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1.
RMD Open ; 8(2)2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064278

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The level of neutralising capacity against Omicron BA.1 and BA.2 after third COVID-19 vaccination in patients on paused or continuous methotrexate (MTX) therapy is unclear. METHODS: In this observational cohort study, neutralising serum activity against SARS-CoV-2 wild-type (Wu01) and variant of concern Omicron BA.1 and BA.2 were assessed by pseudovirus neutralisation assay before, 4 and 12 weeks after mRNA booster immunisation in 50 rheumatic patients on MTX, 26 of whom paused the medication. 44 non-immunosuppressed persons (NIP) served as control group. RESULTS: While the neutralising serum activity against SARS-CoV-2 Wu01 and Omicron variants increased 67-73 fold in the NIP after booster vaccination, the serum activity in patients receiving MTX increased only 20-23 fold. Patients who continued MTX treatment during vaccination had significantly lower neutralisation against all variants at weeks 4 and 12 compared with patients who paused MTX and the control group, except for BA.2 at week 12. Patients who paused MTX reached comparably high neutralising capacities as NIP, except for Wu01 at week 12. The duration of the MTX pause after-not before-was associated with a significantly higher neutralisation capacity against all three variants, with an optimal duration at 10 days after vaccination. CONCLUSION: Patients pausing MTX after COVID-19 booster showed a similar vaccine response to NIP. Patients who continued MTX demonstrated an impaired response indicating a potentially beneficial second booster vaccination. Our data also suggest that a 1 week MTX break is sufficient if the last administration of MTX occurs 1-3 days before vaccination.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents , COVID-19 , Vaccines , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
2.
Turk J Med Sci ; 52(2): 522-523, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2057242

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dear Editor, After the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic affected the whole world, rheumatologists began to think about how COVID-19 will progress in patients with inflammatory conditions. High cytokine levels play a role in the pathophysiology of COVID-19 infection. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a proinflammatory cytokine known to have a key role in the pathogenesis of chronic immune-mediated diseases. AntiTNF therapy may cause an increase in active tuberculosis, other granulomatous diseases, and serious infections [1]. According to many studies, rheumatological diseases have not been identified as a risk factor for severe COVID-19 infection [2]. Should significantly increased cytokine levels during COVID-19 infection make us consider anticytokine therapies that may be used in the treatment of patients with COVID-19 a risk? We aimed to explore whether the frequency of COVID-19 infection increased, the effect of comorbidities on the frequency of infection, and whether the severity of the disease and need for intensive care support increased in patients who used anti-TNF agents. We performed a retrospective case-control study between March and December 2020 in Sakarya University Training and Research Hospital. Retrospectively, we evaluated whether there was a difference in the frequency and severity of COVID-19 in our patients diagnosed with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), 77 of whom were using anti-TNF and 49 of whom didn't use anti-TNF. Hospitalization and intensive care unit (ICU) requirements were evaluated as endpoints. In the anti-TNF group, patients used adalimumab, etanercept, certolizumab, infliximab, and golimumab. Patients were questioned at an outpatient clinic in person or by phone. Seventy-seven patients with AS using anti-TNF agents (58 males, 19 females) and 49 patients with AS (38 males, 11 females) not using anti-TNF agents were included in the study (p = 0.943). Mean age of patients using antiTNF agents was 41.53 ± 10.38, and mean age of patients not using anti-TNF agents was 42.94 ± 10.86 (p = 0.468). Thirty-three (42.9%) patients were smokers in the antiTNF group, while 23 (46.9%) patients were smokers in the group not using TNFi (p = 0.791). There was 12 pack-year smoking in the anti-TNF group, and 14 pack-year smoking in not using TNFi (p = 0.623). The frequency of diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HT), amiloidosis, familial mediterranean fever (FMF), coronary artery disease (CAD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was similar in both groups (p = 0.403, p = 0.999, p = 0.521, p = 0.999, p = 0.999, respectively). Six patients using TNFi and 3 patients not using TNFi recovered from COVID-19 infection. However, this result was not statistically significant (p = 0.999). One patient using anti-TNF was hospitalized but with no need for admission to the ICU (p = 0.999). All 9 patients recovering from COVID-19 were male (p = 0.113). There were 2 (22.2%) smokers in the SARS-CoV-2 positive group and 54 (46.2%) smokers in SARS-CoV-2 negative group (p = 0.297). There was 37.5 pack-year smoking in SARS-CoV-2 positive group, and 12 pack-year smoking in SARS-CoV-2 negative group (p = 0.151). Nobody has comorbidities (DM, HT, amiloidosis, FMF, CAD, COPD) in SARS-CoV-2 positive group. There were patients with DM (5.1%), HT (15.4%), amiloidosis (1.7%), FMF (1.7%), CAD (0.9%) and COPD (0.9%) in SARS-CoV-2 negative group (p = 0.999, p = 0.356, p = 0.999, p = 0.999, p = 0.999, p = 0.999, respectively). Having comorbidities was not detected to be associated with frequency of COVID-19. 31 (40.3%) patients were using adalimumab, 25 (32.5%) patients were using etanercept, 13 patients were using (16.9%) certolizumab, 6 (7.8%) patients were using golimumab, and 2 patients (2.6%) were using infliximab in TNF group. Six patients using anti-TNF (2 adalimumab, 1 etanercept, 1 golimumab,2 infliximab) and 3 nonuser patients recovered from COVID-19 (p = 0.999). No statistically significant difference was found between SARS-CoV-2 positive and negative patients in terms of the types of anti TNF they used. Patients were called in March 2020, and they were advised to terminate their anti-TNF therapy, when the COVID-19 pandemic began. Among those who used antiTNF, 2 (33.3%) people who had COVID-19 and 38 (53.5%) people who did not have COVID-19 interrupted treatment (p = 0.419). Anti-TNF users who did not have COVID-19 stopped taking the treatment for an average of 3 months (min 2-max 4 months) starting from March 2020, and the patients who had COVID-19 (p = 0.102) stopped taking the treatment for 1.5 months (min 1-max 2 months). Duration of interrupting TNFi was not significant for the risk of COVID-19. Comorbidities, older age, and the presence of active disease have been associated with worse outcomes in previous studies [3]. In our study, the anti-TNF using and the nonuser groups were similar according to age, sex, and comorbidities. Although comorbidities in COVID-19 are associated with severe disease in the literature, we did not find a significant difference in our study. This result is probably related to our insufficient number of patients. As a result, we found that the use of anti-TNF did not increase the frequency and severity of COVID-19. In a recently published multicenter study, it was stated that the use of biological DMARDs in patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases was not significantly associated with a worse outcome of COVID-19. But unlike our study, having no comorbidities was associated with a decreased risk of a worse outcome [4]. There are currently studies investigating the therapeutic utility of infliximab and adalimumab in hospitalized COVID-19 patients [5]. The results of these studies are very important. The usability of TNFi in treatment and at which stage of the disease anti-TNF agents can be used are wondered. We will see the course of the disease all over the world after the administration of the COVID-19 vaccines, but we still need more information about effective and safe treatment. RESULTS: The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest. DISCUSSION: The authors did not receive support from any organization for this work.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents , COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Spondylitis, Ankylosing , Adalimumab/therapeutic use , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Etanercept/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Infliximab/therapeutic use , Male , Pandemics , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spondylitis, Ankylosing/complications , Spondylitis, Ankylosing/drug therapy , Spondylitis, Ankylosing/epidemiology , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
3.
RMD Open ; 8(2)2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029522

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The effect of different modes of immunosuppressive therapy in autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases (AIRDs) remains unclear. We investigated the impact of immunosuppressive therapies on humoral and cellular responses after two-dose vaccination. METHODS: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis, axial spondyloarthritis or psoriatic arthritis treated with TNFi, IL-17i (biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, b-DMARDs), Janus-kinase inhibitors (JAKi) (targeted synthetic, ts-DMARD) or methotrexate (MTX) (conventional synthetic DMARD, csDMARD) alone or in combination were included. Almost all patients received mRNA-based vaccine, four patients had a heterologous scheme. Neutralising capacity and levels of IgG against SARS-CoV-2 spike-protein were evaluated together with quantification of activation markers on T-cells and their production of key cytokines 4 weeks after first and second vaccination. RESULTS: 92 patients were included, median age 50 years, 50% female, 33.7% receiving TNFi, 26.1% IL-17i, 26.1% JAKi (all alone or in combination with MTX), 14.1% received MTX only. Although after first vaccination only 37.8% patients presented neutralising antibodies, the majority (94.5%) developed these after the second vaccination. Patients on IL17i developed the highest titres compared with the other modes of action. Co-administration of MTX led to lower, even if not significant, titres compared with b/tsDMARD monotherapy. Neutralising antibodies correlated well with IgG titres against SARS-CoV-2 spike-protein. T-cell immunity revealed similar frequencies of activated T-cells and cytokine profiles across therapies. CONCLUSIONS: Even after insufficient seroconversion for neutralising antibodies and IgG against SARS-CoV-2 spike-protein in patients with AIRDs on different medications, a second vaccination covered almost all patients regardless of DMARDs therapy, with better outcomes in those on IL-17i. However, no difference of bDMARD/tsDMARD or csDMARD therapy was found on the cellular immune response.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , COVID-19 , Janus Kinase Inhibitors , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Male , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
4.
ARP Rheumatol ; 1(ARP Rheumatology, nº3 2022): 205-209, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2012009

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) generally appears to have milder clinical symptoms and fewer laboratory abnormalities in children. It remains unknown whether children and young people with inflammatory chronic diseases who acquire SARS-CoV-2 infection have a more severe course, due to either underlying disease or immunosuppressive treatments. OBJECTIVES: To assess the epidemiological features and clinical outcomes of children and young people with inflammatory chronic diseases followed at Pediatric Rheumatology Clinics who were infected with SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: A multicentric prospective observational study was performed. Data on demographic variables, clinical features and treatment were collected between March 2020 and September 2021, using the Rheumatic Diseases Portuguese Register (Reuma.pt) and complemented with data from the hospital clinical records. RESULTS: Thirty-four patients were included, 62% were female, with a median age of 13 [8-16] years and a median time of inflammatory chronic disease of 6 [3-10] years. The most common diagnoses were juvenile idiopathic arthritis (n=22, 64.7%), juvenile dermatomyositis (n=3, 8.8%) and idiopathic uveitis (n=3, 8.8%). Twenty patients were on conventional synthetic disease modifying drugs (csDMARDs) and 10 on biologic DMARDs (bDMARDs). Five patients had an active inflammatory disease at the time of infection (low activity). Seven patients had an asymptomatic infection while 27 patients (79%) had symptoms: cough (n=12), fever (n=11), rhinorrhea (n=10), headache (n=8), malaise (n=8), fatigue (n=7), anosmia (n=5), myalgia (n=5),dysgeusia (n=4), odynophagia (n=4), chest pain (n=2), diarrhea (n=2), arthralgia (n=1), vomiting (n=1) and conjunctivitis (n=1). No patient required hospitalization or directed treatment, and all recovered without sequelae. In 8 patients there was a change in the baseline medication during the infection: suspension of bDMARDs (n=4), reduction of bDMARDs (n=1), suspension of csDMARDs (n=4) and reduction of csDMARDs (n=2). Only in one patient with juvenile dermatomyositis (who discontinued bDMARDs and csDMARDs), the underlying disease worsened. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study involving children with inflammatory chronic diseases followed at Rheumatology Clinics and SARS-CoV-2 infection in Portugal. In our cohort, mild illness was predominant, which is consistent with the literature. There was no need for hospitalization or specific treatment, and, in most cases, no worsening of the underlying disease was identified.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents , COVID-19 , Dermatomyositis , Rheumatology , Child , Humans , Female , Adolescent , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Portugal/epidemiology , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use
6.
Clin Rheumatol ; 41(12): 3707-3714, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1990658

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Recently, a number of studies have explored the possible attenuation of the immune response by disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our study objective was to investigate the presumed attenuated humoral response to vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 in patients with RA treated with Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors with or without methotrexate (MTX). The immune responses were compared with controls without RA. METHOD: The humoral vaccination response was evaluated by determining titres of neutralising antibodies against the S1 antigen of SARS-CoV-2. One hundred and thirteen fully vaccinated individuals were included at 6 ± 1 weeks after second vaccination (BioNTech/Pfizer (69.9%), AstraZeneca (21.2%), and Moderna (8.9%)). In a cross-sectional and single-centre study design, we compared titres of neutralising antibodies between patients with (n = 51) and without (n = 62) medication with JAK inhibitors. RESULTS: Treatment with JAK inhibitors led to a significantly reduced humoral response to vaccination (P = 0.004). A maximum immune response was seen in 77.4% of control patients, whereas this percentage was reduced to 54.9% in study participants on medication with JAK inhibitors (effect size d = 0.270). Further subanalyses revealed that patients on combination treatment (JAK inhibitors and MTX, 9 of 51 subjects) demonstrated an even significantly impaired immune response as compared to patients on monotherapy with JAK inhibitors (P = 0.028; d = 0.267). CONCLUSIONS: JAK inhibitors significantly reduce the humoral response following dual vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. The combination with MTX causes an additional, significant reduction in neutralising IgG titres. Our data suggest cessation of JAK inhibitors in patients with RA in the context of vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. Key Points • It was shown that DMARD therapy with JAK inhibitors in patients with rheumatoid arthritis leads to an attenuation of the humoral vaccination response against SARS-CoV-2. • The effect under medication with JAK inhibitors was significant compared to the control group and overall moderate. • The combination of JAK inhibitors with MTX led to an additive and significant attenuation of the humoral response.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , COVID-19 , Janus Kinase Inhibitors , Humans , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/prevention & control , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Janus Kinases , Vaccination , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral
7.
Clin Rheumatol ; 41(12): 3661-3673, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1990657

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: To describe clinical characteristics of patients in Japan with coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) and pre-existing rheumatic disease and examine the possible risk factors associated with severe COVID-19. METHODS: Adults with rheumatic disease and a COVID-19 diagnosis who were registered in the COVID-19 Global Rheumatology Alliance (C19-GRA) physician-reported registry from Japan between 15 May 2020 and 12 May 2021 were included. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess factors associated with severe COVID-19 progression, defined as death or requiring oxygen inhalation. RESULTS: In total, 222 patients were included in the study. Rheumatoid arthritis (48.2%), gout (14.4%), and systemic lupus erythematosus (8.1%) were the most common types of rheumatic disease, 55.1% of patients were in remission and 66.2% had comorbid disease. Most patients were hospitalised (86.9%) for COVID-19, 43.3% received oxygen, and 9.0% died. Older age (≥ 65 years), corticosteroid use, comorbid diabetes, and lung diseases are associated with higher risk for severe COVID-19 progression (odds ratio (OR) 3.52 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.69-7.33], OR 2.68 [95% CI 1.23-5.83], OR 3.56 [95% CI 1.42-8.88], and OR 2.59 [95% CI 1.10-6.09], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: This study described clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients with rheumatic diseases in Japan. Several possible risk factors for severe COVID-19 progression were suggested. Key points • Clinical characteristics of 222 adult patients in Japan with coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) and pre-existing rheumatic diseases were described. • Most patients were hospitalised (86.9%) for COVID-19 in Japan, 43.3% received oxygen, and 9.0% died. • The COVID-19 characteristics of patients with rheumatic diseases did not show any obvious different pattern from those of the general population in Japan. • In this study, older age (≥ 65 years), corticosteroid use, comorbid diabetes, and lung diseases are associated with higher risk for severe COVID-19 progression.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents , COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Physicians , Rheumatic Diseases , Rheumatology , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Japan/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Rheumatic Diseases/complications , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Registries , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Oxygen , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use
8.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 81(11): 1594-1602, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962122

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate long-term kinetics of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine-induced immune response in adult patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases (AIIRD) and immunocompetent controls. METHODS: A prospective multicentre study investigated serum anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 IgG titre at 2-6 weeks (AIIRD n=720, controls n=122) and 6 months (AIIRD n=628, controls n=116) after the second vaccine, and 2-6 weeks after the third vaccine dose (AIIRD n=169, controls n=45). T-cell immune response to the third vaccine was evaluated in a small sample. RESULTS: The two-dose vaccine regimen induced a higher humoral response in controls compared with patients, postvaccination seropositivity rates of 100% versus 84.72%, p<0.0001, and 96.55% versus 74.26%, p<0.0001 at 2-6 weeks and at 6 months, respectively. The third vaccine dose restored the seropositive response in all controls and 80.47% of patients with AIIRD, p=0.0028. All patients treated with methotrexate monotherapy, anticytokine biologics, abatacept and janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors regained the humoral response after the third vaccine, compared with only a third of patients treated with rituximab, entailing a 16.1-fold risk for a negative humoral response, p≤0.0001. Cellular immune response in rituximab-treated patients was preserved before and after the third vaccine and was similar to controls. Breakthrough COVID-19 rate during the Delta surge was similar in patients and controls, 1.83% versus 1.43%, p=1. CONCLUSIONS: The two-dose BNTb262 regimen was associated with similar clinical efficacy and similar waning of the humoral response over 6 months among patients with AIIRD and controls. The third vaccine dose restored the humoral response in all of the controls and the majority of patients.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Rheumatic Diseases , Abatacept/therapeutic use , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Autoimmune Diseases/complications , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , Janus Kinases , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Rituximab/therapeutic use
9.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917795

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore disease patterns of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in patients with rheumatic musculoskeletal disorders (RMD) treated with immunosuppressive drugs in comparison with the general population. The observational study considered a cohort of RMD patients treated with biologic drugs or small molecules from September 2019 to November 2020 in the province of Udine, Italy. Data include the assessment of both pandemic waves until the start of the vaccination, between February 2020 and April 2020 (first), and between September 2020 and November 2020 (second). COVID-19 prevalence in 1051 patients was 3.5% without significant differences compared to the general population, and the course of infection was generally benign with 2.6% mortality. A small percentage of COVID-19 positive subjects were treated with low doses of steroids (8%). The most used treatments were represented by anti-TNF agents (65%) and anti-IL17/23 agents (16%). More than two-thirds of patients reported fever, while gastro-intestinal symptoms were recorded in 27% of patients and this clinical involvement was associated with longer swab positivity. The prevalence of COVID-19 in RMD patients has been confirmed as low in both waves. The benign course of COVID-19 in our patients may be linked to the very low number of chronic corticosteroids used and the possible protective effect of anti-TNF agents, which were the main class of biologics herein employed. Gastro-intestinal symptoms might be a predictor of viral persistence in immunosuppressed patients. This finding could be useful to identify earlier COVID-19 carriers with uncommon symptoms, eventually eligible for antiviral drugs.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents , Biological Products , COVID-19 , Musculoskeletal Diseases , Rheumatic Diseases , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Products/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Musculoskeletal Diseases/epidemiology , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors
17.
Front Immunol ; 13: 873195, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911041

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has proven to be particularly serious and life-threatening for patients presenting with pre-existing pathologies. Patients affected by rheumatic musculoskeletal disease (RMD) are likely to have impaired immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 infection due to their compromised immune system and the prolonged use of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), which include conventional synthetic (cs) DMARDs or biologic and targeted synthetic (b/ts) DMARDs. To provide an integrated analysis of the immune response following SARS-CoV-2 infection in RMD patients treated with different classes of DMARDs we carried out an immunological analysis of the antibody responses toward SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid and RBD proteins and an extensive immunophenotypic analysis of the major immune cell populations. We showed that RMD individuals under most DMARD treatments mount a sustained antibody response to the virus, with neutralizing activity. In addition, they displayed a sizable percentage of effector T and B lymphocytes. Among b-DMARDs, we found that anti-TNFα treatments are more favorable drugs to elicit humoral and cellular immune responses as compared to CTLA4-Ig and anti-IL6R inhibitors. This study provides a whole picture of the humoral and cellular immune responses in RMD patients by reassuring the use of DMARD treatments during COVID-19. The study points to TNF-α inhibitors as those DMARDs permitting elicitation of functional antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 and adaptive effector populations available to counteract possible re-infections.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents , COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Clin Rheumatol ; 41(10): 3199-3209, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906098

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in patients with rheumatic and immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) in Argentina: the SAR-CoVAC registry. METHODS: SAR-CoVAC is a national, multicenter, and observational registry. Adult patients with rheumatic or IMIDs vaccinated for SARS-CoV-2 were consecutively included between June 1 and September 17, 2021. Sociodemographic data, comorbidities, underlying rheumatic or IMIDs, treatments received, their modification prior to vaccination, and history of SARS-CoV-2 infection were recorded. In addition, date and place of vaccination, type of vaccine applied, scheme, adverse events (AE), disease flares, and new immune-mediated manifestations related to the vaccine were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 1234 patients were included, 79% were female, with a mean age of 57.8 (SD 14.1) years. The most frequent diseases were rheumatoid arthritis (41.2%), osteoarthritis (14.5%), psoriasis (12.7%), and spondyloarthritis (12.3%). Most of them were in remission (28.5%) or low disease activity (41.4%). At the time of vaccination, 21% were receiving glucocorticoid treatment, 35.7% methotrexate, 29.7% biological (b) disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARD), and 5.4% JAK inhibitors. In total, 16.9% had SARS-CoV-2 infection before the first vaccine dose. Most patients (51.1%) received Gam-COVID-Vac as the first vaccine dose, followed by ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (32.8%) and BBIBP-CorV (14.5%). Half of them (48.8%) were fully vaccinated with 2 doses; 12.5% received combined schemes, being the most frequent Gam-COVID-Vac/mRAN-1273. The median time between doses was 51 days (IQR 53). After the first dose, 25.9% of the patients reported at least one AE and 15.9% after the second, being flu-like syndrome and local hypersensitivity the most frequent manifestations. There was one case of anaphylaxis. Regarding efficacy, 63 events of SARS-CoV-2 infection were reported after vaccination, 19% occurred during the first 14 days post-vaccination, 57.1% after the first dose, and 23.8% after the second. Most cases (85.9%) were asymptomatic or mild and 2 died due to COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: In this national cohort of patients, the most common vaccines used were Gam-COVID-Vac and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. A quarter of the patients presented an AE and 5.1% presented SARS-CoV-2 infection after vaccination, in most cases mild. STUDY REGISTRATION: This study has been registered in ClinicalTrials.gov under the number: NCT04845997. Key Points • This study shows real-world data about efficacy and safety of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with rheumatic and immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. Interestingly, different types of vaccines were used including vector-based, mRNA, and inactivated vaccines, and mixed regimens were enabled. • A quarter of the patients presented an adverse event. The incidence of adverse events was significantly higher in those receiving mRAN-1273 and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. • In this cohort, 5.1% presented SARS-CoV-2 infection after vaccination, in most cases mild.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Argentina/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Female , Glucocorticoids , Humans , Janus Kinase Inhibitors , Male , Methotrexate , Middle Aged , Preliminary Data , RNA, Messenger , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated
19.
Curr Pharm Des ; 28(24): 2022-2028, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902781

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Autoimmune systemic diseases (ASD) represent a predisposing condition to COVID-19. Our prospective, observational multicenter telephone survey study aimed to investigate the prevalence, prognostic factors, and outcomes of COVID-19 in Italian ASD patients. METHODS: The study included 3,918 ASD pts (815 M, 3103 F; mean age 59±12SD years) consecutively recruited between March 2020 and May 2021 at the 36 referral centers of COVID-19 and ASD Italian Study Group. The possible development of COVID-19 was recorded by means of a telephone survey using a standardized symptom assessment questionnaire. RESULTS: ASD patients showed a significantly higher prevalence of COVID-19 (8.37% vs. 6.49%; p<0.0001) but a death rate statistically comparable to the Italian general population (3.65% vs. 2.95%). Among the 328 ASD patients developing COVID-19, 17% needed hospitalization, while mild-moderate manifestations were observed in 83% of cases. Moreover, 12/57 hospitalized patients died due to severe interstitial pneumonia and/or cardiovascular events; systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients showed a significantly higher COVID-19-related death rate compared to the general population (6.29% vs. 2.95%; p=0.018). Major adverse prognostic factors to develop COVID-19 were: older age, male gender, SSc, pre-existing ASD-related interstitial lung involvement, and long-term steroid treatment. Of note, patients treated with conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (csDMARDs) showed a significantly lower prevalence of COVID-19 compared to those without (3.58% vs. 46.99%; p=0.000), as well as the SSc patients treated with low dose aspirin (with 5.57% vs. without 27.84%; p=0.000). CONCLUSION: During the first three pandemic waves, ASD patients showed a death rate comparable to the general population despite the significantly higher prevalence of COVID-19. A significantly increased COVID-19- related mortality was recorded in only SSc patients' subgroup, possibly favored by preexisting lung fibrosis. Moreover, ongoing long-term treatment with csDMARDs in ASD might usefully contribute to the generally positive outcomes of this frail patients' population.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents , Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Scleroderma, Systemic , Aged , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/drug therapy , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , Prospective Studies
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