Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 4.828
Filtrar
Mais filtros


Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(10): e0010799, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36264976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy is rare in the United Kingdom (UK), but migration from endemic countries results in new cases being diagnosed each year. We documented the clinical presentation of leprosy in a non-endemic setting. METHODS: Demographic and clinical data on all new cases of leprosy managed in the Leprosy Clinic at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, London between 1995 and 2018 were analysed. RESULTS: 157 individuals with a median age of 34 (range 13-85) years were included. 67.5% were male. Patients came from 34 different countries and most contracted leprosy before migrating to the UK. Eighty-two (51.6%) acquired the infection in India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal and Pakistan. 30 patients (19.1%) acquired leprosy in Africa, including 11 from Nigeria. Seven patients were born in Europe; three acquired their leprosy infection in Africa, three in South East Asia, and one in Europe. The mean interval between arrival in the UK and symptom onset was 5.87 years (SD 10.33), the longest time to diagnosis was 20 years. Borderline tuberculoid leprosy (n = 71, 42.0%), and lepromatous leprosy (n =, 53 33.1%) were the commonest Ridley Jopling types. Dermatologists were the specialists diagnosing leprosy most often. Individuals were treated with World Health Organization recommended drug regimens (rifampicin, dapsone and clofazimine). CONCLUSION: Leprosy is not a disease of travellers but develops after residence in an leprosy endemic area. The number of individuals from a leprosy endemic country reflect both the leprosy prevalence and the migration rates to the United Kingdom. There are challenges in diagnosing leprosy in non-endemic areas and clinicians need to recognise the symptoms and signs of leprosy.


Assuntos
Hanseníase Dimorfa , Hanseníase Virchowiana , Hanseníase , Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Londres , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase Virchowiana/tratamento farmacológico , Hanseníase Dimorfa/tratamento farmacológico , Nigéria
2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(9): e0010695, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36094952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy or Hansen's disease is known to cause disability and disfigurement. A delay in case detection of leprosy patients can lead to severe outcomes. In Ethiopia, the disability rates caused by leprosy among new cases are relatively high compared to other endemic countries. This suggests the existence of hidden leprosy cases in the community and a delay in timely detection. To reduce disability rates, it is crucial to identify the factors associated with this delay. This study aimed to determine the extent of delay in case detection among leprosy cases in Eastern Ethiopia. METHODS: This cross-sectional explorative study was conducted in January and February 2019 among 100 leprosy patients diagnosed ≤6 months prior to inclusion. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data, including the initial onset of symptoms, and the reasons for delayed diagnosis. Descriptive statistics, including percentages and medians, were used to describe the case detection delay. Logistic regression analysis was carried out to evaluate the predictors of delay in case detection of >12 months. FINDINGS: The median age of patients was 35 years, with a range of 7 to 72 years. The majority were male (80%) and rural residents (90%). The median delay in case detection was 12 months (interquartile range 10-36 months) among the included patients. The mean delay in case detection was 22 months, with a maximum delay of 96 months. The overall prevalence of disability among the study population was 42% (12% grade I and 30% grade II). Fear of stigma (p = 0.018) and experiencing painless symptoms (p = 0.018) were highly associated with a delay in case detection of >12 months. CONCLUSIONS: Being afraid of stigma and having painless symptoms, which are often misinterpreted as non-alarming at the onset of the disease, were associated with a delay in case detection. This study showed the need to increase knowledge on early symptoms of leprosy among affected communities. Furthermore, it is important to support initiatives that reduce leprosy related stigma and promote health worker training in leprosy control activities.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Hanseníase , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Hanseníase/complicações , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
3.
Porto Alegre; Editora Rede Unida;Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde; 20220906. 212 p.
Monografia em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1397766

RESUMO

Olhando para a trajetória histórica compreende-se melhor a relação entre "Democracia e Saúde" estabelecida para 16ª Conferência Nacional de Saúde realizada em 2019, pois a luta pelo direito à saúde e a implementação do SUS está vinculada a busca pela redemocratização e a ampliação dos direitos sociais no Brasil. As instâncias do controle social se consolidaram no decorrer das três décadas de sua existência, os movimentos sociais, bem como, as mais diversas organizações da sociedade civil, ocuparam estes espaços e buscaram transformá-los numa arena democrática de defesa da sua concepção de saúde, de política pública, de Estado, de desenvolvimento e de direitos humanos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adulto Jovem , Conferências de Saúde , Conselhos de Saúde , Participação Social , Política de Saúde , Política Pública , Controle Social Formal , Democracia , Direito à Saúde
4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 1074, 2022 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35996175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite national implementation of several high impact interventions and innovations to bolster tuberculosis (TB) detection and improve quality of TB services in Zambia, notifications have been declining since 2004. A countrywide data quality assessment (DQA) of Zambia's National TB and Leprosy Programme (NTLP) was undertaken to quantify the degree to which undernotification and underreporting of TB notifications may be occurring. METHODS: The NTLP conducted a retrospective DQA of health facilities in high burden districts in all ten Zambian provinces. Multiple routine programmatic data sources were triangulated through a multi-step verification process to enumerate the total number of unique TB patients diagnosed between 1st January and 31st August 2019; both bacteriologically confirmed and clinically diagnosed TB patients were included. Undernotification was defined as the number of TB patients identified through the DQA that were not documented in facility treatment registers, while underreporting was defined as the number of notified TB cases not reported to the NTLP. RESULTS: Overall, 265 health facilities across 55 districts were assessed from which 28,402 TB patients were identified; 94.5% of TB patients were ≥ 15 years old, 65.1% were male, 52.0% were HIV-positive, and 89.6% were a new/relapse case. Among all TB cases, 32.8% (95%CI: 32.2-33.3) were unnotified. Undernotification was associated with age ≥ 15 years old (adjusted prevalence odds ratio [aPOR] = 2.4 [95%CI: 2.0-2.9]), HIV-positive status (aPOR = 1.6 [95%CI: 1.5-1.8]), being a new/relapse TB case (aPOR = 17.5 [95%CI: 13.4-22.8]), being a clinically diagnosed TB case (aPOR = 4.2 [95%CI:3.8-4.6]), and being diagnosed at a hospital (range, aPOR = 1.5 [95%CI: 1.3-1.6] to 2.6 [95%CI: 2.3-2.9]). There was substantial heterogeneity in the proportion of unnotified TB cases by province (range, 18.2% to 43.6%). In a sub-analysis among 22,199 TB patients with further data available, 55.9% (95%CI: 55.2-56.6) were notified and reported to the NTLP, 32.8% (95%CI: 32.2-33.4) were unnotified, and 11.3% (95%CI: 10.9-11.7) went unreported to the NTLP. CONCLUSIONS: The findings from Zambia's first countrywide TB programme DQA demonstrate substantial undernotification and underreporting of TB cases across all provinces. This underscores the urgent need to implement a robust and integrated data management system to facilitate timely registration and reporting of all TB patients who are diagnosed and treated.


Assuntos
Soropositividade para HIV , Tuberculose , Adolescente , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
5.
Cien Saude Colet ; 27(6): 2255-2258, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35649013

RESUMO

Leprosy is a debilitating, infectious, systemic or localized dermato-neurological disease caused by Mycobacterium lepra. In Brazil, the magnitude and high disabling power keep the disease as a public health problem. Skin spotting and numbness are pathognomonic signs and symptoms in leprosy. The Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE) 2019 National Health Survey (PNS-2019) considered the following question as a proxy to estimate its magnitude in the country. "Do you have a spot with numbness or part of the skin with numbness?". In Brazil, 1,921,289 adults reported having a patch or part of the skin with numbness, with no regional differences. As for the age group, the older, the higher the prevalence, for example, between 18 to 29 years old (235,445) and 30 to 39 years old (236,485), 0.7% had the condition, between 40 to 59 years old (827,887), 1.5% and among the elderly, 1.8% (621,472). Being able to estimate, in population-based surveys, with statistical representativeness, a reported morbidity such as leprosy is essential to support the formulation of public policies, notably those related to primary health care actions. In this way, the IBGE fulfills its constitutional role of portraying the reality of the Brazilian population and today it is the main external evaluator of the Unified Health System (SUS) and of public policies developed by the federal level.


A hanseníase é uma doença dermato-neurológica, infecciosa, sistêmica ou localizada, debilitante, causada por Mycobacterium leprae. No Brasil, a magnitude e o alto poder incapacitante mantêm a doença como um problema de saúde pública. Mancha na pele e dormência são sinais e sintomas patognomônicos na hanseníase. A Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde de 2019 (PNS-2019), do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE), considerou a seguinte pergunta como proxy para estimar sua magnitude no país. "O(a) sr(a). tem mancha com dormência ou parte da pele com dormência?". No Brasil, 1.921.289 adultos referiram ter mancha ou parte da pele com dormência, sem diferenças regionais. Com relação ao grupo etário, quanto mais velho, maior a prevalência. Por exemplo, entre os de 18 a 29 anos (235.445) e de 30 a 39 anos (236.485), 0,7% possuía a condição, entre 40 e 59 anos (827.887), 1,5%, e entre os idosos, 1,8% (621.472). Poder estimar, em pesquisas de base populacional, com representatividade estatística, uma morbidade referida tal como a hanseníase é fundamental para apoiar a formulação de políticas públicas, notadamente as relativas às ações da atenção primária à saúde. Dessa forma, o IBGE cumpre seu papel constitucional de retratar a realidade da população brasileira e hoje é o principal avaliador externo do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) e das políticas públicas instituídas no âmbito federal.


Assuntos
Hipestesia , Hanseníase , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública , Adulto Jovem
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 41: 120, 2022.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35465364

RESUMO

Introduction: leprosy is a disease found and unevenly distributed in Chad. Since 1997, the annual national prevalence has been less than 1/10000 inhabitants, the elimination threshold set by the World Health Organization (WHO). The purpose of this study is to describe epidemiological trends of leprosy in Chad between 2015 and 2019, in order to provide the necessary data for the development of more effective strategies for leprosy control. Methods: we conducted a retrospective, descriptive study of patients with leprosy diagnosed between 2015 and 2019 at national level. Data were collected from the database of the National Program for the Control of Leprosy in Chad (NPCLC). Results: a total of 1896 new cases of leprosy were detected in Chad between 2015 and 2019. The rates of patients aged 15 to 70 years and children under 15 years were 92.08% and 7.92% respectively. Sex ratio (M/F) was 1.68. The annual average detection rate was 2.6/100 000, with an average rate of multi-bacillary leprosy of 83.10% and degree 2 disability (2DD) of 20.38%. The average rate of degree 2 disability in children under 15 years of age was 0.92% . However, our study identified five districts as endemic (Adré, Abéché, Aboudeia, Koukou, et Bebedjia) in 2019, where the prevalence rate was above 1/10000 inhabitants. Conclusion: epidemiological trends are in favor of the persistence of the disease and a delay in diagnosis and in the management of leprosy cases.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Hanseníase , Adolescente , Chade/epidemiologia , Criança , Humanos , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 25(287): 7553-7567, abr.2022.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1372473

RESUMO

Objetivo: identificar a prevalência de pacientes notificados com hanseníase em São Luís, Maranhão, durante 2010-2020. Método: estudo descritivo, exploratório, retrospectivo, transversal, quantitativo, realizado no Banco de Dados público do DATASUS cuja coleta ocorreu em agosto de 2021. A amostra foi composta por 9.387 pacientes notificados com Hanseníase. Resultados: observa-se prevalência amostral em maio de 2012, sexo masculino, faixa etária entre 30-39 anos, Ensino Médio completo, pardos, casos multibacilares, avaliação de incapacidade física e de cura no estágio Grau 0, apresentaram mais que cinco lesões, baciloscopia negativa, episódios sem reação,sendo abordados como casos novos cuja forma prevalente foi a dimorfa, tendo como esquema terapêutico mais prescrito a poliquimioterapia durante 12 meses e prevalência de cura. Conclusão: houve uma prevalência dos casos de hanseníase em homens jovens com bom grau de instrução escolar. Apesar da alta prevalência de casos novos, o tratamento foi efetivo de modo a levá-los à cura.(AU)


Objective: to identify the prevalence of patients notified with leprosy in São Luís, Maranhão, during 2010-2020. Method: descriptive, exploratory, retrospective, cross-sectional, quantitative study, conducted in the public database of the DATASUS whose collection occurred in August 2021. The sample was composed of 9,387 patients notified with Leprosy. Results: sample prevalence was observed in May 2012, male gender, age range 30-39 years, complete High School, brown, multibacillary cases, evaluation of physical disability and cure in Grade 0 stage, presented more than five lesions, negative bacilloscopy, episodes without reaction, being addressed as new cases whose prevalent form was the dimorphic, having as the most prescribed therapeutic scheme the polychemotherapy for 12 months and prevalence of cure. Conclusion: there was a prevalence of leprosy cases in young men with good schooling. Despite the high prevalence of new cases, the treatment was effective in order to lead them to cure(AU)


Objetivo: identificar la prevalencia de pacientes con lepra notificados en São Luís, Maranhão, durante 2010-2020. Método: estudio descriptivo, exploratorio, retrospectivo, transversal, cuantitativo, realizado en la base de datos pública DATASUS, la cual fue recolectada en agosto de 2021. La muestra estuvo conformada por 9.387 pacientes reportados con lepra. Resultados: se tiene una muestra de prevalencia en mayo de 2012, sexo masculino, grupo etario entre 30-39 años, bachillerato completo, pardos, casos multibacilares, valoración de incapacidad física y curación en la etapa Grado 0, presentaba más de cinco lesiones, baciloscopía negativa , episodios sin reacción, siendo abordados como casos nuevos cuya forma prevalente fue borderline, siendo el régimen terapéutico más prescrito la polimedicación durante 12 meses y prevalencia de cura.Conclusión: había una prevalencia de casos de lepra en hombres jóvenes con buena escolaridad. A pesar de la alta prevalencia de casos nuevos, el trataminto fue eficaz de manera que los curará(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adulto Jovem , Notificação de Doenças , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde , Fatores Sociodemográficos
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(2): e0009850, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35180224

RESUMO

Leprosy is a chronic dermato-neurological disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, an obligate intracellular bacterium. Timely detection is a challenge in leprosy diagnosis, relying on clinical examination and trained health professionals. Furthermore, adequate care and transmission control depend on early and reliable pathogen detection. Here, we describe a qPCR test for routine diagnosis of leprosy-suspected patients. The reaction simultaneously amplifies two specific Mycobacterium leprae targets (16S rRNA and RLEP), and the human 18S rRNA gene as internal control. The limit of detection was estimated to be 2.29 copies of the M. leprae genome. Analytical specificity was evaluated using a panel of 20 other skin pathogenic microorganisms and Mycobacteria, showing no cross-reactivity. Intra- and inter-operator Cp variation was evaluated using dilution curves of M. leprae DNA or a synthetic gene, and no significant difference was observed between three operators in two different laboratories. The multiplex assay was evaluated using 97 patient samples with clinical and histopathological leprosy confirmation, displaying high diagnostic sensitivity (91%) and specificity (100%). Validation tests in an independent panel of 50 samples confirmed sensitivity and specificity of 97% and 98%, respectively. Importantly, assay performance remained stable for at least five months. Our results show that the newly developed multiplex qPCR effectively and specifically detects M. leprae DNA in skin samples, contributing to an efficient diagnosis that expedites the appropriate treatment.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Indicadores e Reagentes/normas , Lactente , Hanseníase/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/normas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/normas , Mycobacterium leprae/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/normas , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(1): e0010038, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35025894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delay in case detection is a risk factor for developing leprosy-related impairments, leading to disability and stigma. The objective of this study was to develop a questionnaire to determine the leprosy case detection delay, defined as the period between the first signs of the disease and the moment of diagnosis, calculated in total number of months. The instrument was developed as part of the PEP4LEP project, a large-scale intervention study which determines the most effective way to implement integrated skin screening and leprosy post-exposure prophylaxis with a single-dose of rifampicin (SDR-PEP) administration in Ethiopia, Mozambique and Tanzania. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A literature review was conducted and leprosy experts were consulted. The first draft of the questionnaire was developed in Ethiopia by exploring conceptual understanding, item relevance and operational suitability. Then, the first draft of the tool was piloted in Ethiopia, Mozambique and Tanzania. The outcome is a questionnaire comprising nine questions to determine the case detection delay and two annexes for ease of administration: a local calendar to translate the patient's indication of time to number of months and a set of pictures of the signs of leprosy. In addition, a body map was included to locate the signs. A 'Question-by-Question Guide' was added to the package, to provide support in the administration of the questionnaire. The materials will be made available in English, Oromiffa (Afaan Oromo), Portuguese and Swahili via https://www.infolep.org. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It was concluded that the developed case detection delay questionnaire can be administered quickly and easily by health workers, while not inconveniencing the patient. The instrument has promising potential for use in future leprosy research. It is recommended that the tool is further validated, also in other regions or countries, to ensure cultural validity and to examine psychometric properties like test-retest reliability and interrater reliability.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Busca de Comunicante , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 106(3): 775-778, 2022 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35008042

RESUMO

Children who live in leprosy-endemic areas are susceptible to infection due to early and frequent exposure to Mycobacterium leprae. Indonesia is on the verge of eliminating this disease (prevalence rate < 1/10,000 population), but pediatric leprosy continues to occur in low-endemic areas. This study aimed to evaluate pediatric leprosy over a decade in a tertiary hospital in Surabaya, Indonesia. A retrospective study of leprosy in children under 15 years old between 2010 and 2019 was conducted in the Morbus Hansen Division, Outpatient Clinic at Dr. Soetomo Hospital in Surabaya, Indonesia. Seventy pediatric leprosy cases were identified between 2010 and 2019, consisting of 58 multibacillary (MB)-type cases and 12 paucibacillary (PB)-type cases. Slit skin smear (SSS) was positive in 26 cases. There were two cases of grade-2 disability and 15 cases of leprosy reaction (erythema nodosum leprosum) in children at the time of diagnosis. There was an insignificant decline in the number of pediatric leprosy cases in the last 10 years. Cases and disabilities in children were found in some leprosy pocket areas even though the national elimination rate has been achieved. MB infections, disability, and treatment defaults were common problems in pediatric leprosy.


Assuntos
Hanseníase Multibacilar , Hanseníase , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/microbiologia , Mycobacterium leprae , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Environ Pollut ; 293: 118560, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34808309

RESUMO

The effects of air pollution on adolescents need further consideration. Although there is evidence that maternal exposure to air pollution may affect the cognitive function of offspring, relevant studies remain limited and inconsistent, with a lack of studies assessing the causal effects and evidence from developing countries. Using data from Chinese Family Panel Studies, a representative Chinese nationwide cohort study, OLS combined with instrumental variable + two-stage least square (IV+2SLS) was used to explore the causal effects of exposure to PM2.5 concentrations during pregnancy on the cognitive function of offspring when they become adolescents. After detailed argumentation and multiple testing, Planetary Boundary Layer Height (PBLH) and Surface Pressure (SP) were selected as the instrumental variables for this study. One thousand five hundred fifty-five adolescents participated in this study, with a mean age of 13.3 years (sd = 2.3). There were 706 females (45.4%), the mean maternal PM2.5 exposure concentration was 64.9 µg/m3, and recorded a mean cognitive function score of 38.1 (sd = 9.4). The OLS results found that maternal exposure to air pollution increased cognitive function in offspring adolescents, corroborating the presence of endogeneity. Multi-domain knowledge, the results of the weak instrumental variable assessments of F-tests (F = 237 > 10) and Stock-yogo tests (minimum eigenvalue statistic = 153.16 > 16.38), and the results of the Hansen J overidentification test (p > 0.05) verified the plausibility and validity of the instrumental variables. The IV+2SLS results, following causal modeling, showed that PM2.5 exposure during pregnancy impairs the cognitive ability of offspring adolescents (ß = -0.040, p < 0.05). Robustness tests also validated the results. This study provides important policy implications for developing countries on protecting their adolescents and reminds parents that the protection of adolescents from air pollution should begin from conception.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Material Particulado , Adolescente , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China , Cognição , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Gravidez
14.
J Orthop Trauma ; 36(1): e1-e5, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878070

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and compare radiographic findings in supination external (SE)2 injuries versus stress (+) SE4 injuries. DESIGN: Retrospective. SETTING: Academic Level 1 trauma center. PATIENTS: The study included 350 skeletally mature patients at a single Level 1 trauma center who presented with an isolated, Lauge-Hansen type supination-external rotation pattern, Weber B lateral malleolar fracture, OTA/AO 44-B. RESULTS: We reviewed 350 patients (185 men and 165 women), 18-95 years of age (avg 45), with isolated SE pattern lateral malleolar fractures. One hundred nine had SE4 injuries [medial clear space (MCS) = 8.3 mm]. Two hundred forty-one ankles were stressed; 164 were unstable and 77 were stable (SE2). Avg MCS at presentation and on stress radiographs was 3.59 mm for the SE2 (no widening) and 3.86 mm and 5.94 mm for the stress (+) SE4 group, respectively. The fibular displacement for the SE2, stress (+) SE4, and SE4 groups was 1.5 (0-4.5), 3.5 (0-6.6), and 4.1 (0-30.5), respectively. Sixteen of the 77 (20%) SE2 and 24 of the 164 (15%) stress (+) SE4 fractures had no displacement of the fibula on the lateral view. Similarly, 53 of the 77 (68%) SE2 and 91 of the 164 (55%) stress (+) SE4 had ≤2 mm of fibular displacement Fibular displacement of ≤2 mm on the lateral radiograph corresponded with 0.69 sensitivity and only 0.37 positive predictive value for stable ankle mortise on stress examination. CONCLUSIONS: Previous work indicated that patients with an isolated SE pattern fibula fracture, a normal MCS, and ≤2 mm of fibular displacement on the lateral radiograph have a high rate of ankle stability, with a positive predictive value of approximately 97%. We were unable to confirm this finding because 15% of unstable ankles had 0 mm and 55% had ≤2 mm of fibular displacement. We conclude that stability may not be inferred from a lack of fibular displacement on the lateral view in this population of patients. If stability is to be determined, it must be tested irrespective of fibular displacement on the lateral radiograph. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Diagnostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Tornozelo , Traumatismos do Tornozelo , Fraturas Ósseas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Tornozelo , Fraturas do Tornozelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos do Tornozelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Fíbula/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Supinação , Adulto Jovem
15.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 88(2): 201-206, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33969651

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is thought to be the reservoir of infection for visceral leishmaniasis in South Asia. The development of strategies for the diagnosis and treatment of PKDL are important for the implementation of the visceral leishmaniasis elimination program. AIMS: Liposomal amphotericin B (L-AMB) has been an overwhelming success in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. However, the empirical three-week regimen of L-AMB proposed for PKDL was shown to be inadequate, especially in the macular variant. This study aimed to delineate response of the different variants of PKDL to L-AMB. METHODS: Skin biopsies were collected from PKDL cases at disease presentation and upon completion of treatment with L-AMB. Parasite DNA was detected by Internal Transcribed Spacer-1 PCR (ITS-1 PCR) and quantified by amplification of parasite kDNA. CD68 + macrophages were estimated in tissue sections by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Treatment with L-AMB decreased the parasite load by 97% in polymorphic cases but only by 45% in macular cases. The median parasite load (89965 vs 5445 parasites/µg of genomic DNA) as well as infiltration by CD68+ cells before treatment was much greater in the polymorphic cases. LIMITATIONS: Although monitoring of the parasite load for 12 months post-treatment would have been ideal, this was not possible owing to logistical issues as well as the invasive nature of biopsy collection procedure. CONCLUSION: A dramatic decrease in the parasite burden was noted in patients with polymorphic lesions. Although patients with macular disease also had a decrease in parasite burden, this was not as marked as in the polymorphic cases. There was also a significantly greater infiltration of CD68 + macrophages in polymorphic PKDL before therapy.


Assuntos
Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Leishmaniose Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose Visceral/tratamento farmacológico , Carga Parasitária , Adolescente , Adulto , Biópsia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pele/parasitologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Port-wine stains occur in 0.3-0.5% newborns, mainly on the face and neck. Pulsed dye laser is recognized as the gold standard treatment; nevertheless, it is associated with a low cure rate and a high recurrence rate. AIMS: This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of hemoporfin photodynamic therapy for pulsed dye laser-resistant port-wine stains in children. METHODS: We studied 107 children who received hemoporfin photodynamic therapy for port-wine stains on the face and neck that were resistant to pulsed dye laser. After intravenous injection of 5 mg/kg hemoporfin, the local lesion was irradiated with 532 nm LED green light for 20 min with a power density of 80-100 mW/cm2. A total of 65 patients were given a second treatment after eight weeks. The efficacy and therapeutic responses were recorded at four days and eight weeks after each treatment. RESULTS: The efficacy was positively correlated with the number of treatments received; two treatment sessions yielded significantly better results compared to a single treatment with a response rate of 96.9%, a significant response rate of 50.8% and a cure rate of 21.5%, respectively (P < 0.001). After two treatment sessions, the efficacy was negatively correlated with age (P = 0.04). The efficacy for port-wine stains located on the lateral part was better than that of the central face (P = 0.04). The efficacy for the pink type was better than that for the red and purple types (P = 0.03). No allergic or systematic adverse reactions were reported. LIMITATIONS: No objective measurement data were available. CONCLUSION: Hemoporfin photodynamic therapy is effective and safe for pulsed dye laser-resistant facial port-wine stains in children.


Assuntos
Hematoporfirinas/administração & dosagem , Fotoquimioterapia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/administração & dosagem , Mancha Vinho do Porto/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 88(2): 177-183, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491666

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quality of life (QoL) has not been evaluated in Indian patients having epidermolysis bullosa (EB). AIMS: The aims of the study were to measure health-related QoL in Indian patients having EB using the quality of life in epidermolysis bullosa (QoLEB) questionnaire, and to find its correlation with clinically measured disease severity. METHODS: In this observational cross-sectional study, the QoLEB questionnaire was translated from English to Hindi (QoLEB-Hin) and culturally adapted without a change in concept following standard guidelines. QoLEB-Hin and three clinical scores that have been independently validated in EB, that is, Birmingham Epidermolysis Bullosa severity score (BEBs), Instrument for Scoring Clinical Outcomes of Research for Epidermolysis Bullosa (iscorEB) and Epidermolysis Bullosa Disease Activity and Scarring Index (EBDASI), were administered to EB patients/their parents in the presence of an expert. This was followed by validity and correlation studies. RESULTS: Fifty-four patients were recruited (19-females, 35-males; median age 5 years, range 0.025-36 years and 12 patients with an age >13 years). The parents answered the questions for 42 patients (age <13 years). Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa was diagnosed in 32 (59.2%) patients (dominant dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa [DDEB]-19 [35.2%] and recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa [RDEB]-13 [24.1%]). Junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) and epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS) were each diagnosed in 11 (20.4%) patients. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) of QoLEB-Hin score of all epidermolysis bullosa patients was 11.3 ± 7.6 (range 0-28; median and interquartile range [IQR], 10, 10) and reflected an overall moderate degree of affliction on QoL of patients. Mean ± SD of QoLEB-Hin scores for EBS, JEB, DDEB and RDEB were 5.4 ± 3.7 (range, 1-13; median and IQR, 6, 6), 11 ± 6.2 (range, 1-22; median and IQR, 10, 6), 9 ± 5.7 (range, 0-19; median and IQR, 10, 10) and 20.1 ± 6.4 (range, 12-28; median and IQR, 19, 12.5), respectively (P < 0.001, Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance). Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.946 was obtained for all items indicating excellent internal consistency and reliability. Mean sample adequacy was 0.91; absolute fit based off diagonal values was 0.99; indices root mean square error of approximation and root mean square residual were 0.04 and 0.05, respectively, and Tucker Lewis index was >1 indicating overfit. The mean time taken to complete the questionnaire was 6.1 min (range, 6-8 min). QoLEB-Hin correlated significantly (P < 0.001) with BEBs (ρ = 0.79), iscorEB (ρ= 0.63) and EBDASI (ρ = 0.77). Three multiple linear regression models were used to ascertain the strength of relationship between QoL-Hin, and BEBs, iSCOREB and EBDASI, respectively, after adjusting for age, gender and disease subtype. The EBDASI clinical score accounted for approximately 74% (R2 = 0.736, P < 0.001) of the variability in QOL-Hin, as compared to 73% and 55% by BEBs (R2 = 0.731, P < 0.001) and iscorEB (R2 = 0.545, P < 0.001), respectively. LIMITATIONS: Parents filled out the questionnaires for many patients and probably led to an overall moderate degree of affliction of QoL. Comparison with Dermatology Life Quality Index and other QoL scores were not done in this study. Furthermore, the scoring was done at one point in time, and test-retest measurements could not be performed. CONCLUSION: This study validated QoLEB-Hin in an Indian population finding an overall moderate reduction in QoL due to EB. Maximally affected QoL was seen in patients with RDEB. Furthermore, QoLEB-Hin had a variable positive correlation and association with all clinical severity assessment scores.


Assuntos
Epidermólise Bolhosa/complicações , Qualidade de Vida , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Lactente , Masculino , Tradução , Adulto Jovem
18.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 88(2): 162-170, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491668

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Juvenile dermatomyositis is a rare condition, but it is the most common idiopathic inflammatory myopathy in pediatric patients. AIM: To study the clinical manifestations, investigations, treatment, clinical course, and outcomes of juvenile dermatomyositis in Thai children. METHOD: This retrospective study included juvenile dermatomyositis patients treated at Siriraj Hospital, a 2,300-bed national tertiary referral center in Bangkok, Thailand, from 1994 to 2019. RESULTS: Thirty patients (22 females and 8 males) were included with a female to male ratio of 2.7:1. Median age at diagnosis was 5.1 years (range, 2.6-14.8 years). Median duration of illness before diagnosis was 6.5 months (range, 0.3-84.0 months). Acute and subacute onset occurred in the majority of patients. Presenting symptoms included muscle weakness in 27/30 (90%), skin rash in 26/30 (86.7%), muscle pain in 17/26 (65.4%), and arthralgia in 4/18 (22.2%) of patients. Dermatologic examination revealed Gottron's rash, heliotrope rash, and periungual telangiectasia in 25/30 (83.3%), 21/30 (70.0%), and 15/24 (62.5%) of patients, respectively. Interestingly, scalp dermatitis was found in 8/21 (38.1%) of patients. The most commonly used treatment regimen in this series was a combination of prednisolone and methotrexate. During the median follow-up of 3.1 years (range, 0.0-18.5 years), only one-third of patients were seen to have monocyclic disease. Extraskeletal osteosarcoma at a previous lesion of calcinosis cutis was observed in one patient at 12 years after juvenile dermatomyositis onset. LIMITATIONS: This was a retrospective single-center study, and our results may not be generalizable to other healthcare settings. Prospective multicenter studies are needed to confirm the findings of this study. CONCLUSION: juvenile dermatomyositis usually poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge, which can be compounded by the ethnic variations in the clinical presentation, as observed in this study. Asian patients tend to present with acute or subacute onset of disease, and arthralgia and/or arthritis are less common than in Caucasian patients. Scalp dermatitis is not uncommon in pediatric juvenile dermatomyositis patients. An association between juvenile dermatomyositis and malignancy, though rare, can occur.


Assuntos
Dermatomiosite/complicações , Adolescente , Artralgia/etiologia , Calcinose/complicações , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fármacos Dermatológicos/uso terapêutico , Dermatomiosite/diagnóstico , Dermatomiosite/tratamento farmacológico , Exantema/etiologia , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Debilidade Muscular/etiologia , Mialgia/etiologia , Osteossarcoma/complicações , Prednisolona/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Dermatoses do Couro Cabeludo/etiologia , Dermatopatias/complicações , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/complicações , Telangiectasia/etiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Tailândia
19.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 88(3): 337-341, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491681

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study were to characterize the clinical profile of childhood leprosy presenting at tertiary leprosy care hospitals in the states of Bihar, West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh in India, and to determine the possible risk factors associated with disabilities at presentation. METHODS: Subjects were children with newly diagnosed leprosy registered for treatment at tertiary Leprosy Mission Hospitals in Muzaffarpur (Bihar), Purulia (West Bengal) and Faizabad (Uttar Pradesh), India, between June and December 2019. Demographic and leprosy characteristics were collected at the time of diagnosis. Parents/guardians were interviewed on reasons for delay in presenting at the hospital. Associations between various factors and delay in diagnosis were assessed. RESULTS: Among the 84 children, the mean (SD) age was 10 (3) years with a range of 4-14 years. There were more boys (58%) and most children were currently in school (93%), resident in rural areas (90%) and belonged to a lower socioeconomic status (68%). More children were diagnosed with multibacillary leprosy (69%), one-third of them being skin smear positive for Mycobacterium leprae. On presentation, 17% had deformity (5% grade 1 deformity and 12% grade 2), 29% had nerve involvement and skin lesions were spread across the body in half of the children. Mean (SD) duration of delay was 10.5 (9.8) months. Delayed presentation was more in boys (43% vs. 17%; P = 0.01), those without a history of migration for work compared to those who had a history of migration (40% vs. 9%; P = 0.008) and in those children who were from a poor economic status compared with those that came from a better economic status (44% vs. 7%; P = 0.001) Limitations: Because our study was conducted at tertiary care hospitals, the findings are not representative of the situation in the field. Furthermore, a comparison group of newly diagnosed adult leprosy patients with disability could have been included in the study. CONCLUSION: Childhood leprosy continues to occur in endemic pockets in India and a substantial number present with skin smear positivity and deformity. Guardians of these children cite many reasons for the delay in presentation.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico Tardio , Hanseníase , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Tardio/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase Multibacilar/diagnóstico , Masculino , Mycobacterium leprae/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Risco , Pele/microbiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Centros de Atenção Terciária
20.
MMWR Surveill Summ ; 71(2): 1-21, 2022 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35051136

RESUMO

PROBLEM/CONDITION: Each year, approximately 500,000 immigrants and tens of thousands of refugees (range: 12,000-85,000 during 2001-2020) move to the United States. While still abroad, immigrants, refugees, and others who apply for admission to live permanently in the United States must undergo a medical examination. This examination identifies persons with class A or B conditions. Applicants with class A conditions are inadmissible. Infectious conditions that cause an applicant to be inadmissible include infectious tuberculosis (TB) disease (class A TB), infectious syphilis, gonorrhea, and infectious Hansen's disease. Applicants with class B conditions are admissible but might require treatment or follow-up. Class B TB includes persons who completed successful treatment overseas for TB disease (class B0), those with signs or symptoms suggestive of TB but whose overseas laboratory tests and clinical examinations ruled out current infectious TB disease (class B1), those with a diagnosis of latent TB infection (LTBI) (class B2), and the close contacts of persons known to have TB disease (class B3). Voluntary public health interventions might also be offered during the overseas examination. After arriving in the United States, a follow-up TB examination is recommended for persons with class B TB. PERIOD COVERED: This report summarizes health information that was reported to CDC's Electronic Disease Notification (EDN) system for refugees, immigrants, and eligible others who arrived in the United States during 2014-2019. Eligible others are persons who although not classified as refugees (e.g., certain parolees, special immigrant visa holders, and follow-to-join asylees) are eligible for the same services and benefits as refugees. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: The EDN system has both surveillance and programmatic components. The surveillance component is a centralized database that collects 1) health-related data from the overseas medical examination for immigrants with class A or B conditions and for all refugees and eligible others and 2) TB-related data from the postarrival TB examination. The programmatic component is a reporting system that sends arrival notifications to state and local health agencies in the jurisdiction where newly arriving persons have reported intending to live and provides state and local health agencies and other authorized users with medical data from overseas examinations. RESULTS: During 2014-2019, approximately 3.5 million persons moved to the United States from abroad, including 3.2 million immigrants, 313,890 refugees, and 95,993 eligible others. Among these, the overseas examination identified 139,683 persons (3,903 per 100,000 persons examined) with class B TB, 54 with primary or secondary syphilis (30 per 100,000 persons tested), 761 with latent syphilis (415 per 100,000 persons tested), and, after laboratory testing for gonorrhea was added in 2016, a total of 131 with gonorrhea (374 per 100,000 persons tested). Refugees were offered additional, voluntary interventions, including vaccinations and presumptive treatment for parasites. By 2019, first- and second-dose coverage with measles-containing vaccine were 96% and 80%, respectively. In refugee populations for whom presumptive treatment is recommended, up to 96% of refugees, depending on the specific regimen, were offered and accepted treatment. For the 139,683 persons identified overseas with class B TB, EDN sent arrival notifications and overseas medical data to the appropriate state or local health agency to facilitate postarrival TB examinations. Among 101,119 persons identified overseas as having class B0 TB (6,586) or class B1 TB (94,533), a total of 67,432 (67%) had a complete postarrival examination reported to EDN. Among 35,814 children aged 2-14 years identified overseas with class B2 TB, 20,758 (58%) had a complete postarrival examination reported to EDN. (Adults are not routinely tested for immune reactivity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis during the overseas medical examination.) Among those with a complete postarrival examination reported to EDN, the number with a diagnosis of culture-positive TB disease within the first year of arrival was 464 (688 cases per 100,000 persons examined) for those with class B0 or B1 TB and was 11 (53 cases per 100,000 persons examined) for children with class B2 TB. INTERPRETATION: During 2014-2019, the overseas medical examination system prevented importation of 6,586 cases of infectious TB, 815 cases of syphilis, and 131 cases of gonorrhea. When the examination is used to offer public health interventions, most refugees (up to 96%) accept the intervention. Postarrival follow-up examinations, which were completed for 88,190 persons and identified 475 cases of culture-positive TB, represent an important opportunity to further limit spread of TB disease in the United States by identifying and providing, if needed, preventive care for those with LTBI or treatment for those with disease. PUBLIC HEALTH ACTION: Federal, state, and local health departments and agencies should continue to use EDN data to monitor, evaluate, and improve health-related programs and policies aimed at U.S.-bound or recently arrived immigrants, refugees, and eligible others. Additional public health interventions that could be offered during the overseas medical examination should be considered (e.g., treatment for LTBI). Finally, for persons with class B TB, measures should be taken to identify and remove barriers to completing postarrival examinations to reduce risk for TB disease and community transmission, along with measures to encourage reporting of completed examinations for better data-driven decision-making.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Refugiados , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Notificação de Doenças , Eletrônica , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA