Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 134
Filtrar
Mais filtros


Tipo de documento
Intervalo de ano de publicação
2.
Indian Dermatol Online J ; 13(3): 340-345, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36226023

RESUMO

Introduction: Presently the leprosy program has no defined surveillance protocols for patients who complete the fixed duration multidrug therapy and are released from treatment (RFT). Hence, the information about the post-RFT events in these patients is sparse and qualitative and quantitative data regarding their health care requirements is missing. During the DermLep survey carried out by the Indian Association of Dermatologists,Venereologists and Leprologists (IADVL), a number of patients presented to dermatologists during the post RFT period for a variety of symptoms. This paper analyses the events in these patients during the post RFT period. Results: Out of a total of 3701 leprosy patients who presented to 201 dermatologists across India during the DermLep survey, 708 (26.2%) were in the post RFT period (488 males; 220 females). Of these, 21% were PB and 79% MB patients as per their treatment records. Majority were in the age group of 31-59 years (55.5%); however, a significant proportion of them (20.7%) were elderly (>60 years). Majority of the patients (45.5%) presented within the first year of RFT with variable symptoms; 28% were between 1-5 years, 5.5% between 5-10 years; and 11.0% presented more than 10 years after RFT. Most common presenting complaint being persistent skin lesions as perceived by patients in 21.2%, followed by neuritis in 14.5%; trophic ulcers in 13.8%; deformities in 67 (11.8%); lepra reactions in 66 (11.6%); and recurrence of original symptoms in 6.7%. Conclusion: The DermLep Survey highlights the importance of 'post RFT' patients as an important subset of leprosy patients who visit dermatologists for various health related issues. The most common complaints in this subset were active/persistent skin lesions, lepra reactions and neuritis. In these patients, who are a sub-group of 'persons affected with leprosy' the disease related issues can persist for many years post RFT. Hence, it is important to provide services in the programme to monitor and manage these complications for the prevention of impairments, disability and the related social issues.

8.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 88(4): 500-508, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672473

RESUMO

Introduction Pyogenic granulomas are benign vascular lesions of the skin and mucosa which are often a source of concern because of their recurrent bleeding even with minimal trauma. Current treatment for pyogenic granuloma is ablative; no medical therapy is standardized to date. Timolol, due to its vasoconstrictive effect, vascular growth factor inhibition and apoptosis promotion properties, is a potential therapeutic option. Objectives: To assess the effectiveness and safety of topical timolol in the treatment of pyogenic granulomas. Methods A two-centre, double-blind and placebo-controlled trial (Registration CTRI/2019/04/018581) was conducted. Patients of either sex were recruited with pyogenic granuloma lesions of less than eight weeks duration. Topical treatment with 0.5% timolol or matching glycerin placebo was continued for six weeks. Changes in color, size, bleeding tendency, physicians' and patients' global assessments and adverse events were assessed. Results Forty subjects were randomized between the two groups which were comparable in age, sex, duration of illness and baseline lesion size.Significant improvement was noted with timolol, with color change from first follow-up onwards and lesion size reduction from second follow-up onward. Patients' assessment of bleeding tendency also showed imrovement from the second visit onward. Between-group comparison showed significant difference with respect to percentage reduction in size (timolol 40.9%, placebo 3.4%; P = 0.002). Rescue treatment (electrosurgery) was required in five patients on placebo and in one in the timolol group (P = 0.182). Complete resolution occurred in 2 (10%) patients with timolol and in no patients on placebo (P = 0.231). Limitations: We observed effects of treatment for only six weeks. Conclusion Topical timolol may be a treatment option for early pyogenic granulomas but complete resolution is unlikely in six weeks. Studies of longer duration are required to assess resolution and recurrence rates.


Assuntos
Granuloma Piogênico , Timolol , Administração Tópica , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta , Método Duplo-Cego , Granuloma Piogênico/diagnóstico , Granuloma Piogênico/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Timolol/efeitos adversos
9.
Trop Doct ; 52(1): 226-227, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787533

RESUMO

We read with interest the short report by Rani et al. entitled "An uncommon variant of erythema nodosum leprosum responding well to methotrexate: Report of two cases." The article describes two cases of erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) with 'atypical features' and good response to low dose methotrexate. The authors address a few concerns regarding methotrexate in ENL, emphasizing the rational usage of this agent.


Assuntos
Eritema Nodoso , Eritema Nodoso/diagnóstico , Eritema Nodoso/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico
10.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 697804, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34336901

RESUMO

Erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL), also known as type 2 reaction (T2R) is an immune complex mediated (type III hypersensitivity) reactional state encountered in patients with borderline lepromatous and lepromatous leprosy (BL and LL) either before, during, or after the institution of anti-leprosy treatment (ALT). The consequences of ENL may be serious, leading to permanent nerve damage and deformities, constituting a major cause of leprosy-related morbidity. The incidence of ENL is increasing with the increasing number of multibacillary cases. Although the diagnosis of ENL is not difficult to make for physicians involved in the care of leprosy patients, its management continues to be a most challenging aspect of the leprosy eradication program: the chronic and recurrent painful skin lesions, neuritis, and organ involvement necessitates prolonged treatment with prednisolone, thalidomide, and anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs, which further adds to the existing morbidity. In addition, the use of immunosuppressants like methotrexate, azathioprine, cyclosporine, or biologics carries a risk of reactivation of persisters (Mycobacterium leprae), apart from their own end-organ toxicities. Most ENL therapeutic guidelines are primarily designed for acute episodes and there is scarcity of literature on management of patients with chronic and recurrent ENL. It is difficult to predict which patients will develop chronic or recurrent ENL and plan the treatment accordingly. We need simple point-of-care or ELISA-based tests from blood or skin biopsy samples, which can help us in identifying patients who are likely to require prolonged treatment and also inform us about the prognosis of reactions so that appropriate therapy may be started and continued for better ENL control in such patients. There is a significant unmet need for research for better understanding the immunopathogenesis of, and biomarkers for, ENL to improve clinical stratification and therapeutics. In this review we will discuss the potential of neutrophils (polymorphonuclear granulocytes) as putative diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers by virtue of their universal abundance in human blood, functional versatility, phenotypic heterogeneity, metabolic plasticity, differential hierarchical cytoplasmic granule mobilization, and their ability to form NETs (neutrophil extracellular traps). We will touch upon the various aspects of neutrophil biology relevant to ENL pathophysiology in a step-wise manner. We also hypothesize about an element of metabolic reprogramming of neutrophils by M. leprae that could be investigated and exploited for biomarker discovery. In the end, a potential role for neutrophil derived exosomes as a novel biomarker for ENL will also be explored.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Contacts of leprosy patients have an increased risk of infection with Mycobacterium leprae. Contact tracing and chemo- or immunoprophylaxis are important means of preventing leprosy transmission. AIMS: We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of immunoprophylaxis with Mycobacterium indicus pranii vaccine in reducing anti-phenolic glycolipid-1 titers in household contacts of leprosy patients. METHODS: This prospective single-center study was conducted in a tertiary care center in North India from January 2015 to December 2016. Contacts of leprosy patients (both paucibacillary and multibacillary) were screened for anti-phenolic glycolipid-1 antibodies with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Those found positive were given immunoprophylaxis with a single dose of Mycobacterium indicus pranii vaccine, and anti-phenolic glycolipid-1 titers were evaluated at six and 12 months. All contacts were clinically followed for three years. RESULTS: Of the 135 contacts of 98 leprosy patients that were screened, 128 were recruited. Seventeen of these contacts were positive for anti-phenolic glycolipid-1 antibodies and were given Mycobacterium indicus pranii vaccine. Two contacts were lost to follow-up. After immunoprophylaxis, anti-phenolic glycolipid-1 titers were negative in all patients at all intervals, and no contact developed any clinical signs or symptoms of leprosy during the three-year follow-up. LIMITATIONS: The small number of contacts studied, the short follow-up period and the absence of a control group were limitations of this study. Dicussion: We could not find any papers on natural decline of PGL 1 titres in contacts, although in leprosy patients, these titres may even increase after completion of treatment. However the titres do correlate with bacterial load (reference: Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis. 1998 Sep;66(3):356-64) so if the tires decrease or become negative it may be considered as an indirect evidence of bacillary clearance. Hence we may suggest the protective efficacy. Furthermore, as the editor mentioned, considering the small number of positive patients, a control group was not possible in the present pilot study, but such studies may be carried out in the future. CONCLUSION: Immunoprophylaxis with Mycobacterium indicus pranii vaccine is effective and safe in preventing disease in contacts of leprosy patients. However, these findings need to be replicated in larger studies.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Vacinas Bacterianas , Glicolipídeos/imunologia , Hanseníase/imunologia , Mycobacterium/imunologia , Adulto , Busca de Comunicante , Feminino , Humanos , Hanseníase/transmissão , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is associated with significant morbidity and impaired quality of life. Identification of the host genes that influence disease susceptibility and can potentially guide future, targeted therapy is the need of the hour. AIMS: The aim of the study was to investigate the associations of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) gene polymorphisms, that is, a 5-8-CATT tetra nucleotide repeats at -794 (-794*CATT5-8) and a single-nucleotide polymorphism at -173 (-173*G/C) with the risk of chronic plaque psoriasis and to observe the correlation, if any, of disease determinants with genetic functional variants and circulating MIF levels. METHODS: Five hundred and seventeen individuals (265 psoriasis patients and 252 controls) were genotyped for MIF gene polymorphisms. Data were analyzed with respect to disease susceptibility, serum MIF levels, disease severity, age at onset, disease duration and presence of comorbidities. RESULTS: The presence of co-morbidities was more frequently noted in patients with late onset disease (P = 0.01). No statistically significant differences were observed either in genotype (P = 0.680) or allele frequency (P = 0.69) with respect to distribution of MIF-173*G/C polymorphism between patients and controls. The frequencies of genotypes -794*CATT 5/7 and 7/7 were significantly lower in patients (P = 0.027* and 0.038*, respectively). CATT*5/MIF-173*C haplotype occurred at a higher frequency in patients (odds ratio 3.03, 95% confidence intervals 1.09-8.47, P = 0.02). The mean serum MIF levels were significantly higher in patients as compared to controls (P < 0.001). The presence of either extended MIF -794*CATT repeats or C allele did not reveal any significant association with serum MIF levels or age at onset. Analysis of effect of various disease determinants revealed no significant association with genetic variants and serum MIF levels. LIMITATIONS: The lesional expression of MIF could not be studied. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that CATT*5/MIF-173*C haplotype is associated with increased susceptibility to psoriasis vulgaris.

14.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 104(4): 1305-1308, 2021 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591935

RESUMO

Palmoplantar involvement has been infrequently reported in leprosy and is an easily misdiagnosed entity. The institutional database of leprosy clinic from 2015 to 2018 was accessed. Details pertaining to demography, clinical presentation, comorbidities (if any), treatment received, and outcome were analyzed in leprosy patients with palmoplantar involvement. Among the 520 patients studied, the involvement of palms and/or soles was reported in 49 (9.4%) patients. Isolated palm involvement was the most frequent (26/49, 53.1%), followed by both palm and sole involvement (12/49, 24.5%) and sole involvement alone (11/49, 22.4%). A higher incidence of lepra reactions and disabilities was noted in patients with palmoplantar involvement than in those without (P < 0.0001). Palmoplantar involvement in leprosy, although uncommon, is associated with a higher risk of reactions and disabilities. A knowledge of this aspect of leprosy can help in maintaining a high index of suspicion and reduce misdiagnosis.


Assuntos
Mãos/patologia , Hanseníase/complicações , Feminino , Pé/microbiologia , Pé/patologia , Mãos/microbiologia , Técnicas Histológicas , Humanos , Hanseníase/patologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Dermatol Ther ; 34(6): e15125, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490707

RESUMO

Management of chronic/recurrent erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) is challenging. The majority of these patients become steroid-dependent and suffer from the adverse effects of long-term corticosteroid use. Minocycline has shown promising results in a small series of chronic/recurrent ENL patients. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of minocycline and clofazimine in patients with chronic/recurrent ENL. In this prospective randomized clinical trial, 60 participants with chronic/recurrent ENL were randomized (1:1) to receive either minocycline 100 mg once daily or clofazimine 100 mg thrice daily for 12 weeks along with prednisolone according to WHO protocol and followed up for 6 months. The outcome measures were mean time for initial control of ENL, proportion of patients having a recurrence of ENL, mean time for recurrence after initial control, additional prednisolone requirement, and frequency of adverse events. Initial control of ENL was achieved earlier in the minocycline group as compared to the clofazimine group (2.97 ± 1.9 weeks vs. 4 ± 1.96 weeks, respectively; p-0.048). The number of participants having ENL flares/recurrences during the study period was comparable in both groups (71.4% in clofazimine vs. 55.2% in minocycline group; p-0.2). The participants in the minocycline group remained in remission for a longer duration after initial control of ENL as compared to the clofazimine group (p-0.001). Mean additional prednisolone dose required for control of ENL flares/recurrences was also comparable in both groups (p-0.09). The minocycline group had fewer side effects than the clofazimine group (p-0.047). Minocycline led to a rapid and sustained improvement of ENL episodes with fewer adverse events showing a superior efficacy to clofazimine.


Assuntos
Eritema Nodoso , Hanseníase Virchowiana , Clofazimina/efeitos adversos , Eritema Nodoso/diagnóstico , Eritema Nodoso/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hansenostáticos/efeitos adversos , Hanseníase Virchowiana/diagnóstico , Hanseníase Virchowiana/tratamento farmacológico , Minociclina/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Indian Dermatol Online J ; 12(Suppl 1): S24-S30, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34976878

RESUMO

The Special Interest Group (SIG) on leprosy thought it to be prudent to revisit its previous practice recommendations through this update. During this period, the pandemic course shifted to a 'second wave' riding on the 'delta variant'. While the number of cases increased manifold, so did the research on all aspects of the disease. Introduction of vaccination and data from various drug trials have an impact on current best practices on management of diseases including leprosy. The beneficial results of using steroids in management of COVID-19, gives elbow room regarding its usage in conditions like lepra reactions. On the other hand, the increase in cases of Mucormycosis again underlines applying due caution while recommending immunosuppressants to a patient already suffering from COVID-19. This recommendation update from SIG leprosy reflects current understanding about managing leprosy while the dynamic pandemic continues with its ebbs and flows.

18.
Int J Mycobacteriol ; 9(4): 445-447, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33323664

RESUMO

Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease with varied presentation. Hypopigmented or erythematous patches and plaques, skin-colored nodules, and diffuse cutaneous infiltration are the different types of cutaneous lesions seen among patients of leprosy. Verrucous lesions are an uncommon finding of the disease and may be misdiagnosed in the present times due to its rarity. We have herein described two such patients, one of whom had verrucous lesions as the only evident manifestation of leprosy, while the other developed verrucous plaque as the part of leprosy relapse.


Assuntos
Hanseníase , Humanos , Hanseníase Virchowiana
19.
Indian Dermatol Online J ; 11(6): 895-903, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33344336

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Dermatologists in India are trained and qualified to treat leprosy and there is evidence to suggest that they are involved in the diagnosis and management of a significant number of leprosy patients in the country. The present study evaluated the access to quality leprosy services at their clinics and hospitals to understand the extent of their role in providing comprehensive care to people affected by leprosy and how it can be organized further. METHODS: The DermLep Study was a pan-India questionnaire-based survey carried out to evaluate the role that dermatologists play in leprosy management in the country. It included as part-2 of the survey, 11 questions on the access of the dermatologist to various quality leprosy services available at the clinic or institution including skin smears, skin biopsy, multidrug therapy (MDT) blister packs, basic physiotherapy services, and reporting to the national program (NLEP). RESULTS: The dermatologists who participated in the survey included 101 private practitioners and 100 working in Government or private medical institutions. The key findings of the survey were that 78% of the participating dermatologists still encounter leprosy patients frequently in their clinics; 81.0% of them had access to skin smears; and 93.4% to skin biopsy. The World Health Organization (WHO) MDT regimen was followed by 79.0% of the dermatologists in the study, majority of whom were those working in medical colleges (88%); however overall, 87.4% extended the regimen beyond the fixed duration, mostly on a case to case basis. Thalidomide was available for 61.1% of them to treat type 2 reactions. Basic physiotherapy services were available with 70.2% of dermatologists surveyed; 58.9% dermatologists had access to MCR footwear; and RCS facility access known to 45.5% of them. About 83.5% of the dermatologists working in institutions were reporting their leprosy cases to the NLEP, whereas from a high percentage (71.4%) of dermatologists in private practice, cases were not captured in routine under NLEP. CONCLUSION: Dermatologists in India have the clinical skill, expertise, and access to most of the basic services, including skin smear and skin biopsy facilities needed to provide comprehensive care to leprosy patients in post-elimination era of integration of leprosy services. While dermatologists are already managing leprosy patients both at medical institutes and private clinics across India, their "structured" involvement at all levels in the national program will facilitate improved reporting and cataloging of cases seen by them. It will also elevate standards of leprosy care; create an effective public-private partnership and disease expertise; and assist develop a comprehensive, patient-tailored approach in the leprosy program in India.

20.
Indian Dermatol Online J ; 11(5): 701-711, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33235834

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is evidence to suggest that there is a mismatch between the number of reported cases of leprosy in India and the number of actual cases in the country. One reason could be that many patients are diagnosed and treated outside the NLEP network and dermatologists may be managing some of these patients not captured by official statistics. To estimate these missing numbers, the DermLep survey was carried out to study the number and profile of leprosy patients seen by dermatologists and their significance. METHODOLOGY: The DermLep survey was a questionnaire-based study to be filled in by participating dermatologists from all over India, both in private practice and in medical institutions. Participating dermatologists provided information on old and new leprosy patients seen in their clinic over a 3-month period. RESULTS: Total of 201 dermatologists from 20 states of India participated in the survey. 3701 leprosy patients (M: F ratio 2.1:1) were seen. Of them 46.62% (n = 1680) were new; 22.89% (n = 825) were under-treatment; and 19.65% (n = 708) were post RFT patients. Children <15 years constituted 4.29%, while elderly >60 years were 22.21%. As per WHO classification, MB were 73.36% and PB 28.46%. Of all patients 30.91% had lepra reactions, with T2R being more frequent. While 23.58% of all patients in the survey had G2D; in new patients 17.79%; and in post RFT patients 37% had G2D. Among the 1680 new cases seen, 59% were reported to NLEP by the dermatologists and 41% remained unreported mainly by the private dermatologists, among whom for 20% of the cases they mentioned "no access to register". Source of MDT was WHO-MDT in 60.09% of new cases and for rest of 39.91% it was private pharmacies where private dermatologists had no access to MDT blister packs. CONCLUSION: This survey suggests that a good number of new-untreated leprosy patients, treatment defaulters and post RFT cases are managed by dermatologists in India. About 40% of the new patients managed mainly by private dermatologists are not being reported to NLEP for various reasons, and these constitute the "missing numbers" from government statistics. If extrapolated to the large of number of practicing dermatologists in India, these numbers could be very significant. The high percentage of G2D noted in patients surveyed (23.58%) and post RFT patient issues observed need special attention. There is a need to develop access for dermatologists to confidentially report leprosy patients treated at their clinics to the NLEP.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA