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1.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 74(1): e20200532, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787801

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: to understand how the therapeutic itineraries of people affected by leprosy are processed. METHODS: this is a descriptive, qualitative study, conducted in April 2018 in Barão de Grajaú in Maranhão, with interviews in the form of narratives of seven patients who had a late leprosy diagnosis. RESULTS: the search for diagnosis is a major difficulty in accessing health services, resulting in a late diagnosis and, consequently, with the presence of visible deformities. It was noticed that the health units do not have a flow, nor protocols for comprehensive treatment, and these people are referred to a referral unit in another state to perform sputum smear microscopy. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: leprosy control actions need reformulations that seek the relationship between operational activities, epidemiological indicators and risk factors, in accordance with the real needs of each region, thus highlighting the gaps evidenced in the therapeutic itineraries.

2.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 87(2): 214-222, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769732

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a chronic, inflammatory, relapsing and remitting disease with no cure till date. There is a paucity of trials using a combination of methotrexate (MTX) and cyclosporine (CsA) in chronic plaque psoriasis, due to fear of added toxicity, although they are time tested treatment options for monotherapy. AIMS: The study aimed to compare the efficacy and adverse effect profile of the standard recommended dose of MTX (i.e. 0.3mg/kg/week) versus a combination of reduced doses of MTX and CsA (i.e. MTX 0.15 mg/kg/week with CsA 2.5mg/kg/day) in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis. METHODS: Study design was a non-blinded randomised controlled trial. Patients of chronic plaque psoriasis with PASI more than 10 were randomised in 1: 1 allocation to receive either 0.3 mg/kg/week of intramuscular MTX injection or a combination of 0.15 mg/kg/week of intramuscular MTX injection and 2.5 mg/kg/day of CsA rounded off to the nearest 25 mg. Patients were followed up at every 2 weeks for 12 weeks. The doses were kept fixed throughout the study period. RESULTS: A total of 66 patients received MTX monotherapy, whereas 67 patients received the combination. At baseline, both groups were comparable in their BSA (P = 0.105, Student t-test) and PASI (P = 0.277, Student t-test), which reduced significantly at 12 weeks in both groups (P < 0.001, paired t-test). The achievement of PASI-75 (P = 0.005), PASI-90 (P < 0.001) and PASI-100 (P = 0.001) was more in the combination group (Chi square test). Intention to treat analysis using Chi square test also showed better outcomes for PASI-75 (P = 0.027), PASI-90 (P < 0.001) and PASI-100 (P = 0.001) in the combination group. Combination group also had earlier onset of action (P = 0.001, Chi square test). There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of laboratory and clinical adverse events. LIMITATIONS: Non-blinded, no comparison with CsA monotherapy arm, no follow up beyond 12 weeks. CONCLUSION: The combination of reduced doses of MTX and CsA is more efficacious with earlier onset of action and similar adverse effects as with MTX monotherapy.

6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(3): e0009201, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study reviews the progress of leprosy elimination in Yunnan, China, over the past 30 years and identifies the challenges for the next stage of the program. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data were collected from the Leprosy Management Information System in China (LEPMIS). The progress made in the elimination of leprosy between 1990 and 2019 was measured. We defined two time periods, time period 1 (1990-2003) and time period 2 (2004-2019), because multidrug therapy (MDT) was launched for the treatment of leprosy in 1990 and a special fund from the central government was established for leprosy in 2004. During the past 30 years, the number of newly detected leprosy patients in Yunnan has steadily declined. In total, 703 newly detected leprosy patients were reported in 1990, and 353 and 136 cases were reported at the end of 2003 and 2019, respectively. At the end of 1990, 90.7% (117/129) of counties in Yunnan Province were identified as leprosy-endemic counties (>1 case per 100,000 population). By the end of 2003 and 2019, 39.3% (46/117) and 85.5% (100/117) of the leprosy-endemic counties, respectively, had dropped below the elimination threshold. The main challenges are the remaining leprosy-endemic counties, the high rate of cases with a contact history, insufficient early detection, and leprosy cases resulting in physical disability. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A multifaceted strategy for leprosy elimination in Yunnan Province has been successfully implemented, and remarkable progress has been made in the elimination of leprosy in this area. The priorities for leprosy elimination in the next stage are securing sustainable support and investment from the government, establishing an effective surveillance system, ensuring prompt early detection, providing treatment with MDT, preventing transmission of M. leprae, preventing disability, providing health education, and preventing recurrence of the epidemic situation of leprosy.

9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 290, 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy continues to be an important cause of physical disability in endemic countries such as Brazil. Knowledge of determinants of these events may lead to better control measures and targeted interventions to mitigate its impact on affected individuals. This study investigated such factors among the most vulnerable portion of the Brazilian population. METHODS: A large cohort was built from secondary data originated from a national registry of applicants to social benefit programs, covering the period 2001-2015, including over 114 million individuals. Data were linked to the leprosy notification system utilizing data from 2007 until 2014. Descriptive and bivariate analyses lead to a multivariate analysis using a multinomial logistic regression model with cluster-robust standard errors. Associations were reported as Odds Ratios with their respective 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Among the original cohort members 21,565 new leprosy cases were identified between 2007 and 2014. Most of the cases (63.1%) had grade zero disability. Grades 1 and 2 represented 21 and 6%, respectively. Factors associated with increasing odds of grades 1 and 2 disability were age over 15 years old (ORs 2.39 and 1.95, respectively), less schooling (with a clear dose response effect) and being a multibacillary patient (ORs 3.5 and 8.22). Protective factors for both grades were being female (ORs 0.81 and 0.61) and living in a high incidence municipality (ORs 0.85 and 0.67). CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that the developing of physical disabilities remains a public health problem which increases the burden of leprosy, mainly for those with severe clinical features and worse socioeconomic conditions. Early diagnosis is paramount to decrease the incidence of leprosy-related disability and our study points to the need for strengthening control actions in non-endemic areas in Brazil, where cases may be missed when presented at early stages in disease. Both actions are needed, to benefit patients and to achieve the WHO goal in reducing physical disabilities among new cases of leprosy.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brazil has the second highest prevalence of leprosy worldwide. Autoregressive integrated moving average models are useful tools in surveillance systems because they provide reliable forecasts from epidemiological time series. AIM: To evaluate the temporal patterns of leprosy detection from 2001 to 2015 and forecast for 2020 in a hyperendemic area in northeastern Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted using monthly leprosy detection from the Brazil information system for notifiable diseases. The Box-Jenkins method was applied to fit a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average model. Forecasting models (95% prediction interval) were developed to predict leprosy detection for 2020. RESULTS: A total of 44,578 cases were registered with a mean of 247.7 cases per month. The best-fitted model to make forecasts was the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average ((1,1,1); (1,1,1)). It was predicted 0.32 cases/100,000 inhabitants to January of 2016 and 0.38 cases/100,000 inhabitants to December of 2020. LIMITATIONS: This study used secondary data from Brazil information system for notifiable diseases; hence, leprosy data may be underreported. CONCLUSION: The forecast for leprosy detection rate for December 2020 was < 1 case/100,000 inhabitants. Seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average model has been shown to be appropriate and could be used to forecast leprosy detection rates. Thus, this strategy can be used to facilitate prevention and elimination programmes.

11.
Langmuir ; 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667094

RESUMO

There has been a recent drive to develop non-fluorinated superhydrophobic coatings due to the toxicity, cost, and environmental impact of perfluorinated components. One of the main challenges in developing superhydrophobic coatings in general and non-fluorinated superhydrophobic coatings in particular is optimization of mechanical durability, as the rough asperities required for maintaining superhydrophobicity tend to be easily removed by abrasion. Although rough and self-similar hydrophobic surfaces composed of loosely adhered particles or highly porous structures tend to produce excellent superhydrophobicity, they have low inherent mechanical durability and their longevity under real conditions is compromised. To address this issue, this work investigates the addition of a polymeric matrix material (the binder) to hydrophobic nanoparticles (the filler) to produce spray-coated superhydrophobic surfaces with improved inherent mechanical durability. Hansen solubility parameters were used to tune the interactions between the binder, filler, and solvent used to deliver the coating. It was found that lowering the binder/filler miscibility and using a poor solvent mixture generates more surface roughness, thereby lowering the minimum filler load required to achieve superhydrophobicity. This leads to an overall more inherently durable system that remains hydrophobic for thousands of light abrasion cycles.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33660498

RESUMO

We have revealed for the first time that BiVO4 photoanodes can be used even in strong acid media by mixing organic solvents into the electrolyte and depositing multilayers with a WO3 bottom layer. In general, the BiVO4 photoanodes are photocorrosive, especially in acid solutions. However, this shortcoming has been overcome using a combination of the two aforementioned modifications. We deduced that the contribution of each mixing organic solvent for the anti-photocorrosion of BiVO4 in sulfuric acid solutions can be evaluated on the basis of a new empirical indicator that incorporates molecular density, the Hansen solubility parameter, and molecular polarizability. Acetone and tert-butyl alcohol were especially promising solvents for stabilizing BiVO4 in acid media. We confirmed that the mixed organic solvents stabilized surface-emergent Bi oxide species as a passivation layer, which was generated via multilayering with a WO3 bottom layer. During heat treatment in the fabrication process, W weakly diffused into the BiVO4 layer and a Bi oxide layer was formed on the outermost surface because of the Bi segregation that arose from the charge compensation between W6+ and V5+ in the BiVO4 lattice. The surface Bi oxide layer, which was protected by the mixed organic solvents, steadily served as a passivation layer for anti-photocorrosion of the underlying BiVO4 layer. We have confirmed that the BiVO4/WO3 photoanodes in acetone-mixed aqueous sulfuric acid solution reliably functioned for a photoelectrochemical reaction under simulated sunlight illumination, and photoelectrochemical production of S2O82- ions was confirmed under light irradiation at λ > 480 nm. These results suggest that the BiVO4-based photoanodes have significant potential for use in acid media in conjunction with very straightforward modifications.

13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(3): e0009279, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Leprosy Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (LPEP) program explored the feasibility and impact of contact tracing and the provision of single dose rifampicin (SDR) to eligible contacts of newly diagnosed leprosy patients in Brazil, India, Indonesia, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Tanzania. As the impact of the programme is difficult to establish in the short term, we apply mathematical modelling to predict its long-term impact on the leprosy incidence. METHODOLOGY: The individual-based model SIMCOLEP was calibrated and validated to the historic leprosy incidence data in the study areas. For each area, we assessed two scenarios: 1) continuation of existing routine activities as in 2014; and 2) routine activities combined with LPEP starting in 2015. The number of contacts per index patient screened varied from 1 to 36 between areas. Projections were made until 2040. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In all areas, the LPEP program increased the number of detected cases in the first year(s) of the programme as compared to the routine programme, followed by a faster reduction afterwards with increasing benefit over time. LPEP could accelerate the reduction of the leprosy incidence by up to six years as compared to the routine programme. The impact of LPEP varied by area due to differences in the number of contacts per index patient included and differences in leprosy epidemiology and routine control programme. CONCLUSIONS: The LPEP program contributes significantly to the reduction of the leprosy incidence and could potentially accelerate the interruption of transmission. It would be advisable to include contact tracing/screening and SDR in routine leprosy programmes.

14.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 54: e03892020, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656147

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study analyzed the magnitude and temporal trends of leprosy relapse in Ceará in 2001-2018. METHODS: Descriptive cross-sectional and ecological-time trend studies were performed. RESULTS: We diagnosed 1,777 leprosy relapse cases. Higher prevalence of relapse was observed in men, illiterates, mixed race, multibacillary leprosy, lepromatous leprosy, and persons with visible disabilities. The proportion of relapse increased throughout the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Leprosy relapse is prevalent in certain groups.


Assuntos
Hanseníase Multibacilar , Hanseníase , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Masculino , Recidiva
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33681915

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Leprosy recurrence is the reappearance of the disease after treatment with current schemes and discharged for cure and may have variable incubation periods. METHODS: This is a descriptive observational study of leprosy recurrence in Espírito Santo diagnosed between January 2018 and January 2020. RESULTS: One hundred and ninety-two cases were available, of which 30 were diagnosed with leprosy recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: In 25 cases, the incubation period was 5-15 years after the first treatment, favoring bacillary persistence. In the remaining 5 cases, the disease had recurred after 15 years, pointing to reinfection as none of them exhibited drug resistance.


Assuntos
Hanseníase , Brasil , Resistência a Medicamentos , Humanos , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva , Centros de Atenção Terciária
16.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-03-01.
em Inglês | PAHOIRIS | ID: phr-53312

RESUMO

In 2016, PAHO's Directing Council, through Resolution CD55.R9, approved the “Plan of Action for Elimination of Neglected Infectious Diseases (NID) and Post-Elimination Actions, 2016-2022.” This Resolution urges Member States to implement a set of interventions to reduce the burden of disease by NID in the Americas by 2022, including “…support promotion of treatment, rehabilitation, and related support services through an approach focused on integrated morbidity management and disability prevention for individuals and families afflicted by those neglected infectious diseases that cause disability and generate stigma.” NIDs can have devastating chronic sequelae for patients, such as disability, visible change or loss in body structure, loss of tissue, and impairment of proper tissue and organ function, among others. All of these can in turn lead to unjustified discrimination, stigmatization, mental health problems, and partial or total incapacity to work, perpetuating the vicious cycle of neglected diseases as both a consequence and a cause of poverty. Patients with chronic conditions caused by NIDs require proper health care in order to prevent further damage and improve their living and social conditions. This should be provided at the primary health care level, as patients suffering from NIDs are often unable to travel to or afford to pay for specialized care services. Care for patients suffering from chronic morbidity caused by NID should be integrated into care for other chronic conditions caused by non-communicable diseases. This manual provides a framework for morbidity management and disability prevention of patients affected by NIDs and gives specific guidance for the proper care of patients suffering from chronic conditions caused by lymphatic filariasis, leprosy, trachoma, and Chagas disease. It is intended to be used mainly by health care workers at the primary health care level, but health workers at more complex and specialized levels may also find it useful.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Hanseníase , Doenças Linfáticas , Filariose Linfática , Tracoma , Doenças Negligenciadas , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa
17.
Inorg Chem ; 60(7): 4883-4890, 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711893

RESUMO

One-dimensional materials have been intensively studied because of their diverse properties, which are revealed when exfoliated from their bulk precursor. Liquid exfoliation is not only possibly the most suitable method for large-scale applications but also affords an opportunity to develop new deposition techniques. Fibrous phosphorus is a relatively new, one-dimensional material with high carrier mobility and a fast response velocity for future application in nanodevices. Because controllable liquid exfoliation processing of fibrous phosphorus (FP) remains challenging, we considered two factors: the exfoliated result and the removable solvents. We proposed a method for determining suitable solvents for efficient exfoliation and controllable size of fibrous phosphorus using Hansen solubility parameters. By controlling the water/acetone mixture ratios, the exfoliation effect could be controlled. Our work showed that 40% of the FP nanofibers were less than 10 nm in thickness and 70% of them were less than 20 nm. Furthermore, fibrous phosphorus produced a red fluorescence in bioimaging.

18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(2): e0009167, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600453

RESUMO

A key issue for persons with leprosy-, lymphatic filariasis- and podoconiosis-related disabilities is the life-long need to practice self-management routines. This is difficult to sustain without regular encouragement and support of others. Family-based support may be a sustainable and feasible strategy to practice self-management routines. This proof of concept study aimed to develop and pilot a family-based intervention to support prevention and self-management of leprosy, lymphatic filariasis and podoconiosis-related disabilities in Ethiopia. We used a quasi-experimental pre/post intervention study design with a mixed methods approach. The study population included persons affected by leprosy, lymphatic filariasis and podoconiosis and their family members. All persons affected had visible impairments due to their condition. We collected physical impairment outcomes, data on activity limitations, stigma and family quality of life using the SALSA scale (range 0-80), the SARI stigma scale (range 0-63) and the Beach Centre Family Quality of Life scale (range 0-125) and conducted in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Quantitative data were analysed using paired t-tests, unequal variances t-tests, linear regression and binary logistic regression. Qualitative data were coded using open, inductive coding and content analysis. The family-based intervention consisted of self-management of disabilities, awareness raising and socio-economic empowerment. The intervention was delivered over several monthly group meetings over the course of several months. A total of 275 (100%) persons affected attended at least one session with a family member, and 215 (78%) attended at least three sessions. There was no significant improvement in eye and hand problems after the intervention. However, foot and leg impairments, number of acute attacks, lymphedema and shoe wearing all significantly improved at follow-up. In addition, family quality of life significantly improved from 67.4 at baseline to 89.9 at follow-up for family members and from 76.9 to 84.1 for persons affected (p<0.001). Stigma levels significantly decreased from 24.0 at baseline to 16.7 at follow-up (p<0.001). Activity levels improved, but not significantly. This proof of concept study showed that the family-based intervention had a positive effect on impairments and self-management of disabilities, family quality of life and stigma. We recommend a large-scale efficacy trial, using a randomised controlled trial and validated measurement tools, to determine its effectiveness and long-term sustainability.

19.
Int J Infect Dis ; 105: 261-266, 2021 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that biological mechanisms involved in helminth infections and vitamin deficiencies increase susceptibility to other infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of helminth co-infection and select micronutrient deficiencies with leprosy using a case-control design. METHODS: From 2016 to 2018, individuals aged ≥3 years were recruited at clinics in and around Governador Valadares, Minas Gerais, Brazil in three groups: cases of leprosy, household contacts and community-matched (non-contact) controls. Helminths were diagnosed through stool Kato Katz examination and serum reactivity to anti-soluble adult worm antigen preparation IgG4. Serum ferritin, 25-OH vitamin D and retinol concentrations were measured. Multi-variate logistic regression was conducted to identify associations with active leprosy. RESULTS: Seventy-nine cases of leprosy, 96 household contacts and 81 non-contact controls were recruited; 48.1% of participants were male with a median age of 40 years. Helminths were found in 7.1% of participants on Kato Katz test, all but one of which were Schistosoma mansoni, and 32.3% of participants were positive for S. mansoni serology. On multi-variate analysis, cases were more likely to be infected with helminths (diagnosed by stool) than household contacts [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 8.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.50-50.51]. Vitamin D deficiency was common, and was more likely in cases compared with non-contact controls (aOR 4.66, 95% CI 1.42,-15.33). Iron deficiency was not associated with leprosy, and vitamin A deficiency was not detected. CONCLUSION: These associations suggest that the immune consequences of schistosomiasis and vitamin D deficiency may increase the risk of active leprosy. Comorbid conditions of poverty deserve further study as addressing co-infections and nutritional deficiencies could be incorporated into programmes to improve leprosy control.

20.
Dermatol Ther ; 34(2): e14882, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594711

RESUMO

Reactions in leprosy have an immune mediated pathogenesis. While type 1 reactions are delayed hypersensitivity phenomenon, type 2 reactions are immune complex mediated. Key molecules which mediate the immune insult in lepra reactions require evaluation in order to tailor their therapy and prevent disability. The objective of the study was to evaluate expressions of Cyclooxygenase 2 and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in skin biopsies from leprosy patients and correlate their expression with presence of either type 1 or type 2 lepra reactions. This was a case control study. Cyclooxygenase 2 and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor expression in dermal macrophages and vascular endothelium was assessed immunohistochemically. Biopsies from patients with Non-reactive leprosy and healthy controls were used for comparison. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. A total of 147 skin biopsies were evaluated, including 18 with Type 1 reaction, 39 Type 2 reaction, 81 non-reactive leprosy and 9 healthy controls. Both Cyclooxygenase 2 and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor expression were significantly higher in type 1 followed by type 2 reaction as compared to controls. These results may guide us regarding use of Cyclooxygenase 2 and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor inhibitor drugs which may be a major step in treating reactive leprosy patients and preventing nerve damage and disability.

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