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1.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 488, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34602094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome is a rare disease characterized by the triad of recurrent orofacial swelling with facial paralysis and fissured dorsal tongue. Histologically, noncaseating granulomatous inflammation occurs that confirms the diagnosis. Overlaps between granulomatous diseases such as sarcoidosis and Crohn's disease are described. Systemic corticosteroid therapy is the treatment of choice for acute attacks. CASE PRESENTATION: We here present a case of a 59-year-old White woman suffering from Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome with a past history of sarcoidosis on therapy with leflunomide in combination with low-dose tacrolimus successfully treated with the anti-leprosy drug clofazimine after failure of systemic steroid therapy. CONCLUSIONS: We propose clofazimine as an alternative treatment in steroid-refractory cases.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn , Paralisia Facial , Síndrome de Melkersson-Rosenthal , Sarcoidose , Terapia Comportamental , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome de Melkersson-Rosenthal/complicações , Síndrome de Melkersson-Rosenthal/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Melkersson-Rosenthal/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sarcoidose/complicações , Sarcoidose/diagnóstico , Sarcoidose/tratamento farmacológico
2.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(9): 4233-4242, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586274

RESUMO

Drug utilization research to describe the control of thalidomide in Brazil and its use in Minas Gerais state. An online questionnaire was sent to the Brazilian federative units to collect data concerning distribution, dispensation, user registration, and thalidomide adverse events. Distribution (2011-2018) and dispensing (2015-2018) data in Minas Gerais were obtained through the pharmaceutical care management system. Analysis of variance and Tukey test were used for data comparisons. Of the 16 participating federative units, 100% and 50% used electronic distribution and dispensing systems, respectively, and about 43% registered users. Adverse event reporting systems were scarce. A 44% reduction was observed in the distribution in Minas Gerais for the period. Dispensing remained constant (mean 0.0004 DDD/1,000 inhabitants/day) and occurred mainly for erythema nodosum leprosum and multiple myeloma. Off-label use (2.2%) was increasing. Most users were male (mean age 56 years) and thirty percent of women were of childbearing age. Thalidomide surveillance is a public health challenge. Despite the increased use and mandatory control, there is no national standardization, and adverse event reporting is incipient.


Assuntos
Uso de Medicamentos , Talidomida , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Talidomida/efeitos adversos
3.
Curr Microbiol ; 78(10): 3782-3790, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410465

RESUMO

The bacterial strain 42Xb2 T was isolated from a female adult krill Nyctiphanes simplex infected with the apostome parasitoid ciliate Pseudocollinia brintoni in January 2007 in the Gulf of California. The strain has the morphological, phenotypic, and molecular characteristics of the bacteria of the family Vibrionaceae. The 16S rRNA gene sequence has a similarity of 97.7% with Enterovibrio pacificus SW014 T and 96.1% similarity with Enterovibrio norvegicus LMG 19839 T. A phylogenomic and a multilocus sequence analyses placed this strain close to the genera Enterovibrio, Grimontia, and Salinivibrio, but clearly forming a separate branch from these bacterial genera. Genomic analyses presented further support this result. A novel genus Veronia gen. nov. and a species Veronia nyctiphanis sp. nov. is here described with CAIM 600 T (= DSM 24592 T = CECT 7578 T) as the type strain. Morphological, physiological, and genetic evidence presented here support the unification of Enterovibrio pacificus and Veronia nyctiphanis in the new genus Veronia. Enterovibrio pacificus is reclassified as Veronia pacifica. V. pacifica is assigned as the type species of the new genus Veronia.Genome Sequencing Data The GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ accession numbers for the genome sequence of Veronia nyctiphanis CAIM 600 T is PEIB01 and of Enterovibrio pacificus CAIM 1920 T is LYBM01. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of V. nyctiphanis CAIM 600 T is JX129353.


Assuntos
Euphausiacea , Vibrionaceae , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos , Feminino , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Estômago , Vibrionaceae/genética
4.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 19: eAO5936, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431850

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate quality of life and associated factors in patients with leprosy. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with 63 people diagnosed as leprosy, seen at a reference service for the disease in the southeastern region of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The questionnaire World Health Organization Quality of Life Bref was used to evaluate quality of life. Simple and multiple linear regressions evaluated the association between sociodemographic variables and quality of life domains. RESULTS: The highest mean of quality of life was observed in the psychological domain (16.28±2.30), and the lowest in the environmental domain (13.86±2.21). Females, individuals with no partners, and people who owned their own house had the lowest quality of life means within the psychological domain. People who did not receive visits by Community Health Workers had the lowest means in quality of life within the environmental domain. Multivariate analysis revealed that the best quality of life was associated to self-reported white skin color within the environmental domain, and the worst quality of life was associated to less schooling within the physical domain. CONCLUSION: This study showed the influence of sociodemographic factors on the quality of life of patients with leprosy, and indicated the need for comprehensive health care, considering the social determinants of health.


Assuntos
Hanseníase , Qualidade de Vida , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 662307, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34354699

RESUMO

The treatment of multibacillary cases of leprosy with multidrug therapy (MDT) comprises 12 doses of a combination of rifampicin, dapsone and clofazimine. Previous studies have described the immunological phenotypic pattern in skin lesions in multibacillary patients. Here, we evaluated the effect of MDT on skin cell phenotype and on the Mycobacterium leprae-specific immune response. An analysis of skin cell phenotype demonstrated a significant decrease in MRS1 (SR-A), CXCL10 (IP-10) and IFNG (IFN-γ) gene and protein expression after MDT release. Patients were randomized according to whether they experienced a reduction in bacillary load after MDT. A reduction in CXCL10 (IP-10) in sera was associated with the absence of a reduction in the bacillary load at release. Although IFN-γ production in response to M. leprae was not affected by MDT, CXCL10 (IP-10) levels in response to M. leprae increased in cells from patients who experienced a reduction in bacillary load after treatment. Together, our results suggest that CXCL10 (IP-10) may be a good marker for monitoring treatment efficacy in multibacillary patients.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CXCL10/sangue , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Pele/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carga Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Quimiocina CXCL10/imunologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Hansenostáticos/administração & dosagem , Hanseníase/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Pele/microbiologia , Pele/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
6.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(1): 31-36, 2021 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232909

RESUMO

Leprosy is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. China was once one of the countries with severe leprosy epidemics, but its incidence has remained low in recent years. Despite this, there has been no decrease in its incidence more recently, and it is still a public health problem which needs to be controlled. In this study, we analyzed the epidemiological characteristics and trends in the detection rate of new cases of leprosy in China between 2004 and 2016. There were 4,519 cases of leprosy in 28 provinces, municipalities, and autonomous regions between 2004 and 2016, and the total incidence was 0.02815 (per 100,000 individuals) and 21 deaths. The overall incidence of leprosy showed an inverted "V" distribution (i.e., an increase followed by a decrease). Yunnan, Sichuan, Guangdong, Guizhou, and Guangxi were the top five regions with the highest incidence rates, and they accounted for 68.7% of the total cases. There were more male patients than female patients, and peasants accounted for 71.7% of the leprosy cases. The patients with leprosy in China were mainly concentrated in the age-group 15-44 years, as this group accounted for 57.2% of the total cases. The purpose of this study is to explore the epidemiology of leprosy in China. This analysis will be useful for future monitoring of leprosy and establishment of public health measures in China, in keeping with the "Programme for the Elimination of Leprosy in China 2011-2020."


Assuntos
Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium leprae/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 632482, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34276644

RESUMO

Recent evidence suggests that inflammation was participated in the pathogenesis of PD, thus, to understand the potential mechanism of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), we performed a metagenomic analysis of fecal samples from PD patient and controls. Using a two-stage metagenome-wide association strategy, fecal DNA samples from 69 PD patients and 244 controls in three groups (comprising 66 spouses, 97 age-matched, and 81 normal samples, respectively) were analyzed, and differences between candidate gut microbiota and microbiota-associated epitopes (MEs) were compared. In the study, 27 candidate bacterial biomarkers and twenty-eight candidate epitope peptides were significantly different between the PD patients and control groups. Further, enriched 4 and 13 MEs in PD were positively associated with abnormal inflammatory indicators [neutrophil percentage (NEUT.1), monocyte count/percentage (MONO/MONO.1), white blood cell count (WBC)] and five candidate bacterial biomarkers (c_Actinobacteria, f_Bifidobacteriaceae, g_Bifidobacterium, o_Bifidobacteriales, p_Actinobacteria) from Actinobacteria phylum, and they were also positively associated with histidine degradation and proline biosynthesis pathways, respectively. Additionally, enriched 2 MEs and 1 ME in PD were positively associated with above inflammatory indicators and two bacteria (f_Lactobacillaceae, g_Lactobacillus) from Firmicutes phylum, and they were also positively associated with pyruvate fermentation to propanoate I and negatively associated with isopropanol biosynthesis, respectively. Of these MEs, two MEs from GROEL2, RPSC were derived from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, triggered the T cell immune response, as previously reported. Additionally, other candidate epitope peptides derived from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae may also have potential immune effects in PD. In all, the altered MEs in PD may relate to abnormalities in immunity and glutamate and propionate metabolism, which furthers our understanding of the pathogenesis of PD.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/imunologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Firmicutes/imunologia , Doença de Parkinson/microbiologia , Actinobacteria/classificação , Actinobacteria/genética , Actinobacteria/metabolismo , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Vias Biossintéticas , Citocinas/sangue , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Firmicutes/classificação , Firmicutes/genética , Firmicutes/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Humanos , Inflamação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/imunologia
8.
Int J Infect Dis ; 110: 111-113, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271204

RESUMO

Leprosy is currently uncommon in Europe: the diagnosed cases are almost all imported from endemic areas. We report on an autochthonous case of borderline lepromatous leprosy in a 71-year-old Portuguese woman. The case was complicated by a reversal reaction and then by erythema nodosum leprosum. A literature review identified 18 reported cases of European autochthonous leprosy since 2000; all but one were observed in Mediterranean countries. Therefore, active clusters of leprosy persist in Europe, particularly in Spain, Greece, Portugal, and Italy.


Assuntos
Eritema Nodoso , Hipersensibilidade , Hanseníase Virchowiana , Hanseníase Multibacilar , Hanseníase , Idoso , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase Virchowiana/diagnóstico , Hanseníase Virchowiana/tratamento farmacológico
9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 647987, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34248935

RESUMO

Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. braziliensis induces a pronounced Th1 inflammatory response characterized by IFN-γ production. Even in the absence of parasites, lesions result from a severe inflammatory response in which inflammatory cytokines play an important role. Different approaches have been used to evaluate the therapeutic potential of orally administrated heat shock proteins (Hsp). These proteins are evolutionarily preserved from bacteria to humans, highly expressed under inflammatory conditions and described as immunodominant antigens. Tolerance induced by the oral administration of Hsp65 is capable of suppressing inflammation and inducing differentiation in regulatory cells, and has been successfully demonstrated in several experimental models of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. We initially administered recombinant Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis) prior to infection as a proof of concept, in order to verify its immunomodulatory potential in the inflammatory response arising from L. braziliensis. Using this experimental approach, we demonstrated that the oral administration of a recombinant L. lactis strain, which produces and secretes Hsp65 from Mycobacterium leprae directly into the gut, mitigated the effects of inflammation caused by L. braziliensis infection in association or not with PAM 3CSK4 (N-α-Palmitoyl-S-[2,3-bis(palmitoyloxy)-(2RS)-propyl]-L-cysteine, a TLR2 agonist). This was evidenced by the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and the expansion of regulatory T cells in the draining lymph nodes of BALB/c mice. Our in vitro experimental results suggest that IL-10, TLR-2 and LAP are important immunomodulators in L. braziliensis infection. In addition, recombinant L. lactis administered 4 weeks after infection was observed to decrease lesion size, as well as the number of parasites, and produced a higher IL-10 production and decrease IFN-γ secretion. Together, these results indicate that Hsp65-producing L. lactis can be considered as an alternative candidate for treatment in both autoimmune diseases, as well as in chronic infections that cause inflammatory disease.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Chaperonina 60/administração & dosagem , Chaperonina 60/metabolismo , Tolerância Imunológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactococcus lactis/metabolismo , Leishmania braziliensis/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Mycobacterium leprae/enzimologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Chaperonina 60/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/imunologia , Lactococcus lactis/genética , Leishmaniose Cutânea/imunologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Organismos Geneticamente Modificados/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia
10.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 29: e3419, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231786

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to know the interferences of leprosy in women's lives and how they reinvent themselves in coping with the disease. METHOD: a descriptive study with a qualitative approach. The theoretical-methodological framework adopts an approximation to the cartographic method and some concepts of schizoanalysis, which were used to analyze the data. The tools used to produce the data were the interview and the logbook. The interviews were conducted from July to November 2019, at the participants' homes. RESULTS: the group consisted of nine women. To display the data, we were inspired by Deleuze's ideas about difference and repetition. The results were organized in three thematic axes that address the lives of these women affected by leprosy, which accompany concerns, anxieties and worries about the effects of the disease. The transformations in the female body, the financial maintenance itself due to the comorbidities caused by leprosy and its difficulties in guaranteeing rights are elements strongly pointed out by women. CONCLUSION: there is overlap and interference of the female condition in a patriarchal society that still accompanies it. We bet on the strength of becoming-a-woman and the need to consider them in their singularities and in their context for producing care permeated by meetings of the affirmation of the power of life.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Hanseníase , Ansiedade , Feminino , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
11.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 263: 239-246, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34247041

RESUMO

The 10-year results after national introduction of pelvic lymph node staging in Danish intermediate-risk endometrial cancer patients not given postoperative radiotherapy. Gitte Ørtoft; Claus Høgdall; Estrid S Hansen; Margit Dueholm. OBJECTIVE: To prepare for the national introduction of sentinel node staging, we evaluated the consequences of the previous national decision to introduce lymph node staging in intermediate-risk endometrial cancer patients (grade 1/2 with > 50% or grade 3 with < 50% myometrial invasion) by determining the number of patients upstaged by lymphadenectomy and whether upstaging affected the survival and recurrence patterns of non-staged patients and patients with and without lymph node metastases. STUDY DESIGN: In a national cohort study, 2005-12, 1294 stage I-IV patients who should have been offered lymphadenectomy were progressively registered. The number of patients upstaged by lymphadenectomy, 10-year survivals were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier analysis and adjusted Cox regression. RESULTS: This study demonstrates that it takes time to introduce lymphadenectomy at a national level, as indicated by the increasing number of cases staged per year, from 12% in 2005 to 74% in 2012. Pelvic lymphadenectomy was performed in 43.8% (567/1294) and lymph node metastases were found in 13.6% (77/567). As 54 patients had further dissemination outside the uterine body, only 23 patients (6%) were upstaged from stage I to IIIC. Compared to lymph node-negative patients, the 77 patients with lymph node metastasis had significantly lower overall, (55% versus 68%), disease-specific (64% versus 86%), and progression-free survival (51% versus 77%), mainly due to non-local recurrences including a high number of paraaortic recurrences. In 873 final stage I intermediate-risk patients, 10-year survival and recurrence rates were not significantly lower in non-staged as compared to lymph node-negative patients (overall survival 62% versus 70%: disease-specific survival: 90% versus 90%, progression-free survival: 81% vs 83%), probably due to the low number of patients upstaged from stage I to stage IIIC. CONCLUSION: Lymph node metastases were present in 13.6% of patients with intermediate-risk who underwent pelvic lympadenectomy, and these patients had a lower 10-year survival than lymph node-negative patients. Because lymphadenectomy upstaged only 6% from stage I to stage IIIC, survival and recurrence rates were not significantly compromised in non-staged as compared to lymph node-negative intermediate-risk stage I patients. Sentinel node staging has now been implemented in Danish intermediate-risk endometrial cancer patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/radioterapia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Excisão de Linfonodo , Linfonodos/patologia , Linfonodos/cirurgia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias
12.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 67(1): 19-25, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161488

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiological and neurofunctional profile, as well as the prevalence of factors associated with the occurrence of physical disabilities due to leprosy in a reference center in Northeast Brasil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study including 50 leprosy patients diagnosed in Juazeiro-Bahia. Variables analyzed: sex, age, history of leprosy in the family, time to diagnosis, clinical form, operational classification, degree of disability, eyes-hand-foot score, peripheral nerve function, muscle strength and sensitivity. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics (χ² test or Fisher's exact, Poisson regression with robust estimation and prevalence reason were used. Significance of 5%). RESULTS: An equal distribution was found between men and women of economically active age and low education; multibacillary forms in men (64%) and paucibacillary forms in women (60%). 78% of individuals had some degree of disability and 64% had a compromised ulnar nerve. Plantar sensitivity was decreased in 66% of patients. The predictors of disability were: age ≥45 years (PR 1.44; p=0.005), no education (PR 1.21; p=0.013) and OMP score ≥6 (PR 1.29; p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The findings show the importance of monitoring neural functions and developing measures that allow early diagnosis, the opportune method and the prevention of disabilities, especially in the male population.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Hanseníase , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hanseníase/complicações , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência
13.
Nat Immunol ; 22(7): 839-850, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34168371

RESUMO

Granulomas are complex cellular structures composed predominantly of macrophages and lymphocytes that function to contain and kill invading pathogens. Here, we investigated the single-cell phenotypes associated with antimicrobial responses in human leprosy granulomas by applying single-cell and spatial sequencing to leprosy biopsy specimens. We focused on reversal reactions (RRs), a dynamic process whereby some patients with disseminated lepromatous leprosy (L-lep) transition toward self-limiting tuberculoid leprosy (T-lep), mounting effective antimicrobial responses. We identified a set of genes encoding proteins involved in antimicrobial responses that are differentially expressed in RR versus L-lep lesions and regulated by interferon-γ and interleukin-1ß. By integrating the spatial coordinates of the key cell types and antimicrobial gene expression in RR and T-lep lesions, we constructed a map revealing the organized architecture of granulomas depicting compositional and functional layers by which macrophages, T cells, keratinocytes and fibroblasts can each contribute to the antimicrobial response.


Assuntos
Hanseníase Virchowiana/imunologia , Hanseníase Tuberculoide/imunologia , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Pele/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Fibroblastos/imunologia , Fibroblastos/microbiologia , Fibroblastos/patologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Queratinócitos/imunologia , Queratinócitos/microbiologia , Queratinócitos/patologia , Hanseníase Virchowiana/genética , Hanseníase Virchowiana/microbiologia , Hanseníase Virchowiana/patologia , Hanseníase Tuberculoide/genética , Hanseníase Tuberculoide/microbiologia , Hanseníase Tuberculoide/patologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium leprae/patogenicidade , RNA-Seq , Análise de Célula Única , Pele/microbiologia , Pele/patologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/microbiologia , Linfócitos T/patologia , Transcriptoma
14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(6): e0009495, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study evaluates implementation strategies for leprosy diagnosis based on responses to a Leprosy Suspicion Questionnaire (LSQ), and analyzes immunoepidemiological aspects and follow-up of individuals living in a presumptively nonendemic area in Brazil. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Quasi-experimental study based on LSQ throughout Jardinópolis town by community health agents, theoretical-practical trainings for primary care teams, dermatoneurological examination, anti-PGL-I serology, RLEP-PCR, and spatial epidemiology. A Leprosy Group (LG, n = 64) and Non-Leprosy Group (NLG, n = 415) were established. Overall, 3,241 LSQs were distributed; 1,054 (32.5%) LSQ were positive for signs/symptoms (LSQ+). Among LSQ+ respondents, Q2-Tingling (pricking)? (11.8%); Q4-Spots on the skin? (11.7%); Q7-Pain in the nerves? (11.6%); Q1-Numbness in your hands and/or feet? (10.7%) and Q8-Swelling of hands and feet? (8.5%) were most frequently reported symptoms. We evaluated 479 (14.8%) individuals and diagnosed 64 new cases, a general new case detection rate (NCDR) of 13.4%; 60 were among 300 LSQ+ (NCDR-20%), while 4 were among 179 LSQ negative (NCDR-2.23%). In LG, Q7(65%), Q2(60%), Q1(45%), Q4(40%) and Q8(25%) were most frequent. All 2x2 crossings of these 5 questions showed a relative risk for leprosy ranging from 3 to 5.8 compared with NLG. All patients were multibacillary and presented hypochromatic macules with loss of sensation. LG anti-PGL-I titers were higher than NLG, while 8.9% were positive for RLEP-PCR. The leprosy cases and anti-PGL-I spatial mappings demonstrated the disease spread across the town. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Implementation actions, primarily LSQ administration focused on neurological symptoms, indicate hidden endemic leprosy in a nonendemic Brazilian state.


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/educação , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Mycobacterium leprae/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 176(1): 36-53, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34096038

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: By focusing on two Danish leprosaria (Naestved and Odense; 13th-16th c. CE) and using diet and origin as proxies, we follow a multi-isotopic approach to reconstruct life histories of patients and investigate how leprosy affected both institutionalized individuals and the medieval Danish community as a whole. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We combine archaeology, historical sources, biological anthropology, isotopic analyses (δ13 C, δ15 N, δ34 S, 87 Sr/86 Sr) and radiocarbon dating, and further analyze bones with different turnover rates (ribs and long bones). RESULTS: The δ13 C, δ15 N and δ34 S results indicate a C3 terrestrial diet with small contributions of marine protein for leprosy patients and individuals from other medieval Danish sites. A similar diet is seen through time, between males and females, and patients with and without changes on facial bones. The isotopic comparison between ribs and long bones reveals no significant dietary change. The δ34 S and 87 Sr/86 Sr results suggest that patients were local to the regions of the leprosaria. Moreover, the radiocarbon dates show a mere 50% agreement with the arm position dating method used in Denmark. CONCLUSIONS: A local origin for the leprosy patients is in line with historical evidence, unlike the small dietary contribution of marine protein. Although only 10% of the analyzed individuals have rib/long bone offsets that undoubtedly show a dietary shift, the data appear to reveal a pattern for 25 individuals (out of 50), with elevated δ13 C and/or δ15 N values in the ribs compared to the long bones, which points toward a communal type of diet and reveals organizational aspects of the institution.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/química , Isótopos/análise , Hanseníase/etnologia , Hanseníase/história , Adulto , Antropologia Física , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Dinamarca/etnologia , Feminino , História Medieval , Humanos , Isótopos/metabolismo , Masculino , Datação Radiométrica
16.
Front Public Health ; 9: 666307, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34136455

RESUMO

Leprosy remains endemic in some regions and is a global health concern. However, the possible causes and risk factors of the disease remain unclear. Data in Wenshan, China were collected from the Wenshan Institute of Dermatology (1986-2015); data in Nepal were obtained from the Leprosy Control Division, Department of Health Services, Nepal (2011 to 2015); and data from Indonesia, India, and Brazil were collected from WHO records. We assessed the epidemiological trends of leprosy in Wenshan and compared the features of possible causes and risk factors with those of other countries. We then performed a descriptive and statistical analysis to make our study more purposeful and definitive. A total of 3,376 cases were detected in Wenshan from 1986 to 2015. The overall prevalence rate (PR) of leprosy presented a decreasing trend with a peak (4.9/10,000 population) in 1986. The detection of new leprosy cases was higher in males than in females. Visible deformity increased every year since 2005 with a disability of 34.8% in 2015 among new cases. In Nepal, 2,461 leprosy patients received multi-drug therapy (MDT) in 2015 which corresponded to the PR of 0.89/10,000 population. Geographic latitude and socio-economic situations appeared to be the main causes of leprosy, and the healthcare condition was an important factor associated with leprosy incidence. The introduction of MDT effectively reduced leprosy prevalence worldwide. Wenshan (China), Nepal, and other countries share similarities in various aspects with respect to socio-cultural features, geographical distribution, environmental factors, and economic situation, which may contribute to leprosy being endemic in these areas.


Assuntos
Epidemias , Hanseníase , Brasil , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Indonésia , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Nepal/epidemiologia
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(5): e0009382, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33939710

RESUMO

The World Health Organization has raised concerns about the increasing number of Hansen disease (HD) relapses worldwide, especially in Brazil, India, and Indonesia that report the highest number of recurrent cases. Relapses are an indicator of MDT effectiveness and can reflect Mycobacterium leprae persistence or re-infection. Relapse is also a potential marker for the development or progression of disability. In this research, we studied a large cohort of persons affected by HD treated with full fixed-dose multibacillary (MB) multidrug therapy (MDT) followed for up to 20 years and observed that relapses are a rare event. We estimated the incidence density of relapse in a cohort of patients classified to receive MB regime (bacillary index (BI) > 0), diagnosed between September 1997 and June 2017, and treated with twelve-dose MB-MDT at a HD reference center in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We obtained the data from the data management system of the clinic routine service. We linked the selected cases to the dataset of relapses of the national HD data to confirm possible relapse cases diagnosed elsewhere. We diagnosed ten cases of relapse in a cohort of 713 patients followed-up for a mean of 12.1 years. This resulted in an incidence rate of 1.16 relapse cases per 1000 person-year (95% CI = 0.5915-2.076). The accumulated risk was 0.025 in 20 years. The very low risk observed in this cohort of twelve-dose-treated MB patients reinforces the success of the current MDT scheme.


Assuntos
Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase Virchowiana/tratamento farmacológico , Hanseníase Virchowiana/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Clofazimina/uso terapêutico , Dapsona/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium leprae/efeitos dos fármacos , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Pele/microbiologia , Pele/patologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(3): 838-842, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34057932

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the occurrence and characteristics of the two types of lepra reactions in new leprosy cases at initial diagnosis. Methods: The retrospective descriptive study was conducted at the Marie Adelaide Leprosy Centre, Karachi, and comprised all new leprosy cases registered from January 1, 2016, to June 30, 2018. Data was collected from the medical record database using a predesigned proforma. RESULTS: Of the 50 cases, 2(4%) were children and 48 (96%) were adults, with overall age ranging from 12 to 85 years. There were 41(82%) males and 9(18%) females.. Of the total, 30(60%) cases presented with type 1 reaction and 20(40%) with type 2. Further, 30(60%) cases were classified as borderline lepromatous. Among them, 17(57%) had type 2 reaction. Inflamed plaques were the main feature in 27(90%) cases of type 1. Crops of painful, erythematous nodules were seen in 19(95%) cases of type 2. Conclusion: Lepra reactions were found to be a presenting feature in a significant number of new leprosy cases at initial diagnosis.


Assuntos
Hanseníase , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e931655, 2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34038399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Leprosy is an infection caused by Mycobacterium leprae. An extensive literature search did not reveal many reports of melioidosis in association with leprosy. CASE REPORT A 22-year-old woman, who was diagnosed with multibacillary leprosy, developed dapsone-induced methemoglobinemia and hemolytic anemia, complicated by melioidosis. Methemoglobinemia was treated with methylene blue and vitamin C. Two weeks of ceftazidime was initiated to treat melioidosis, and the patient was discharged on amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and doxycycline as melioidosis eradication therapy. However, she developed drug-induced hypersensitivity. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, as an alternative treatment for melioidosis eradication, was commenced and was successfully completed for 12 weeks. During the fifth month of multidrug therapy, the patient developed type II lepra reaction with erythema nodosum leprosum reaction, which was treated with prednisolone. Leprosy treatment continued with clofazimine and ofloxacin, and complete resolution of skin lesions occurred after 12 months of therapy. CONCLUSIONS Our case highlighted the challenges posed in managing a patient with multibacillary leprosy with multiple complications. Clinicians should be aware that dapsone-induced methemoglobinemia and hemolysis might complicate the treatment of leprosy. Our case also highlighted the safety and efficacy of combining ofloxacin and clofazimine as a leprosy treatment regimen in addition to gradual steroid dose titration in the presence of type II lepra reaction.


Assuntos
Anemia Hemolítica , Hanseníase Virchowiana , Melioidose , Metemoglobinemia , Adulto , Anemia Hemolítica/induzido quimicamente , Anemia Hemolítica/tratamento farmacológico , Dapsona/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Hansenostáticos/efeitos adversos , Hanseníase Virchowiana/complicações , Hanseníase Virchowiana/tratamento farmacológico , Metemoglobinemia/induzido quimicamente , Metemoglobinemia/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem
20.
Front Immunol ; 12: 647832, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33936067

RESUMO

Leprosy is a disease with a clinical spectrum of presentations that is also manifested in diverse histological features. At one pole, lepromatous lesions (L-pole) have phagocytic foamy macrophages heavily parasitized with freely multiplying intracellular Mycobacterium leprae. At the other pole, the presence of epithelioid giant cells and granulomatous formation in tuberculoid lesions (T-pole) lead to the control of M. leprae replication and the containment of its spread. The mechanism that triggers this polarization is unknown, but macrophages are central in this process. Over the past few years, leprosy has been studied using large scale techniques to shed light on the basic pathways that, upon infection, rewire the host cellular metabolism and gene expression. M. leprae is particularly peculiar as it invades Schwann cells in the nerves, reprogramming their gene expression leading to a stem-like cell phenotype. This modulatory behavior exerted by M. leprae is also observed in skin macrophages. Here, we used live M. leprae to infect (10:1 multiplicity of infection) monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) for 48 h and analyzed the whole gene expression profile using microarrays. In this model, we observe an intense upregulation of genes consistent with a cellular immune response, with enriched pathways including peptide and protein secretion, leukocyte activation, inflammation, and cellular divalent inorganic cation homeostasis. Among the most differentially expressed genes (DEGs) are CCL5/RANTES and CYP27B1, and several members of the metallothionein and metalloproteinase families. This is consistent with a proinflammatory state that would resemble macrophage rewiring toward granulomatous formation observed at the T-pole. Furthermore, a comparison with a dataset retrieved from the Gene Expression Omnibus of M. leprae-infected Schwann cells (MOI 100:1) showed that the patterns among the DEGs are highly distinct, as the Schwann cells under these conditions had a scavenging and phagocytic gene profile similar to M2-like macrophages, with enriched pathways rearrangements in the cytoskeleton, lipid and cholesterol metabolism and upregulated genes including MVK, MSMO1, and LACC1/FAMIN. In summary, macrophages may have a central role in defining the paradigmatic cellular (T-pole) vs. humoral (L-pole) responses and it is likely that the multiplicity of infection and genetic polymorphisms in key genes are gearing this polarization.


Assuntos
Imunidade Celular/genética , Hanseníase Virchowiana/genética , Hanseníase Virchowiana/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/virologia , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Transcriptoma , Adulto , Doadores de Sangue , Polaridade Celular/genética , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Hanseníase Virchowiana/microbiologia , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Células de Schwann/imunologia , Células de Schwann/virologia , Adulto Jovem
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