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1.
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(4): 510-513, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447631

ABSTRACT

Abstract Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) are a group of rare genetic inherited diseases with a progressive course due to the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans resulting in anatomic abnormalities and organ dysfunction, including the respiratory, cardiovascular, skeletal, and neurological systems that can increase the risk of anesthesia complications. Clinical manifestations are variable, multisystemic, and include severe morphological changes. The anesthetic management of these patients is complex, particularly airway management, which can be planned to include a fiberoptic airway investigation prior to surgery. We present two cases of patients with MPS type VI and VII who underwent fiberoptic airway mapping under conscious sedation, with no complications. Since MPS is a rare but challenging disease concerning the airway management, we propose a safe and effective anesthetic technique that could be used for fiberoptic bronchoscopy and allow fiberoptic-assisted tracheal intubation at the time of surgery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Wakefulness , Mucopolysaccharidoses/complications , Bronchoscopy/methods , Airway Management/methods , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods
2.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 360-368, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981012

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the auditory response characteristics of the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) in awake mice during auditory information processing, so as to deepen the understanding of TRN and explore its role in the auditory system. By in vivo electrophysiological single cell attached recording of TRN neurons in 18 SPF C57BL/6J mice, we observed the responses of 314 recorded neurons to two kinds of auditory stimuli, noise and tone, applied to mice. The results showed that TRN received projections from layer six of the primary auditory cortex (A1). Among 314 TRN neurons, 56.05% responded silently, 21.02% responded only to noise and 22.93% responded to both noise and tone. The neurons with noise response can be divided into three patterns according to their response time: onset, sustain and long-lasting, accounting for 73.19%, 14.49% and 12.32%, respectively. The response threshold of the sustain pattern neurons was lower than those of the other two types. Under noise stimulation, compared with A1 layer six, TRN neurons showed unstable auditory response (P < 0.001), higher spontaneous firing rate (P < 0.001), and longer response latency (P < 0.001). Under tone stimulation, TRN's response continuity was poor, and the frequency tuning was greatly different from that of A1 layer six (P < 0.001), but their sensitivity to tone was similar (P > 0.05), and TRN's tone response threshold was much higher than that of A1 layer six (P < 0.001). The above results demonstrate that TRN mainly undertakes the task of information transmission in the auditory system. The noise response of TRN is more extensive than the tone response. Generally, TRN prefers high-intensity acoustic stimulation.


Subject(s)
Rats , Mice , Animals , Wakefulness , Auditory Pathways/physiology , Rats, Wistar , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Thalamus/physiology
3.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 337-351, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982591

ABSTRACT

The awake prone position plays an important role in the treatment of hypoxemia and the improvement of respiratory distress symptoms in non-intubated patients. It is widely used in clinical practice because of its simple operation, safety, and economy. To enable clinical medical staff to scientifically and normatively implement prone position for awake patients without intubation, the committees of consensus formulation, guided by evidence-based methodology and Delphi method, conducted literature search, literature quality evaluation and evidence synthesis around seven topics, including indications and contraindications, evaluation, implementation, monitoring and safety management, termination time, complication prevention and health education of awake prone position. After two rounds of expert letter consultation, Expert consensus on implementation strategy of awake prone positioning for non-intubated patients in China (2023) was formulated, and provide guidance for clinical medical staff.


Subject(s)
Humans , Consensus , Prone Position , Wakefulness , China , Dyspnea
4.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 589-601, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982432

ABSTRACT

The parabrachial nucleus (PBN) integrates interoceptive and exteroceptive information to control various behavioral and physiological processes including breathing, emotion, and sleep/wake regulation through the neural circuits that connect to the forebrain and the brainstem. However, the precise identity and function of distinct PBN subpopulations are still largely unknown. Here, we leveraged molecular characterization, retrograde tracing, optogenetics, chemogenetics, and electrocortical recording approaches to identify a small subpopulation of neurotensin-expressing neurons in the PBN that largely project to the emotional control regions in the forebrain, rather than the medulla. Their activation induces freezing and anxiety-like behaviors, which in turn result in tachypnea. In addition, optogenetic and chemogenetic manipulations of these neurons revealed their function in promoting wakefulness and maintaining sleep architecture. We propose that these neurons comprise a PBN subpopulation with specific gene expression, connectivity, and function, which play essential roles in behavioral and physiological regulation.


Subject(s)
Parabrachial Nucleus/physiology , Wakefulness/physiology , Neurons/physiology , Emotions , Sleep
5.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 458-462, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982386

ABSTRACT

The difference between sleep and wakefulness is critical for human health. Sleep takes up one third of our lives and remains one of the most mysterious conditions; it plays an important role in memory consolidation and health restoration. Distinct neural behaviors take place under awake and asleep conditions, according to neuroimaging studies. While disordered transitions between wakefulness and sleep accompany brain disease, further investigation of their specific characteristics is required. In this study, the difference is objectively quantified by means of network controllability. We propose a new pipeline using a public intracranial stereo-electroencephalography (stereo-EEG) dataset to unravel differences in the two conditions in terms of system neuroscience. Because intracranial stereo-EEG records neural oscillations covering large-scale cerebral areas, it offers the highest temporal resolution for recording neural behaviors. After EEG preprocessing, the EEG signals are band-passed into sub-slow (0.1‍-‍1 Hz), delta (1‍-‍4 Hz), theta (4‍-‍8 Hz), alpha (8‍-‍13 Hz), beta (13‍-‍30 Hz), and gamma (30‍-‍45 Hz) band oscillations. Then, dynamic functional connectivity is extracted from time-windowed EEG neural oscillations through phase-locking value (PLV) and non-overlapping sliding time windows. Next, average and modal network controllability are implemented on these time-varying brain networks. Based on this preliminary study, it appears that significant differences exist in the dorsolateral frontal-parietal network (FPN), salience network (SN), and default-mode network (DMN). The combination of network controllability and dynamic functional networks offers new insight for characterizing distinctions between awake and asleep stages in the brain. In other words, network controllability captures the underlying brain dynamics under both awake and asleep conditions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Wakefulness , Electroencephalography/methods , Brain Mapping/methods , Brain
6.
Rev. chil. neuropsicol. (En línea) ; 16(1): 28-36, ene. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362112

ABSTRACT

La craneotomía con paciente despierto (CPD) demanda un manejo multidisciplinario particular debido al componente de conciencia transoperatoria que aporta beneficios en la resección tumoral y preservación neurológica, pero también implica el manejo de los riesgos asociados a la necesidad de cooperación del paciente durante el procedimiento. En este trabajo se describen los beneficios y las complicaciones en pacientes operados bajo la modalidad de CPD. Además, se abordan los retos documentados tanto para el equipo profesional a cargo, como para los pacientes, los cuales tienen un rol activo durante la cirugía. En ese sentido, se exponen los criterios para la selección, preparación psicológica y neuropsicológica tanto previo como durante la cirugía. A su vez, se proponen las consideraciones para lograr un procedimiento exitoso y evitar las posibles secuelas psicológicas a largo plazo, como insumos para la protocolización de este tipo de procedimientos con base en nuestra experiencia.


Awake craniotomy (AC) requires a multidisciplinary management due to trans operative awareness, which benefits the tumor resection and neurologic preservation, but it also implies risks for the patient cooperation during the procedure. This article describes the benefits and complications in patients operated under AC. Besides, it approaches the documented challenges for both the professional team and patients, who have an active role during surgery. In this regard, the criteria for selection and psychological and neuropsychological preparation before and during surgery are set out. It suggests considerations to achieve a successful procedure and to avoid possible long- term psychological sequelae, as a resource for the protocol of this type of procedures based on our experience.


Subject(s)
Humans , Wakefulness , Neurosurgical Procedures/methods , Craniotomy/methods , Postoperative Period , Patient Compliance , Conscience
7.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(4): 1088-1093, 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405261

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: El objetivo del estudio fue determinar si la composición corporal es una condición que influye en el efecto del posicionamiento en prono vigil (PPV) en pacientes con COVID-19 conectados a cánula nasal de alto flujo (CNAF). Se realizó un estudio observacional retrospectivo y se analizaron los resultados terapéuticos de 83 pacientes tratados con CNAF en el servicio de medicina del Hospital El Carmen (HEC), Santiago de Chile. Desde la ficha clínica electrónica (Florence clínico versión 19.3) y registro kinésico, se obtuvo la siguiente información: i) antecedentes del paciente, ii) diagnóstico médico, iii) índice de masa corporal (IMC), iv) características del PPV y v) características del proceso de conexión a CNAF. Se observó que existían diferencias significativas en pacientes con sobrepeso y obesos que usaron el PPV (p=0,001) a través del índice de ROX (IROX) al finalizar el tratamiento con CNAF, ocurriendo de igual manera al evaluar los efectos del PPV y en la PAFI en estos mismos grupos. En conclusión el IMC es un factor más agravante que condiciona la salud de los pacientes con COVID-19, y el IMC elevado puede afectar de manera negativa el tratamiento de estos pacientes. Por otra parte, el uso de PPV y CNAF demostraron ser efectivas en los pacientes con COVID-19.


SUMMARY: The aim of the study was to determine whether body composition is a condition influencing the effect of awake prone positioning (APP) in patients with COVID-19 connected to high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC). We conducted a retrospective observational study and analyzed the therapeutic outcomes of 83 patients treated with HFNC in the medicine department of Hospital El Carmen (HEC), Santiago, Chile. The following information was obtained from the electronic clinical record (Florence clinical version 19.3) and the kinesic registry: i) patient history, ii) medical diagnosis, iii) body mass index (BMI), iv) characteristics of the APP and v) characteristics of the process of connection to CNAF. It was observed that there were significant differences in overweight and obese patients who used the PPV (p=0.001) through the ROX index (IROX) at the end of treatment with CNAF, occurring in the same way when evaluating the effects of the APP and in the PAFI in these same groups. In conclusion, BMI is a further aggravating factor that conditions the health of patients with COVID-19, and elevated BMI can negatively affect the treatment of these patients. On the other hand, the use of APP and CNAF proved to be effective in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Body Mass Index , Prone Position , Cannula , COVID-19/therapy , Wakefulness , Body Composition , Nose , Nutritional Status , Retrospective Studies
8.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 54-58, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928481

ABSTRACT

Wide-awake local anesthesia has many advantages. We describe a new method to use wide-awake local anesthesia with more flexibility. A 32-year-old man with a severe right-hand contracture after an iatrogenic tourniquet accident during an anterolateral thigh flap for a partial hand amputation underwent contracture release using external fixation after proximal row carpectomy and subsequent tenolysis. We performed most of the tenolysis procedure under general anesthesia and the final stage with an intraoperative assessment of active finger movement and dissection under local anesthesia. He regained his grip strength 2.5 years post-injury. General anesthesia is useful to treat a surgical site with extensive hard scars, whereas local anesthesia is useful for adjusting tension in an awake patient. The indication for wide-awake surgery is yet to be established; our method of combining general and local anesthesia in the tenolysis procedure illustrates the possibilities in expanding this method.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Anesthesia, General , Anesthesia, Local , Brain Neoplasms , Contracture/surgery , Dissection , External Fixators , Fracture Fixation , Wakefulness
9.
Clinics ; 76: e3368, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350605

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Since there are difficulties in establishing effective treatments for COVID-19, a vital way to reduce mortality is an early intervention to prevent disease progression. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of patients with COVID-19 with acute hypoxic respiratory failure according to pulmonary impairment in the awake-prone position, outside of the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: A prospective observational cohort study was conducted on COVID-19 patients under noninvasive respiratory support. Clinical and laboratory data were obtained for each patient before the treatment and after they were placed in the awake-prone position. To identify responders and non-responders after the first prone maneuver, receiver operating characteristic curves with sensitivity and specificity of the PaO2/FiO2 and SpO2/FiO2 indices were analyzed. The maneuver was considered positive if the patient did not require endotracheal intubation for ventilatory assistance. RESULTS: Forty-eight patients were included, and 64.6% were categorized as responders. The SpO2/FiO2 index was effective for predicting endotracheal intubation in COVID-19 patients regardless of lung parenchymal damage (area under the curve 0.84, cutoff point 165, sensitivity 85%, specificity 75%). Responders had better outcomes with lower hospital mortality (hazard ratio [HR]=0.107, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.012-0.93) and a shorter length of stay (median difference 6 days, HR=0.30, 95% CI: 0.13-0.66) after adjusting for age, body mass index, sex, and comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: The awake-prone position for COVID-19 patients outside the ICU can improve oxygenation and clinical outcomes regardless of the extent of pulmonary impairment. Furthermore, the SpO2/FiO2 index discriminates responders from non-responders to the prone maneuver predicting endotracheal intubation with a cutoff under or below 165.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , COVID-19 , Wakefulness , Prospective Studies , Prone Position , SARS-CoV-2 , Oxygen Saturation , Intensive Care Units
10.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 48: e20202722, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250705

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The anesthesia for awake craniotomy (AC) is a consecrated anesthetic technique that has been perfected over the years. Initially used to map epileptic foci, it later became the standard technique for the removal of glial neoplasms in eloquent brain areas. We present an AC anesthesia technique consisting of three primordial times, called awake-asleep-awake, and their respective particularities, as well as delve into the anesthetic medications used. Its use in patients with low and high-grade gliomas was favorable for the resection of tumors within the functional boundaries of patients, with shorter hospital stay and lower direct costs. The present study aims to systematize the technique based on the experience of the largest philanthropic hospital in Latin America and discusses the most relevant aspects that have consolidated this technique as the most appropriate in the surgery of gliomas in eloquent areas.


RESUMO A anestesia para craniotomia em paciente acordado (CPA ou awake craniotomy) é técnica anestésica consagrada e aperfeiçoada ao longo dos últimos anos. Utilizada inicialmente para mapeamento de focos epilépticos, consolidou-se posteriormente como técnica padrão para a remoção de neoplasias de origem glial em áreas eloquentes cerebrais. A técnica de anestesia CPA apresentada constitui-se em três tempos primordiais denominados acordado-dormindo-acordado (asleep-awake-asleep) e respectivas particularidades, assim como o manejo quanto às medicações anestésicas utilizadas de forma pormenorizada. A utilização em gliomas de baixo e de alto grau se demonstrou favorável para a ressecção de tumores dentro dos limites funcionais dos pacientes, com menor tempo de internação hospitalar e de custos diretos. O presente estudo visa realizar a sistematização da técnica baseada na experiência do maior Hospital Filantrópico da América Latina e discute os aspectos mais relevantes que consolidaram essa técnica como a mais adequada na cirurgia dos gliomas em áreas eloquentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain Neoplasms/surgery , Glioma/surgery , Anesthesia , Wakefulness , Craniotomy
11.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(7): 397-402, July 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131726

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: The relationship of bidirectional comorbidity between chronic migraine and pain in the cephalic segment led us to evaluate the improvement in reducing the pain in patients diagnosed with chronic migraine headache and awake bruxism, when undergoing treatment with a partial posterior interocclusal device designed for the management and control of awake bruxism through biofeedback. Methods: Seventy-four patients were evaluated during the following periods: pretreatment, seven, thirty, ninety, one hundred and eighty days, and one year. The evaluation was carried out by measuring the pain in the pretreatment period and pain reduction after awake bruxism treatment, using clinical evaluation and numerical scales for pain. Results: Most of the patients who complained of headache migraine pain, masticatory myofascial pain, temporomandibular joint and neck pain experienced a significant reduction in overall pain, including headaches, between t0 and t30 (p<0.0001). After 30 days of using the device, it was observed that the improvement remained at the same level without any recurrence of pain up to t90. At t180 and t360, it was observed that even with the device withdrawal (at t90) the improvement remained at the same level. Conclusion: The utilization of a posterior interocclusal device designed for the management and control of awake bruxism through biofeedback seems to contribute to the reduction of pain (including migraine headache) in the majority of patients, and, even with the device withdrawal (at t90), the improvement remained at the same level, suggesting the patients succeeded in controlling their awake bruxism and consequently the pains.


RESUMO Introdução: A relação de comorbidade bidirecional entre enxaqueca crônica e dor no segmento cefálico nos levou a avaliar a melhora na redução da dor em pacientes diagnosticados com cefaleia crônica de enxaqueca e bruxismo de vigília, quando submetidos a tratamento com dispositivo interoclusal posterior parcial projetado para o manejo e o controle do bruxismo acordado através de biorretroalimentação (biofeedback). Métodos: Setenta e quatro pacientes foram avaliados durante os seguintes períodos: pré-tratamento, sete, trinta, noventa e cento e oitenta dias, e um ano. A avaliação foi realizada por meio da avaliação da dor no período pré-tratamento e redução da dor após o tratamento do bruxismo de vigília, através de avaliação clínica e escalas numéricas de dor. Resultados: A maioria dos pacientes que se queixou de dor de cabeça com enxaqueca, dor miofascial mastigatória, articulação temporomandibular e dor no pescoço sofreu uma redução significativa na dor geral, incluindo dores de cabeça, entre t0 e t30 (p<0,0001). Após 30 dias de uso do dispositivo, observou-se que a melhora permaneceu no mesmo nível, sem recorrência da dor até t90. Em t180 e t360, observou-se que, mesmo com a retirada do dispositivo (em t90), a melhoria permaneceu no mesmo nível. Conclusão: A utilização de um dispositivo interoclusal posterior projetado para o controle do bruxismo de vigília através de biofeedback parece contribuir para a redução da dor (incluindo enxaqueca) na maioria dos pacientes, e, mesmo com a retirada do dispositivo (t90), a melhora manteve-se no mesmo nível, sugerindo que os pacientes conseguiram controlar o seu bruxismo de vigília e a dor associada a esse hábito.


Subject(s)
Humans , Wakefulness/physiology , Facial Pain/complications , Bruxism/complications , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders/complications , Migraine Disorders/complications , Biofeedback, Psychology , Bruxism/diagnosis , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders/diagnosis
13.
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 659-661, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828232

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the application and clinical effect of wide awake local anesthesia no tourniquet technique in the surgery of bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome.@*METHODS@#From March 2016 to August 2018, 20 patients (40 sides) with bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome were treated by wide awake technique. All patients were female, aged from 32 to 56 (50.8±6.4) years old. The anesthetic, intraoperative and postoperative pain and anxiety were evaluated, operative field bleeding in operation were assessed, postoperative skin healing of surgical area and anesthetic complications were observed, and Kelly grading were used to evaluate recovery of function.@*RESULTS@#Twenty patients were followed up from 6 to 9 months with an average of 7.8 months. There was light anxiety before injection (NRS score rangedfrom 1 to 3), slight pain occurred during injection on the first poke (NRS ranged from 2 to 3);no pain and anxiety during operation (NRS score was 0);mild or moderate pain (NRS score ranged from 1 to 6) without anxiety(NRS score was 0) after operation was occurred. Surgical skin healed well at the stageⅠwithout side effect of anesthetic. At final follow-up, according to Kelly grading, 30 sides got excellent results, 8 sides good and 2 sides fair.@*CONCLUSION@#Wide awake technique is safe and effective in treating neurolysis of bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome, and could receive good clinical effects.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Anesthesia, Local , Carpal Tunnel Syndrome , Pain, Postoperative , Wakefulness
14.
Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association ; : 25-28, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811245

ABSTRACT

Narcolepsy is a chronic neurological sleep disorder caused by hypocretin neuron loss, resulting in excessive daytime sleepiness, disturbed nocturnal sleep, and intrusions of aspects of rapid eye movement sleep in wakefulness, such as cataplexy, sleep paralysis, and hypnopompic/hypnagogic hallucinations. Narcolepsy disrupts the maintenance and orderly occurrence of the wake and sleep stages. Cataplexy is a highly specific symptom of narcolepsy, but many other symptoms can be observed in a variety of sleep disorders. The diagnosis of narcolepsy type 1 requires a history of excessive daytime sleepiness and one of the following : 1) a low cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 level or 2) cataplexy and a positive multiple sleep latency test result. The diagnosis of narcolepsy type 2 requires a history of excessive daytime sleepiness and a positive mean sleep-latency test result. The mean sleep-latency test must be preceded by nighttime polysomnography to exclude other sleep disorders and to document adequate sleep. The mean sleep-latency test result can be falsely positive in other sleep disorders, such as shift work, sleep apnea, or sleep deprivation, and it is influenced by age, sex, and puberty. Modafinil and armodafinil can reduce the excessive daytime sleepiness without many of the side effects associated with older stimulants. Although there is no cure for narcolepsy, the treatments are often effective and include both behavioral and pharmacologic approaches.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Humans , Cataplexy , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Diagnosis , Disorders of Excessive Somnolence , Hallucinations , Narcolepsy , Neurons , Orexins , Polysomnography , Puberty , Sleep Apnea Syndromes , Sleep Deprivation , Sleep Paralysis , Sleep Stages , Sleep Wake Disorders , Sleep, REM , Wakefulness
15.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 793-803, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878227

ABSTRACT

The formation, consolidation and retrieval of spatial memory depend on sequential firing patterns of place cells assembling in the hippocampus. Theta sequences of place cells during behavior play a role in acquisition of spatial memory, trajectory prediction and decision making. In awake rest and slow wave sleep, place cell sequences occur during the sharp wave-ripples (SWRs), called "replay", which is crucial for memory consolidation and retrieval. In this review, we summarize the functional significances of theta sequences and SWRs replay sequences and the mechanism of these sequences. We also discuss the relationship between theta and replay sequences with the formation of spatial memory. We propose the research direction in this field in future and aim to provide new ideas for related researches.


Subject(s)
Hippocampus , Sleep , Spatial Memory , Wakefulness
17.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(supl.3): 25-28, set. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040545

ABSTRACT

El sueño es un proceso fisiológico activo y cíclico que tiene efectos críticos en la salud. Sus funciones son numerosas: crecimiento, desarrollo, aprendizaje, memoria, eficiencia sináptica, regulación del comportamiento, emoción, fortalecimiento inmunológico y tiempo de limpieza de sustancias neurotóxicas. Durante los primeros años de vida hay una serie de cambios importantes en el desarrollo que conducen al patrón esperado de sueño y vigilia en los adultos. El sueño ocupa un tercio de la vida del adulto. Sin embargo, dormir durante los primeros meses de vida ocupa más del 50% del tiempo. Esta revisión del tema describirá los patrones normales de sueño en la infancia.


Sleep is an active and cyclic physiological process that has a critical impact on health. Its functions are numerous: growth, development, learning, memory, synaptic efficiency, regulation of behavior, emotion, immune strengthening and cleaning time of neurotoxic substances. During the first years of life, there are a number of important changes in development, which lead to the expected pattern of sleep and wakefulness in adults. The sleep occupies a third of the adult's life. However, sleeping during the first months of life takes up more than 50% of time. This review of the topic will describe normal sleep patterns in childhood.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Sleep/physiology , Wakefulness/physiology
19.
J. bras. pneumol ; 45(4): e20180264, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019983

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To determine whether airway narrowing during obstructive events occurs predominantly at the retropalatal level and results from dynamic changes in the lateral pharyngeal walls and in tongue position. Methods: We evaluated 11 patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and 7 healthy controls without OSA during wakefulness and during natural sleep (documented by full polysomnography). Using fast multidetector CT, we obtained images of the upper airway in the waking and sleep states. Results: Upper airway narrowing during sleep was significantly greater at the retropalatal level than at the retroglossal level in the OSA group (p < 0.001) and in the control group (p < 0.05). The retropalatal airway volume was smaller in the OSA group than in the control group during wakefulness (p < 0.05) and decreased significantly from wakefulness to sleep only among the OSA group subjects. Retropalatal pharyngeal narrowing was attributed to reductions in the anteroposterior diameter (p = 0.001) and lateral diameter (p = 0.006), which correlated with an increase in lateral pharyngeal wall volume (p = 0.001) and posterior displacement of the tongue (p = 0.001), respectively. Retroglossal pharyngeal narrowing during sleep did not occur in the OSA group subjects. Conclusions: In patients with OSA, upper airway narrowing during sleep occurs predominantly at the retropalatal level, affecting the anteroposterior and lateral dimensions, being associated with lateral pharyngeal wall enlargement and posterior tongue displacement.


Resumo Objetivo: Determinar se o estreitamento das vias aéreas durante eventos obstrutivos ocorre predominantemente na região retropalatal e resulta de alterações dinâmicas nas paredes laterais da faringe e na posição da língua. Métodos: Avaliamos 11 pacientes com apneia obstrutiva do sono (AOS) grave (grupo AOS) e 7 indivíduos saudáveis sem AOS (grupo controle) durante a vigília e o sono natural (documentado por meio de polissonografia completa). Por meio de TC multidetectores rápida, obtivemos imagens das vias aéreas superiores no estado de vigília e de sono. Resultados: O estreitamento das vias aéreas superiores durante o sono foi significativamente maior na região retropalatal do que na região retrolingual no grupo AOS (p < 0,001) e no grupo controle (p < 0,05). O volume da via aérea retropalatal foi menor no grupo AOS do que no grupo controle durante a vigília (p < 0,05) e diminuiu significativamente da vigília ao sono apenas no grupo AOS. O estreitamento retropalatal da faringe foi atribuído à redução do diâmetro anteroposterior (p = 0,001) e lateral (p = 0,006), que se correlacionou com o aumento do volume das paredes laterais da faringe (p = 0,001) e o deslocamento posterior da língua (p = 0,001). Não ocorreu estreitamento retrolingual da faringe durante o sono no grupo AOS. Conclusões: Em pacientes com AOS, o estreitamento das vias aéreas superiores durante o sono ocorre predominantemente na região retropalatal e afeta as dimensões anteroposterior e lateral, além de estar relacionado com aumento das paredes laterais da faringe e deslocamento posterior da língua.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Tongue/diagnostic imaging , Pharyngeal Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnostic imaging , Multidetector Computed Tomography/methods , Palate/physiopathology , Palate/pathology , Palate/diagnostic imaging , Pharynx/physiopathology , Pharynx/pathology , Pharynx/diagnostic imaging , Reference Values , Respiratory Tract Diseases/physiopathology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/pathology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Tongue/physiopathology , Tongue/pathology , Wakefulness/physiology , Pharyngeal Diseases/physiopathology , Pharyngeal Diseases/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Polysomnography , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/physiopathology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/pathology
20.
Mali méd. (En ligne) ; 34(1): 30-34, 2019. ilus
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1265731

ABSTRACT

Les benzodiazépines (BZD) sont très utilisées de nos jours et sont à l'origine d'uneaddiction.Objectifs : L'objectif était d'évaluer la qualité de la prescription et de la délivrance des benzodiazépines dans le département de Mbour au Sénégal et ultérieurement mettre en place une stratégie d'addictovigilance. Ainsi, nous avons étudié les habitudes de prescription, la qualité de délivrance et identifié les habitudes de consommation de ces médicaments. Matériels et méthodes : Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale, prospective avec deux questionnaires : adressé aux patients et prescripteurs, menée dans des pharmacies, hôpital, district et postes de santé de Mbour.Résultats:44% des ordonnanace de BZD étaient prescrites par des médecins et particulièrement des généralistes.31,1% ne respectaient pas les règles de prescriptions (hors AMM). Quant aux règles de délivrance,85,3% étaient délivrées sans ordonnance. Le niveau de consommation était élevé dans la tranche d'âge 30-40 ans (43,95%) avec une prédominance féminine (59%). L'insomnie prédominait comme motif de prescription (16,4%) sur l'anxiété (11,94%) avec (65,5%) de dépendance. Conclusion : Les abus observés dans la prescription, la délivrance et la consommation des BZD, constitue un véritable problème desantè.La moitié des consommateurs deviennent addictes, d'où la nécessité de mettre en place un programme d'addictovigilance à l'échelon national


Subject(s)
Benzodiazepines , Prescriptions , Senegal , Wakefulness
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