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1.
PeerJ ; 12: e17170, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38590701

RESUMO

Introduction: Involvement of a chemokine known as C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 or CXCL10 in the immunopathology of leprosy has emerged as a possible immunological marker for leprosy diagnosis and needed to be investigate further. The purpose of this systematic review is to assess CXCL10's potential utility as a leprosy diagnostic tool and evaluation of therapy. Methods: This systematic review is based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) 2020. A thorough search was carried out to find relevant studies only in English and limited in humans published up until September 2023 using PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Wiley Online Library database with keywords based on medical subject headings (MeSH) and no exclusion criteria. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) was utilized for quality assessment, while the Risk of Bias Assessment tool for Non-randomized Studies (RoBANS) was utilized for assessing the risk of bias. Additionally, a narrative synthesis was conducted to provide a comprehensive review of the results. Results: We collected a total of 115 studies using defined keywords and 82 studies were eliminated after titles and abstracts were screened. We assessed the eligibility of the remaining 26 reports in full text and excluded four studies due to inappropriate study design and two studies with incomplete outcome data. There were twenty included studies in total with total of 2.525 samples. The included studies received NOS quality evaluation scores ranging from 6 to 8. The majority of items in the risk bias assessment, using RoBANS, across all included studies yielded low scores. However, certain items related to the selection of participants and confounding variables showed variations. Most of studies indicate that CXCL10 may be a helpful immunological marker for leprosy diagnosis, particularly in leprosy reactions as stated in seven studies. The results are better when paired with other immunological markers. Its effectiveness in field-friendly diagnostic tools makes it one of the potential biomarkers used in diagnosing leprosy patients. Additionally, CXCL10 may be utilized to assess the efficacy of multidrug therapy (MDT) in leprosy patients as stated in three studies. Conclusion: The results presented in this systematic review supports the importance of CXCL10 in leprosy diagnosis, particularly in leprosy responses and in tracking the efficacy of MDT therapy. Using CXCL10 in clinical settings might help with leprosy early diagnosis. Yet the findings are heterogenous, thus more investigation is required to determine the roles of CXCL10 in leprosy while taking into account for additional confounding variables.


Assuntos
Quimiocinas , Hansenostáticos , Humanos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Quimiocina CXCL10
3.
Skin Health Dis ; 4(2): e339, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38577053

RESUMO

Leprosy is caused by Mycobacterium leprae. The condition primarily affects the skin and peripheral nerves. There are two types of leprosy reactions, Type 1 and Type 2 or erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL). ENL is a severe multi-system, immune-mediated complication of lepromatous leprosy. It is characterised by widespread painful cutaneous nodules, fever and peripheral oedema. This report discusses the unusual case of a 29-year-old woman who developed a localised form of ENL which required thalidomide to induce remission.

4.
Bull World Health Organ ; 102(4): 288-295, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38562197

RESUMO

The World Health Organization (WHO) aims to reduce new leprosy cases by 70% by 2030, necessitating advancements in leprosy diagnostics. Here we discuss the development of two WHO's target product profiles for such diagnostics. These profiles define criteria for product use, design, performance, configuration and distribution, with a focus on accessibility and affordability. The first target product profile outlines requirements for tests to confirm diagnosis of leprosy in individuals with clinical signs and symptoms, to guide multidrug treatment initiation. The second target product profile outlines requirements for tests to detect Mycobacterium leprae or M. lepromatosis infection among asymptomatic contacts of leprosy patients, aiding prophylactic interventions and prevention. Statistical modelling was used to assess sensitivity and specificity requirements for these diagnostic tests. The paper highlights challenges in achieving high specificity, given the varying endemicity of M. leprae, and identifying target analytes with robust performance across leprosy phenotypes. We conclude that diagnostics with appropriate product design and performance characteristics are crucial for early detection and preventive intervention, advocating for the transition from leprosy management to prevention.


L'Organisation mondiale de la Santé (OMS) vise à réduire le nombre de nouveaux cas de lèpre de 70% d'ici 2030, ce qui nécessite un meilleur diagnostic de la maladie. Dans le présent document, nous évoquons le développement de deux profils de produit cible établis par l'OMS à cette fin. Ces profils définissent des critères en matière d'utilisation, de conception, de performances, de configuration et de distribution du produit, en accordant une attention particulière à l'accessibilité et à l'abordabilité. Le premier profil de produit cible décrit les exigences pour les tests servant à confirmer le diagnostic de la lèpre chez les individus qui présentent des signes cliniques et des symptômes, afin d'orienter l'instauration d'un traitement à base de plusieurs médicaments. Le second profil de produit cible décrit les exigences pour les tests servant à détecter une infection à Mycobacterium leprae ou M. lepromatosis parmi les contacts asymptomatiques de patients lépreux, ce qui contribue à l'adoption de mesures prophylactiques et à la prévention. Nous avons eu recours à une modélisation statistique pour évaluer les exigences de sensibilité et de spécificité de ces tests diagnostiques. Cet article met en évidence les obstacles à l'atteinte d'un niveau élevé de spécificité en raison de l'endémicité variable de M. leprae, et à l'identification d'analytes cibles offrant de bons résultats chez les phénotypes lépreux. Nous concluons qu'un diagnostic reposant sur des caractéristiques de performance et de conception appropriées est essentiel pour détecter rapidement la maladie et intervenir en amont, et nous plaidons pour une prévention plutôt qu'une gestion de la lèpre.


La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) pretende reducir los nuevos casos de lepra en un 70% para 2030, lo que requiere avances en el diagnóstico de la lepra. Aquí se analiza el desarrollo de dos perfiles de productos objetivo de la OMS para este tipo de diagnósticos. Estos perfiles definen los criterios de uso, diseño, rendimiento, configuración y distribución de los productos, centrándose en su accesibilidad y asequibilidad. El primer perfil de producto objetivo describe los requisitos de las pruebas para confirmar el diagnóstico de la lepra en personas con signos y síntomas clínicos, con el fin de orientar el inicio del tratamiento con múltiples fármacos. El segundo perfil de producto objetivo describe los requisitos de las pruebas para detectar la infección por Mycobacterium leprae o M. lepromatosis entre los contactos asintomáticos de los pacientes con lepra, para facilitar las intervenciones profilácticas y la prevención. Se utilizaron modelos estadísticos para evaluar los requisitos de sensibilidad y especificidad de estas pruebas diagnósticas. El artículo destaca las dificultades para lograr una alta especificidad, dada la diferente endemicidad de M. leprae, y para identificar analitos diana con un rendimiento sólido en todos los fenotipos de lepra. Concluimos que los diagnósticos con un diseño de producto y unas características de rendimiento adecuados son fundamentales para la detección precoz y la intervención preventiva, lo que favorece la transición del manejo de la lepra a la prevención.


Assuntos
Hanseníase , Humanos , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Modelos Estatísticos , Diagnóstico Precoce
5.
Indian J Med Res ; 159(2): 121-129, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38577854

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Leprosy, an ancient disease, continues to be a public health concern as it remains endemic in several countries. After reaching the elimination target (1/10,000) as a public health problem in 2005 in India, around 1.2 lakh cases have been detected every year over the last decade indicating active transmission of leprosy bacillus (Mycobacterium leprae). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), genomic insertions/deletions and variable-number tandem repeats (VNTRs) have been identified as genetic markers for tracking M. leprae transmission. As the leprosy bacilli cannot be cultured in vitro, molecular testing of M. leprae genotypes is done by polymerase chain reaction-based sequencing which provides a practical alternative for the identification of strains as well as drug resistance-associated mutations. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of M. leprae directly from clinical samples has also proven to be an effective tool for identifying genetic variations which can further help refine the molecular epidemiological schemes based on SNPs and VNTRs. However, the WGS data of M. leprae strains from India are scarce, being responsible for a gross under-representation of the genetic diversity of M. leprae strains present in India and need to be addressed suitably. Molecular studies of leprosy can provide better insight into phylogeographic markers to monitor the transmission dynamics and emergence of antimicrobial resistance. An improved understanding of M. leprae transmission is essential to guide efficient leprosy control strategies. Therefore, this review compiles and discusses the current status of molecular epidemiology, genotyping and the potential of genome-wide analysis of M. leprae strains in the Indian context.


Assuntos
Hanseníase , Mycobacterium leprae , Humanos , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Epidemiologia Molecular
6.
Chem Biodivers ; : e202400067, 2024 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38500408

RESUMO

Tuberculosis is a communicable disease which affects humans particularly the lungs and is transmitted mainly through air. Despite two decades of intensive research aimed at understanding and combating tuberculosis, persistent biological uncertainties continue to hinder progress. Nowadays, heterocyclic compounds have proven themselves in effective treatment of tuberculosis because of their wide range of biological and pharmacological activities. Antituberculosis or antimycobacterial agents encompass a broad array of compounds utilized singly or in conjunction to combat Mycobacterium infections, spanning from tuberculosis to leprosy. Here, we summarize the synthesis of various heterocyclic compounds which includes the greener synthetic route as well as use of nano compounds as catalyst along with their anti TB activities.

7.
Front Pharmacol ; 15: 1346169, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38515839

RESUMO

Background: Recommended standard treatment for leprosy is multidrugtherapy (MDT/WHO), consisting Rifampicin+Dapsone+Clofazimine. Other medications are recommended in cases of resistance, adverse reactions and intolerances, including ROM regimen, Rifampicin+Ofloxacin+Minocycline. Therefore, pharmacovigilance is an important tool in understanding these adverse drug reactions (ADRs), supporting pharmacotherapy management and medication safety. This study seeks to evaluate ADRs comparing two therapeutic regimens, MDT and ROM, used in treatment of patients with leprosy, analyzing prognostic factors regarding risk and safety. Methods:A retrospective cohort study was performed by assessing medical records of 433 patients diagnosed with leprosy from 2010 to 2021 at a National Reference Center in Brazil. They were subject to 24 months or more of treatment with MDT or ROM regimens. ADR assessments were analyzed by two experienced researchers, who included clinical and laboratory variables, correlating them with temporality, severity and the causality criteria of Naranjo and WHO. Results: The findings observed an average of 1.3 reactions/patient. Out of individuals experiencing reactions, 67.0% (69/103) were utilizing MDT/MB, while 33.0% (34/103) were using ROM. The median time for ADR of 79 days for MDT and 179 days for ROM. In first reaction, Dapsone was the most frequently involved medication; the most affected system was hematopoietic. As compared to Clofazimine, results indicated that use of Dapsone was associated with 7% increased risk of ADR occurrence (HR: 1.07; p = 0.866). Additionally, Rifampicin was linked to 31% increased risk of ADRs (HR: 1.31; p = 0.602); and Ofloxacin showed 35% elevated risk (HR: 1.35; p = 0.653). Conversely, results for Minocycline indicated 44% reduction in the risk of ADRs (HR: 0.56; p = 0.527), although statistical significance was not reached. The use of MDT conferred 2.51 times higher risk of developing ADRs in comparison to ROM. Conclusion: The comparison between MDT and ROM revealed that MDT caused more ADRs, and these reactions were more severe, indicating less safety for patients. Dapsone was the most common medication causing ADRs, followed by Rifampicin. The combination with Clofazimine was associated with an additional risk of ADRs, warranting further studies to confirm this hypothesis. Given the high magnitude of ADRs, healthcare teams need to monitor patients undergoing leprosy treatment with focus on pharmacovigilance.

8.
Indian Dermatol Online J ; 15(2): 213-217, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38550801

RESUMO

Introduction: Hansen's disease (HD) is a major public health problem in developing countries. It causes peripheral neuropathy, and if left untreated, it leads to deformities. It is important to diagnose such cases early, and prompt treatment should be given to patients to preserve nerve function. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 patients with HD who were already on multi-drug therapy (MDT) or treatment-naive were included in this study. These were clinically diagnosed cases of HD as per the Ridley-Jopling classification, and these patients were subjected to high-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS). A total of 19 controls were also included. The patients were clinically evaluated, and HRUS of bilateral ulnar nerves (UNs) was performed in all cases and controls. The other peripheral nerves, if clinically thickened, were evaluated using HRUS. Results: The cross-sectional area (CSA) of the UN in cases was significantly thickened as compared to controls. There was no difference in the CSA of patients on MDT as compared to treatment naïve patients. In two patients with pure neuritic HD, the clinical examination missed the bilateral nerve enlargement, and only unilateral nerve thickening was clinically appreciated. However, bilateral thickening was detected on HRUS. Conclusion: HRUS is a non-invasive and sensitive diagnostic tool that gives significant information on nerve structure and morphology. HRUS adds a new dimension to diagnosing HD, particularly the pure neuritic type, with the assessment of early nerve damage, which can prevent disabilities. HRUS is an objective diagnostic tool that can complement the clinical examination.

9.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1298749, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38440733

RESUMO

Since the leprosy cases have fallen dramatically, the incidence of leprosy has remained stable over the past years, indicating that multidrug therapy seems unable to eradicate leprosy. More seriously, the emergence of rifampicin-resistant strains also affects the effectiveness of treatment. Immunoprophylaxis was mainly carried out through vaccination with the BCG but also included vaccines such as LepVax and MiP. Meanwhile, it is well known that the infection and pathogenesis largely depend on the host's genetic background and immunity, with the onset of the disease being genetically regulated. The immune process heavily influences the clinical course of the disease. However, the impact of immune processes and genetic regulation of leprosy on pathogenesis and immunological levels is largely unknown. Therefore, we summarize the latest research progress in leprosy treatment, prevention, immunity and gene function. The comprehensive research in these areas will help elucidate the pathogenesis of leprosy and provide a basis for developing leprosy elimination strategies.


Assuntos
Hansenostáticos , Hanseníase , Humanos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Hanseníase/genética , Hanseníase/prevenção & controle , Rifampina , Imunidade
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38485676

RESUMO

Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium leprae, and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are among the most significant human pathogens within the Mycobacterium genus. These pathogens can infect people who come into contact with biomaterials or have chronic illnesses. A characteristic pathogenic trait of mycobacteria is the development of biofilms, which involves several molecules, such as the GroEL1 chaperone, glycopeptidolipids, and shorter-chain mycolic acids. Bacterial behavior is influenced by nutrients, ions, and carbon sources, which also play a regulatory role in biofilm development. Compared to their planktonic phase, mycobacterial biofilms are more resilient to environmental stresses and disinfectants. Mycobacteria that produce biofilms have been found in several environmental studies, particularly in water systems. NTM can cause respiratory problems in individuals with underlying illnesses such as cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis, and old tuberculosis scars. Mycobacteria that grow slowly, like those in the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), or rapidly, like Mycobacterium abscessus, can be pathogens. Infections related to biomaterials represent a significant category of biofilm-associated infections, with rapidly growing mycobacteria being the most frequently identified organisms. A biofilm produced by M. tuberculosis can contribute to caseous necrosis and cavity formation in lung tissue. Additionally, M. tuberculosis forms biofilms on clinical biomaterials. Biofilm formation is a major contributor to antimicrobial resistance, providing defense against drugs that would typically be effective against these bacteria in their planktonic state. The antibiotic resistance of biofilm-forming microbes may render therapy ineffective, necessitating the physical removal of biofilms to cure the infection. Recently, new approaches have been developed with potential anti-biofilm compounds to increase treatment effectiveness. Understanding biofilms is crucial for the appropriate treatment of various NTM diseases, and the recent discovery of M. tuberculosis biofilms has opened up a new field of study. This review focuses on the biofilm formation of the Mycobacterial genus, the mechanisms of biofilm formation, and anti-mycobacterial biofilm agents.

11.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6365, 2024 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38493220

RESUMO

Leprosy is a chronic bacterial infection mainly caused by Mycobacterium leprae that primarily affects skin and peripheral nerves. Due to its ability to absorb carbon from the host cell, the bacillus became dependent on energy production, mainly through oxidative phosphorylation. In fact, variations in genes of Complex I of oxidative phosphorylation encoded by mtDNA have been associated with several diseases in humans, including bacterial infections, which are possible influencers in the host response to leprosy. Here, we investigated the presence of variants in the mtDNA genes encoding Complex I regarding leprosy, as well as the analysis of their pathogenicity in the studied cohort. We found an association of 74 mitochondrial variants with either of the polar forms, Pole T (Borderline Tuberculoid) or Pole L (Borderline Lepromatous and Lepromatous) of leprosy. Notably, six variants were exclusively found in both clinical poles of leprosy, including m.4158A>G and m.4248T>C in MT-ND1, m.13650C>A, m.13674T>C, m.12705C>T and m.13263A>G in MT-ND5, of which there are no previous reports in the global literature. Our observations reveal a substantial number of mutations among different groups of leprosy, highlighting a diverse range of consequences associated with mutations in genes across these groups. Furthermore, we suggest that the six specific variants exclusively identified in the case group could potentially play a crucial role in leprosy susceptibility and its clinical differentiation. These variants are believed to contribute to the instability and dysregulation of oxidative phosphorylation during the infection, further emphasizing their significance.


Assuntos
Hanseníase , Humanos , Hanseníase/genética , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Pele , DNA Mitocondrial , Antígenos de Bactérias
12.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 9(3)2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38535882

RESUMO

Kiribati is a Pacific Island nation with a widely dispersed population and one of the highest rates of leprosy worldwide. Single-dose rifampicin post-exposure prophylaxis (SDR-PEP) of leprosy contacts has reduced new case detection rates in controlled trials. In 2018, an SDR-PEP programme was introduced in Kiribati that included screening and chemoprophylaxis of household contacts of leprosy cases retrospectively (2010-2017) and prospectively (2018-2022). We conducted a retrospective audit to determine the comprehensiveness, timeliness and feasibility of the SDR-PEP programme. Overall, 13,641 household contacts were identified (9791 in the retrospective and 3850 in the prospective cohort). In the retrospective cohort, 1044 (11%) contacts were absent, 403 (4%) were ineligible for SDR, and 42 new cases were detected (0.4%) Overall, SDR coverage was 84.7%. In the prospective cohort, 164 (4%) contacts were absent, 251 (7%) were ineligible for SDR, and 23 new cases were diagnosed (0.6%). Overall, SDR coverage was 88.1%. Across both cohorts, there were 23 SDR refusals. The median time to SDR administration was 220 days (IQR 162-468) and 120 days (IQR 36-283) for the retrospective and prospective cohorts, respectively. SDR was readily accepted in both cohorts. The new case detection rate (0.5%) is consistent with that in other studies. Overall SDR coverage in both the retrospective and prospective phases met programmatic expectations.

13.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 4438, 2024 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38396118

RESUMO

Multidrug therapy for Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease (MAC-PD) results in negative sputum cultures. However, the prognostic value of this treatment approach remains unclear. This study aimed to clarify whether multidrug therapy reduces the incidence of events related to MAC-PD and improves the mortality rate. Patients who met the diagnostic criteria for MAC-PD at our hospital between 2003 and 2019 were retrospectively evaluated using medical records. Events related to MAC-PD were defined as hospitalisation for haemoptysis or respiratory infection and the development of chronic respiratory failure. There were 90 and 108 patients in the multidrug and observation groups, respectively. The median observation period was 86 months. Intergroup differences in body mass index, proportion of patients with cavities, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were not significant. However, the observation group was older with a higher mean age (multidrug group: 62 years, observation group: 69 years; P < 0.001) and had a higher proportion of male patients (multidrug group: 13/90 [14.4%], observation group: 35/108 [32.4%]; P < 0.01). Furthermore, intergroup differences in the incidence of events related to MAC-PD (multidrug group: 26.69/1000 person-years, observation group: 25.49/1000 person-years), MAC-PD-associated mortality rate (multidrug group: 12.13/1000 person-years, observation group: 12.74/1000 person-years), and total mortality (multidrug group: 24.26/1000 person-years, observation group: 29.50/1000 person-years) were not significant. Many patients relapse even after multidrug therapy, and our findings suggest that multidrug therapy has no effect in preventing the onset of respiratory events or prolonging life expectancy.


Assuntos
Pneumopatias , Infecção por Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complexo Mycobacterium avium , Infecção por Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare/microbiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Hansenostáticos/farmacologia , Pneumopatias/microbiologia , Prognóstico
14.
Cancer Immunol Res ; 12(4): 427-439, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38315788

RESUMO

Recent research indicates that gut microbiota may be vital in the advancement of melanoma. In this study, we found that melanoma patients exhibited a distinct gut mycobiota structure compared with healthy participants. Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis, and Neurospora crassa were more abundant in samples from patients with melanoma, whereas Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Debaryomyces hansenii were less abundant. During anti-PD-1 treatment, the relative amount of Malassezia restricta and C. albicans increased. A higher level of Saccharomyces paradoxus was associated with a positive response to anti-PD-1 treatment, whereas a higher level of Tetrapisispora blattae was associated with a lack of clinical benefits. High levels of M. restricta and C. albicans, elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase, and being overweight were linked to increased risk of melanoma progression and poorer response to anti-PD-1 treatment. Thus, this study has revealed melanoma-associated mycobiome dysbiosis, characterized by altered fungal composition and fungi species associated with a higher risk of melanoma progression, identifying a role for the gut mycobiome in melanoma progression.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Melanoma , Micobioma , Humanos , Fungos/fisiologia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Saccharomyces cerevisiae
15.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1352483, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38415251

RESUMO

The inappropriate and inconsistent use of antibiotics in combating multidrug-resistant bacteria exacerbates their drug resistance through a few distinct pathways. Firstly, these bacteria can accumulate multiple genes, each conferring resistance to a specific drug, within a single cell. This accumulation usually takes place on resistance plasmids (R). Secondly, multidrug resistance can arise from the heightened expression of genes encoding multidrug efflux pumps, which expel a broad spectrum of drugs from the bacterial cells. Additionally, bacteria can also eliminate or destroy antibiotic molecules by modifying enzymes or cell walls and removing porins. A significant limitation of traditional multidrug therapy lies in its inability to guarantee the simultaneous delivery of various drug molecules to a specific bacterial cell, thereby fostering incremental drug resistance in either of these paths. Consequently, this approach prolongs the treatment duration. Rather than using a biologically unimportant coformer in forming cocrystals, another drug molecule can be selected either for protecting another drug molecule or, can be selected for its complementary activities to kill a bacteria cell synergistically. The development of a multidrug cocrystal not only improves tabletability and plasticity but also enables the simultaneous delivery of multiple drugs to a specific bacterial cell, philosophically perfecting multidrug therapy. By adhering to the fundamental tenets of multidrug therapy, the synergistic effects of these drug molecules can effectively eradicate bacteria, even before they have the chance to develop resistance. This approach has the potential to shorten treatment periods, reduce costs, and mitigate drug resistance. Herein, four hypotheses are presented to create complementary drug cocrystals capable of simultaneously reaching bacterial cells, effectively destroying them before multidrug resistance can develop. The ongoing surge in the development of novel drugs provides another opportunity in the fight against bacteria that are constantly gaining resistance to existing treatments. This endeavour holds the potential to combat a wide array of multidrug-resistant bacteria.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Hansenostáticos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Bactérias/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/metabolismo
16.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 42(3): 746-751, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38372720

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Less frequently, there is involvement of the musculoskeletal system, and occurrence of systemic manifestation with non-specific symptoms such as fever, fatigue and myalgia. Therefore, leprosy can often mimic autoimmune diseases such as arthritis, vasculitis, or collagenosis and be mis-diagnosed. METHODS: This study describes a series of cases of leprosy mimicking autoimmune diseases in patients treated in the Rheumatology Department of our centre in the period 2019 to 2023. All patients were investigated regarding leprosy criteria and had clinical evaluation, serum markers, and histopathological analyses recorded. The diagnosis of leprosy was confirmed using skin biopsy followed by testing for acid-fast bacillus (AFB) or smear microscopy. RESULTS: Six patients who were initially investigated for autoimmune diseases were identified as diagnosed as leprosy cases, fulfilling both clinical and histopathologic criteria, two of whom presented with symptoms of polyarthritis with an inflammatory characteristic, two diffuse erythematous-violaceous lesions, three recurrent fever, three arthralgia, and one Raynaud's phenomenon, which are all characteristics present most frequently in rheumatologic diseases. CONCLUSIONS: We must consider the bacillary infection as a differential diagnosis of autoimmune diseases. Histopathological analysis is an important tool and the gold standard for diagnostic confirmation.


Assuntos
Artrite , Doenças Autoimunes , Hanseníase , Humanos , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Hanseníase/microbiologia , Mycobacterium leprae , Pele/patologia , Doenças Autoimunes/diagnóstico , Doenças Autoimunes/patologia
17.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 110(3): 487-490, 2024 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38350151

RESUMO

Type 2 leprosy reaction is a type of acute inflammation that predominantly affects borderline lepromatous leprosy and lepromatous leprosy patients and occurs before, during, or after therapy. The atypical variant, which resembles Sweet syndrome, could easily lead to misdiagnosis. Here, we report a case of a 52-year-old man who presented with type 2 leprosy reaction that mimicked Sweet syndrome. In addition, we review published cases and summarize their features to raise awareness of this atypical variant to enable improved diagnosis and management.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade , Hanseníase Dimorfa , Hanseníase Virchowiana , Síndrome de Sweet , Masculino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome de Sweet/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Sweet/tratamento farmacológico , Hanseníase Virchowiana/diagnóstico , Hanseníase Virchowiana/tratamento farmacológico
18.
Mol Pharm ; 21(3): 1272-1284, 2024 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38361428

RESUMO

Rifampicin (RIF) is an antibiotic used to treat tuberculosis and leprosy. Even though RIF is a market-available drug, it has a low aqueous solubility, hindering its bioavailability. Among the strategies for bioavailability improvement of poorly soluble drugs, coamorphous systems have been revealed as an alternative in the increase of the aqueous solubility of drug systems and at the same time also increasing the amorphous state stability and dissolution rate when compared with the neat drug. In this work, a new coamorphous form from RIF and tromethamine (TRIS) was synthesized by slow evaporation. Structural, electronic, and thermodynamic properties and solvation effects, as well as drug-coformer intermolecular interactions, were studied through density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) data allowed us to verify the formation of a new coamorphous. In addition, the DFT study indicates a possible intermolecular interaction by hydrogen bonds between the available amino and carbonyl groups of RIF and the hydroxyl and amino groups of TRIS. The theoretical spectra obtained are in good agreement with the experimental data, suggesting the main interactions occurring in the formation of the coamorphous system. PXRD was used to study the physical stability of the coamorphous system under accelerated ICH conditions (40 °C and 75% RH), indicating that the material remained in an amorphous state up to 180 days. The thermogravimetry result of this material showed a good thermal stability up to 153 °C, and differential scanning calorimetry showed that the glass temperature (Tg) was at 70.0 °C. Solubility studies demonstrated an increase in the solubility of RIF by 5.5-fold when compared with its crystalline counterpart. Therefore, this new material presents critical parameters that can be considered in the development of new coamorphous formulations.


Assuntos
Rifampina , Trometamina , Composição de Medicamentos , Solubilidade , Água , Modelos Teóricos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Difração de Raios X
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(2): e0011968, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38359088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with recurrent TB have an increased risk of higher mortality, lower success rate, and a relatively feeble likelihood of treatment completion than those with new-onset TB. This study aimed to assess the epidemiology of recurrent TB in Tanzania; specifically, we aim to determine the prevalence of TB recurrence and factors associated with unfavourable treatment outcomes among patients with recurrent TB in Tanzania from 2018 to 2021. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we utilized Tanzania's routinely collected national TB program data. The study involved a cohort of TB patients over a fixed treatment period registered in the TB and Leprosy case-based District Health Information System (DHIS2-ETL) database from 2018 to 2021 in Tanzania. We included patients' sociodemographic and clinical factors, facility characteristics, and TB treatment outcomes. We conducted bivariate analysis and multivariable multi-level mixed effects logistic regression of factors associated with TB recurrence and TB treatment outcomes to account for the correlations at the facility level. A purposeful selection method was used; the multivariable model included apriori selected variables (Age, Sex, and HIV status) and variables with a p-value <0.2 on bivariate analysis. The adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were recorded, and a p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. FINDINGS: A total of 319,717 participants were included in the study; the majority were adults aged 25-49 (44.2%, n = 141,193) and above 50 years (31.6%, n = 101,039). About two-thirds were male (60.4%, n = 192,986), and more than one-fifth of participants (22.8%, n = 72,396) were HIV positive. Nearly two in every hundred TB patients had a recurrent TB episode (2.0%, n = 6,723). About 10% of patients with recurrent TB had unfavourable treatment outcomes (9.6%, n = 519). The odds of poor treatment outcomes were two-fold higher for participants receiving treatment at the central (aOR = 2.24; 95% CI 1.33-3.78) and coastal zones (aOR = 2.20; 95% CI 1.40-3.47) than the northern zone. HIV-positive participants had 62% extra odds of unfavourable treatment outcomes compared to their HIV-negative counterparts (aOR = 1.62; 95% CI 1.25-2.11). Bacteriological TB diagnosis (aOR = 1.39; 95% CI 1.02-1.90) was associated with a 39% additional risk of unfavourable treatment outcomes as compared to clinical TB diagnosis. Compared to community-based DOT, patients who received DOT at the facility had 1.39 times the odds of poor treatment outcomes (aOR = 1.39; 95%CI 1.04-1.85). CONCLUSION: TB recurrence in Tanzania accounts for 2% of all TB cases, and it is associated with poor treatment outcomes. Unfavourable treatment outcomes were recorded in 10% of patients with recurrent TB. Poor TB treatment outcome was associated with HIV-positive status, facility-based DOT, bacteriologically confirmed TB and receiving treatment at the hospital level, differing among regions. We recommend post-treatment follow-up for patients with recurrent TB, especially those coinfected with HIV. We also propose close follow-up for patients treated at the hospital facility level and strengthening primary health facilities in TB detection and management to facilitate early treatment initiation.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Tuberculose , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Am J Case Rep ; 25: e942048, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38351602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Leprosy, also known as Hansen's disease, is a neglected tropical disease with low prevalence in the United States. The disease's long incubation period can cause delayed presentation, and most affected individuals have a history of travel or work in leprosy-endemic regions. The immune response to Mycobacterium leprae determines the clinical characteristics of leprosy, with tuberculoid leprosy being characterized by well-defined granulomas and involvement of peripheral nerves. The recommended treatment is a combination of dapsone and rifampin for 12 months. CASE REPORT A 78-year-old man with a history of extensive travel to Africa and Asia 50 years ago, presented with a non-tender, non-pruritic, and hypopigmented skin lesion on his left knee. Biopsy results confirmed granulomatous inflammation and the presence of Mycobacterium leprae, leading to a diagnosis of tuberculoid/paucibacillary leprosy. The patient received dapsone and rifampin treatment, which resulted in symptom improvement. CONCLUSIONS The patient's long incubation period of 50 years between exposure and symptom onset is remarkable and possibly one of the longest reported for tuberculoid leprosy. It emphasizes the importance of considering leprosy in cases with an extensive travel history and long incubation periods. Our patient's case presented contradictory staining results, suggesting potential sampling variation or a rare mixed leprosy form. Based on his clinical findings, he was diagnosed with tuberculoid leprosy. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent irreversible nerve damage and improve patient outcomes. Healthcare providers should be vigilant in acquiring a detailed travel history to facilitate early diagnosis and appropriate management of leprosy cases.


Assuntos
Hanseníase Tuberculoide , Hanseníase , Masculino , Humanos , Idoso , Hanseníase Tuberculoide/diagnóstico , Hanseníase Tuberculoide/tratamento farmacológico , Hanseníase Tuberculoide/patologia , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Período de Incubação de Doenças Infecciosas , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Hanseníase/patologia , Mycobacterium leprae , Dapsona/uso terapêutico
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