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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 1828, 2024 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38246941

ABSTRACT

Here, we analyze critical changes in environmental law enforcement in the Brazilian Amazon between 2000 and 2020. Based on a dataset of law enforcement indicators, we discuss how these changes explain recent Amazon deforestation dynamics. Our analysis also covers changes in the legal prosecution process and documents a militarization of enforcement between 2018 and 2022. From 2004 to 2018, 43.6 thousand land-use embargoes and 84.3 thousand fines were issued, targeting 3.3 million ha of land, and totaling USD 9.3 billion in penalties. Nevertheless, enforcement relaxed and became spatially more limited, signaling an increasing lack of commitment by the State to enforcing the law. The number of embargoes and asset confiscations dropped by 59% and 55% in 2019 and 2020, respectively. These changes were accompanied by a marked increase in enforcement expenditure, suggesting a massive efficiency loss. More importantly, the creation of so-called conciliation hearings and the centralization of legal processes in 2019 reduced the number of actual judgments and fines collected by 85% and decreased the ratio between lawsuits resulting in paid fines over filed ones from 17 to 5%. As Brazil gears up to crack-down on illegal deforestation once again, our assessment suggests urgent entry points for policy action.


Subject(s)
Law Enforcement , Social Control, Formal , Brazil , Health Expenditures , Hearing
2.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e243813, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, Index Psychology - journals | ID: biblio-1431124

ABSTRACT

Este estudo propõe analisar as relações e os processos de subjetivação de mulheres quebradeiras de coco babaçu decorrentes das intervenções de políticas desenvolvimentistas em seus territórios de vida e reverberações no Movimento Interestadual de Quebradeiras de Coco Babaçu (MIQCB). Sob a perspectiva ético-estético-política da Cartografia, acompanhamos as narrativas das histórias de vida de 24 mulheres, suas atividades cotidianas e eventos do MIQCB, também analisamos os documentos das políticas. Entendemos que, ao passo que tais políticas de desenvolvimento rural contribuem para a melhoria das condições de vida, em termos materiais e simbólicos, elas também produzem ressonâncias relacionadas ao modo de subjetivação do tipo "empresário de si", que agenciam seus modos de viver, de produzir e de se relacionar consigo e com os outros na lógica capitalista neoliberal. A resistência às capturas neoliberais também estão presentes ao ampliarem as mobilizações coletivas do próprio movimento, articulando com outros na produção de um "comum".(AU)


This study proposes to analyze the relations and the processes of subjectivation of babassu coconut-breaker women arising from developmental policy interventions in their territories of life and reverberations in the Babassu Coconut-breaker Interstate Movement (MIQCB). From the ethical-aesthetic-political perspective of Cartography, we followed the narratives of the life stories of 24 women, their daily activities and promoted events by MIQCB, we also analyzed the policy documents. We understand that while these policies of rural development contribute to improve the living conditions, in material and symbolic terms, they also produce resonances related to the "self-entrepreneur" mode of subjectivation, which has been handling their ways of living, producing, and relating to themselves and others in the neoliberal capitalist logic. Resistance to neoliberal captures is also present as they expand the collective mobilizations of the movement itself, articulating with others, in the production of a "common."(AU)


Este estudio tiene como objetivo analizar los procesos de subjetivación de las mujeres que rompen coco babaçu que surgen de las intervenciones de las políticas de desarrollo en sus territorios de vida y las reverberaciones en el Movimiento Interestadual de las Mujeres que Rompen Coco Babaçu (MIQCB). Desde la perspectiva ético-estético-política de la Cartografía, seguimos las narraciones de las historias de vida de 24 mujeres, sus actividades diarias y eventos del MIQCB, y también analizamos los documentos de las políticas. Si bien estas políticas han contribuido a mejorar las condiciones de vida de las mujeres, en términos materiales y simbólicos, también han producido resonancias del modo de subjetivación "autoempresarial", que ha agenciado sus formas de vivir, producir y relacionarse consigo mismas y con los demás en la lógica capitalista neoliberal. La resistencia a las capturas neoliberales también está presente cuando amplían las movilizaciones colectivas del propio movimiento, articulándose con otros en la producción de un "común".(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Growth and Development , Economics , Government , Politics , Poverty , Psychology , Psychology, Social , Public Policy , Retirement , Rural Population , Social Desirability , Social Justice , Social Problems , Social Sciences , Soil , Women's Rights , Wood , Health Policy, Planning and Management , Socioeconomic Planning , Social Control Policies , Legislation, Environmental , Brazil , Water , Exercise , Ethnicity , Economic Development , Agricultural Cultivation , Poverty Areas , Land Use , Rural Areas , Forests , Organizations , Environmental Health , Conflict of Interest , Workload , Family Planning Policy , Entrepreneurship , Agrochemicals , Interview , Collective Bargaining , Commerce , Crops, Agricultural , Environmental Management , Natural Resources Exploitation , Natural Resources , Renewable Resources , Natural Reservations , Flora , Conservation of Natural Resources , Cultural Diversity , Nature , Feminism , Extraction and Processing Industry , Natural Resources Management , Rural Economy , Capitalism , State , Public Power , Biodiversity , Agriculture , Efficiency , Environment , Environment and Public Health , Health Sciences, Technology, and Innovation Management , Projects , Job Market , Health Surveillance of Products , Control and Sanitary Supervision of Foods and Beverages , Foods Containing Coconut , Machinery , Sustainable Agriculture , Non-Renewable Resources , Agribusiness , Environmental Communication , Femininity , Environmental Policy , Small Business , Ethnic Violence , Sociological Factors , Food , Work-Life Balance , Political Activism , Stakeholder Participation , Socioeconomic Rights , Occupied Territories , Sustainable Development , Social Programs , Indigenous Peoples , Right to Work , Empowerment , Social Inclusion , Gender Equity , Gender Role , Social Vulnerability , Environmental Responsability , Socio-Environmental Responsibility , Diversity, Equity, Inclusion , Working Conditions , Wildlife Trade , Health Services Needs and Demand , Housing , Human Activities , Human Rights , Labor Unions , Life Change Events , Anthropology , Mining , Occupational Groups
3.
São Paulo; s.n; 2022. 95 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1363995

ABSTRACT

As emissões de poluentes atmosféricos causam um grande problema à saúde. A maior parte da poluição gerada no Estado de São Paulo é proveniente de veículos automotores, que são responsáveis pela emissão de 96% do CO, 73% de HC, 62% de NOX e 40% de MP10, sendo os veículos diesel os maiores responsáveis pelas emissões de MP e NOX no Estado. No Brasil, as medidas tomadas pelo PROCONVE, que visam a mitigação da poluição causada por veículos, se mostram eficazes para homologação de veículos novos, porém requerem que a continuidade do trabalho seja realizada com inspeções dos veículos em uso. A tecnologia de sensoriamento remoto, desenvolvida no final dos anos 1980, tem sido amplamente utilizada para de monitoramento de frotas, assim como em programas de Inspeção e Manutenção em diversos locais do mundo. Os resultados alcançados são satisfatórios e, de forma geral, indicam grandes reduções nos níveis de emissão de poluentes. Estudos apontam que as emissões de NOX foram as que tiveram menores reduções reais entre fases das regulamentações. O Estado de São Paulo possui controle de poluentes de veículos do ciclo diesel em uso através de fiscalizações por opacidade, Escala de Ringelmann e sistema SCR. O sistema de sensoriamento remoto mostra-se como um bom complemento ao que é realizado atualmente. Foram propostos dois sistemas de legislação de inspeções veiculares que contemplam o SR como ferramenta de seleção dos veículos diesel. Além disso, foi mostrado como poderiam ser escolhidos limites para high e low emitters, assim como procedimentos para escolha dos pontos de instalação do sistema.


Emissions of air pollutants cause a big health problem. Most of the pollution generated in the State of São Paulo comes from motor vehicles, which are responsible for the emission of 96% of CO, 73% of HC, 62% of NOX, and 40% of PM10, with diesel vehicles being the biggest responsible for the emissions of PM and NOX in the state. In Brazil, the actions taken by PROCONVE, aimed at mitigating pollution caused by vehicles, prove to be effective for the approval of new vehicles but require that the continuity of the work be carried out by inspections of in-use vehicles. Remote sensing technology, developed in the late 1980s, has been widely used for fleet monitoring, as well as in Inspection and Maintenance programs in many locations around the world. The results achieved are satisfactory and, in general, indicate large reductions in pollutant emission levels. Studies show that NOX emissions were the ones that had the smallest real reductions between phases of regulations. The State of São Paulo controls in-use diesel vehicles pollutants by inspections of opacity, Ringelmann Scale, and SCR system. The remote sensing system proves to be a good complement to what is currently performed. Two systems of procedures for diesel vehicle inspections were proposed, which include the SR as a tool for the selection of diesel vehicles. In addition, it was shown how limits for high and low emitters could be chosen, as well as procedures for selecting the system installation points.


Subject(s)
Environmental Health , Air Pollution , Remote Sensing Technology , Legislation, Environmental , Motor Vehicles
4.
Eng. sanit. ambient ; 26(1): 123-131, jan.-fev. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154115

ABSTRACT

RESUMO A incineração é uma tecnologia de tratamento térmico de resíduos sólidos cujo principal objetivo é a redução do volume e da massa dos resíduos a serem depositados em aterros. Os incineradores construídos nas últimas décadas trazem a possibilidade de recuperação energética dos resíduos, na forma de vapor e/ou energia elétrica, entretanto essa tecnologia ainda gera questionamentos sobre possíveis impactos ambientais relacionados às suas emissões. A incineração é regulada na Europa por legislação específica que, entre outras questões, obriga a divulgação de dados de monitoramento ambiental de incineradores. No presente trabalho, são analisados dados de emissões atmosféricas de incineradores associados à Confederation of European Waste-to-Energy Plants (CEWEP), por meio de buscas nos websites dos respectivos incineradores, em artigos científicos e relatórios técnicos. Foram examinados dados de monitoramento de todos os poluentes de medição contínua e periódica definidos na legislação da UE, em séries temporais de 2010 a 2017. Todos os valores médios anuais de emissões nos incineradores analisados estiveram abaixo dos limites definidos pela diretiva europeia, com pequena variação ao longo dos anos observados. A comparação dos padrões de emissão europeus com os brasileiros mostra a necessidade de mudança na legislação local referente à incineração para que, caso essa tecnologia seja implementada no Brasil, ela possa operar respeitando limites seguros, com garantia de minimização de impactos ao ambiente e às populações do entorno.


Abstract Incineration is a solid waste treatment technology whose main purpose is to reduce the volume and mass of the waste to be disposed of in landfills. The incinerators built in the last decades bring the possibility of energy recovery from waste, in the form of steam and/or electric energy. However, this technology still raises questions about possible environmental impacts related to its emissions. Incineration is regulated in Europe through specific legislation which, among other issues, requires the disclosure of environmental monitoring data for incinerators. In the present work, atmospheric emissions data from incinerators associated with the Confederation of European Waste-to-Energy Plants (CEWEP) are analyzed by searching the websites of the respective incinerators, scientific articles and technical reports. Monitoring data on all continuous and periodic measured pollutants defined in the legislation in time series from 2010 to 2017 were analyzed. All annual average emission values of the incinerators analyzed were below the limits defined by the European Union's Directive, with little variation over the observed years. The comparison of European with Brazilian emission standards shows the need for a change in local legislation on incineration so that, if this technology is implemented in Brazil, it will operate within safe limits, with a guarantee of minimizing impacts on the environment and surrounding populations.

5.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(12): 14085-14099, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040737

ABSTRACT

The nonparametric test of Kruskal-Wallis and relative risk were used to evaluate surface water quality allowed to an identification of the most degraded water bodies in Piracicaba River and Paraopeba River basins, two important hydrographic basins in Brazil. Total manganese, dissolved iron, and fecal contamination indicator were considered the most relevant parameters for the characterization of water quality in the basins. The Peixe River, in Nova Era, and Pedras Creek, in Betim, were considered the most impacted water bodies in the Piracicaba River and Paraopeba River basins, respectively. The analysis of violations and the relative risk confirmed that both basins are subject to impacts resulting from economic activities. On comparing the relative risks, the Paraopeba River basin showed a higher risk of violation for 5-day biological oxygen demand (BOD5), total manganese, total phosphorus, total suspended solids, and turbidity, while the Piracicaba River basin showed a higher risk of violation for fecal contamination indicator. The release of domestic sewage and industrial effluents, mining activities, and diffuse pollution from agriculture and pasture areas were responsible for the surface water quality deterioration in these basins. The results show the need for investment in basic sanitation, improved treatment efficiency for industrial effluents, adequate soil management, riparian vegetation preservation, and environmental education actions.


Subject(s)
Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Water Quality , Brazil , Environmental Monitoring , Risk , Rivers
7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(3): 2547-2558, 2019 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30474809

ABSTRACT

Environmental pollution analysis should be present in scientific research. The more organized the environmental laws of a particular place, the smaller the risks imputed to the ecosystem. The environmental damages that irregular waste from industrial effluents can cause are notorious. However, Brazil lacks extensive legal regulation, which is an embryonic legal matter. There is no specific law regulating a National Industrial Effluent Policy, dealing with the treatment and final disposal of these chemical compounds. Until a solid legal structure has been formalized on the treatment and final disposal of industrial effluents in Brazil, it is necessary that scientific researches optimize techniques capable of causing lower environmental impacts, so as to avoid possible pollution to the bodies of water. This article defends the argument that it is possible to elaborate legislation on the treatment and final disposal of industrial effluents in Brazil, through the application of engineering techniques, specifically through numerical simulation, by using the discrete elements method or particles method. The present case study is the Camaçari Petrochemical Pole, state of Bahia, which is the largest integrated industrial complex in the Southern Hemisphere, composed of more than 90 companies in the chemical and petrochemical areas. All the effluents from this locality are treated by CETREL (Liquid Effluent Treatment Plant). Particle analysis was performed in CETREL tanks to illustrate how numerical simulations can be applied to investigate the treatment of industrial effluents and, consequently, to affirm the importance of developing procedures and norms for this matter. It is believed that this article brings relevant information to support a future law that regulates a Brazilian National Policy of Industrial Effluents.


Subject(s)
Waste Disposal, Fluid/legislation & jurisprudence , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Brazil , Ecosystem , Industrial Waste/analysis , Industrial Waste/legislation & jurisprudence , Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods
9.
Psicol. teor. prát ; 20(3): 198-215, Sept.-Dec. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-984892

ABSTRACT

This work is a systematic review of published articles in Psychology about traditional peoples and communities. We searched the database of the Virtual Health Library - Psychology in national periodical publications, which resulted in 444 articles. After inclusion/exclusion criteria, focusing on studies related to Psychology, ten articles remained. Most of them have empirical nature, using different designs, such as ethnography, action research, and documentary analysis, and interviewing as the main instrument for data collection. There has been a plurality of themes investigated, though in summary we could recognize situations involving territories expropriation due to development projects and environmental legislation, causing many impacts on communities' way of life. The small number of studies reveals the shortcomings in knowledge production in Psychology about traditional communities, representing a great challenge for the area.


Trata-se de um estudo de revisão sistemática dos artigos publicados na área de Psicologia acerca dos povos e comunidades tradicionais. Realizou-se busca na base de dados da Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde - Psicologia, em periódicos nacionais, que resultou em 444 artigos. Após os critérios de inclusão/exclusão, focalizando nos estudos que se relacionavam com a Psicologia, restaram dez artigos. A maioria é de natureza empírica, utilizou diversos delineamentos, como etnografia, pesquisa-ação e análise documental, e a entrevista como principal instrumento de coleta de dados. Houve uma pluralidade de temas investigados, mas, em síntese, há o reconhecimento de situações de expropriação dos territórios em razão de projetos desenvolvimentistas e da legislação ambiental, causando impactos diversos nos modos de vida das comunidades. O número pequeno de estudos encontrados revela as lacunas existentes na produção de conhecimento em Psicologia voltada para as comunidades tradicionais e, portanto, representa um grande desafio para a área.


Se trata de una revision sistemática de los artículos publicados en el área de Psicologia acerca de los pueblos y comunidades tradicionales. Se realizó una búsqueda en la base de datos de la BVS - Psicologia, en periódicos nacionales, que resultó en 444 artículos. Después de los criterios de inclusión/exclusión, quedaron diez artículos. La mayoría es de naturaleza empírica, utilizó diversos delineamientos, como etnografia, investigación-acción y análisis documental, y la entrevista como principal instrumento de recolección de datos. Hubo una pluralidad de temas investigados, pero, en síntesis, hay el reconocimiento de situaciones de expropiación de los territorios en razón de proyectos desarrollistas y de la legislación ambiental, causando impactos diversos en los modos de vida de las comunidades. El pequeno número de estudios revela las brechas existentes en la producción de conocimiento en Psicología orientada a las comunidades tradicionales, y por lo tanto representa un gran desafío para el área.


Subject(s)
Humans , Psychology , Population Groups , Scientific and Technical Activities , Systematic Review , Legislation, Environmental , Brazil , Demography , Environment
10.
Zootaxa ; 4500(1): 59-81, 2018 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30486077

ABSTRACT

Three new species of Collembola are described from small shallow caves in Southeastern Brazil: Arrhopalites glabrofasciatus sp. nov., Pseudosinella ambigua sp. nov. and Pseudosinella guanhaensis sp. nov. The species were found in surveys performed as part of the process to accomplish the permits for high impact enterprising. The change in the legislation is discussed and a suggestion is made to improve the process. The long term effects of the law resulted in the discovery of many new species and genera, most of them being (or to be) described.


Subject(s)
Arthropods , Caves , Animals , Brazil , Insecta
12.
Textos contextos (Porto Alegre) ; 17(2): 423-436, 2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-970170

ABSTRACT

Este artigo pretende apresentar, a partir da análise da legislação vigente no campo da construção de hidrelétricas no Brasil, os diferentes ângulos da banalização do sofrimento das populações atingidas por estas obras. A pesquisa qualitativa teve um delineamento exploratório-descritivo e se apoiou na técnica da análise documental. O estudo dos materiais foi orientado pelas seguintes questões: a) como o documento aborda o sofrimento das populações atingidas pela construção de hidrelétricas; b) quais são os elementos do documento que contribuem para a invisibilidade da injustiça e do sofrimento das populações atingidas pela construção de hidrelétricas? Destaca-se a invisibilidade das populações atingidas pelos grandes empreendimentos no contexto da legislação vigente, excluindo aspectos que vão do sofrimento até questões atreladas à saúde, trabalho, relações sociais e culturais. Em contrapartida, privilegiam-se normativas que garantem a comercialização dos recursos naturais e o direito dos consumidores.


This paper intends to show, based on analysis of current legislation regarding the construction of hydroelectric power plants in Brazil, the different perspectives of suffering trivialization of populations affected by these enterprises. The qualitative research had an exploratory-descriptive design of qualitative based on document analysis technique. The following questions guided the material analysis: a) how does the document address the suffering of populations affected by the construction of hydroelectric power plants; b) which document components increase the invisibility of injustice and suffering of populations affected by the construction of hydroelectric power plants? The invisibility of the populations affected by the big enterprises in current legislation is evidenced, since it excludes aspects ranging from suffering to health, working, social and cultural relation issues. On the other hand, it favors regulations that guarantee commercialization of natural resources and consumers rights.


Subject(s)
Impoundments/prevention & control , Hydroelectric Power Plants (Environmental Health)/prevention & control , Environment
13.
Estud. av ; 30(86): 51-66, 2016.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-786500

ABSTRACT

O artigo discute o conceito de moradia adequada, constatando que os indicadores utilizados no Brasil, embora adequados para o momento e o local, não cobrem todas as condições habitacionais para promover a saúde e o bem-estar dos moradores. Explicita a relação habitação-saúde através da análise de quatro dimensões: casa e doenças transmissíveis, casa e necessidades fisiológicas, casa e acidentes domésticos, casa e saúde mental. Utilizando informações do Censo de 2010 e estatísticas vitais de 2012, analisa as condições urbanas e domiciliares do município de São Paulo, observando que o padrão da mortalidade infantil e geral varia espacialmente. Finaliza o artigo com a descrição das condições ambientais das favelas paulistanas....


This paper discusses the concept of proper housing, showing that the indicators used in Brazil, although adequate for the time and place, do not cover all building conditions that promote health and well-being. It examines the relationship between health and housing by analyzing four dimensions: housing and transmissible diseases, housing and physiological needs, housing and domestic accidents, and housing and mental health. Using data from the 2010 Demographic Census and vital statistics for 2012, the article analyzes the environmental and urban conditions of the city of São Paulo, showing that infant and general mortality patterns vary spatially. The paper ends with a description of the environmental conditions of São Paulo's favelas (shantytowns)...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Basic Sanitation , Environmental Health , Environment , Environmental Policy , Health , Health Promotion , Housing , Household Work , Indicators and Reagents , Legislation, Environmental , Water Supply
14.
São Paulo; s.n; 2016. 147 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-871068

ABSTRACT

O pedido de licenciamento ambiental da ampliação do Porto de São Sebastião, no Estado de São Paulo, desencadeou diversas reações e protestos sociais, que culminaram na suspensão judicial da primeira licença por quase dois anos. Considerando o elevado índice de judicialização das obras de infraestrutura no Brasil, esta pesquisa selecionou o caso da expansão portuária no litoral norte paulista para investigar as possíveis causas que levaram o seu licenciamento ambiental à esfera judicial. Dada a complexidade e a origem multidisciplinar do problema, o estudo recorreu a subsídios teóricos do Direito, da Sociologia e das Ciências Políticas. No plano empírico, consultou-se o conteúdo disponível na mídia, na internet, em outros trabalhos acadêmicos e nos documentos oficiais. Também foram realizadas entrevistas com representantes das instituições que figuraram como autoras ou rés das ações judiciais. Ao final da dissertação, a análise dos resultados revelou outras causas para a judicialização, além daquelas oficialmente declaradas. Entre as causas não oficiais, observou-se que a dificuldade das partes para a construção de soluções negociadas foi agravada pela ausência de importantes atores governamentais na arena decisória. Houve ainda um excesso de expectativas em relação ao instrumento do licenciamento, possivelmente porque a proposta de ampliação portuária resultou de políticas públicas na área de transportes, e nas fases de formulação e definição destas políticas, não houve discussão pública sobre os aspectos negativos das obras, inclusive por parte dos mais diretamente afetados.


A petition for the environmental licensing to expand the Port of São Sebastião, in the State of São Paulo, caused several reactions and social protests, which resulted in judicially suspending the first license for almost two years. Considering the high levels of judicialization related to infrastructure projects in Brasil, this research selected the case of port expansion in São Paulo north shore, with the aim of exploring all the possible reasons that led to the environmental licensing to a judicial resolution. Due to the complexity and multidisciplinary origins of the problem, the study resorted to theoretical subsidies in Law; as well in Social and Political Sciences. From an empirical perspective, the contents of media releases, internet pages, studies and official documents. Interviews were also carried out with representatives of the institutions which were either authors or defendants in lawsuits. Ultimately, results indicated other kinds of causes for judicialization besides those officially declared. Among non official reasons, it had observed that the difficulty of building negotiated solutions was aggravated by the absence of important government actors in the decisive arena.


Subject(s)
Environmental Health , Judicial Decisions , Licensure , Public Policy , Brazil , Planning/policies
15.
Saúde Soc ; 24(4): 1208-1216, oct.-dic. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-770177

ABSTRACT

Este artigo apresenta um estudo de conflitos ambientais por água nos estados diretamente envolvidos e que se contextualizam no Projeto de Integração do Rio São Francisco, partindo de uma abordagem orientada pela determinação social da saúde envolvendo relações entre o uso de recursos naturais, dominação política e apropriação econômica que estão na base dos processos de injustiça ambiental. Procedeu-se a um estudo exploratório de caráter descritivo, observacional, transversal. A base de dados para a produção de informações foi a da Comissão Pastoral da Terra que monitora os conflitos por água. Tomou-se como a área de estudo os estados do Ceará, Paraíba, Pernambuco e Rio Grande do Norte. Caracterizou-se os conflitos segundo estados, situação do conflito e números de famílias afetadas. Verificou-se a existência de conflitos em todos os estados investigados, principalmente no Ceará e Pernambuco. Conclui-se que o projeto de transposição das águas do São Francisco agudiza conflitos ambientais envolvendo populações indígenas e outros grupos vulnerados radicados nos territórios e que reinvindicam o acesso e uso da água.


Abstract This article presents a study on the environmental conflicts over water in states directly involved in the context of the Integration Project of the San Francisco River in Northeastern Brazil. It is based on an approach guided by the social determination of health involving the relationships between the use of natural resources, political domination and economic ownership that underlie the processes of environmental injustice. A transversal, descriptive, and observational study was carried out. The database from the Pastoral Land Commission-which monitors conflicts over water-was used as a source of information. The states of Ceará, Paraíba, Pernambuco and Rio Grande do Norte were chosen as scope for the study. The conflicts were characterized according to state, status and the number of affected families. We observed that conflicts existed in all states studied, but especially in Ceará and Pernambuco. We, thus, concluded that the water transposition project for the São Francisco river worsens environmental conflicts involving indigenous populations and others vulnerable groups rooted in the territories that demand access to the water.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Water Supply , Conflict of Interest , Conservation of Natural Resources/legislation & jurisprudence , Water Consumption (Environmental Health) , Water Demand , Environmental Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Legislation, Environmental , Indigenous Peoples , Vulnerable Populations , Violence
16.
São Paulo; s.n; 2015. 174 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-782187

ABSTRACT

Construído nos primeiros anos do século XX, o Reservatório do Guarapiranga, apesar de ter sido pensado e concebido com vistas a produção energética, devido a uma conjunção de fatores, logo teve o uso de suas águas destinado ao abastecimento da população paulistana. Apesar disso, praticamente desde sua construção, a bacia do Guarapiranga sofre pressão pela ocupação de suas margens. Tal ocupação, especialmente a ocorrida a partir da década de 1960 com a extrema expansão da mancha urbana da metrópole, impactou negativamente a qualidade das águas, tanto dos rios e córregos, quanto do próprio reservatório. Para o combate desses impactos, foi instituída a Lei de Proteção aos Mananciais da década de 1970, que criou severas restrições à ocupação da bacia na tentativa de se equilibrar o uso do solo à função de produção hídrica a que a bacia estava sujeita. A legislação, entretanto, não conseguiu atingir seus objetivos sendo a área da bacia cada vez mais ocupada. No início da década de 1990, ocorreu uma revisão do instrumento legal (Lei nº 9866/97), assumindo a irreversibilidade da ocupação da bacia e prevendo não apenas a proteção da área, mas também sua recuperação, utilizando, para tanto, mecanismos adequados à nova situação político-administrativa a que o país estava inserido. Nesse contexto nasceu a Lei Específica da Bacia Hidrográfica do Guarapiranga (Lei nº 12233/06), instrumento legal vinculado à legislação de proteção dos mananciais da década de 1990. Esta Lei é relativamente recente e trata especificamente da bacia hidrográfica em questão, trazendo em seu texto alguns instrumentos inovadores para a gestão compartilhada e participativa do seu território...


Initially created for energy production in the first years of the 20th century, the Guarapiranga reservoir soon became water supply for the population of São Paulo. Although the area should be protected, since its creation the Guarapiranga basin has been pressured by the human occupation of its margins. This occupation, intensified in the 1960s as the urban sprawl of the metropolis expanded, negatively impacted on the quality of the waters of the rivers, streams and the reservoir itself. In order to oppose this impact, the Law of Watershed Protection was created in the 1970s, establishing strict restrictions to human occupation in the basin area, in an attempt to balance the land use and the water production. The law, however, did not prevent the land occupation. In the early 1990s the law was reviewed (law number 9866/97), admitting the irreversibility of the basin occupation and foreseeing not only the protection of the area but also its recuperation making use of the new political situation of the country. In that context the Specific Law of the Guarapiranga Hydrographic Basin was created, based on the 1990s watershed protection legislation. This law is relatively new and brings some innovative instruments to a shared and participative management of its limits...


Subject(s)
Humans , Conservation of Natural Resources , Hydrographic Basins , Land Use , Law Enforcement , Legislation, Environmental , Protected Springs/legislation & jurisprudence , Brazil , Water Resources , Water Supply
17.
Cien Saude Colet ; 19(10): 4011-22, 2014 Oct.
Article in Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25272110

ABSTRACT

The dialogue of knowledge between subsistence fishermen and shellfish gatherers on the right to a healthy working environment is established as a new process for claims for an improvement in working conditions by populations affected by environmental problems, and especially in Todos os Santos Bay (BTS). The communities surrounding the BTS have complained to the State Public Prosecutor about the harmful effects to health and the environment caused by the Aratu Industrial Complex and the Port of Aratu. Researchers in the fields of, chemistry, toxicology, oceanography, biology and medicine from the Federal University of Bahia (UFBA) have demonstrated the effects of contamination on the BTS in sundry scientific publications. The scope of this article is to reflect on the contribution of that dialogue on environmental labor law (DAT) in Brazil. The methodology of this study involved semi-structured interviews, participant observation and document analysis. The conclusion reached is that environmental labor law in Brazil must include the dialogue of knowledge to ensure access to a healthy working environment for subsistence fishermen and shellfish gatherers.


Subject(s)
Environmental Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Environmental Pollution/legislation & jurisprudence , Fisheries/legislation & jurisprudence , Occupational Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Animals , Brazil , Fishes , Shellfish
18.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 19(10): 4011-4022, nov. 2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-722754

ABSTRACT

O diálogo de saberes entre pescadores artesanais e marisqueiras sobre o direito a um meio ambiente de trabalho saudável se estabelece como um novo processo de reivindicação para as melhorias das condições de trabalho de populações afetadas por problemas ambientais em geral, e especialmente na Baía de Todos os Santos (BTS). As comunidades do entorno da BTS queixam-se ao Ministério Público Estadual dos efeitos danosos à saúde e ao ambiente das indústrias instaladas no Centro Industrial de Aratu e Porto de Aratu. Diversos pesquisadores das áreas de química, toxicologia, oceanografia, biologia e medicina da Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA) vêm aprofundando estudos sobre os efeitos da contaminação da BTS em variadas publicações científicas. O objetivo deste artigo é refletir sobre a contribuição desse diálogo na área do direito ambiental do trabalho (DAT) no Brasil. A metodologia deste estudo envolveu entrevistas semiestruturada, observação participante, análise documental. Conclui-se que legislação ambientalista/trabalhista do Brasil necessita incluir o diálogo de saberes para garantir o acesso a um meio ambiente de trabalho saudável para pescadores artesanais e marisqueiras.


The dialogue of knowledge between subsistence fishermen and shellfish gatherers on the right to a healthy working environment is established as a new process for claims for an improvement in working conditions by populations affected by environmental problems, and especially in Todos os Santos Bay (BTS). The communities surrounding the BTS have complained to the State Public Prosecutor about the harmful effects to health and the environment caused by the Aratu Industrial Complex and the Port of Aratu. Researchers in the fields of, chemistry, toxicology, oceanography, biology and medicine from the Federal University of Bahia (UFBA) have demonstrated the effects of contamination on the BTS in sundry scientific publications. The scope of this article is to reflect on the contribution of that dialogue on environmental labor law (DAT) in Brazil. The methodology of this study involved semi-structured interviews, participant observation and document analysis. The conclusion reached is that environmental labor law in Brazil must include the dialogue of knowledge to ensure access to a healthy working environment for subsistence fishermen and shellfish gatherers.


Subject(s)
Animals , Environmental Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Environmental Pollution/legislation & jurisprudence , Fisheries/legislation & jurisprudence , Occupational Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Brazil , Fishes , Shellfish
19.
Salvador; s.n; 2014. 145 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1000927

ABSTRACT

A presente dissertação versa sobre os motivos e os meios capazes de tornar factível a abolição do uso de animais em experimentação. A existência de grupos contrários à exploração dos animais em pesquisa é secular, mas ao considerar aspectos jurídicos e morais vigentes, e relacioná-los aos verdadeiros interesses que movem a prática vê-se a possibilidade de abolir a escravização de animais no Brasil com fulcro na Constituição Federal e na Lei de Crimes Ambientais. O argumento principal se funda no braço da Carta Magna que protege a vida animal e em dispositivo legal ambiental que admite a experimentação apenas quando da não existência de recursos alternativos. Verificar-se-á que determinada lei inconstitucional e seu decreto regulamentador, contrários aos avanços da nova compreensão trazida pela Lei Maior buscam dissolver os dispositivos protetivos e resguardar a referida atividade experimental, a qual impõe inúmeros sofrimentos aos animais. Conceitos como crueldade aos animais, benefício humano, recursos alternativos, bem-estar animal, morte humanitária, promoção à saúde, prevenção de doenças, doenças negligenciadas dentre outros igualmente importantes à percepção dos interesses econômicos que envolvem a prática da experimentação animal serão averiguados, a fim de permitir uma melhor compreensão das regras legais e morais, de modo a alargar o alcance da justiça que assim poderá ser concretizada, protegendo efetivamente animais humanos e não humanos.


This dissertation deals with the reasons and the means capable of making feasible the abolition of animal use in experimentation. The existence of groups against the animals use in research is secular, but when considering prevailing legal and moral aspects and relate them to the real interests that moves the practice to see the possibility of abolish the enslavement of animals in Brazil with the fulcrum Federal Constitution and the Law of Environmental Crimes. The main argument is based on the Magna Carta that protects the animal life, and environmental legal provision which allows the trial only when the absence of alternative resources. Will be examined that unconstitutional law and its regulatory, contrary to advances in new understanding brought by Major Law decree seeking to dissolve the protective devices and safeguard the experimental activity, which imposes countless suffering to animals. Concepts such as cruelty to animals, human benefit, alternative resources, animal welfare, humane death, health promotion, disease prevention, neglected diseases among others equally important to the perception of the economic interests that involves the practice of animal experimentation will be investigated, to enable a better understanding of the legal and moral rules, to extend the reach of justice, so that can take place effectively protecting human and nonhuman animals.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals , Animal Experimentation/statistics & numerical data , Animal Experimentation/ethics , Animal Experimentation/legislation & jurisprudence , Animal Experimentation/standards
20.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 43(4): 1242-1254, Oct.-Dec. 2012.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-665805

ABSTRACT

The importance and protection of mangrove ecosystems has been recognized in Brazilian Federal law since 1965. Being protected in law, however, has not always guaranteed their protection in practice. Mangroves are found in coastal and estuarine locations, which are prime real estate for the growth of cities, ports and other economic activities important for Brazilian development. In this mini-review we introduce what mangroves are and why they are so important. We give a brief overview of the microbial diversity found in mangrove sediments and then focus on diversity studies from Brazilian mangroves. We highlight the breadth and depth of knowledge about mangrove microbial communities gained from studying Brazilian mangroves. We report on the exciting findings of molecular microbial ecology methods that have been very successfully applied to study bacterial communities. We note that there have been fewer studies that focus on fungal communities and that fungal diversity studies deserve more attention. The review ends with a look at how a combination of new molecular biology methods and isolation studies are being developed to monitor and conserve mangrove ecosystems and their associated microbial communities. These recent studies are having a global impact and we hope they will help to protect and re-establish mangrove ecosystems.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biodiversity , Coasts/legislation & jurisprudence , Ecosystem , Legislation, Environmental , Wetlands/legislation & jurisprudence , Ecology , Methodology as a Subject , Nature
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