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1.
Journal of Nursing Education and Practice ; 10(1): 11-15, Jan., 2020. tab.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1052975

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to describe the sleep quality of nursing students according to the pittsburgh sleep quality index. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study conducted with 286 nursing students from a public institution in Salvador, Bahia. Data gathering instruments were applied in classrooms and data were assessed in absolute and relative frequencies, means and standard deviation. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 23.48 years (SD = 4.421). Most of students were female (90.2%), single with partner (90.9%), afro descendent (87.8%), unemployed (81.5%), total Family income below than four minimum wages (47.2%), enrolled between 6th and 10th semester (54.5%), attending academic activities in two or three shifts (80.8%). Sample showed poor sleep quality (86.4%), especially due to the sleep duration, sleep disturbances and daytime disfunction. CONCLUSIONS: Poor sleep quality was prevalent in the sample, what rises the need of further analysis of the associated factors and interventions to change this reality. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Sono , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Fatores de Risco
2.
Recurso educacional aberto em Português | CVSP - Brasil | ID: cfc-393798

RESUMO

Vídeoaula sobre "modelos de desenvolvimento que respeitem e promovam a diversidade sociocultural dos povos indígenas", por Ana Lúcia Pontes, pesquisadora da ENSP e coordenadora do Grupo Temático de Saúde Indígena da ABRASCO, durante o evento: Colóquios da Semana Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia 2019, tem como tema "Bioeconomia: Diversidade e Riqueza para o Desenvolvimento Sustentável". Data: 16 Outubro de 2019


Assuntos
Indicadores de Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Biodiversidade , Direitos dos Povos Indígenas
3.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 12(1): 1-10, ene.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS-Express | ID: ibc-ET1-4538

RESUMO

Current emergent studies are seriously questioning if parental strictness contributes to adolescent adjustment. This study examined whether the relationship between authoritative (warmth and strictness), authoritarian (strictness without warmth), indulgent (warmth without strictness), and neglectful (neither warmth nor strictness) parenting styles shows equal or different pattern of adjustment and maladjustment for aggressive and non-aggressive adolescents. The sample consisted of 969 Spanish adolescents, 554 females (57.2%) and 415 males, ranging from 12 to 17 years old. Families were classified into one of four typologies by their scores on warmth and strictness, and the adolescents were grouped by their aggressiveness (low vs. high). Adolescent adjustment was captured with three self-esteem indicators (emotional, physical, and family) and personal maladjustment with five indicators (negative self-esteem, negative self-adequacy, emotional irresponsiveness, emotional instability, and negative worldview). It was tested main and interaction effects between parenting and aggressiveness considering also sex and age factors. Findings showed that aggressive adolescents always had the worst socialization outcomes (i.e., the lowest self-esteem and the highest personal maladjustment). Aggressive and non-aggressive adolescents have a common pattern: both, indulgent and authoritative parenting styles were always associated with better outcomes than either authoritarian or neglectful parenting, but indulgent parenting style was associated with the best outcomes across all the criteria. In contrast with previous evidence about the idea that parental strictness and imposition might be beneficial to raise aggressive adolescents, present findings highlight the positive impact of parental warmth even with aggressive adolescents. Implications for family interventions were considered


Investigaciones emergentes cuestionan que la severidad parental contribuya al ajuste del adolescente. Este estudio examina si la relación entre los estilos parentales autorizativo (afecto y severidad), autoritario (severidad sin afecto), indulgente (afecto sin severidad) y negligente (ni afecto ni severidad) presenta patrones de ajuste y desajuste iguales o diferentes en adolescentes agresivos y no agresivos. Participaron 969 adolescentes españoles, 554 mujeres (57.2%) y 415 varones, de 12 a 17 años. Las familias se clasificaron en un estilo parental según sus puntuaciones en afecto y severidad y los adolescentes se agruparon por agresividad (baja vs. alta). Se captó el ajuste mediante tres indicadores de autoestima (emocional, física y familiar) y el desajuste personal con cinco indicadores (autoestima negativa, autoeficacia negativa, falta de respuesta emocional, inestabilidad emocional y visión negativa del mundo). Se probaron efectos principales y de interacción para estilos parentales y agresividad, considerando también sexo y edad. Los análisis mostraron que los adolescentes agresivos siempre tenían los peores resultados (i.e., la menor autoestima y el mayor desajuste personal). Los adolescentes agresivos y no agresivos comparten un patrón común: los estilos indulgente y autorizativo siempre se asociaron con mejores resultados que el autoritario o el negligente, pero el estilo indulgente se asoció con los mejores resultados en todos los criterios. A diferencia de estudios previos que consideraban que el rigor y la severidad de los padres podrían ser beneficiosos en hijos agresivos, los presentes resultados resaltan el impacto positivo del afecto parental incluso en adolescentes agresivos. Se consideraron las implicaciones para las intervenciones familiares

4.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 12(1): 11-21, ene.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS-Express | ID: ibc-ET1-4539

RESUMO

This study aimed to address how multiple risk factors that were previously related and derived from ecological levels, when taken together, could explain child-to-mother and child-to-father violence. A total of 298 Spanish adolescents (140 girls) who had committed CPV, with a mean age of 15.91 (SDage = 1.89), offender residents of specialized closed institutions for adolescents who had aggressed their parents (49.5%) and educational centres (50.6%) completed all measures. Both models obtained adequate fit indexes and explained about 50% of the variance in the two types of violence. At contextual (exosystem) level, peer deviance was indirectly related to both types of CPV. At family level (microsystem), the strongest direct predictor in both models was parental ineffectiveness in applying discipline. An additional direct path to child-to-mother violence was the use of corporal punishment. At individual level (ontogenic), the two strongest direct predictors in both models were adolescents' impulsivity and substance abuse. The models highlight the complexity of the variables involved in the development of CPV. Regarding intervention implications, the models show the importance of paying attention to family variables, such as parents' mode of implementation of disciplinary measures, and individual factors, such as adolescents' impulsivity and substance abuse


Este estudio tuvo como fin abordar de qué modo podría explicar la violencia filio-parental (VFP) hacia la madre y hacia el padre los múltiples factores de riesgo relacionados previamente y derivados de niveles ecológicos en su conjunto. Un total de 298 adolescentes españoles (140 chicas) que presentaban índices elevados de VFP, con una edad media de 15.91 (DT = 1.89) y pertenecientes a centros psicoterapéuticos cerrados especializados en el trabajo de la VFP (49.5%) y a centros educativos (50.6%) cumplimentaron todas las medidas. Ambos modelos obtuvieron índices de ajuste adecuados y explicaron aproximadamente el 50% de la varianza de los dos tipos de VPF. En el nivel contextual (exosistema), la influencia de compañeros conflictivos se relacionó indirectamente con ambos tipos de VFP. A nivel familiar (microsistema), el mayor predictor directo en ambos modelos fue la ineficacia parental en la aplicación de la disciplina. Una relación directa adicional en el caso de la VFP hacia la madre fue el uso del castigo físico. Al nivel individual (ontogénico), los dos mejores predictores directos en ambos modelos fueron la impulsividad y el abuso de sustancias por parte de los adolescentes. Los modelos subrayan la complejidad de las variables involucradas en el desarrollo de la VFP. Respecto a las implicaciones para la intervención, los modelos enfatizan la importancia de prestar atención a las variables familiares, como el modo en el que los progenitores implementan las estrategias disciplinarias, y a factores individuales, como la impulsividad y el abuso de sustancias de los adolescentes

5.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 12(1): 23-34, ene.-jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS-Express | ID: ibc-ET1-4540

RESUMO

In a countermeasures experiment, we examined to what extent liars who learn about the Model Statement tool and about the proportion of complications (complications/complications + common knowledge details + self-handicapping strategies) can successfully adjust their responses so that they sound like truth tellers. Truth tellers discussed a trip they had made; liars fabricated a story. Participants were of Lebanese, Mexican, and South-Korean origin. Prior to the interview they did or did not receive information about (I) the working of the Model statement and (II) three types of verbal detail: complications, common knowledge details and self-handicapping strategies. We found no evidence that liars sounded like truth tellers after being informed about the Model Statement and/or types of detail we examined. Actually, veracity differences were similar across experimental conditions, with truth tellers reporting more detail and more complications and obtaining a higher proportion of complications score than liars


En un experimento de contramedidas examinamos hasta qué punto los mentirosos que reciben información sobre la Declaración modelo y la proporción de complicaciones que presenta (complicaciones / complicaciones + detalles de conocimiento general + estrategias de autoobstaculización) pueden ajustar sus respuestas con éxito para que parezca que dicen la verdad. Los que dicen la verdad declararon sobre un viaje que habían hecho; los mentirosos inventaron una historia. Los participantes eran de origen libanés, mexicano y surcoreano. Antes de la entrevista habían recibido o no información sobre (I) el funcionamiento de la Declaración modelo y (II) tres tipos de detalles verbales: complicaciones, detalles de conocimiento general y estrategias de autoobstaculización. No encontramos evidencia de que los mentirosos se parecieran a los que dicen la verdad después de ser informados sobre la Declaración modelo y los tipos de detalle que examinamos. En realidad, las diferencias de veracidad fueron semejantes en todas las condiciones experimentales: los que decían la verdad informaron con mayor detalle y de más complicaciones y obtuvieron una mayor puntuación en la proporción de complicaciones que los mentirosos

6.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 12(1): 35-42, ene.-jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS-Express | ID: ibc-ET1-4541

RESUMO

Statement Validity Assessment (SVA) proposes that baseline statements on different events can serve as a within-subject measure of a witness' individual verbal capabilities when evaluating scores from Criteria-based Content Analysis (CBCA). This assumes that CBCA scores will generally be consistent across two accounts by the same witness. We present a first pilot study on this assumption. In two sessions, we asked 29 participants to produce one experience-based and one fabricated baseline account as well as one experience-based and one fabricated target account (each on different events), resulting in a total of 116 accounts. We hypothesized at least moderate correlations between target and baseline indicating a consistency across both experience-based and fabricated CBCA scores, and that fabricated CBCA scores would be more consistent because truth-telling has to consider random event characteristics, whereas lies must be constructed completely by the individual witness. Results showed that differences in correlations between experience-based CBCA scores and between fabricated CBCA scores took the predicted direction (cexperience-based = .44 versus cfabricated =.61) but this difference was not statistically significant. As predicted, a subgroup of event-related CBCA criteria were significantly less consistent than CBCA total scores, but only in experience-based accounts. The discussion considers methodological issues regarding the usage of total CBCA scores and whether to measure consistency with correlation coefficients. It is concluded that more studies are needed with larger samples


El Statement Validity Assessment (SVA) propone que las declaraciones sobre diferentes eventos pueden servir como una línea base intrasujeto de la medida de las capacidades verbales individuales de un testigo al evaluar las puntuaciones del Criteria Based Content Analysis (CBCA). Esto implica que las puntuaciones del CBCA serán congruentes en dos relatos del mismo testigo. Presentamos un primer estudio piloto sobre este supuesto. Se pidió a 29 participantes en dos sesiones que elaboraran un relato verdadero (línea base) y otro inventado, además de un relato verdadero y otro inventado (cada uno en situaciones diferentes), arrojando un total de 116 relatos. Se planteó la hipótesis de una correlación al menos moderada entre la declaración fabricada y la verdadera, que indicaría una consistencia entre las puntuaciones en el CBCA de relatos inventados y experimentados y que las puntuaciones en el CBCA inventadas serían más consistentes porque la verdad incluye las características aleatorias de los hechos, mientras que las mentiras las construye totalmente el testigo. Los resultados mostraron que las diferencias en las correlaciones entre las puntuaciones en el CBCA de relatos experimentados y fabricados iban en la dirección predicha (cvivido = .44 frente a cinventado = .61), pero esta diferencia no fue significativa. Como se predijo, un subgrupo de criterios de CBCA relacionados con los hechos fue menos congruente que las puntuaciones totales de CBCA, pero sólo en los relatos de hechos experimentados. Se discuten las implicaciones metodológicas relacionadas con el uso de las puntuaciones totales del CBCA y si se debe medir la consistencia mediante el coeficiente de correlación. Se concluye que se necesitan otros estudios con muestras más grandes

7.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 12(1): 43-51, ene.-jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS-Express | ID: ibc-ET1-4542

RESUMO

Child-to-parent violence takes different forms (physical, psychological or economic) and can be addressed in the judicial system or in clinical practice. The current paper compares 61 clinical and 30 judicialized cases that were evaluated using the Child-to-Parent Violence Risk assessment tool (CPVR). Results showed a higher prevalence of risk factors in the judicial sample. This group of aggressors had worse profiles of violence (bidirectionality of the parent/child violence, violence other than CPV, and more CPV complaints), more psychological issues (low frustration tolerance, little anger management,narcissism, and violent attitudes) and, most notably, more dysfunctional families (violence between parents, cohabitation problems, inversion of the hierarchy, non-violent conflicts, and even criminal history of the parents). Logistic regression showed that narcissism, attitudes justifying violence, violence between parents, and problems of parents themselves (such mental disorders or drug abuse) allowed for correct classification of 89.4% of cases. Total CPVR scores differed between groups (25.8 vs. 14.2), and classification was good for both type of group (AUC = .830) and injuries to mother (AUC= .764). A cut-off score between 22 and 23 showed the best results in prediction of group and injuries to mother. Utility ofthe CPVR, and next steps in its development are discussed


La Violencia Filio-Parental (VFP) puede manifestarse de distintas formas (física, psicológica o económica) y su abordaje puede hacerse desde el sistema judicial o desde la práctica clínica. El presente estudio compara 61 casos clínicos (no judicializados) y 30 judicializados que fueron evaluados con la Guía para la Valoración del Riesgo de Violencia Filio-Parental (RVFP). Los resultados mostraron una mayor prevalencia de los factores de riesgo en la muestra judicial, con un perfil de violencia peor (más bidireccionalidad, más violencia distinta a la VFP y más denuncias por VFP), más complicaciones psicológicas en los agresores (baja tolerancia a la frustración, poco control de la ira, narcisismo y actitudes violentas) y, en especial, un perfil familiar más disfuncional (violencia entre los padres, problemas de convivencia, inversión de jerarquía, conflictos e incluso antecedentes delictivos en los padres). Una regresión logística puso de manifiesto que el narcisismo, las actitudes que justifican la violencia, la violencia entre los progenitores y los problemas de los padres (como trastorno mental o abuso de drogas) permitían clasificar correctamente al 89.4% de los casos. El grupo midió diferencias en la puntuación en la Guía RVFP (25.8vs. 14.2) y la clasificación fue buena para el tipo de grupo (AUC = .830) y lesiones a la madre (AUC = .764). Un punto de corte entre 22 y 23 mostró los mejores resultados en la predicción del grupo y las lesiones a la madre. Se discute la utilidad de la RVFP y los siguientes pasos en su desarrollo

8.
Int. j. pediatr. otorhinolaryngol ; 131: 1-29, Apr., 2020. ilus.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1052848

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the eating behavior, orofacial, speech myofunctional conditions, and facial temperature of children with congenital heart disease. METHOD: This is a cross-sectional and analytical study. The sample consisted of 30 children with heart disease (cyanotic or acyanotic; mean of 5.48 ± 0.84 years old) and 28 healthy children (4.98 ± 0.64 years old). Parents were given a questionnaire to assess eating behaviors (Montreal Children's Hospital Feeding Scale). The orofacial myofunctional assessment protocol (OMES-E), the Child Language Test (ABFW), and thermography infrared of facial temperature were used. Data analysis was conducted by student's t-tests, Chi-square, logistic regression, and correlation analysis. RESULTS: Eating behavior in Parents did not perceive eating behavior differences between the heart disease and control groups. However, the percentage of children with some feeding difficulty was higher in the heart disease group. There was a difference between groups regarding the appearance and posture of structures, the mobility of the mandibular and cheek, swallowing function, and the total function score. Thermographic variables did not differ between the groups, but better performance in orofacial functions correlated with the temperature of the labial commissure and lower lip points. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of children with eating difficulties was higher among those with congenital heart disease, as was the increased facial temperature at the medial eyelid commission point when submitted to interventional procedures. The orofacial myofunctional aspects showed changes in posture and position, mobility, and orofacial functions among children with heart disease as compared to the control group. There was a correlation between the temperature of the thermo-anatomical points of the labial commissure and the lower lip as well as the OMES-E function score. (AU)


Assuntos
Fonoterapia , Sistema Estomatognático , Termografia , Comportamento Alimentar
9.
Yale J Biol Med ; 93(1): 161-173, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226345

RESUMO

The epidermis has an essential function in creating a barrier against the external environment to retain proper fluid balance and block the entry of pathogens. When damage occurs to this barrier, the wound must quickly be sealed to avoid fluid loss, cleared of invading pathogens, and then keratinocytes must re-form an intact barrier. This requires complex integration of temporally and spatially distinct signals to execute orderly closure of the wound, and failure of this process can lead to chronic ulceration. Transcription factors serve as a key integration point for the myriad of information coming from the external environment, allowing for an orderly process of re-epithelialization. Importantly, transcription factors engage with and alter the chromatin structure around key target genes through association with different chromatin-modifying complexes. In this review, we will discuss the current understanding of how transcription is regulated during the initiation of re-epithelialization, and the exciting technological advances that will allow for a more refined mechanistic understanding of the re-epithelialization process.

10.
Yale J Biol Med ; 93(1): 175-185, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226346

RESUMO

Kinins are proinflammatory peptides that are formed in the skin by the enzymatic action of tissue kallikrein (KLK1) on kininogens. Tissue kallikrein is produced by eccrine sweat glands and also by cells of the stratum granulosum and other skin appendages. Kinin formation may be favored during inflammatory skin disorders when plasma constituents, including kininogens, extravasate from venules and capillaries, which have increased permeability in response to the plethora of inflammatory mediators generated in the course of acute inflammation. By activating either kinin B1 or B2 receptors, kinins modulate keratinocyte differentiation, which relays on activation of several signaling systems that follows receptor stimulation. Participation of the kinin B1 receptor in wound healing is still a matter of controversy though some studies indicate that B1 receptor stimulation regulates keratinocyte migration by controlling metalloproteases 2 and 9 production and by improving wound closure in a mouse model. Development of more stable kinin B1 receptor agonists may be beneficial to modulate wound healing, especially if we take into account that the B1 receptor is up-regulated by inflammation and by cytokines generated in the inflamed microenvironment.

11.
Yale J Biol Med ; 93(1): 187-195, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226347

RESUMO

Certain inflammatory disorders are characterized by macrophage activation and accumulation in tissue; sometimes leading to the formation of granulomas, as in sarcoidosis. These disorders are often difficult to treat and more effective, molecularly targeted therapies are needed. Recent work has shown that overproduction of inflammatory cytokines, such as interferon gamma (IFN-γ) leading to constitutive activation of the JAK-STAT pathway may be a conserved feature of these disorders. Use of JAK inhibitors, which can block these signals, has resulted in dramatic improvement in several patients with sarcoidosis. JAK inhibitors also appear to have activity in other inflammatory disorders with macrophage activation including hemophagocytic lymphohistiocystosis, Crohn's disease, granuloma annulare, and necrobiosis lipoidica. Here, we review the role of JAK dependent cytokines in macrophage activation and granuloma formation and the clinical evidence supporting the use of JAK inhibition in these disorders. Ongoing efforts to evaluate role of JAK inhibitors in these disorders is also discussed.

12.
Yale J Biol Med ; 93(1): 197-206, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226348

RESUMO

Autoimmune diseases of the skin occur when the immune system attacks normal skin. The immune system can be broadly divided into an effector arm responsible for fighting infections and cancer and a regulatory arm that reduces autoreactivity and maintains immune homeostasis. Cutaneous autoimmunity develops when the equilibrium between the effector arm and regulatory arm of the immune system is disrupted. Recent insights into the inflammatory pathways that are overactive in some cutaneous autoimmune diseases have led to therapies targeting the effector arm of the immune system with greater treatment efficacy than previously used broad immunosuppressants. The current paradigm of inhibiting excessive immune activation for treating cutaneous autoimmunity will be discussed including cytokine blockade, cellular depletion, intracellular signaling blockade and costimulatory blockade. Despite the success of this approach many cutaneous autoimmune diseases lack a clearly delineated pathway to target and therefore new strategies are needed. An emerging therapeutic strategy targeting the regulatory arm of the immune system to induce tolerance and disease remission provides new hope for treating cutaneous autoimmunity. Such an approach includes cellular therapy with regulatory T cells and chimeric autoantibody receptor T cells, cytokine therapy with low-dose interleukin-2, immune checkpoint stimulation, tolerogenic vaccines and microbiome biotherapy. This mini-review will discuss the current and emerging therapeutic strategies for cutaneous autoimmune diseases and provide an organizational framework for understanding distinct mechanisms of action.

13.
Yale J Biol Med ; 93(1): 207-213, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226349

RESUMO

Melanoma is a common cancer in both young and older populations in many western countries. Rates of melanoma diagnosis worldwide are increasing. With the introduction of both targeted and immunotherapies there have been dramatic improvements in the care of patients with metastatic melanoma. With these new therapies being increasingly offered to patients with stage III metastatic melanoma and stage IV disease, radiological surveillance of melanoma has become a widely used method of monitoring melanoma patients for early locoregional and distant metastasis. However, concerns have been raised about risk of false positive results, which patients to consider radiological surveillance for, and at what intervals to do so. To date, there are no published review articles on the topic of radiological surveillance in melanoma patients identified in the MEDLINE database. A comprehensive literature review was performed by searching the MEDLINE database to review all published works on this topic. This article aims to present an extensive review of literature surrounding radiological surveillance in melanoma patients, a discussion of controversies, and recommendations for surveillance modalities.

14.
15.
Yale J Biol Med ; 93(1): 215-219, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226350

RESUMO

Following the completion of the Human Genome Project (HGP) in 2003, advances in DNA sequencing technologies further popularized the field of genomics and brought its social ramifications to the fore. Scholars across disciplines recently voiced serious concerns about the re-emergence of genomic research that might be used to justify racism. In this piece, I trace the history of attempts to biologize the concept of race and its diffused presence in today's genomic research. I then include a brief analysis inspired by concepts from the field of Science and Technology Studies (STS) to suggest selected ways to produce better scientific knowledge. The text highlights historic landmarks of interest to science practitioners curious about the ways science of the past co-shapes science of the present. I then argue that science has never been isolated from the socio-political climate it is produced in; instead, it has been morphed by its surroundings and historically used as a potent tool to justify systemic oppression.

16.
Int J Ment Health Addict ; : 1-9, 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226353

RESUMO

Background: The emergence of the COVID-19 and its consequences has led to fears, worries, and anxiety among individuals worldwide. The present study developed the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) to complement the clinical efforts in preventing the spread and treating of COVID-19 cases. Methods: The sample comprised 717 Iranian participants. The items of the FCV-19S were constructed based on extensive review of existing scales on fears, expert evaluations, and participant interviews. Several psychometric tests were conducted to ascertain its reliability and validity properties. Results: After panel review and corrected item-total correlation testing, seven items with acceptable corrected item-total correlation (0.47 to 0.56) were retained and further confirmed by significant and strong factor loadings (0.66 to 0.74). Also, other properties evaluated using both classical test theory and Rasch model were satisfactory on the seven-item scale. More specifically, reliability values such as internal consistency (α = .82) and test-retest reliability (ICC = .72) were acceptable. Concurrent validity was supported by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (with depression, r = 0.425 and anxiety, r = 0.511) and the Perceived Vulnerability to Disease Scale (with perceived infectability, r = 0.483 and germ aversion, r = 0.459). Conclusion: The Fear of COVID-19 Scale, a seven-item scale, has robust psychometric properties. It is reliable and valid in assessing fear of COVID-19 among the general population and will also be useful in allaying COVID-19 fears among individuals.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226362

RESUMO

The central nervous system (CNS) may simplify control of limb movements by activating certain combinations of muscles together, i.e., muscle synergies. Little is known, however, about the spinal cord interneurons that activate muscle synergies by exciting sets of motoneurons for different muscles. The turtle spinal cord, even without brain inputs and movement-related sensory feedback, can generate the patterns of motoneuron activity underlying forward swimming, three forms of scratching, and limb withdrawal. Spinal interneurons activated during scratching are typically activated during all three forms of scratching, to different degrees, even though each form of scratching has its own knee-hip synergy. Such spinal interneurons are also typically activated rhythmically during scratching motor patterns, with hip-related timing. We proposed a hypothesis that such interneurons that are most active during rostral scratch stimulation project their axons to both knee-extensor and hip-flexor motoneurons, thus generating the rostral scratch knee-hip synergy, while those interneurons most active during pocket scratch stimulation project their axons to both knee-extensor and hip-extensor motoneurons, thus generating the pocket scratch knee-hip synergy. The activity of the entire population would then generate the appropriate synergy, depending on the location of sensory stimulation. Mathematical modeling has demonstrated that this hypothesis is feasible. Here, we provide one test of this hypothesis by injecting two fluorescent retrograde tracers into the regions of knee-extensor motoneurons (more rostrally) and hip-extensor motoneurons (more caudally). We found that there were double-labeled interneurons, which projected their axons to both locations. The dual-projecting interneurons were widely distributed rostrocaudally, dorsoventrally, and mediolaterally within the hindlimb enlargement and pre-enlargement spinal segments examined. The existence of such dual-projecting interneurons is consistent with the hypothesis that they contribute to generating the knee-hip synergy for pocket scratching. The dual-projecting interneurons, however, were only about 1% of the total interneurons projecting to each location, which suggests that they might be one of several contributors to the appropriate knee-hip synergy. Indirect projections to both motor pools and/or knee extensor-dedicated interneurons might also contribute. There is evidence for dual-projecting spinal interneurons in frogs and mice as well, suggesting that they may contribute to limb motor control in a variety of vertebrates.

18.
Front Immunol ; 11: 259, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226424

RESUMO

Dendritic epidermal T cells (DETC) are a group of immune cells expressing canonical γδ TCR in the murine epidermis. Similar to γδ T cells in the human epidermis, DETC serve an important barrier cell in the skin and participate in skin immune surveillance, immune regulation, skin homeostasis, tissue protection, and other activities. Since its discovery in 1983, research on DETC has grown rapidly and unevenly. To evaluate DETC research trends and map the DETC knowledge structure, we have applied bibliometric methods and techniques. A total of 384 DETC-related articles obtained from the Scopus database published between 1983 and 2019 were analyzed using indicators of publication and citation metrics, country and international cooperation, author and co-authorship, and keyword co-occurrence cluster. The present research status, the emerging global trends and the future development direction are also visualized and discussed. In summary, this study provides novel and useful data for the DETC research scientific community, and will help researchers explore DETC more intuitively and effectively.

19.
Front Immunol ; 11: 292, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226425

RESUMO

Endotoxin tolerance aims at opposing hyperinflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) participates in protection against LPS-mediated tissue damage, as it plays a necessary role in restraining the proinflammatory action of IL-1ß and TNF-α while fostering the expression of protective TGF-ß. TGF-ß, in turn, promotes durable expression of the immune regulatory enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1). IDO1 degrades L-tryptophan to L-kynurenine-an activating ligand for AhR-thus establishing a feed-forward loop. In this study, we further demonstrate that L-kynurenine also promotes the dissociation of the Src kinase-AhR cytosolic complex, leading to the activation of both genomic and non-genomic events in conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) primed with LPS. Specifically, the Src kinase, by phosphorylating the downstream target IDO1, triggers IDO1's signaling ability, which results in enhanced production of TGF-ß, an event key to establishing full endotoxin tolerance. We demonstrated that exogenous L-kynurenine can substitute for the effects of continued or repeated LPS exposure and that the AhR-Src-IDO1 axis represents a critical step for the transition from endotoxin susceptibility to tolerance. Moreover, much like fully endotoxin-tolerant dendritic cells (DCs) (i.e., treated twice with LPS in vitro), DCs-treated once with LPS in vitro and then with kynurenine-confer resistance on naïve recipients to an otherwise lethal LPS challenge. This may have clinical implications under conditions in which pharmacologically induced onset of endotoxin tolerance is a therapeutically desirable event.

20.
Front Immunol ; 11: 339, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226426

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors target the inhibitory receptors on T cells to reinstate their antitumor ability and have shown significant efficacy in treating various cancers. However, because of tumor heterogeneity and many other uncover reasons, the objective response rate for programmed death 1 and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) blockade is only 20 to 30%; its response rate in solid tumors is relatively low, and different degrees of side effects have occurred. There are still many unknown factors affecting the therapeutic effectiveness of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade. Additionally, screening the responding tumor patients accurately and improving the response rate and efficacy are huge challenges for tumor precise treatment. Here, we attempt to summarize the recent progress in response prediction and combined application of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade and briefly discuss the methods and evaluations combined with PD-1/PD-L1 blockade to improve the implementation of precision immunotherapy.

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