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1.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 488, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34602094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome is a rare disease characterized by the triad of recurrent orofacial swelling with facial paralysis and fissured dorsal tongue. Histologically, noncaseating granulomatous inflammation occurs that confirms the diagnosis. Overlaps between granulomatous diseases such as sarcoidosis and Crohn's disease are described. Systemic corticosteroid therapy is the treatment of choice for acute attacks. CASE PRESENTATION: We here present a case of a 59-year-old White woman suffering from Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome with a past history of sarcoidosis on therapy with leflunomide in combination with low-dose tacrolimus successfully treated with the anti-leprosy drug clofazimine after failure of systemic steroid therapy. CONCLUSIONS: We propose clofazimine as an alternative treatment in steroid-refractory cases.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn , Paralisia Facial , Síndrome de Melkersson-Rosenthal , Sarcoidose , Terapia Comportamental , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome de Melkersson-Rosenthal/complicações , Síndrome de Melkersson-Rosenthal/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Melkersson-Rosenthal/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sarcoidose/complicações , Sarcoidose/diagnóstico , Sarcoidose/tratamento farmacológico
2.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 19: eAO5622, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495085

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the prevalence of leprosy cases using as parameters the number of diagnosed cases, age group, sex, clinical form of the disease, degree of physical disability, affected nerves, and therapeutic methods. METHODS: This was a descriptive study. Data were collected in the Information System for Notifiable Diseases (Sistema de Informações de Agravos de Notificação) from 2014 to 2017 in the state of Mato Grosso (MT), Brazil. RESULTS: In the studied period, 11,388 cases were notified in the state, with a higher prevalence in the year 2017. Most cases were diagnosed in individuals older than 15 years with a slight predominance of men. During diagnosis, there was prevalence of zero degree of physical disability and among individuals with affected nerves, mostly had less than five nerves affected. CONCLUSION: Analyzing the prevalence and epidemiological profile of leprosy cases in the state of Mato Grosso (MT) turns to be essential for coping with the disease, as it helps in its management and treatment, with an emphasis on multidisciplinary approach for the recovery of existing cases and prevention of new cases, especially at hyperendemic states.


Assuntos
Surdez , Hanseníase , Adaptação Psicológica , Brasil/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência
3.
Rev Esc Enferm USP ; 55: e20200357, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495209

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the scientific evidence regarding the leprosy patients quality of life. METHOD: Scoping review according to the Joanna Briggs Institute methodology, with articles indexed in PubMed, Cochrane, LILACS, Embase, CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Science, PsyINFO, INFOLEP, and Google Scholar databases, published in full in Portuguese, English, or Spanish. RESULTS: Seventy-four studies were identified, with 71 of quantitative approach and 3 with a mixed method. There was a predominance of studies published in Brazil (58.1%), with an adult population, (97.3%) and recruited in reference centers for the treatment of leprosy (52.7%). There was greater use of the WHOQOL-bref (50%) and SF-36 (18.9%) instruments to assess quality of life. The study showed that the greatest impairment in quality of life was related to the delay in the diagnosis of the disease, to leprosy reactions, physical disabilities, neuropathic pain, and stigma. CONCLUSION: Most studies were developed in endemic countries, with adults, and based on observational studies, and the worst scores obtained were associated with physical domain impairment.


Assuntos
Hanseníase , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Brasil , Humanos
4.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(10): e1451-e1459, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A large, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of repeat BCG found 49% efficacy against leprosy but no protection against tuberculosis after 6-9 years' follow-up in 1995. We report here additional follow-up, which resulted in greatly increased tuberculosis case numbers, and allowed subgroup analysis. METHODS: Nearly 47 000 individuals of all ages living in northern Malawi with a BCG vaccine scar were randomly assigned (1:1) between 1986 and 1989 to receive a second BCG or placebo. The investigators and project staff remained masked to all interventions. Enhanced passive surveillance ensured ascertainment of tuberculosis and leprosy to the end of 2018. Tuberculosis case definitions included rigorous microbiological or histological confirmation. Prespecified subgroup analyses were by tuberculosis type, age at vaccination, time since vaccination, previous tuberculin reactivity, HIV status and Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineage. The original trial is registered with ISRCTN registry, ISRCTN11311670. FINDINGS: In follow-up until Dec 31, 2018, 824 participants had developed tuberculosis, including 786 with pulmonary disease, of whom 383 (63%) of 607 with known HIV status were HIV positive. There was no effect of a second BCG overall (odds ratio [OR] 0·92; 95% CI 0·80-1·05), or for pulmonary (0·93; 0·81-1·07), or lymph node tuberculosis (0·60; 0·31-1·17). The OR was lower for those with known HIV-negative tuberculosis (0·77; 0·59-1·00), for those vaccinated as children (aged <5 years, 0·74; 0·41-1·35; aged 5-14 years, 0·77; 0·60-0·99), and for cases arising at least 20 years after vaccination (0·79; 0·63-1·01). There were no differences by tuberculin status at vaccination, or lineage. There was no evidence of protection against leprosy beyond 10 years after vaccination (although there have been only nine diagnostically certain cases since 1995). INTERPRETATION: There was no evidence that repeat BCG vaccination provides appreciable protection against overall tuberculosis in this rural African population with a high prevalence of HIV. Subgroup effects should not be overinterpreted given the multiple analyses done. However, the evidence for modest protection against HIV-negative tuberculosis, and for a delayed benefit in those vaccinated as children, is consistent with other observations in the literature. FUNDING: LEPRA, Wellcome Trust, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Assuntos
Vacina BCG , Vacinação , Método Duplo-Cego , Seguimentos , Humanos , Malaui/epidemiologia
5.
Codas ; 33(5): e20200058, 2021.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524350

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Verifying the association between clinical-functional vulnerability and vocal and auditory self-perception in seniors presenting a history of leprosy. METHODS: Cross-sectional study encompassing 117 elderly people from an old leprosy colony in southeastern Brazil. The research analyzed sociodemographic information and the following protocols: Clinical-Functional Vulnerability Index-20 (IVCF-20), Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly Screening Version (HHIE-S), Screening for Vocal Change in the Elderly (RAVI) and Vocal Handicap Index 10 (IDV-10). For data analysis, the ordinal logistic regression model of proportional odds was used. RESULTS: 37.6% of the elderly were classified as robust, 35.0% at risk of fragility and 27.4% as frail. Vocal alteration (RAVI), vocal handicap (IDV-10) and restriction to auditory participation (HHIE-S) were observed in 65.8%, 24.8% and 48.7% respectively, in the studied population. In the multivariate analysis, it was found the oldest group (OR = 1.11; CI: 1.05-1.16) and those with vocal handicap (OR = 4.11; 95% CI: 1.77-9.56) were more likely to be classified as at risk of fragility or already fragile. The simultaneous presence of vocal handicap and restriction of auditory participation (46.9%) was larger among frail elderly people. CONCLUSION: The increasing age of the elderly and the presence of vocal handicap is associated with greater clinical-functional vulnerability. The high prevalence of both voice and hearing disorders reinforces the need for the speech therapist to be included in public policies, directed towards caring for people with a history of leprosy.


Assuntos
Audição , Hanseníase , Idoso , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Hanseníase/complicações , Autoimagem , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(9): 4233-4242, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586274

RESUMO

Drug utilization research to describe the control of thalidomide in Brazil and its use in Minas Gerais state. An online questionnaire was sent to the Brazilian federative units to collect data concerning distribution, dispensation, user registration, and thalidomide adverse events. Distribution (2011-2018) and dispensing (2015-2018) data in Minas Gerais were obtained through the pharmaceutical care management system. Analysis of variance and Tukey test were used for data comparisons. Of the 16 participating federative units, 100% and 50% used electronic distribution and dispensing systems, respectively, and about 43% registered users. Adverse event reporting systems were scarce. A 44% reduction was observed in the distribution in Minas Gerais for the period. Dispensing remained constant (mean 0.0004 DDD/1,000 inhabitants/day) and occurred mainly for erythema nodosum leprosum and multiple myeloma. Off-label use (2.2%) was increasing. Most users were male (mean age 56 years) and thirty percent of women were of childbearing age. Thalidomide surveillance is a public health challenge. Despite the increased use and mandatory control, there is no national standardization, and adverse event reporting is incipient.


Assuntos
Uso de Medicamentos , Talidomida , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Talidomida/efeitos adversos
7.
Int J Infect Dis ; 111: 360-362, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492393

RESUMO

A routine mammogram identified changes thought to be due to a lymph node, which was confirmed on biopsy. The lymph node was infiltrated with macrophages and showed fragmented acid-fast bacilli. The patient had been treated for leprosy some years before and was still taking thalidomide for erythema nodosum leprosum. Leprosy-associated lymphadenopathy may be identified on routine breast screening.


Assuntos
Eritema Nodoso , Hanseníase Multibacilar , Hanseníase , Biópsia , Eritema Nodoso/diagnóstico , Eritema Nodoso/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Mamografia
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 916, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy is a treatable disease; however, the release from treatment after completion of multidrug therapy (MDT) often does not equal absence of health problems. Consequently, sequelae interfere with the patient's perception of cure. The objective of this study was to analyze the factors associated with the perception of not being healed among people treated for leprosy in a highly endemic area in Brazil. METHOD: A cross-sectional study of perceived cure of leprosy in the post-release from treatment period was conducted in Cáceres in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The study included a total of 390 leprosy patients treated with MDT and released after completion of treatment from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2017. The dependent variable was self-reported cure of leprosy; the independent variables included clinical, operational and socioeconomic variables. RESULTS: Out of the 390 former leprosy patients, 304 (77.9%) perceived themselves as cured and 86 (22.1%) considered themselves unhealed. Among the latter, 49 (57.0%) reported muscle weakness and joint pains. Individuals with complaints related to leprosy post-release from treatment had a 4.6 times higher chance to self-report as unhealed (OR 4.6; 95% CI 2.5-8.5). Patients with physical disabilities (PD) grade 1 and 2 at the time of the study had a 3.1 (OR 3.1; 95% CI 1.3-7.4) and 8.8 (OR 7.7; 95% CI 3.5-21.9) times higher likelihood to self-identify as unhealed, respectively. CONCLUSION: Among successfully treated leprosy patients, a quarter self-report as unhealed of the disease. The factors associated with the perception of being unhealed are PD and complaints related to leprosy in the post-release from treatment phase.


Assuntos
Hansenostáticos , Hanseníase , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase/complicações , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Percepção
9.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 79(8): 716-723, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peripheral neural surgical decompression (PNSD) is used as a complementary therapy to the clinical treatment of neuritis to preserve neural function. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term (≥ 1 year) clinical and functional results for PNSD in leprosy neuritis. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included leprosy patients who were in late postoperative period (LPO) of surgical decompression of ulnar, median, tibial, and fibular nerves. Socioeconomic, epidemiological, and clinical data were collected. The following instruments were used in this evaluation: visual analogue pain scale (VAS), Douleur Neuropathique en 4 Questions (DN4), SALSA scale, and simplified neurological assessment protocol. The preoperative (PrO) and 180-day postoperative (PO180) results were compared. RESULTS: We evaluated 246 nerves from 90 patients: 56.6% were on multidrug therapy (MDT) and 43.3% discharged from MDT. Motor scores and pain intensity showed statistically significant improvement (p<0.01). There was an increase in sensory scores only for bilateral ulnar nerves (p<0.05). Of the operated cases, 26.0% of patients were referred for surgery of ulnar neuritis and 23.6% of tibial neuritis. Neuropathic pain was reported in 41% of cases. Daily dose of prednisone reduced from 39.6 mg (±3.0) in PrO, 16.3 mg (±5.2) in PO180, to 1.7 mg (±0.8) in LPO. The SALSA scale results showed mild activity limitation in 51% and moderate in 34% of patients. Eighty percent of individuals reported that the results reached their expectations. CONCLUSIONS: PNSD in leprosy was effective in the long term to decrease the prevalence and intensity of pain, improve motor function, and reduce the dose of corticosteroids, which is reflected in the patients' satisfaction.


Assuntos
Hansenostáticos , Hanseníase , Estudos Transversais , Descompressão , Quimioterapia Combinada , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase/complicações , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586307

RESUMO

Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease associated with abdominal pain and elevated serum pancreatic enzymes. The most common etiologies are gallstones and alcoholism. Drug-induced AP is quite rare, lacks a solid understanding and has been occasionally reported. The diagnosis requires a great suspicion and a careful exclusion of other causes. We present a case of a 37-year-old man, previously diagnosed with leprosy that developed acute pancreatitis after starting the multibacillary polychemotherapy (PCT/MB). After a month of treatment and the discontinuation of the PCT/MB, the therapy was restarted and a new episode of AP occurred. Three months after this last episode, the PCT/MB was reintroduced, changing one of the medications and the patient had no recurrence of AP or other reactions. Therefore, it is important to take into account that there is a risk of acute pancreatitis in patients on multidrug therapy (MDT) for leprosy.


Assuntos
Hanseníase Multibacilar , Hanseníase , Pancreatite , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Hansenostáticos/efeitos adversos , Hanseníase/complicações , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pancreatite/induzido quimicamente
12.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 19: eAO5936, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431850

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate quality of life and associated factors in patients with leprosy. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with 63 people diagnosed as leprosy, seen at a reference service for the disease in the southeastern region of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The questionnaire World Health Organization Quality of Life Bref was used to evaluate quality of life. Simple and multiple linear regressions evaluated the association between sociodemographic variables and quality of life domains. RESULTS: The highest mean of quality of life was observed in the psychological domain (16.28±2.30), and the lowest in the environmental domain (13.86±2.21). Females, individuals with no partners, and people who owned their own house had the lowest quality of life means within the psychological domain. People who did not receive visits by Community Health Workers had the lowest means in quality of life within the environmental domain. Multivariate analysis revealed that the best quality of life was associated to self-reported white skin color within the environmental domain, and the worst quality of life was associated to less schooling within the physical domain. CONCLUSION: This study showed the influence of sociodemographic factors on the quality of life of patients with leprosy, and indicated the need for comprehensive health care, considering the social determinants of health.


Assuntos
Hanseníase , Qualidade de Vida , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Cad Saude Publica ; 37(7): e00130020, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346981

RESUMO

Our study aims to describe trends in new case detection rate (NCDR) of leprosy in Brazil from 2006 to 2017 overall and in subgroups, and to analyze the evolution of clinical and treatment characteristics of patients, with emphasis on cases diagnosed with grade 2 physical disabilities. We conducted a descriptive study to analyze new cases of leprosy registered in the Brazilian Information System for Notificable Diseases (SINAN), from 2006-2017. We calculated the leprosy NCDR per 100,000 inhabitants (overall and for individuals aged < 15 and ≥ 15 years) by sex, age, race/ethnicity, urban/rural areas, and Brazilian regions, and estimated the trends using the Mann-Kendall non-parametric test. We analyzed the distributions of cases according to relevant clinical characteristics over time. In Brazil, there was a sharp decrease in the overall NCDR from 23.4/100,000 in 2006 to 10.3/100,000 in 2017; among children < 15 years, from 6.94 to 3.20/100,000. The decline was consistent in all Brazilian regions and race/ethnicity categories. By 2017, 70.2% of the cases were multibacillary, 30.5% had grade 1 (G1D) or 2 (G2D) physical disabilities at diagnosis and 42.8% were not evaluated at treatment completion/discharge; cases with G2D at diagnosis were mostly detected in urban areas (80%) and 5% of cases died during the treatment (leprosy or other causes). Although the frequency of leprosy NCDR decreased in Brazil from 2006 to 2017 across all evaluated population groups, the large number of cases with multibacillary leprosy, physical disabilities or without adequate evaluation, and among children suggest the need to reinforce timely diagnosis and treatment to control leprosy in Brazil.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Hanseníase Multibacilar , Hanseníase , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Humanos , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Grupos Populacionais
15.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e046125, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446483

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Leprosy, or Hansen's disease, remains a cause of preventable disability. Early detection, treatment and prevention are key to reducing transmission. Post-exposure prophylaxis with single-dose rifampicin (SDR-PEP) reduces the risk of developing leprosy when administered to screened contacts of patients. This has been adopted in the WHO leprosy guidelines. The PEP4LEP study aims to determine the most effective and feasible method of screening people at risk of developing leprosy and administering chemoprophylaxis to contribute to interrupting transmission. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: PEP4LEP is a cluster-randomised implementation trial comparing two interventions of integrated skin screening combined with SDR-PEP distribution to contacts of patients with leprosy in Ethiopia, Mozambique and Tanzania. One intervention is community-based, using skin camps to screen approximately 100 community contacts per leprosy patient, and to administer SDR-PEP when eligible. The other intervention is health centre-based, inviting household contacts of leprosy patients to be screened in a local health centre and subsequently receive SDR-PEP when eligible. The mobile health (mHealth) tool SkinApp will support health workers' capacity in integrated skin screening. The effectiveness of both interventions will be compared by assessing the rate of patients with leprosy detected and case detection delay in months, as well as feasibility in terms of cost-effectiveness and acceptability. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was obtained from the national ethical committees of Ethiopia (MoSHE), Mozambique (CNBS) and Tanzania (NIMR/MoHCDEC). Study results will be published open access in peer-reviewed journals, providing evidence for the implementation of innovative leprosy screening methods and chemoprophylaxis to policymakers. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NL7294 (NTR7503).


Assuntos
Hanseníase , Etiópia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Hanseníase/prevenção & controle , Moçambique , Tanzânia
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(31): e26744, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397815

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Cured leprosy patients have special physical conditions, which could pose challenges for safety and immunogenicity after immunization. We performed an observational clinical study aimed to identify the safety and immunogenicity of influenza vaccine in cured leprosy patients. A total of 65 participants from a leprosarium were recruited into leprosy cured group or control group, and received a 0.5 ml dose of the inactivated split-virion trivalent influenza vaccine and a follow-up 28 days proactive observation of any adverse events. Hemagglutination and hemagglutination inhibition test was performed to evaluate serum antibody titer, flow cytometry was conducted to screen of cytokines level. The total rate of reactogenicity was 0.0% [0/41] in leprosy cured group and 37.5% [9/24] in control group. The seroconversion rate for H1N1 was difference between leprosy cured group and control group (41.83% vs 79.17%, P = .0082), but not for H3N2 (34.25% vs 50.00%, P = .4468). At day 0, leprosy cured group have relatively high concentration of interleukin-6, interleukin-10, tumor necrosis factor, interferon-γ, and interleukin-17 compared to control group. The interleukin-2 concentration increased 2 weeks after vaccination compared to pre-vaccination in leprosy cured group, but declined in control group (0.92 pg/ml vs -0.02 pg/ml, P = .0147). Leprosy cured group showed a more rapid down-regulation of interleukin-6 when influenza virus was challenged compared to control group (-144.38 pg/ml vs -11.52 pg/ml, P < .0001). Subgroup analysis revealed that the immunization administration declined interleukin-17 concentration in Tuberculoid type subgroup, but not in Lepromatous type subgroup or control group. Clinically cured leprosy patients are relatively safe for influenza vaccine. Leprosy cured patient have immune deficit in producing antibody. Interleukin-6 and interleukin-17 were 2 sensitive indicators in immune response for leprosy affected patients. The identification of indicators might be help management of leprosy and used as predictive markers in leprosy early symptom monitoring.


Assuntos
Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Vacinas contra Influenza/normas , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Formação de Anticorpos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/efeitos adversos , Vacinas contra Influenza/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase/imunologia , Mycobacterium/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium/patogenicidade , Mycobacterium leprae/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium leprae/patogenicidade
17.
Talanta ; 234: 122617, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364426

RESUMO

A group of infectious and parasitic diseases with prevalence in tropical and subtropical regions of the planet, especially in places with difficult access, internal conflicts, poverty, and low visibility from the government and health agencies are classified as neglected tropical diseases. While some well-intentioned isolated groups are making the difference on a global scale, the number of new cases and deaths is still alarming. The development and employment of low-cost, miniaturized, and easy-to-use devices as biosensors could be the key to fast diagnosis in such areas leading to a better treatment to further eradication of such diseases. Therefore, this review contains useful information regarding the development of such devices in the past ten years (2010-2020). Guided by the updated list from the World Health Organization, the work evaluated the new trends in the biosensor field applied to the early detection of neglected tropical diseases, the efficiencies of the devices compared to the traditional techniques, and the applicability on-site for local distribution. So, we focus on Malaria, Chagas, Leishmaniasis, Dengue, Zika, Chikungunya, Schistosomiasis, Leprosy, Human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), Lymphatic filariasis, and Rabies. Few papers were found concerning such diseases and there is no available commercial device in the market. The works contain information regarding the development of point-of-care devices, but there are only at proof of concepts stage so far. Details of electrode modification and construction of electrochemical biosensors were summarized in Tables. The demand for the eradication of neglected tropical diseases is increasing. The use of biosensors is pivotal for the cause, but appliable devices are scarce. The information present in this review can be useful for further development of biosensors in the hope of helping the world combat these deadly diseases.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Hanseníase , Malária , Doenças Parasitárias , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Humanos , Doenças Negligenciadas/diagnóstico , Doenças Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Doenças Parasitárias/epidemiologia
18.
Front Immunol ; 12: 657449, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34456901

RESUMO

The respiratory tract is considered the main port of entry of Mycobacterium leprae, the causative agent of leprosy. However, the great majority of individuals exposed to the leprosy bacillus will never manifest the disease due to their capacity to develop protective immunity. Besides acting as a physical barrier, airway epithelium cells are recognized as key players by initiating a local innate immune response that orchestrates subsequent adaptive immunity to control airborne infections. However, to date, studies exploring the interaction of M. leprae with the respiratory epithelium have been scarce. In this work, the capacity of M. leprae to immune activate human alveolar epithelial cells was investigated, demonstrating that M. leprae-infected A549 cells secrete significantly increased IL-8 that is dependent on NF-κB activation. M. leprae was also able to induce IL-8 production in human primary nasal epithelial cells. M. leprae-treated A549 cells also showed higher expression levels of human ß-defensin-2 (hßD-2), MCP-1, MHC-II and the co-stimulatory molecule CD80. Furthermore, the TLR-9 antagonist inhibited both the secretion of IL-8 and NF-κB activation in response to M. leprae, indicating that bacterial DNA sensing by this Toll-like receptor constitutes an important innate immune pathway activated by the pathogen. Finally, evidence is presented suggesting that extracellular DNA molecules anchored to Hlp, a histone-like protein present on the M. leprae surface, constitute major TLR-9 ligands triggering this pathway. The ability of M. leprae to immune activate respiratory epithelial cells herein demonstrated may represent a very early event during infection that could possibly be essential to the generation of a protective response.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais Alveolares/imunologia , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata , Hanseníase/imunologia , Hanseníase/metabolismo , Mycobacterium leprae/imunologia , Receptor Toll-Like 9/metabolismo , Células A549 , Biomarcadores , Células Cultivadas , Histonas/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Imunomodulação , Hanseníase/microbiologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 858, 2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnosing neuritis in leprosy patients with neuropathic pain or chronic neuropathy remains challenging since no specific laboratory or neurophysiological marker is available. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study developed at a leprosy outpatient clinic in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, 54 individuals complaining of neural pain (single or multiple sites) were classified into two groups ("neuropathic pain" or "neuritis") by a neurological specialist in leprosy based on anamnesis together with clinical and electrophysiological examinations. A neurologist, blind to the pain diagnoses, interviewed and examined the participants using a standardized form that included clinical predictors, pain features, and neurological symptoms. The association between the clinical predictors and pain classifications was evaluated via the Pearson Chi-Square or Fisher's exact test (p < 0.05). RESULTS: Six clinical algorithms were generated to evaluate sensitivity and specificity, with 95% confidence intervals, for clinical predictors statistically associated with neuritis. The most conclusive clinical algorithm was: pain onset at any time during the previous 90 days, or in association with the initiation of neurological symptoms during the prior 30-day period, necessarily associated with the worsening of pain upon movement and nerve palpation, with 94% of specificity and 35% of sensitivity. CONCLUSION: This algorithm could help physicians confirm neuritis in leprosy patients with neural pain, particularly in primary health care units with no access to neurologists or electrophysiological tests.


Assuntos
Hanseníase , Neuralgia , Neurite (Inflamação) , Brasil , Regras de Decisão Clínica , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Hanseníase/complicações , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Neurite (Inflamação)/diagnóstico
20.
Psychiatriki ; 32(3): 183-186, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Grego Moderno, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390552

RESUMO

Social stigma has long been defined by Ervin Goffman as an attribute that it is deeply discrediting and reduces the individual who bears it from a whole and usual person to a tarnished one, unfit to be included into the mainstream society.1 As stigma spans time and space and has been documented in other social species such as ants and chimpanzees, one might argue for its adaptive potential. Neuberg and colleagues2 have suggested that humans generate stigmas against threats to effective group functioning, with a notable case being infectious diseases. A similar explanation has been put forward by other researchers who consider stigma to have evolved from disease-avoidance mechanisms.3 Hence, it is not surprising that tuberculosis, HIV and leprosy have been surrounded by stigma and discrimination.4,5 More recently, people who had survived the 2013-2016 Ebola outbreak tackled social exclusion and unemployment after returning to their neighborhoods.6 Nowadays, the global community faces an unprecedented challenge of grappling with the COVID-19 pandemic. From the very outset, social distance measures were introduced in order to contain the spread of the virus, ranging from maintaining 1.5 meters physical distance to strict lockdowns. However, this may easily escalate into stigmatizing and discriminatory behaviours (desired social distance is a proxy of discrimination) against people who have suffered from COVID-19, their relatives and their caregivers, with the United Nations stating that "fear, rumours and stigma" are the key challenges surrounding COVID-19.7 Apart from the psychological distress experienced by the stigmatized individuals, due to anticipated stigma people might start concealing their illness, avoid or delay seeking medical advice or testing until they are seriously ill and be reluctant to collaborate with authorities on tracing contacts. Therefore, timely identifying stigma and addressing it is an integral part of an effective health response to the ongoing pandemic. In spite of its importance, research on COVID-19 related stigma is scarce. From the perspective of the stigmatized individuals, a study in China8 demonstrated that COVID-19 survivors faced heightened levels of overall stigma, social rejection, financial insecurity, internalized shame and social isolation, compared to healthy controls. From the perspective of the general population, a study in US9 substantiated low levels of anticipated stigma and stereotype endorsement; however, respondents who anticipated greater stigma were less likely to seek a COVID-19 test. It is therefore clear that the international literature is still on its infancy with respect to COVID-19 related stigma. In this context, in the First Department of Psychiatry, University of Athens, we conducted a survey on public attitudes to COVID-19 and to mental disorders. The study would inform the design and implementation of anti-stigma initiatives, funded by the Regional Governor of Attica. As physical distancing and social distancing are interwoven, with some researchers and practitioners using the terms interchangeably, and social distancing is also a protective public health measure against COVID-19, we enquired about attitudes and desired social distance from people who had recovered from COVID-19. Nonetheless, it merits noting that evidence from other diseases indicates that stigma may persist even after recovery.10 Moreover, rather than describing public attitudes overall, we were more interested in investigating where COVID-19 related stigma stands as compared to the most stigmatizing health condition to date, i.e., severe mental illness.11 Interestingly enough, which elements of severe mental illness render it the most stigmatized as compared to other conditions is still speculative: is it the fear of madness? the severity and the type of symptoms? the purported incurability or its chronicity? In our study, evidence from a convenience sample of 370 residents of Attica indicates that the general population holds more negative attitudes towards people who have recovered from COVID-19 than towards people with mental disorders. Nonetheless, respondents reported lower levels of desired social distance from recovered COVID-19 cases as compared to mental illness cases in social interactions of graded intimacy; however, the difference between the two groups was found to decrease as the level of intimacy decreased as well. In other words, desired social distance from COVID-19 cases is more easily discernible in transient social encounters, like talking to a stranger. It is therefore clear that social distance is still a public health protective measure rather than a stigma manifestation. For social encounters of greater intimacy, usually a sign of discriminatory behaviours, having recovered from COVID-19 is not a deterrent to interaction. Findings can be explained by the acute (non-chronic) nature of the disease, both in terms of symptoms as well as the 10-day period since symptom onset for being contagious. Nonetheless, with emerging evidence substantiating the notion of long COVID-19, defined as the persistence of symptoms for 3 weeks after infection,12 this might quickly change. Moreover, with many public health protective measures available, such as the use of mask, diagnostic testing and vaccination, people who become infected are more likely to be blamed for contracting the disease and thus deemed responsible for this, in line with the Attribution Theory.13 Specifically, overarching evidence from stigma research in many diseases/conditions indicates that when an illness or a social condition, such as economic disadvantage, is attributed to internal causes, as compared to external, lay people are more likely to hold stigmatizing attitudes.14-16 Therefore, as attitudes towards COVID-19 are worse compared to those towards people with mental illness, if tailored anti-stigma action is not undertaken, it is only a matter of time for prejudices to evolve into discriminatory behaviours, with devastating consequences on both the individuals and the course of the pandemic. Concomitantly, as severe mental illness is neither life threatening nor contagious, but COVID-19 is, it is interesting to explore how stigma is related to evolutionary mechanisms favouring adaptability and survival as well as which elements are the drivers of stigma development and establishment. Therefore, comparing and contrasting the stigma surrounding these conditions may shed light on the underpinnings of social stigma and facilitate effective interventions to reduce it and eventually eliminate it.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos Mentais , Distanciamento Físico , Distância Psicológica , Angústia Psicológica , Intervenção Psicossocial/métodos , Estigma Social , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Discriminação Social/prevenção & controle , Discriminação Social/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Tempo para o Tratamento
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