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1.
Fisioterapia (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 46(1): 34-41, ene.-feb. 2024. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-EMG-492

RESUMO

Objetivo Investigar el nivel de eficacia de plantillas personalizadas y zapatos terapéuticos en la reducción de la presión plantar y la incidencia de ulceración en presencia de neuropatía diabética. Metodología Las bases de datos PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Cinahls, Central Cochrane y Lilacs fueron encuestados en enero de 2020. Se incluyeron ensayos clínicos aleatorizados (ECA) que reportaron pacientes con neuropatía diabética sometidos a intervención con plantillas y calzado terapéutico en comparación con un grupo control. La calidad de las publicaciones se evaluó mediante la escala PEDro y la evidencia mediante la clasificación GRADE. En cuanto al metaanálisis, se realizó la agrupación de datos homogéneos y comparables. Resultados Se incluyeron 11 estudios, lo que resultó en una muestra de 1.443 participantes. Siete artículos presentaron datos suficientes para el metaanálisis. En el corto plazo, el riesgo relativo de protección fue de 0,23 (IC 95%; 0,07; 0,72), mientras que en el largo plazo el riesgo fue de 0,32 (IC 95%; 0,21; 0,48). La escala GRADE señaló baja calidad de evidencia en cuanto a la protección a corto plazo y alta calidad a largo plazo En el análisis cualitativo, seis estudios concluyeron que hubo reducción en la presión plantar del grupo de intervención. Conclusión Se encontró efecto protector del uso de plantillas en el desarrollo de úlceras a corto y largo plazo. (AU)


Objective To investigate the level of efficacy of personalized insoles and therapeutical shoes in plantar pressure and ulceration incidence reduction in the presence of diabetic neuropathy. Methodology The data bases PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Cinahls, Central Cochrane and Lilacs were surveyed in January/2020. Randomized clinical trials (RCT) were included that reported diabetic neuropathy patients submitted to intervention with insoles and therapeutical shoes compared to a control group. The quality of the publications was evaluated using the PEDro scale and the evidence by the GRADE classification. Regarding the meta-analysis, the grouping of homogeneous and comparable data was carried out. Results Eleven studies were included, which resulted in a sample containing 1,443 participants. Seven papers presented enough data for the meta-analysis. In the short term, the protection relative risk was 0.23 (IC95% 0.07;0.72), while in the long term, the risk was 0.32 (IC95% 0.21;0.48). The GRADE scale pointed out low evidence quality regarding short-term protection and high quality in the long term. In the qualitative analysis, six studies concluded that there was reduction in the plantar pressure of the intervention group. Conclusion Protective effect of using insoles was found in the development of ulcers in the short and long term. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Úlcera do Pé , Pé Diabético/complicações , Neuropatias Diabéticas , Aparelhos Ortopédicos
2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(2): e0011968, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38359088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with recurrent TB have an increased risk of higher mortality, lower success rate, and a relatively feeble likelihood of treatment completion than those with new-onset TB. This study aimed to assess the epidemiology of recurrent TB in Tanzania; specifically, we aim to determine the prevalence of TB recurrence and factors associated with unfavourable treatment outcomes among patients with recurrent TB in Tanzania from 2018 to 2021. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we utilized Tanzania's routinely collected national TB program data. The study involved a cohort of TB patients over a fixed treatment period registered in the TB and Leprosy case-based District Health Information System (DHIS2-ETL) database from 2018 to 2021 in Tanzania. We included patients' sociodemographic and clinical factors, facility characteristics, and TB treatment outcomes. We conducted bivariate analysis and multivariable multi-level mixed effects logistic regression of factors associated with TB recurrence and TB treatment outcomes to account for the correlations at the facility level. A purposeful selection method was used; the multivariable model included apriori selected variables (Age, Sex, and HIV status) and variables with a p-value <0.2 on bivariate analysis. The adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were recorded, and a p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. FINDINGS: A total of 319,717 participants were included in the study; the majority were adults aged 25-49 (44.2%, n = 141,193) and above 50 years (31.6%, n = 101,039). About two-thirds were male (60.4%, n = 192,986), and more than one-fifth of participants (22.8%, n = 72,396) were HIV positive. Nearly two in every hundred TB patients had a recurrent TB episode (2.0%, n = 6,723). About 10% of patients with recurrent TB had unfavourable treatment outcomes (9.6%, n = 519). The odds of poor treatment outcomes were two-fold higher for participants receiving treatment at the central (aOR = 2.24; 95% CI 1.33-3.78) and coastal zones (aOR = 2.20; 95% CI 1.40-3.47) than the northern zone. HIV-positive participants had 62% extra odds of unfavourable treatment outcomes compared to their HIV-negative counterparts (aOR = 1.62; 95% CI 1.25-2.11). Bacteriological TB diagnosis (aOR = 1.39; 95% CI 1.02-1.90) was associated with a 39% additional risk of unfavourable treatment outcomes as compared to clinical TB diagnosis. Compared to community-based DOT, patients who received DOT at the facility had 1.39 times the odds of poor treatment outcomes (aOR = 1.39; 95%CI 1.04-1.85). CONCLUSION: TB recurrence in Tanzania accounts for 2% of all TB cases, and it is associated with poor treatment outcomes. Unfavourable treatment outcomes were recorded in 10% of patients with recurrent TB. Poor TB treatment outcome was associated with HIV-positive status, facility-based DOT, bacteriologically confirmed TB and receiving treatment at the hospital level, differing among regions. We recommend post-treatment follow-up for patients with recurrent TB, especially those coinfected with HIV. We also propose close follow-up for patients treated at the hospital facility level and strengthening primary health facilities in TB detection and management to facilitate early treatment initiation.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Tuberculose , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1148705, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38327578

RESUMO

Objectives: The present study analyzed the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the prevalence and incidence of new leprosy cases, as well as the diversity, distribution, and temporal transmission of Mycobacterium leprae strains at the county level in leprae-endemic provinces in Southwest China. Methods: A total of 219 new leprosy cases during two periods, 2018-2019 and 2020-2021, were compared. We genetically characterized 83 clinical isolates of M. leprae in Guizhou using variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The obtained genetic profiles and cluster consequences of M. leprae were compared between the two periods. Results: There was an 18.97% decrease in the number of counties and districts reporting cases. Considering the initial months (January-March) of virus emergence, the number of new cases in 2021 increased by 167% compared to 2020. The number of patients with a delay of >12 months before COVID-19 (63.56%) was significantly higher than that during COVID-19 (48.51%). Eighty-one clinical isolates (97.60%) were positive for all 17 VNTR types, whereas two (2.40%) clinical isolates were positive for 16 VNTR types. The (GTA)9, (TA)18, (TTC)21 and (TA)10 loci showed higher polymorphism than the other loci. The VNTR profile of these clinical isolates generated five clusters, among which the counties where the patients were located were adjacent or relatively close to each other. SNP typing revealed that all clinical isolates possessed the single SNP3K. Conclusion: COVID-19 may have a negative/imbalanced impact on the prevention and control measures of leprosy, which could be a considerable fact for official health departments. Isolates formed clusters among counties in Guizhou, indicating that the transmission chain remained during the epidemic and was less influenced by COVID-19 preventative policies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hanseníase , Humanos , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Pandemias , DNA Bacteriano/genética , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/microbiologia , China/epidemiologia
4.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 465, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38355478

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite many efforts to control leprosy worldwide, it is still a significant public health problem in low- and middle-income regions. It has been endemic in China for thousands of years, and southwest China has the highest leprosy burden in the country. METHODS: This observational study was conducted with all newly detected leprosy cases in southwest China from 2010 to 2020. Data were extracted from the Leprosy Management Information System (LEPMIS) database in China. The Joinpoint model was used to determine the time trends in the study area. Spatial autocorrelation statistics was performed to understand spatial distribution of leprosy cases. Spatial scan statistics was applied to identify significant clusters with high rate. RESULTS: A total of 4801 newly detected leprosy cases were reported in southwest China over 11 years. The temporal trends declined stably. The new case detection rate (NCDR) dropped from 4.38/1,000,000 population in 2010 to 1.25/1,000,000 population in 2020, with an average decrease of 12.24% (95% CI: -14.0 to - 10.5; P < 0.001). Results of global spatial autocorrelation showed that leprosy cases presented clustering distribution in the study area. Most likely clusters were identified during the study period and were frequently located at Yunnan or the border areas between Yunnan and Guizhou Provinces. Secondary clusters were always located in the western counties, the border areas between Yunnan and Sichuan Provinces. CONCLUSIONS: Geographic regions characterized by clusters with high rates were considered as leprosy high-risk areas. The findings of this study could be used to design leprosy control measures and provide indications to strengthen the surveillance of high-risk areas. These areas should be prioritized in the allocation of resources.


Assuntos
Hanseníase , Humanos , China/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Análise Espacial , Análise por Conglomerados , Bases de Dados Factuais , Análise Espaço-Temporal
5.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 57: e008022024, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38359312

RESUMO

Neural leprosy, which is characterized by nerve involvement without visible skin lesions, presents a diagnostic challenge. This case report examined the significance of diverse diagnostic modalities in the identification of pure neural leprosy. A 28-year-old patient with symptoms of edema, pain, paresthesia, and diminished sensitivity in the lower limbs underwent various tests. A stilt skin smear yielded negative results on bacilloscopy, whereas a Fast ML Flow leprosy test and electroneuromyography supported the diagnosis. This discussion highlights the importance of accessible methods for early investigation. This study emphasizes the multidisciplinary approach and value of the Fast ML Flow leprosy test and electroneuromyography for diagnosing neural leprosy.


Assuntos
Hanseníase Tuberculoide , Hanseníase , Humanos , Adulto , Hanseníase Tuberculoide/patologia , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/patologia , Pele/patologia , Mycobacterium leprae
6.
J Med Microbiol ; 73(2)2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38362924

RESUMO

Introduction. We have examined four burials from the St Mary Magdalen mediaeval leprosarium cemetery in Winchester, Hampshire, UK. One (Sk.8) was a male child, two (Sk.45 and Sk.52) were adolescent females and the fourth (Sk.512) was an adult male. The cemetery was in use between the 10th and 12th centuries. All showed skeletal lesions of leprosy. Additionally, one of the two females (Sk.45) had lesions suggestive of multi-cystic tuberculosis and the second (Sk.52) of leprogenic odontodysplasia (LO), a rare malformation of the roots of the permanent maxillary incisors.Gap statement. Relatively little is known of the manifestations of lepromatous leprosy (LL) in younger individuals from the archaeological record.Aims and Methodology. To address this, we have used ancient DNA testing and osteological examination of the individuals, supplemented with X-ray and microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) scan as necessary to assess the disease status.Results and Conclusions. The presence of Mycobacterium leprae DNA was confirmed in both females, and genotyping showed SNP type 3I-1 strains but with a clear genotypic variation. We could not confirm Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA in the female individual SK.45. High levels of M. leprae DNA were found within the pulp cavities of four maxillary teeth from the male child (Sk.8) with LO, consistent with the theory that the replication of M. leprae in alveolar bone may interfere with root formation at key stages of development. We report our biomolecular findings in these individuals and review the evidence this site has contributed to our knowledge of mediaeval leprosy.


Assuntos
Hanseníase Multibacilar , Hanseníase , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Microtomografia por Raio-X , Hanseníase/microbiologia , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Reino Unido
7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(2): e0011755, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38300955

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Senegal is a leprosy low-endemic country with nine villages known to be hyperendemic with a leprosy incidence rate above 1,000 per million inhabitants. We aim to implement a door-to-door screening strategy associated with the administration of a single-dose-rifampicin (SDR) as post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) to household and social contacts in these villages and to identify spatial clustering and assess the risk of leprosy in population according to the physical distance to the nearest index-case. METHODS: From October/2020 to February/2022 active door-to-door screening for leprosy was conducted in nine villages. Using an open-source application, we recorded screening results, demographic and geographic coordinate's data. Using Poisson model we analysed clustering and estimated risk of contracting leprosy in contacts according to the distance to the nearest new leprosy patient. RESULTS: In nine villages, among 9086 contacts listed, we examined 7115. Among 6554 eligible contacts, 97.8% took SDR. We found 39(0.64%) new leprosy cases among 6,124 examined in six villages. Among new cases, 21(53.8%) were children, 10(25.6%) were multibacillary and 05(12.8%) had grade 2 disability. The prevalent risk ratio and 95% confidence intervale(95%CI) adjusted by village were 4.2(95%CI 1.7-10.1), 0.97(95%CI 0.2-4.4), 0.87(95%CI 0.2-25), 0.89(95%CI 0.3-2.6) and 0.70(95%CI 0.2-2.5) for the contacts living in the same household of an index case, 1-25m, 26-50m, 51-75m and 76-100m compared to those living at more than 100m respectively. We identified nine high prevalent clusters including 27/39(69%) of new cases in 490/7,850(6%) inhabitants, with relative risks of 46.6(p-value = 0.01), and 7.3, 42.8, 8.2, 12.5, 11.4, 23.5, 22.3, and 14.6 (non-significant p-values). CONCLUSIONS: Our strategy has proved the feasibility of active screening for leprosy in contacts and the introduction of PEP for leprosy under programmatic conditions. Only individuals living in the same household as the leprosy patient had a significant risk of contracting leprosy. We documented nine clusters of leprosy that could benefit from tailored control activities while optimizing resources.


Assuntos
Hanseníase , Rifampina , Criança , Humanos , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição/métodos , Senegal/epidemiologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/prevenção & controle , Prevalência
8.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 104(6): 391-410, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38326052

RESUMO

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin malignancy, with a higher prevalence in Caucasians than in East Asians. Although there is a lack of epidemiological data in China, it is generally believed that the incidence of BCC in China is increasing due to the aging population. A variety of risk factors are related to the occurrence of BCC, among which ultraviolet rays and gene mutations play a major role, especially the abnormal activation of Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway, which is considered to be the most important pathogenesis of BCC. The clinical manifestations of BCC are highly specific, and most experienced doctors can make a preliminary diagnosis by clinical manifestations. Dermoscopy and other imaging methods can greatly improve the accuracy of diagnosis, but there are still some atypical or rare types of BCC that need further confirmation through histopathological examination. This guideline is initiated by the National Clinical Research Center for Skin and Immune Diseases (based on Peking University First Hospital). It has invited a panel of experts consisting of 24 senior dermatologists specializing in dermatologic surgery from the Dermatologic Surgery Group of the Chinese Medical Doctor Association of Dermatology, the Dermatologic Surgery Group of the Dermatology & Venereology Committee, Chinese Association of Integration Medicine, and the Dermatologic Surgery and Cosmetic Branch of Clina Leprosy Association. In addition, experts from the Burn and Plastic Surgery (Maxillofacial), Ophthalmology, Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Radiation Therapy, and Pathology were also invited to participate. This panel forms the "Chinese Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Basal Cell Carcinoma" expert group. Based on the latest domestic and international research findings, the guideline was developed through four rounds of discussions by the expert group and revised to provide valuable references for clinical healthcare providers in the diagnosis and treatment of BCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Basocelular , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Humanos , Idoso , Proteínas Hedgehog , Carcinoma Basocelular/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Basocelular/terapia , Carcinoma Basocelular/etiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/terapia , Fatores de Risco , China
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 226, 2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38378497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy is an infectious disease with a slow decline in global annual caseload in the past two decades. Active case finding and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) with a single dose of rifampicin (SDR) are recommended by the World Health Organization as measures for leprosy elimination. However, more potent PEP regimens are needed to increase the effect in groups highest at risk (i.e., household members and blood relatives, especially of multibacillary patients). The PEP++ trial will assess the effectiveness of an enhanced preventive regimen against leprosy in high-endemic districts in India, Brazil, Bangladesh, and Nepal compared with SDR-PEP. METHODS: The PEP++ study is a cluster-randomised controlled trial in selected districts of India, Brazil, Bangladesh, and Nepal. Sub-districts will be allocated randomly to the intervention and control arms. Leprosy patients detected from 2015 - 22 living in the districts will be approached to list their close contacts for enrolment in the study. All consenting participants will be screened for signs and symptoms of leprosy and tuberculosis (TB). In the intervention arm, eligible contacts receive the enhanced PEP++ regimen with three doses of rifampicin (150 - 600 mg) and clarithromycin (150 - 500 mg) administered at four-weekly intervals, whereas those in the control arm receive SDR-PEP. Follow-up screening for leprosy will be done for each individual two years after the final dose is administered. Cox' proportion hazards analysis and Poisson regression will be used to compare the incidence rate ratios between the intervention and control areas as the primary study outcome. DISCUSSION: Past studies have shown that the level of SDR-PEP effectiveness is not uniform across contexts or in relation to leprosy patients. To address this, a number of recent trials are seeking to strengthen PEP regimens either through the use of new medications or by increasing the dosage of the existing ones. However, few studies focus on the impact of multiple doses of chemoprophylaxis using a combination of antibiotics. The PEP++ trial will investigate effectiveness of both an enhanced regimen and use geospatial analysis for PEP administration in the study communities. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NL7022 on the Dutch Trial Register on April 12, 2018. Protocol version 9.0 updated on 18 August 2022 https://www.onderzoekmetmensen.nl/en/trial/23060.


Assuntos
Hanseníase , Rifampina , Humanos , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição/métodos , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Hanseníase/prevenção & controle , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Claritromicina/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
10.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 119: e230129, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38381878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leprosy is a highly neglected disease that is considered a serious public health problem in many countries. This illness is characterised by a variety of clinical and histopathological manifestations that are related to the patient immune response. OBJECTIVES: This work aimed evaluate the profile of circulating immune mediators in the plasma from patients classified clinically as paucibacillary (PB), multibacillary (MB), households contacts (HHC), type1 leprosy reaction (T1R), type2 leprosy reaction (T2R) and control individuals without medical history of leprosy (CTL). METHODS: To assessment of the plasma immune mediators was used multiplex microbeads immunoassay "Luminex". FINDINGS: The results showed that patients (PB) had a regulatory-biased profile, while MB revealed a pro-inflammatory trend of highly expressed biomarkers. HHC display conspicuously increased levels in the plasma of the chemokines (CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5 and CXCL8), pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ,TNF and IL-1ß), modulating cytokines (IL-9 and IL-1Ra) and growth factors (PDGF, G-CSF and IL-2). Interestingly, HHC displayed superior production of IFN-γ as compared to other leprosy groups, indicating a putative protective role for this cytokine during chronic Mycobacterium leprae exposure. MAIN CONCLUSION: Further investigations are currently underway to elucidate the potential of these mediators as biomarkers applicable to the diagnosis/prognosis of leprosy and also T1R and T2R leprosy reactions.


Assuntos
Citocinas , Hanseníase , Humanos , Mycobacterium leprae , Quimiocinas , Biomarcadores
11.
Am J Case Rep ; 25: e942048, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38351602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Leprosy, also known as Hansen's disease, is a neglected tropical disease with low prevalence in the United States. The disease's long incubation period can cause delayed presentation, and most affected individuals have a history of travel or work in leprosy-endemic regions. The immune response to Mycobacterium leprae determines the clinical characteristics of leprosy, with tuberculoid leprosy being characterized by well-defined granulomas and involvement of peripheral nerves. The recommended treatment is a combination of dapsone and rifampin for 12 months. CASE REPORT A 78-year-old man with a history of extensive travel to Africa and Asia 50 years ago, presented with a non-tender, non-pruritic, and hypopigmented skin lesion on his left knee. Biopsy results confirmed granulomatous inflammation and the presence of Mycobacterium leprae, leading to a diagnosis of tuberculoid/paucibacillary leprosy. The patient received dapsone and rifampin treatment, which resulted in symptom improvement. CONCLUSIONS The patient's long incubation period of 50 years between exposure and symptom onset is remarkable and possibly one of the longest reported for tuberculoid leprosy. It emphasizes the importance of considering leprosy in cases with an extensive travel history and long incubation periods. Our patient's case presented contradictory staining results, suggesting potential sampling variation or a rare mixed leprosy form. Based on his clinical findings, he was diagnosed with tuberculoid leprosy. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent irreversible nerve damage and improve patient outcomes. Healthcare providers should be vigilant in acquiring a detailed travel history to facilitate early diagnosis and appropriate management of leprosy cases.


Assuntos
Hanseníase Tuberculoide , Hanseníase , Masculino , Humanos , Idoso , Hanseníase Tuberculoide/diagnóstico , Hanseníase Tuberculoide/tratamento farmacológico , Hanseníase Tuberculoide/patologia , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Período de Incubação de Doenças Infecciosas , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Hanseníase/patologia , Mycobacterium leprae , Dapsona/uso terapêutico
12.
Yi Chuan ; 46(1): 34-45, 2024 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38230455

RESUMO

Currently, there are over 170 recognized species of Mycobacterium, the only genus in the family Mycobacteriaceae. Organisms belonging to this genus are quite diverse with respect to their ability to cause disease in humans. The Mycobacterium genus includes human pathogens (Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and Mycobacterium leprae) and environmental microorganisms known as non-tuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM). A common pathogenic factor of Mycobacterium is the formation of biofilms. Bacterial biofilms are usually defined as bacterial communities attached to the surface, and are also considered as shared spaces of encapsulated microbial cells, including various extracellular polymeric substrates (EPS), such as polysaccharides, proteins, amyloid proteins, lipids, and extracellular DNA (EDNA), as well as membrane vesicles and humic like microorganisms derived refractory substances. The assembly and dynamics of the matrix are mainly coordinated by second messengers, signaling molecules, or small RNAs. Fully deciphering how bacteria provide structure for the matrix, thereby promoting extracellular reactions and benefiting from them, remains a challenge for future biofilm research. This review introduces a five step development model for biofilms and a new model for biofilm formation, analyses the pathogenicity of biofilms, their interactions with bacteriophages and host immune cells, and the key genes and regulatory networks of mycobacterial biofilms, as well as mycobacterial biofilms and drug resistance, in order to provide a basis for clinical treatment of diseases caused by biofilms.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium , Humanos , Biofilmes , Proteínas , DNA , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
13.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 324: 117818, 2024 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38296173

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ferns form an important part of the human diet. Young fern fiddleheads are mostly consumed as vegetables, while the rhizomes are often extracted for starch. These edible ferns are also often employed in traditional medicine, where all parts of the plant are used, mostly to prepare extracts. These extracts are applied either externally as lotions and baths or internally as potions, decoctions and teas. Ailments traditionally treated with ferns include coughs, colds, fevers, pain, burns and wounds, asthma, rheumatism, diarrhoea, or skin diseases (eczema, rashes, itching, leprosy). AIM OF THE REVIEW: This review aims to compile the worldwide knowledge on the traditional medicinal uses of edible fern species correlating to reported biological activities and isolated bioactive compounds. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The articles and books published on edible fern species were searched through the online databases Web of Science, Pubmed and Google Scholar, with critical evaluation of the hits. The time period up to the end of 2022 was included. RESULTS: First, the edible fern species were identified based on the literature data. A total of 90 fern species were identified that are eaten around the world and are also used in traditional medicine. Ailments treated are often associated with inflammation or bacterial infection. However, only the most common and well-known fern species, were investigated for their biological activity. The most studied species are Blechnum orientale L., Cibotium barometz (L.) J. Sm., Diplazium esculentum (Retz.) Sw., Marsilea minuta L., Osmunda japonica Thunb., Polypodium vulgare L., and Stenochlaena palustris (Burm.) Bedd. Most of the fern extracts have been studied for their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities. Not surprisingly, antioxidant capacity has been the most studied, with results reported for 28 edible fern species. Ferns have been found to be very rich sources of flavonoids, polyphenols, polyunsaturated fatty acids, carotenoids, terpenoids and steroids and most of these compounds are remarkable free radical scavengers responsible for the outstanding antioxidant capacity of fern extracts. As far as clinical trials are concerned, extracts from only three edible fern species have been evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: The extracts of edible fern species exert antioxidant anti-inflammatory and related biological activities, which is consistent with their traditional medicinal use in the treatment of wounds, burns, colds, coughs, skin diseases and intestinal diseases. However, studies to prove pharmacological activities are scarce, and require chemical-biological standardization. Furthermore, correct botanical classification needs to be included in publications to simplify data acquisition. Finally, more in-depth phytochemical studies, allowing the linking of traditional use to pharmacological relevance are needed to be done in a standardized way.


Assuntos
Queimaduras , Resfriado Comum , Gleiquênias , Dermatopatias , Humanos , Etnofarmacologia , Fitoterapia , Antioxidantes , Resfriado Comum/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Queimaduras/tratamento farmacológico , Tosse/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatopatias/tratamento farmacológico
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 46, 2024 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38177991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uganda has a high incidence and prevalence of tuberculosis (TB). Analysis of spatial and temporal distribution of TB is an important tool for supporting spatial decision-making, planning, and policy formulations; however, this information is not readily available in Uganda. We determined the spatial distribution and temporal trends of tuberculosis notifications in Uganda, 2013-2022. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of routinely-generated program data reported through the National TB and Leprosy Programme (NTLP) surveillance system. We abstracted data on all TB cases diagnosed from 2013 to 2022 by district and region. We drew choropleth maps for Uganda showing the TB case notification rates (CNR) per 100,000 and calculated the CNR using the cases per district as the numerator and individual district populations as the denominators. Population estimates were obtained from the 2014 National Population and Housing Census, and a national growth rate of 3% was used to estimate the annual population increase. RESULTS: Over the entire study period, 568,957 cases of TB were reported in Uganda. There was a 6% annual increase in TB CNR reported from 2013 (134/100,000) to 2022 (213/100,000) (p-value for trend p < 0.00001). Cases were reported from all 12 Ministry of Health regions during the entire period. The distribution of CNR was heterogeneous throughout the country and over time. Moroto, Napak and Kampala districts had consistently high CNR throughout the ten years. Kalangala district had lower CNR from 2013 to 2018 but high CNR from 2019 to 2022. Moroto region, in the northeast, had consistently high CNR while Mbale and Soroti regions in Eastern Uganda had the lowest CNR throughout the ten years. CONCLUSION: There was an overall increasing trend in TB CNR from 2013 to 2022. We recommend that the National TB program institutes intensified measures aided by more funding to mitigate and reverse the negative impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on TB.


Assuntos
Hanseníase , Tuberculose , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Uganda/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Hanseníase/epidemiologia
15.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 110(2): 364-369, 2024 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38169455

RESUMO

Skin diseases are a major public health concern in Indonesia, although access to specialized care in remote areas is limited. We initiated a low-cost teledermatology service in Sumba, a remote island in eastern Indonesia. Eighteen healthcare workers (HCWs) at five primary healthcare centers received training to manage common skin diseases and submit clinical cases beyond their expertise to an online platform. Submitted cases were reviewed by at least one dermatologist. Diagnostic agreement between HCWs and dermatologists was calculated. The HCWs participated in a satisfaction survey 2 years after project initiation. Since October 2020, of 10,384 patients presenting with skin complaints in a 24-month period, 307 (3%) were submitted for a teledermatology consultation. The most frequent skin diseases were infections and infestations (n = 162, 52.8%) and eczematous (85, 27.7%) and inflammatory (17, 5.5%) conditions. Fifty-three patients (17.3%) were diagnosed with a neglected tropical skin disease, including leprosy and scabies. Dermatologist advice was provided within a median of 50 minutes (interquartile range, 18-255 minutes), with 91.9% of consultations occurring within 24 hours. The diagnostic agreement level between HCWs and dermatologists significantly improved over time, from 46.9% in the first 6-month period (κ = 0.45; 95% CI, 0.37-0.54) to 77.2% in the last 6-month period (κ = 0.76; 95% CI, 0.67-0.86; global P < 0.001). The HCWs reported that the teledermatology service was extremely/very useful in supporting daily practice (100%) and improved their knowledge of skin diseases tremendously/a lot (92%). Teledermatology can improve accessibility and quality of skin services in medically underserved areas, providing opportunities for scalability and knowledge transfer to frontline HCWs.


Assuntos
Dermatologia , Dermatopatias , Telemedicina , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Dermatopatias/diagnóstico , Dermatopatias/terapia , Higiene da Pele
16.
ACS Infect Dis ; 10(2): 251-269, 2024 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38295025

RESUMO

In the recent decade, scientific communities have toiled to tackle the emerging burden of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) and rapidly growing opportunistic nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Among these, two neglected mycobacteria species of the Acinetobacter family, Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium ulcerans, are the etiological agents of leprosy and Buruli ulcer infections, respectively, and fall under the broad umbrella of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Unfortunately, lackluster drug discovery efforts have been made against these pathogenic bacteria in the recent decade, resulting in the discovery of only a few countable hits and majorly repurposing anti-TB drug candidates such as telacebec (Q203), P218, and TB47 for current therapeutic interventions. Major ignorance in drug candidate identification might aggravate the dramatic consequences of rapidly spreading mycobacterial NTDs in the coming days. Therefore, this Review focuses on an up-to-date account of drug discovery efforts targeting selected druggable targets from both bacilli, including the accompanying challenges that have been identified and are responsible for the slow drug discovery. Furthermore, a succinct discussion of the all-new possibilities that could be alternative solutions to mitigate the neglected mycobacterial NTD burden and subsequently accelerate the drug discovery effort is also included. We anticipate that the state-of-the-art strategies discussed here may attract major attention from the scientific community to navigate and expand the roadmap for the discovery of next-generation therapeutics against these NTDs.


Assuntos
Úlcera de Buruli , Mycobacterium ulcerans , Mycobacterium , Humanos , Mycobacterium leprae , Úlcera de Buruli/tratamento farmacológico , Úlcera de Buruli/microbiologia , Úlcera de Buruli/patologia
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(1): e0011901, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38271456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The occurrence of adverse drug events (ADEs) during dapsone (DDS) treatment in patients with leprosy can constitute a significant barrier to the successful completion of the standardized therapeutic regimen for this disease. Well-known DDS-ADEs are hemolytic anemia, methemoglobinemia, hepatotoxicity, agranulocytosis, and hypersensitivity reactions. Identifying risk factors for ADEs before starting World Health Organization recommended standard multidrug therapy (WHO/MDT) can guide therapeutic planning for the patient. The objective of this study was to develop a predictive model for DDS-ADEs in patients with leprosy receiving standard WHO/MDT. METHODOLOGY: This is a case-control study that involved the review of medical records of adult (≥18 years) patients registered at a Leprosy Reference Center in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The cohort included individuals that received standard WHO/MDT between January 2000 to December 2021. A prediction nomogram was developed by means of multivariable logistic regression (LR) using variables. The Hosmer-Lemeshow test was used to determine the model fit. Odds ratios (ORs) and their respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. The predictive ability of the LRM was assessed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). RESULTS: A total of 329 medical records were assessed, comprising 120 cases and 209 controls. Based on the final LRM analysis, female sex (OR = 3.61; 95% CI: 2.03-6.59), multibacillary classification (OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.39-4.66), and higher education level (completed primary education) (OR = 1.97; 95% CI: 1.14-3.47) were considered factors to predict ADEs that caused standard WHO/MDT discontinuation. The prediction model developed had an AUC of 0.7208, that is 72% capable of predicting DDS-ADEs. CONCLUSION: We propose a clinical model that could become a helpful tool for physicians in predicting ADEs in DDS-treated leprosy patients.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Hanseníase , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Dapsona/efeitos adversos , Hansenostáticos/efeitos adversos , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Clofazimina/uso terapêutico , Brasil/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Organização Mundial da Saúde
18.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 324: 117736, 2024 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38242219

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The genus Physalis L. (Solanaceae) is commonly used in the treatment of dermatitis, leprosy, bronchitis, pneumonia, hepatitis and rheumatism in China and other Asian countries. AIM OF THE REVIEW: This article reviews the resources, cultivation, phytochemistry, pharmacological properties, and applications of Physalis L., and proposes further research strategies to enhance its therapeutic potential in treating various human diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of electronic databases, including CNKI, SciFinder and PubMed, using the term "Physalis L." to collect information on the resources, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, and applications of Physalis L. in China during the past ten years (2013.1-2023.1). RESULTS: So far, a variety of chemical constituents have been isolated and identified from Physalis L. mainly including steroids, flavonoids, and so on. Various pharmacological activities were evaluated by studying different extracts of Physalis L., these activities include anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant, antiviral, antineoplastic, and other aspects. CONCLUSION: Physalis L. occupies an important position in the traditional medical system. It is cost-effective and is a significant plant with therapeutic applications in modern medicine. However, further in-depth studies are needed to determine the medical use of this plant resources and cultivation, chemical composition, pharmacological effects and applications.


Assuntos
Physalis , Humanos , Physalis/química , Medicina Tradicional , Fitoterapia , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/química , Etnofarmacologia
19.
Microb Pathog ; 188: 106557, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38272330

RESUMO

The Notch signaling pathway is the most crucial link in the normal operation and maintenance of physiological functions of mammalian life processes. Notch receptors interact with ligands and this leads to three cleavages and goes on to enter the nucleus to initiate the transcription of target genes. The Notch signaling pathway deeply participates in the differentiation and function of various cells, including immune cells. Recent studies indicate that the outcomes of Notch signaling are changeable and highly dependent on different bacterial infection. The Notch signaling pathway plays a different role in promoting and inhibiting bacterial infection. In this review, we focus on the latest research findings of the Notch signaling pathway in bacterial infectious diseases. The Notch signaling pathway is critically involved in a variety of development processes of immunosuppression of different APCs. The Notch signaling pathway leads to functional changes in epithelial cells to aggravate tissue damage. Specifically, we illustrate the regulatory mechanism of the Notch signaling pathway in various bacterial infections, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium leprae, Helicobacter pylori, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Ehrlichia chaffeensis and sepsis. Collectively, this review will not only help beginners intuitively and systematically understand the Notch signaling pathway in bacterial infectious diseases but also help experts to generate fresh insight in this field.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas , Doenças Transmissíveis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Animais , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais , Receptores Notch/metabolismo , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/metabolismo , Mamíferos/metabolismo
20.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 118(1): 51-60, 2024 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38165197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic and genomic research is revolutionizing precision medicine; however, addressing ethical and cultural aspects is crucial to ensure ethical conduct and respect for community values and beliefs. This study explored the beliefs, perceptions and concerns of the Aari community in South Ethiopia regarding genetic concepts, hereditary diseases and ethical research practices related to sample collection, storage and sharing. METHODS: In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with community elders, health officials, tuberculosis patients and apparently healthy individuals. Data were thematically analysed using MAXQDA software. RESULTS: Participants identified diseases such as podoconiosis, leprosy, goitre and epilepsy as hereditary and perceived some as 'curses' due to generational impact and social stigma. Disease susceptibility was attributed to divine intervention or factors such as malnutrition and sanitation. Although hereditary diseases were considered unavoidable, in some cases environmental factors were acknowledged. Participants shared personal examples to demonstrate inheritance concepts. Blood held cultural significance, and concerns about its potential misuse resulted in scepticism towards giving samples. CONCLUSIONS: This study emphasizes the significance of comprehending local beliefs and perceptions and stresses the need to establish effective communication, build trust and address underlying causes of hesitancy to improve recruitment and ensure ethical conduct.


Assuntos
Elefantíase , Opinião Pública , Humanos , Idoso , Etiópia , Grupos Focais , Genômica
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