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Estimation of Staute from Toe Lengths: An Evaluation of the Hausa Population in Nigeria Using Linear Modeling.
Article in English | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-183468


Statue determination has remained a basic requirement in determining human identity and ethnicity. Usually in situations when whole anatomical structures are unavailable, forensic expert would be expected to rely on smaller structures such as the phalanges, patella ribs and other fragmentary bones.


The present study evaluates toe anthropometry and its usability as predictors of the stature of the Hausa ethnic group in Nigeria.


Six hundred and sixty four (664) subjects comprising of equal percentage of adult males and females were included in the study group. Toe lengths of both feet (coded as big toe or first toe [1T] to the fifth toes [5T]) were measured using a digital Vernier calliper with accuracy of 0.01mm while stature was taken using a stadiometer with accuracy of 0.1m. SPSS (IBM®) t-test was to evaluate gender difference in the measured dimensions; while SPSS and XLSTAT (2015) Automatic & Generalized Linear Modelling were used to determine the predictability of stature from the toe lengths. The significance level was set at 95% as P≤0.05 was considered significant.


The automatic (multiple) regression analysis showed that the males displayed significantly higher mean values than the females for all measured parameters (P<0.001). The general population regression formulae were derived and only three (3) variables (R2T, R5T and L3T) significant contributors to the models for stature prediction for the general Gp (R2=0.385, F[3, 660]=137.68, P<0.001) and female F (R2=0.137, F[3, 328]=17.367, P<0.001) population, while only the L.1T could predict male M stature (R2=0.139, F[1, 330] = 54.489, P<0.001). Single regression gender-specific formulae were derived for the measurements that provided significant R2 values.


This study suggested that estimation of a stature of Hausa ethnic group could be made possible by using specific toe measurements. However, lengths of toe may not be so reliable in the estimation of stature, but could be used for sex discrimination in forensic investigation.





Full text: Available Index: GHL / IMSEAR (South-East Asia) Clinical aspect: Prediction Language: English Year: 2017 Type: Article