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1.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(8): e0009651, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The number of new leprosy cases is declining globally, but the disability caused by leprosy remains an important disease burden. The chance of disability is increased by delayed case detection. This review focusses on the individual and community determinants of delayed leprosy case detection. METHODS: This study was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis). The study protocol is registered in PROSPERO (code: CRD42020189274). To identify determinants of delayed detection, data was collected from five electronic databases: Embase.com, Medline All Ovid, Web of Science, Cochrane CENTRAL, and the WHO Global Health Library. RESULTS: We included 27 papers from 4315 records assessed. They originated in twelve countries, had been published between January 1, 2000, and January 31, 2021, and described the factors related to delayed leprosy case detection, the duration of the delayed case, and the percentage of Grade 2 Disability (G2D). The median delay in detection ranged from 12 to 36 months, the mean delay ranged from 11.5 to 64.1 months, and the percentage of G2D ranged from 5.6 to 43.2%. Health-service-seeking behavior was the most common factor associated with delayed detection. The most common individual factors were older age, being male, having a lower disease-symptom perception, having multibacillary leprosy, and lack of knowledge. The most common socioeconomic factors were living in a rural area, performing agricultural labor, and being unemployed. Stigma was the most common social and community factor. CONCLUSIONS: Delayed leprosy case detection is clearly correlated with increased disability and should therefore be a priority of leprosy programs. Interventions should focus on determinants of delayed case detection such as health-service-seeking behavior, and should consider relevant individual, socioeconomic, and community factors, including stigmatization. Further study is required of the health service-related factors contributing to delay.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico Tardio/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Hanseníase/complicações , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Estigma Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos
2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(7): e0009635, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34319982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Protective effects of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination and clofazimine and dapsone treatment against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection have been reported. Patients at risk for leprosy represent an interesting model for assessing the effects of these therapies on the occurrence and severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We assessed the influence of leprosy-related variables in the occurrence and severity of COVID-19. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a 14-month prospective real-world cohort study in which the main risk factor was 2 previous vaccinations with BCG and the main outcome was COVID-19 detection by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A Cox proportional hazards model was used. Among the 406 included patients, 113 were diagnosed with leprosy. During follow-up, 69 (16.99%) patients contracted COVID-19. Survival analysis showed that leprosy was associated with COVID-19 (p<0.001), but multivariate analysis showed that only COVID-19-positive household contacts (hazard ratio (HR) = 8.04; 95% CI = 4.93-13.11) and diabetes mellitus (HR = 2.06; 95% CI = 1.04-4.06) were significant risk factors for COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Leprosy patients are vulnerable to COVID-19 because they have more frequent contact with SARS-CoV-2-infected patients, possibly due to social and economic limitations. Our model showed that the use of corticosteroids, thalidomide, pentoxifylline, clofazimine, or dapsone or BCG vaccination did not affect the occurrence or severity of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Vacina BCG/administração & dosagem , Brasil/epidemiologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Teste para COVID-19 , Clofazimina/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Dapsona/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Pentoxifilina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sobrevida , Talidomida/uso terapêutico
3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(6): e0009456, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34166403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ethiopia has over 3,200 new cases of leprosy diagnosed every year. Prevention remains a challenge as transmission pathways are poorly understood. Susceptibility and disease manifestations are highly dependent on individual host-immune response. Nutritional deficiencies, such as protein-energy malnutrition, have been linked to reduced cell-mediated immunity, which in the case of leprosy, could lead to a higher chance of active leprosy and thus an increased reservoir of transmissible infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Between June and August 2018, recently diagnosed patients with leprosy and individuals without known contact with cases were enrolled as controls in North Gondar regional health centers. Participants answered survey questions on biometric data, demographics, socioeconomic situation, and dietary habits. Descriptive statistics, univariate, and multivariate logisitic regression examined associations between undernutrition, specifically body mass index (BMI), middle upper arm circumference (MUAC), and leprosy. Eighty-one participants (40 cases of leprosy, 41 controls) were enrolled (75% male) with an average age of 38.6 years (SD 18.3). The majority of cases were multibacillary (MB) (90%). There was a high prevalence of undernutrition with 24 (29.6%) participants underweight (BMI <18.5) and 17 (21%) having a low MUAC. On multivariate analysis, underweight was significantly associated with leprosy (aOR = 9.25, 95% CI 2.77, 30.81). Also found to be associated with leprosy was cutting the size of meals/skipping meals (OR = 2.9, 95% CI 1.0, 8.32) or not having enough money for food (OR = 10, 95% CI 3.44 29.06). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest a strong association between leprosy and undernutrition, while also supporting the framework that food insecurity may lead to undernutrition that then could increase susceptibility to leprosy. In conclusion, this study highlights the need to study the interplay of undernutrition, food insecurity, and the manifestations of leprosy.


Assuntos
Insegurança Alimentar/economia , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/etiologia , Desnutrição/complicações , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Pobreza , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
4.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 87(5): 603-610, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33969653

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is implicated in the ongoing pandemic across the globe since December 2019. It was first notified by China from Wuhan on 31 December 2020 and transmission to healthcare workers was first reported on 20 January 2020. Human-to-human transmission is mainly by droplet infection. At present no effective vaccine is available. Our speciality needs to collectively address the urgent issue of risk of transmission in dermatology practice. A case series of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) from Wuhan described that 41.3% of their patients may have acquired the infection from the hospital. Of all the infected health care workers, 77.5% worked in general wards and departments. These data highlight the significant risk of nosocomial transmission of COVID-19 and also the higher risk in general wards and departments compared to the emergency room or intensive care unit. Dermatology patients are generally seen in clinics and in outpatient departments in hospitals. Patients wait together in the waiting area, intermingle and then are seen by the physician in their chamber. This can cause transmission of the pathogen among patients and from patient to physician. Social distancing, hand hygiene and the use of personal protective equipment are important for preventing the spread of infection and dermatology practices also have to incorporate these aspects. Telemedicine is becoming an important tool for the management of dermatology patients in these times. At-risk patients in dermatology also need to be given priority care. Protocols for the use of immunosuppressants and biologics in dermatology during the pandemic are being developed.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Dermatologia/organização & administração , Dermatopatias/terapia , Assistência Ambulatorial/métodos , Assistência Ambulatorial/organização & administração , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/transmissão , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Índia , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Dermatopatias/complicações , Dermatopatias/diagnóstico , Telemedicina/legislação & jurisprudência , Vacinação , Salas de Espera
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 290, 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy continues to be an important cause of physical disability in endemic countries such as Brazil. Knowledge of determinants of these events may lead to better control measures and targeted interventions to mitigate its impact on affected individuals. This study investigated such factors among the most vulnerable portion of the Brazilian population. METHODS: A large cohort was built from secondary data originated from a national registry of applicants to social benefit programs, covering the period 2001-2015, including over 114 million individuals. Data were linked to the leprosy notification system utilizing data from 2007 until 2014. Descriptive and bivariate analyses lead to a multivariate analysis using a multinomial logistic regression model with cluster-robust standard errors. Associations were reported as Odds Ratios with their respective 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Among the original cohort members 21,565 new leprosy cases were identified between 2007 and 2014. Most of the cases (63.1%) had grade zero disability. Grades 1 and 2 represented 21 and 6%, respectively. Factors associated with increasing odds of grades 1 and 2 disability were age over 15 years old (ORs 2.39 and 1.95, respectively), less schooling (with a clear dose response effect) and being a multibacillary patient (ORs 3.5 and 8.22). Protective factors for both grades were being female (ORs 0.81 and 0.61) and living in a high incidence municipality (ORs 0.85 and 0.67). CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that the developing of physical disabilities remains a public health problem which increases the burden of leprosy, mainly for those with severe clinical features and worse socioeconomic conditions. Early diagnosis is paramount to decrease the incidence of leprosy-related disability and our study points to the need for strengthening control actions in non-endemic areas in Brazil, where cases may be missed when presented at early stages in disease. Both actions are needed, to benefit patients and to achieve the WHO goal in reducing physical disabilities among new cases of leprosy.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , Adulto Jovem
6.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 74(1): e20200532, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787801

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: to understand how the therapeutic itineraries of people affected by leprosy are processed. METHODS: this is a descriptive, qualitative study, conducted in April 2018 in Barão de Grajaú in Maranhão, with interviews in the form of narratives of seven patients who had a late leprosy diagnosis. RESULTS: the search for diagnosis is a major difficulty in accessing health services, resulting in a late diagnosis and, consequently, with the presence of visible deformities. It was noticed that the health units do not have a flow, nor protocols for comprehensive treatment, and these people are referred to a referral unit in another state to perform sputum smear microscopy. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: leprosy control actions need reformulations that seek the relationship between operational activities, epidemiological indicators and risk factors, in accordance with the real needs of each region, thus highlighting the gaps evidenced in the therapeutic itineraries.


Assuntos
Hanseníase , Brasil , Diagnóstico Tardio , Humanos , Hanseníase/terapia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores de Risco
7.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 87(2): 154-175, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769736

RESUMO

Dermatophytosis has attained unprecedented dimensions in recent years in India. Its clinical presentation is now multifarious, often with atypical morphology, severe forms and unusually extensive disease in all age groups. We hesitate to call it an epidemic owing to the lack of population-based prevalence surveys. In this part of the review, we discuss the epidemiology and clinical features of this contemporary problem. While the epidemiology is marked by a stark increase in the number of chronic, relapsing and recurrent cases, the clinical distribution is marked by a disproportionate rise in the number of cases with tinea corporis and cruris, cases presenting with the involvement of extensive areas, and tinea faciei.


Assuntos
Tinha/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Idade , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos , Escolaridade , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Doença Iatrogênica , Incidência , Índia/epidemiologia , Ocupações , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , Distribuição por Sexo , Classe Social , Tinha/diagnóstico , População Urbana
8.
Int J Infect Dis ; 105: 261-266, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that biological mechanisms involved in helminth infections and vitamin deficiencies increase susceptibility to other infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of helminth co-infection and select micronutrient deficiencies with leprosy using a case-control design. METHODS: From 2016 to 2018, individuals aged ≥3 years were recruited at clinics in and around Governador Valadares, Minas Gerais, Brazil in three groups: cases of leprosy, household contacts and community-matched (non-contact) controls. Helminths were diagnosed through stool Kato Katz examination and serum reactivity to anti-soluble adult worm antigen preparation IgG4. Serum ferritin, 25-OH vitamin D and retinol concentrations were measured. Multi-variate logistic regression was conducted to identify associations with active leprosy. RESULTS: Seventy-nine cases of leprosy, 96 household contacts and 81 non-contact controls were recruited; 48.1% of participants were male with a median age of 40 years. Helminths were found in 7.1% of participants on Kato Katz test, all but one of which were Schistosoma mansoni, and 32.3% of participants were positive for S. mansoni serology. On multi-variate analysis, cases were more likely to be infected with helminths (diagnosed by stool) than household contacts [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 8.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.50-50.51]. Vitamin D deficiency was common, and was more likely in cases compared with non-contact controls (aOR 4.66, 95% CI 1.42,-15.33). Iron deficiency was not associated with leprosy, and vitamin A deficiency was not detected. CONCLUSION: These associations suggest that the immune consequences of schistosomiasis and vitamin D deficiency may increase the risk of active leprosy. Comorbid conditions of poverty deserve further study as addressing co-infections and nutritional deficiencies could be incorporated into programmes to improve leprosy control.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/complicações , Helmintos/fisiologia , Hanseníase/complicações , Mycobacterium leprae/fisiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1947, 2021 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33479421

RESUMO

Reduction in incidence has been associated with the introduction of novel approaches, like chemo/immune-prophylaxis. Incidence determined through follow-up cohort studies can evaluate the implementation of these innovative policies towards control and prevention. We have assessed the incidence in our contacts cohort over past 33 years, considering the effect of demographic and clinical variables. Survival analysis was used to estimate the risk of leprosy. A total of 9024 contacts were evaluated, of which 192 developed leprosy, resulting in an overall incidence of 1.4/1000 person-years. The multivariate analysis showed that the major risk factors were (i) contact from MB index cases and (ii) consanguinity (iii) intra household contact. Lower risk was detected for contacts with BCG scar who were revaccinated. There was a significant decrease in accumulated risk between the 2011-2019 period compared with 1987, probably linked to the improvement in laboratory tools to monitor contacts, thereby providing early diagnosis of contacts at intake and reduction of transmission. Our findings suggest that a combination of contact surveillance and tracing, adequate neurodermatological examination, and availability of molecular tools is highly effective in supporting early diagnosis, while a second dose of the BCG vaccination can exert extra protection.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Vacina BCG/administração & dosagem , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Busca de Comunicante , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Hanseníase/prevenção & controle , Hanseníase/transmissão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
10.
Rev. bras. med. fam. comunidade ; 16(43): 2379, 20210126. ilus, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1292037

RESUMO

Introdução: A hanseníase é uma doença tropical negligenciada causada por Mycobacterium leprae. O Brasil é um dos principais países endêmicos para a doença, persistindo como problema de saúde pública. Além disso, é a principal doença infecciosa causadora de incapacidades físicas. Objetivos: Analisar a magnitude e os fatores associados à limitação de atividade nos casos novos de hanseníase diagnosticados no centro de referência do nordeste do Brasil. Métodos: Trata-se de estudo transversal envolvendo 50 pessoas com diagnóstico de hanseníase. Foram coletadas variáveis clínicas e sociodemográficas além de aplicação da escala SALSA para análise da limitação funcional. Empregou-se regressão logística com cálculo de odds ratio. Resultados: A presença de limitações funcionais foi registrada em 32% (n=16) dos casos analisados, destacando-se sexo feminino (56,3%), idosos (37,5%), baixa escolaridade (87,6%), forma dimorfa (62,5%), classificação multibacilar (75,0%) e grau 2 de incapacidade física (50,0%). A limitação funcional esteve associada a faixa etária ≥45 anos (OR 3,80; p=0,047), classificação multibacilar (OR 4,28; p=0,021) e escore OMP ≥6 (OR 4,69; p=0,041). Conclusão: Observou-se elevada frequência de pessoas com incapacidade físicas. Os fatores associados à limitação funcional foram idade igual ou superior a 45 anos, classificação multibacilar e escore OMP maior ou igual a seis.


Introduction: Leprosy is a neglected tropical disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Brazil is one of the main endemic countries for the disease, persisting as a public health problem. In addition, it is the main infectious disease that causes physical disabilities. Objectives: To analyze the magnitude and factors associated with activity limitation in new cases of leprosy diagnosed in the reference center in Northeastern Brazil. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study involving 50 people diagnosed with leprosy. Clinical and sociodemographic variables were collected in addition to the application of the SALSA scale for the analysis of functional limitations. Logistic regression was used with the calculation of odds ratio. Results: The presence of functional limitations was registered in 32% (n=16) of the cases analyzed, especially female (56.3%), elderly (37.5%), low education (87.6%), dimorphic form (62.5%), multibacillary classification (75.0%), and degree 2 of physical disability (50.0%). Functional limitation was associated with an age range ≥45 years (OR 3.80; p=0.047), multibacillary classification (OR 4.28; p=0.021), and OMP score ≥6 (OR 4.69; p=0.041). Conclusion: There was a high frequency of people with physical disabilities. The factors associated with functional limitation were age equal to or greater than 45 years, multibacillary classification and OMP score greater than or equal to six.


Introducción: La lepra es una enfermedad tropical desatendida causada por Mycobacterium leprae. Brasil es uno de los principales países endémicos de la enfermedad, persistiendo como problema de salud pública. Además, es la principal enfermedad infecciosa que causa discapacidades físicas. Objetivo: Analizar la magnitud y los factores asociados a la limitación de la actividad en los nuevos casos de lepra diagnosticados en el centro de referencia del noreste de Brasil. Métodos: Se trata de un estudio transversal en el que participaron 50 personas diagnosticadas con lepra. Se recogieron variables clínicas y sociodemográficas además de la aplicación de la escala SALSA para el análisis de limitaciones funcionales. Se utilizó regresión logística con el cálculo del odds ratio. Resultados: La presencia de limitaciones funcionales se registró en el 32% (n=16) de los casos analizados, especialmente mujeres (56,3%), ancianos (37,5%), baja escolaridad (87,6%), forma dismórfica (62,5%), clasificación multibacilar (75,0%) y grado 2 de discapacidad física (50,0%). La limitación funcional se asoció con un rango de edad ≥45 años (OR 3,80; p=0,047), clasificación multibacilar (OR 4,28; p=0,021) y puntuación OMP ≥6 (OR 4,69; p=0,041). Conclusión: Hubo una alta frecuencia de personas con discapacidad física. Los factores asociados a la limitación funcional fueron edad igual o superior a 45 años, clasificación multibacilar y puntuación OMP mayor o igual a seis.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Avaliação da Deficiência , Hanseníase , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Risco
11.
s.l; s.n; 2021. 10 p.
Não convencional em Inglês | SES-SP, CONASS, HANSEN, SESSP-ILSLPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-ILSLACERVO, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1146801

RESUMO

Leprosy is a prevalent disease in Brazil, which ranks as the country with the second highest number of cases in the world. The disease manifests in a spectrum of forms, and genetic differences in the host can help to elucidate the immunopathogenesis. For a better understanding of MICA association with leprosy, we performed a case­control and a family­based study in two endemic populations in Brazil. MICA and HLA­B alleles were evaluated in 409 leprosy patients and in 419 healthy contacts by PCR­SSOP­Luminex­based technology. In the familial study, analysis of 46 families was completed by direct sequencing of all exons and 3'/5'untranslated regions, using the Ilumina MiSeq platform. All data were collected between 2006 and 2009. Statistical analysis was performed using the Chi­square or Fisher's exact test together with a multivariate analysis. Family­based association was assessed by transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) software FBAT 2.0.4. We found associations between the haplotype MICA*002­HLA­B*35 with leprosy in both the per se and the multibacillary (MB) forms when compared to healthy contacts. The MICA allele *008 was associated with the clinical forms of paucibacillary (PB). Additionally, MICA*029 was associated with the clinical forms of MB. The association of MICA*029 allele (MICA­A4 variant) with the susceptibility to the MB form suggests this variant for the transmembrane domain of the MICA molecule may be a risk factor for leprosy. Two MICA and nine HLA­B variants were found associated with leprosy per se in the Colônia do Prata population. Linkage disequilibrium analysis revealed perfect linkage disequilibrium (LD) between HLA­B markers rs2596498 and rs2507992, and high LD (R2 = .92) between these and the marker rs2442718. This familial study demonstrates that MICA association signals are not independent from those observed for HLA­B. Our findings contribute the knowledge pool of the immunogenetics of Hansen's disease and reveals a new association of the MICA*029 allele(AU).


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I , Antígenos HLA-B , Hanseníase/genética , Hanseníase/imunologia , Polimorfismo Genético , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Fatores de Risco , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Alelos , Hanseníase/transmissão
12.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1927, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33013845

RESUMO

Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a serum protein of innate immunity, with a central role in the activation of the complement system through the lectin pathway. This protein is encoded by MBL2 gene, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms located at exon 1, such as rs5030737 C>T (D variant), rs1800450 G>A (B variant), and rs1800451 G>A (C variant), may change the MBL structure and the serum concentration. MBL2 polymorphisms have been associated with several infectious diseases, including leprosy. Host immune response has a major impact on the clinical manifestation of leprosy since only a few individuals infected with Mycobacterium leprae will develop the disease. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of MBL2 exon 1 polymorphisms (rs5030737, rs1800450, and rs1800451) on the MBL levels and leprosy immunopathogenesis. This case-control study included 350 leprosy patients from Southern Brazil, with 279 classified as multibacillary (MB) and 71 as paucibacillary (PB). The control group consisted of 350 non-consanguineous individuals, who were not diagnosed with leprosy or other infectious and autoimmune diseases. Genotyping was performed by PCR-sequence specific primers, and the MBL serum concentrations were evaluated by ELISA. MBL2 exon 1 polymorphisms were analyzed individually and grouped as genotypes, considering "A" as the wild allele and "O" as the presence of at least one polymorphism (D, B, or C variants). Differences were not observed in the distribution of genotypic and allelic frequencies between leprosy per se patients and controls. However, in a haplotypic analysis, the TGG haplotype presented a risk for development of leprosy per se in women when compared to the wild haplotype (CGG) (OR = 2.69). Comparing patients with MB and PB, in a multivariate analysis, the B variant was associated with the susceptibility of developing the MB form of leprosy (OR = 2.55). Besides that, the CAG haplotype showed an increased susceptibility to develop MB leprosy in women compared to men. It was observed that the A/O genotype in women was associated with a susceptibility to leprosy development per se (OR = 1.66) and progression to MB leprosy (OR = 3.13). In addition, the MBL serum concentrations were in accordance with the genotyping analysis. In summary, our data suggest that MBL2 exon 1 polymorphisms are associated with an increased risk to leprosy development and progression.


Assuntos
Hanseníase Multibacilar/genética , Lectina de Ligação a Manose/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Éxons , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Hanseníase Multibacilar/diagnóstico , Hanseníase Multibacilar/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(10): e0008749, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044965

RESUMO

Leprosy reduces quality of life of affected persons. Oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species may play a vital role in the pathogenesis of leprosy. This study evaluated anthropometric indices, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), lipid profile, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total plasma peroxide (TPP), oxidative stress index (OSI), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdg) in leprosy patients. Sixty test participants of both genders, aged 18-65years and diagnosed of multibacillary leprosy and 30 apparently healthy controls were consecutively recruited for this study. The test participants comprised of 30 patients on multidrug therapy (MDT) and 30 patients relieved from therapy (RFT). Body mass index (BMI), Waist-hip ratio (WHR), FPG, lipid profile, TAC, TPP, OSI, MDA, GSH and 8-OHdg were determined using appropriate methods. Data were analyzed using Analysis of variance; p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. The MDT group had significantly lower BMI (p = 0.0001), Total cholesterol (p = 0.001), HDL-C (p = 0.019), LDL-C (p = 0.005), TAC (p = 0.0001) and higher TPP (p = 0.001), MDA (p = 0.0001), OSI (p = 0.005) and 8-OHdg (p = 0.035) compared to the controls. The RFT group had significantly lower BMI (p = 0.001) Total cholesterol (0.0001), HDL-C (p = 0.006) LDL-C (p = 0.0001), TAC (p = 0.001) and higher WHR (p = 0.010), VLDL-C (p = 0.035), TG (p = 0.023) Atherogenic index of plasma (p = 0.0001) and TPP (p = 0.001), MDA (p = 0.0001) compared to the control group. GSH levels correlated negatively with duration of treatment (r = -0.401, p = 0.028). This study has shown that there is oxidative stress in multibacillary leprosy patients irrespective of drug treatment status. This study also shows that leprosy patients relieved from treatment may be susceptible to cardiovascular events. Antioxidants supplementation may be beneficial in the treatment of leprosy and clinical follow up on patients relieved from treatment may also be necessary to monitor health status and prevent development of cardiovascular events.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/microbiologia , Dano ao DNA , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo , Adulto , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Glutationa/sangue , Humanos , Hanseníase/sangue , Masculino , Malondialdeído/farmacologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(10): e0008687, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy transmission is ongoing; globally and within Bangladesh. Household contacts of leprosy cases are at increased risk of leprosy development. Identification of household contacts at highest risk would optimize this process. METHODS: The temporal pattern of new case presentation amongst household contacts was documented in the COCOA (Contact Cohort Analysis) study. The COCOA study actively examined household contacts of confirmed leprosy index cases identified in 1995, and 2000-2014, to provide evidence for timings of contact examination policies. Data was available on 9527 index cases and 38303 household contacts. 666 household contacts were diagnosed with leprosy throughout the follow-up (maximum follow-up of 21 years). Risk factors for leprosy development within the data analysed, were identified using Cox proportional hazard regression. FINDINGS: The dominant risk factor for household contacts developing leprosy was having a highly skin smear positive index case in the household. As the grading of initial slit skin smear of the index case increased from negative to high positive (4-6), the hazard of their associated household contacts developing leprosy increases by 3.14 times (p<0.001). Being a blood relative was not a risk factor, no gender differences in susceptibility were found. INTERPRETATION: We found a dominance of a single variable predicting risk for leprosy transmission-skin smear positive index cases. A small number of cases are maintaining transmission in the household setting. Focus should be performing contact examinations on these households and detecting new skin smear positive index cases. Conducting slit-skin smears on new cases is needed for predicting risk; such services need supporting. If skin smear positive cases are sustaining leprosy infection within the household setting, the administration of single-dose rifampicin (SDR) to household contacts as the sole intervention in Bangladesh will not be effective.


Assuntos
Busca de Comunicante , Características da Família , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/transmissão , Adolescente , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
15.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 29(4): e2019279, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756833

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the occurrence of common mental disorders (CMDs) and associated factors in people with leprosy with complications in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, in 2018. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study with people attending Júlio Müller University Hospital. The Self-Report-Questionnaire (SRQ-20) was used. Poisson regression analysis was performed to estimate prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). RESULTS: Among 206 people with leprosy, CMDs were found in 70.4% (95%CI 61.10;76.67) and were associated with the female sex (PR=1.29 - 95%CI 1.09;1.53), the 26-45 age range (PR=1.52 - 95%CI 1.09;2.11) and the 46-60 age range (PR=1.40 - 95%CI 1.01;1.95), low family income (PR=1.25 - 95%CI 1.05;1.49), and unsatisfactory quality of life in the physical domain (PR=3.03 - 95%CI 1.12;8.19) and the psychological domain (PR=1.91; 95%CI 1.40;2.61). CONCLUSION: CMDs were frequent and associated with female sex, productive age group, low income and unsatisfactory quality of life. Actions aimed at mental health in this population group are necessary.


Assuntos
Hanseníase , Transtornos Mentais , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/psicologia , Hanseníase/terapia , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Fatores Socioeconômicos
16.
Pharmazie ; 75(8): 375-380, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758336

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the major risk factors for COVID-19 complications as it is one of the chronic immune-compromising conditions especially if patients have uncontrolled diabetes, poor HbA1c and/or irregular blood glucose levels. Diabetic patients' mortality rates with COVID-19 are higher than those of cardiovascular or cancer patients. Recently, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine has shown successful results in reversing diabetes in both rats and clinical trials based on different mechanisms from aerobic glycolysis to beta cells regeneration. BCG is a multi-face vaccine that has been used extensively in protection from tuberculosis (TB) and leprosy and has been repositioned for treatment of bladder cancer, diabetes and multiple sclerosis. Recently, COVID-19 epidemiological studies confirmed that universal BCG vaccination reduced morbidity and mortality in certain geographical areas. Countries without universal policies of BCG vaccination (Italy, Nederland, USA) have been more severely affected compared to countries with universal and long-standing BCG policies that have shown low numbers of reported COVID-19 cases. Some countries have started clinical trials that included a single dose BCG vaccine as prophylaxis from COVID-19 or an attempt to minimize its side effects. This proposed research aims to use BCG vaccine as a double-edged weapon countering both COVID-19 and diabetes, not only as protection but also as therapeutic vaccination. The work includes a case study of regenerated pancreatic beta cells based on improved C-peptide and PCPRI laboratory findings after BCG vaccination for a 9 year old patient. The patient was re-vaccinated based on a negative tuberculin test and no scar at the site of injection of the 1st BCG vaccination at birth. The authors suggest and invite the scientific community to take into consideration the concept of direct BCG re-vaccination (after 4 weeks) because of the reported gene expressions and exaggerated innate immunity consequently. As the diabetic MODY-5 patient (mutation of HNF1B, Val2Leu) was on low dose Riomet® while eliminating insulin gradually, a simple analytical method for metformin assay was recommended to ensure its concentration before use as it is not approved yet by the Egyptian QC labs.


Assuntos
Vacina BCG/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus/imunologia , Células Secretoras de Insulina/citologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Animais , Vacina BCG/imunologia , COVID-19 , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Ratos , Regeneração/imunologia , Fatores de Risco , Vacinação/métodos
17.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 24(4): 296-303, Jul.-Aug. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, CONASS, HANSEN, SESSP-ILSLPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-ILSLACERVO, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1132457

RESUMO

The frequencies of the Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles in the Puyanawa indigenous reserve population and their association with the NDO-LID and ELISA PGL-1 rapid serological test was assessed. This was a cross-sectional study with an epidemiological clinical design conducted in two indigenous communities in the state of Acre, Brazil. Blood was collected in a tube with EDTA to identify HLA alleles and perform serological tests. DNA was obtained using the salting out procedure. The LabType™ technique (One-Lambda-USA) was used for HLA class I (loci A*, B* and C*) and II (loci DRB1*, DQA1* and DQB1*) typing. Allele frequency was obtained by direct count, and the chi-square test was used to assess the association with the NDO-LID and PGL-1 tests. The most frequent alleles in the two communities were: HLA-A*02:01, HLA-B*40:02, HLA-DRB1*16:02, HLA-DQA1*05:05 and HLA-DQB1*03:01. The allele HLA-C*04:01 was the most common in the Barão community, and the allele HLA-C*07:01 in Ipiranga. Among individuals who presented seropositivity to the NDO-LID test, the association with alleles HLA-A*02 (43.18% vs 24.8%, p = 0.03, OR = 2.35) and HLA-B*53 (6.83% vs 0.0%, p = 0.03, OR = 8.95) was observed in the Barão community. HLA-B*15 was associated with non-seroconversion to the NDO-LID test in Ipiranga. In both communities, HLA-B*40 and HLA-C*03 were associated with positive serological response to ELISA PGL-1. The HLA class I and II alleles most frequently found in this study have already been described among Terena indigenous groups, and HLA class I contributes to seroconversion to NDO-LID and PGL-1 tests in inhabitants of the Barão and Ipiranga communities(AU).


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Alelos , Saúde de Populações Indígenas , Cadeias HLA-DRB1 , Frequência do Gene , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Testes Sorológicos , Índios Sul-Americanos , Estudos Transversais , Fatores de Risco
19.
Expert Opin Drug Saf ; 19(10): 1349-1356, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B*13:01 was reported as an important risk factor for dapsone hypersensitivity syndrome (DHS) in Chinese and Thai populations. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: From the Korean nationwide registry, seven subjects with previous DHS were included. Their HLA allele/phenotype frequencies were compared with 8 dapsone-tolerant subjects recruited from a single institution, and general population (n = 485) in Korea. The authors also performed a meta-analysis with these data using previous Chinese and Thai studies. RESULTS: Among the seven DHS subjects, 85.7% presented with the HLA-B*13:01 allele. The HLA-C*03:04, HLA-DRB1*12:02 (both in linkage disequilibrium with HLA-B*13:01), and HLA-A*02:01 alleles were also presented in 85.7%, 71.4%, and 71.4%, respectively. Subjects with HLA-B*13:01 were susceptible to developing DHS compared to dapsone-tolerant controls (odds ratio [OR]: 73.667) and the Korean general population (OR: 139.500). HLA-C*03:04 (OR: 40.935), HLA-DRB*12:02 (OR: 36.613), and HLA-A*02:01 (OR: 5.862) showed similar results. In meta-analysis, HLA-B*13:01 was associated with dapsone-induced hypersensitivity (overall OR: 42.692), and subgroup analyses according to the control types demonstrated similar results (OR:43.694 and 41.866, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Similar to previous Asian population studies, HLA-B*13:01 is significantly associated with the risk of DHS in Korea. These associations may be useful for preventing DHS and improving drug safety.


Assuntos
Dapsona/efeitos adversos , Síndrome de Hipersensibilidade a Medicamentos/etiologia , Antígeno HLA-B13/genética , Hansenostáticos/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Criança , Dapsona/administração & dosagem , Síndrome de Hipersensibilidade a Medicamentos/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Hansenostáticos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , República da Coreia , Fatores de Risco
20.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 86(6): 649-655, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643632

RESUMO

Background: Many international guidelines on psoriasis management have emphasized upon the need to identify risk factors for liver fibrosis and that the risk may be increased after a certain total cumulative dose of methotrexate. Methods: Consecutive patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis were assessed for liver fibrosis using transient elastography and noninvasive scores. Based on the presence of significant liver fibrosis, the Odds ratio associated with various factors was calculated using logistic regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated to find maximal cutoff values of noninvasive tests to detect fibrosis. Results: In this cross-sectional study, 134 patients completed the study. Significant fibrosis (liver stiffness measurement ≥7, corresponding to F2 fibrosis or higher) was seen in 33 (24.6%) patients. Neither methotrexate exposure nor total cumulative dose of ≥1.5 was associated with significant fibrosis. Female sex (P = 0.024) and the presence of metabolic syndrome (P = 0.034) were the two variables associated with significant liver fibrosis. On logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio for the female gender and metabolic syndrome was estimated to be 2.51 (95% confidence interval - 1.09-5.81) and 2.33 (95% confidence interval - 1.03-5.27), respectively. Aspartate transaminase to platelet ratio index, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease score and the fibrosis-4 index had low sensitivity in comparison to transient elastography. Limitations: These included small sample size, small number of patients with a total cumulative methotrexate dose of >3-4.5 g, and lack of control group consisting of healthy persons. Another is the absence of liver biopsies considered as the gold standard in the diagnosis of liver fibrosis. Conclusions: Metabolic syndrome and female sex are associated with the development of significant liver fibrosis in patients with psoriasis. Methotrexate exposure does not seem to be significantly associated with significant liver fibrosis.


Assuntos
Fármacos Dermatológicos/uso terapêutico , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Psoríase/complicações , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Feminino , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico , Curva ROC , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
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