aerial organs.

Gymnanthemum amygdalinum (Delile) Sch.Bip. ex Walp. (Asteraceae), espécie mais conhecida pela sinonímia Vernonia amygdalina Delile, é um pequeno arbusto empregado na medicina popular como antipirético, laxativo, antimalárico e anti-helmíntico. Estudos demonstraram que diferentes extratos do vegetal possuem atividades antioxidante, antimicrobiana e antiparasitária. Entre os metabólitos bioativos presentes, citam-se lactonas sesquiterpenoides, saponinas, polifenóis e flavonoides. Este estudo investigou os caracteres microscópicos de folha e caule de G. amygdalinum, a fim de ampliar o conhecimento acerca dessa espécie medicinal e apontar estruturas anatômicas características. O material foi fixado e seccionado à mão livre e em micrótomo. Os cortes foram corados ou submetidos aos testes histoquímicos clássicos. Empregou-se microscopia eletrônica de varredura para investigar a ultraestrutura da superfície epidérmica. A folha é anfiestomática com estômatos anomocíticos. Há cutícula estriada, tricomas glandular e tector e mesofilo dorsiventral. Em secção transversal, a nervura central e o pecíolo têm contorno plano-convexo. Ambos mostram vários feixes vasculares colaterais e poucos cristais de oxalato de cálcio. No caule, a epiderme permanece e o felogênio tem instalação periférica. São observadas endoderme típica e calotas esclerenquimáticas apostas ao floema. Os aspectos que fornecem elementos para a identificação da espécie são a ocorrência de estômatos em ambas as superfícies foliares, a organização da nervura central e do pecíolo, a endoderme e as calotas esclerenquimáticas no caule, além dos diferentes tipos de tricoma nos órgãos aéreos estudados.

Plant Stems , Asteraceae/classification , Vernonia , Pharmacognosy/classification , Plants, Medicinal/classification , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Microscopy, Electrochemical, Scanning/classification
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 15(4): 520-528, 2013. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-695237


The purpose of this study was to screen the antioxidant activity of medicinal plant extracts from the Brazilian cerrado, through other methods than the total phenolic content and its correlation with the antioxidant activity. Ethanolic extracts of ten species were evaluated through three antioxidant assays, in vitro, including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), total antioxidant activity and reducing power; and by using the Folin-Ciocalteu method the total phenolic content was determined. Ethanolic extracts of Stryphnodendron obovatum, Cecropia pachystachya and Duguetia furfuraceae showed strong antioxidant activity (IC50<5 µg mL-1) in the DPPH free radical scavenging assay; the species Vernonia phosphorea, Hymenaea stignocarpa and Jacaranda ulei may also be highlighted. These results were confirmed in the assays of total antioxidant capacity and reducing power. The extracts of S. obovatum and V. phosphorea showed an abundant phenolic content; therefore, the phenolic content may play a role in the antioxidant activity. These two species, traditionally used in Brazil, showed great power in these assay systems and may be a promising source for the development of natural antioxidants and future candidates for phytochemical and pharmacological studies in related diseases.

O objetivo desse trabalho foi triar a atividade antioxidante de extratos de plantas medicinais do cerrado do Brasil, por outros métodos além do conteúdo de fenóis totais e sua correlação com a atividade antioxidante. Assim, o extrato etanólico de dez espécies vegetais do cerrado brasileiro foi avaliado por três ensaios de atividade antioxidante, in vitro: 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil (DPPH); atividade antioxidante total e poder redutor; e o teor de fenóis determinado pelo reagente de Folin-Ciocalteu. O extrato etanólico de Stryphnodendron obovatum, Cecropia pachystachya e Duguetia furfuraceae apresentaram forte atividade antioxidante (CI50<5 mg mL-1) no ensaio com o DPPH, tendo destaque também as espécies Vernonia phosphorea, Hymenaea stignocarpa e Jacaranda ulei. Os extratos de S. obovatum e V. phosphorea demonstraram maiores teores de fenóis, indicando que esse grupo de substâncias possa ser a responsável pela atividade antioxidante. Essas duas espécies, usadas tradicionalmente no Brasil, representam fontes promissoras para o desenvolvimento de antioxidantes naturais e futuros estudos fitoquímicos e farmacológicos em doenças relacionadas.

Plant Extracts/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis , Phenols/analysis , Plants, Medicinal/adverse effects , Stryphnodendron barbatimam/therapeutic use , Grassland , Vernonia/adverse effects