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1.
Antibodies (Basel) ; 13(1)2024 Mar 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38534210

ABSTRACT

Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is a very aggressive malignant neoplasm of the biliary tract with a poor prognosis. There are no specific therapies for the treatment of GBC or early diagnosis tools; for this reason, the development of strategies and technologies that facilitate or allow an early diagnosis of GBC continues to be decisive. Phage display is a robust technique used for the production of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) involving (1) the generation of gene libraries, (2) the screening and selection of isoforms related to an immobilized antigen, and (3) the in vitro maturation of the affinity of the antibody for the antigen. This research aimed to construct a human immune library from PBMCs of GBC patients and the isolation of scFv-phage clones with specificity against the larger extracellular loop belonging to claudin 18.2, which is an important biomarker overexpressed in GBC as well as gastric cancer. The immune-library-denominated GALLBLA1 was constructed from seven GBC patients and has a diversity of 6.12 × 1010pfu mL-1. After three rounds of panning, we were able to identify clones with specificity against claudin 18.2. GALLBLA1 can contribute to the selection, isolation, and recombinant production of new human mAbs candidates for the treatment of gastrointestinal cancers.

2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 17(12): e0011813, 2023 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38064500

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an endemic disease in southern Chile. The aim of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of CE among relatives of patients who underwent surgical intervention for this disease in Cautín, a province of southern Chile. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cross-sectional study. Relatives of patients who underwent surgery for hepatic echinococcosis (HE), who lived at the same address, during the period 2000-2020 were studied. A total of 288 relatives of 322 patients who underwent surgery for HE participated in a CE screening. All these relatives were interviewed and underwent abdominal ultrasonography, chest X-ray and immunodiagnostic studies (relatives who had been diagnosed with or had undergone surgery for CE were excluded). Descriptive statistics were applied. Prevalence calculation, odds ratio (OR), and their respective 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were determined. Abdominal or thoracic CE was verified in 42 relatives of subjects operated on for HE (mean age 41±8 years; 73.8% women; 38.1% of cases had two or more cysts), all of them new and asymptomatic cases. CE was detected in the lungs, liver, peritoneum, and spleen in 16.7%; 71.4%; 7.1%; and 4.8%, respectively. The overall prevalence of EQ during the studied time period was 14,6% (17.9% and 12.3% in relatives of first and second degree respectively (OR:1.56; CI 95%: 0.81; 3.01). CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: There is a high prevalence of CE in relatives of patients undergoing surgery by this disease in the province of Cautín, Chile.


Subject(s)
Echinococcosis, Hepatic , Echinococcosis , Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Male , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/diagnostic imaging , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/epidemiology , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/surgery , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Echinococcosis/epidemiology , Echinococcosis/surgery , Echinococcosis/diagnosis
3.
Injury ; 54 Suppl 6: 110806, 2023 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38143131

ABSTRACT

Type I Young and Burgess anterior posterior compression (APC) pelvic injuries have been classically managed non operatively due to theoretical integrity of sacroiliac joint ligaments (SIJL), though examination under anesthesia (EUA) has been proven occult mechanical instability in up to 50% of these injuries.  We sought to determine the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance (MRI) for detection of occult instability on APC-I injuries when compared to EUA. METHODS: Diagnostic test study of prospectively recruited patients admitted with APC-I pelvic injuries between 2015 and 2022. All patients consented to participate in this study were subjected to MRI and EUA. The evaluators of each of these tests were blinded.  On MRI evaluation, SIJL were considered compromised when unilateral injury to anterior SIJL was visualized in three or more consecutive images or in bilateral injuries, when injury to the anterior SIJL in two or more consecutive images on each side was observed. Positive EUA was considered a symphyseal diastasis over 25 mm on stress fluoroscopy. Demographic data was collected as recruited and sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated. Confidence interval was set at 95%. EUA was considered the gold standard in statistical analysis. RESULTS: A total of 32 patients mean aged 36 (24-61) years were included. Mean symphyseal diastasis at admission was 17.58 (11 - 25) mm. The median time from injury to EUA was 5 (0-21) days. Positive EUA was observed on 20 patients and 25 patients  presented compromised SIJL. MRI presented a sensitivity of 95% (75.13% - 99.87%), specificity of 50% (21.09% - 78.91%), positive-predictive value of 73% (60.61% to 82.93%), negative-predictive value of 87% (48.66% - 98.08%). CONCLUSION: Injury to SIJL on MRI presented an accuracy of 77% (58.29% - 89.64%) for the detection of occult pelvic instability on EUA.


Subject(s)
Fractures, Bone , Pelvic Bones , Humans , Adult , Pelvis , Sacroiliac Joint/diagnostic imaging , Sacroiliac Joint/surgery , Ligaments, Articular , Predictive Value of Tests , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Pelvic Bones/injuries , Fractures, Bone/surgery
4.
Biomedicines ; 11(7)2023 Jul 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37509725

ABSTRACT

Cancer is one of the leading global causes of death and disease, and treatment options are constantly evolving. In this sense, the use of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in immunotherapy has been considered a fundamental aspect of modern cancer therapy. In order to avoid collateral damage, it is indispensable to identify specific molecular targets or biomarkers of therapy and/or diagnosis (theragnostic) when designing an appropriate immunotherapeutic regimen for any type of cancer. Furthermore, it is important to understand the currently employed mAbs in immunotherapy and their mechanisms of action in combating cancer. To achieve this, a comprehensive understanding of the biology of cancer cell antigens, domains, and functions is necessary, including both those presently utilized and those emerging as potential targets for the design of new mAbs in cancer treatment. This review aims to provide a description of the therapeutic targets utilized in cancer immunotherapy over the past 5 years, as well as emerging targets that hold promise as potential therapeutic options in the application of mAbs for immunotherapy. Additionally, the review explores the mechanisms of actin of the currently employed mAbs in immunotherapy.

5.
MethodsX ; 11: 102287, 2023 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37519947

ABSTRACT

A methodology is proposed to achieve an effective quantification of the element Calcium in soil samples, using a portable X-ray Fluorescence (pXRF) equipment. The protocol began by preparing two ideal matrices using an increasing mass, measured on an analytical balance, of Calcium and Sodium Nitrate as binder. It is the Gravimetric technique. In both samples the fluorescent emission line of the element Calcium was calibrated using an standard reference material 1400 boneash. The validation of ideal samples of the element Calcium using the XRF technique with respect to AAS as an experimental standard, using linear correlation methods, to estimate from statistical inference the real concentration of the analyte, allowed us to appreciate that both approaches remain above the standard curve provided by AAS, with a value of 1.8 and 1.68, respectively. Which means that the tendency to evaluate Calcium samples by XRF are overestimated with respect to the curve provided by AAS. Since the last correlation coefficient is very close to 1.0 and its statistical inference equation is precisely known, the authors of this work propose to apply quantification protocol to real sediment samples.•A methodology is proposed to achieve an effective quantification of the element Calcium in soil samples, using a portable X-ray Fluorescence (pXRF) equipment•The validation of ideal samples of the element Calcium using the XRF technique with respect to AAS as an experimental standard, using linear correlation methods•This work pretend to resolve another weakness by the portable system and is that the number of accounts provided by conventional XRF are not consistent with a% w/w of analyte.

6.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2672: 225-231, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37335479

ABSTRACT

Silver nitrate staining to evidence the location of nucleolar organizer regions (Ag-NORs) in chromosomes is widely used as a classical method in plant cytogenetics. Here, we present the most used procedures and highlight some aspects in terms of their replicability by plant cytogeneticists. Some technical features described are materials and methods used, procedures, protocol modifications, and precautions in order to obtain positive signals. The methods to obtain Ag-NOR signals have different degrees of replicability, but do not require any sophisticated technology or equipment for their application.


Subject(s)
Chromosomes, Plant , Nucleolus Organizer Region , Nucleolus Organizer Region/genetics , Silver Staining , Chromosomes, Plant/genetics , Staining and Labeling , Chromosomes , Cytogenetics , Silver Nitrate
7.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2)abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440317

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus), is a tapeworm that spreads between intermediate and definitive hosts through the ingestion of fecal matter contaminated with the parasite's eggs. The life cycle consists of differentiation from eggs to oncospheres to embryos, which eventually form cysts in organs like the liver, lungs and others. Within these cysts are protoscolices, an intermediate stage of the parasite which develop into adult tapeworms once they infect their definitive hosts. When these hydatid cysts form in humans, it is known as Cystic Echinococcosis (CE). This disease is treated through surgical excision of the cysts and or chemotherapy with benzimidazole compounds. Understanding the morphology of the intermediate developmental stage of E. granulosus, protoscolex stage, can allow researchers to identify defining structural changes and protein functions that could be used to develop treatment modalities for CE. Unique characteristics in the tegumental surface during the protoescolex stage and proteins associated with cyst fertility have all been identified in previous research studies and bring researchers closer to understanding the underlying mechanisms of E. granulosus development, and consequently, means to disrupt it to achieve better control of the disease.


El Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus), es un cestodo que se propaga entre huéspedes intermedios y definitivos a través de la ingestión de materia fecal contaminada con los huevos del parásito. El ciclo de vida consiste en la diferenciación de huevos a oncosferas y embriones, que finalmente forman quistes en órganos como el hígado, los pulmones y otros. Dentro de estos quistes hay protoescólices, una etapa intermedia del parásito que se convierte en su forma adulta (tenia), una vez que infectan a sus huéspedes definitivos. Cuando estos quistes hidatídicos se desarrollan en seres humanos, se les conoce como equinococosis quística (EC). Esta enfermedad se trata mediante la extirpación quirúrgica de los quistes o la quimioterapia con compuestos benzimidazólicos. La comprensión de la morfología de la etapa de desarrollo intermedia del E. granulosus y la etapa de protosclex, puede permitir a los investigadores identificar cambios estructurales definidos y funciones de proteínas que podrían usarse para desarrollar modalidades de tratamiento para la CE. Las características únicas en la superficie tegumentaria durante la etapa de protoescolex y las proteínas asociadas con la fertilidad del quiste se han identificado en estudios de investigación anteriores y acercan a los investigadores a la comprensión de los mecanismos subyacentes del desarrollo del E. granulosus y, en consecuencia, los medios para interrumpirlo para lograr un mejor control de la enfermedad.


Subject(s)
Animals , Echinococcus granulosus/anatomy & histology , Echinococcus granulosus/growth & development , Echinococcus granulosus/pathogenicity , Echinococcosis
8.
Heliyon ; 9(1): e12749, 2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36685435

ABSTRACT

Free-floating bike-sharing systems can have a positive influence on the mobility of urban centers and developing efficient localization strategies is crucial to avoid crowding at peak times and increase service availability. Our study aims to efficiently resolve the location of virtual bike stations in a Latin American city through a geospatial data wrangling methodology that allows us to respond opportunely to the potential demand forecasted for the city. This approach is implemented in Python, and it uses the Geopandas and LocalSolver libraries to determine locations for the virtual bike stations that maximize the system coverage. The decision-making process is supported by a binary integer mathematical programming model, and the instances are built from intercity travel surveys that provide realistic data based on travel demand. The developed decision support system prototype provides a recommendation about where virtual bike stations should be located during peak hours and improve general availability by more than 37%. Moreover, when the system's users participate in the relocation of bicycles, the model can eliminate up to 80% of the CO2 emissions and nearly 50% of the operational costs associated with the relocation process.

9.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(6): 1630-1640, dic. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421802

ABSTRACT

La equinococosis quística (EQ) a pesar de ser una enfermedad endémica en diversos lugares del planeta, presenta pocos estudios morfológicos y cuantitativos de las estructuras fundamentales del Echinococcus granulosus en humanos, en especial de los protoescólices. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar morfocuantitativamente protoescólices y otras estructuras fundamentales de E. granulosus obtenidos de hospederos humanos. Estudio de corte transversal. Se estudiaron 8 especímenes de EQ hepática humana, aplicando un muestreo no probabilístico por conveniencia. Se evaluó las capas quísticas, el líquido y la arenilla hidatídica. Las capas fueron fijadas en formaldehido tamponado a 10 % y procesadas para su inclusión en paraplast. Se realizaron cortes de 5 µm de grosor y fueron teñidas con H-E para su análisis con microscopía óptica. El líquido y arenilla fueron centrifugados y al sedimento obtenido se le realizó análisis directo para determinar las medidas morfométricas de los protoescólices y de los ganchos grandes y pequeños. Se utilizó estadística descriptiva. De los 8 quistes estudiados, 6 eran quistes univesicular, uno multivesicular y un quiste abscedado, cuyas capas laminada y germinativa se encontraban bien definidas. Las vesículas prolígeras presentaban forma redondeada con protoescólices en su interior. Los protoescólices invaginados presentaron un largo y ancho promedio de 140,8 ± 34,3 µm y 106,2 ± 29,5 µm, respectivamente; y los desarrollados un largo de 237,2 ± 53,0 µm y ancho de 128,7 ± 32,0 µm. Los ganchos rostelares presentaron contornos suaves distribuidos en dos filas regulares. El promedio del largo total de los ganchos grandes y pequeños fue 20,1 ± 2,7 µm; el promedio del ancho total fue 7,4 ± 1,2 µm. En conclusión, las características morfocuantitativas de los ganchos de E. granulosus en humanos, son distintos a otras especies hospederas intermediarias y de otros Echinococcus spp. Es posible que el abandono del estado de resistencia de los protoescólices invaginado hasta su desarrollo genere implicancias epidemiológicas de interés.


SUMMARY: Although cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an endemic disease in several parts of the world, few morphological and quantitative studies of the fundamental structures of Echinococcus granulosus in humans, especially protoscolices. The aim of this study was to perform a morphoquantitative analysis of protoescolex and other fundamental structures of E. granulosus from human hosts. Cross- sectional study. Eight human hepatic EQ specimens were studied, applying non-probabilistic convenience sampling. Cystic layers, fluid and hydatid grit were evaluated. The layers were fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde and processed for embedding in paraplast. Slices of 5 µm thickness were made and stained with H-E for light microscopic analysis. The liquid and grit were centrifuged and the sediment obtained was analyzed directly to determine the morphometric measurements of the protoscolices and the large and small hooks. Descriptive statistics were used. Of the 8 cysts studied, 6 were univesicular cysts, one multivesicular and one abscessed cyst, whose lamellar and germinative layers were well defined. The proligerous vesicles had a rounded shape with protoscolices inside. The invaginated protoscolices had an average length and width of 140.8 ± 34.3 µm and 106.2 ± 29.5 µm, respectively; and the developed ones had a length of 237.2 ± 53.0 µm and width of 128.7 ± 32.0 µm. The rostellar hooks presented smooth contours distributed in two regular rows. The average total length of the large and small hooks was 20.1 ± 2.7 µm; the average total width was 7.4 ± 1.2 µm. In conclusion, the morphoquantitative characteristics of E. granulosus hooks in humans are distinct from other intermediate host species and from other Echinococcus spp. It is possible that the abandonment of the resistance state of the invaginated protoscolices until their development generates epidemiological implications of interest.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Echinococcus granulosus/anatomy & histology , Echinococcosis/parasitology , Cross-Sectional Studies
10.
Polymers (Basel) ; 14(12)2022 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35746026

ABSTRACT

Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) displays ice recrystallization inhibition (IRI) properties as many antifreeze proteins found in cold tolerant organisms. The molecular architecture and composition (molecular weight and distribution of pendant OH and acetate groups) have been studied to improve the antifreezing properties of PVA, suggesting that the molecular architecture of PVA plays an important role in IRI activity. The present work deals with the preparation of PVA microparticles using an alkaline treatment. The effect of PVA molecular weight on the morphology and antifreezeing properties of PVA microparticles was investigated. The antifreezeing property of PVA microparticles on the susceptibility of flower bud tissues to freeze damage was also evaluated. The alkaline treatment of an aqueous PVA solution produced stable polymer chain aggregates with spherical shapes. The average size of the PVA microparticles increased significantly with the increasing molecular weight of the PVA macromolecule precursor. The PVA microparticles inhibited the growth of ice crystals and blocked ice growth at concentrations as low as 0.01 % w/v. The effect of impeding ice crystal growth by preventing the joining of adjacent ice crystals is attributed to the larger size of the PVA particles adsorbed on the ice surface compared to the aggregated PVA macromolecules in saline solution. The thermal hysteresis activity of PVA macromolecules and microparticles was not detected by differential scanning calorimetry analysis. The PVA microparticles reduced the incidence of freeze injuries in flower bud tissues by 55% and their application, considering the low toxicity of PVA, has a high potential for freeze protection in fruit crops.

11.
Acta Parasitol ; 67(1): 161-185, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264444

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to develop a synthesis of the evidence available regarding verified E. granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) genotypes in different species worldwide. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A systematic review was performed including studies concerning genotypes of E. granulosus s.l. without language or genotyped method restriction, published between 1990 and 2020. A systematic search was carried out in Trip Database, BIREME, SciELO, LILACS, IBECS, PAHO-WHO, EMBASE, PubMed, Scopus, and WoS. Variables of interest were year of publication, country, number of samples, and hosts; genotypes, molecular marker, haplotypes and molecular biology techniques used. Descriptive statistics were applied. RESULTS: 2411 articles were analyzed, however 135 met the selection criteria, representing 8643 liver and lung samples. Of the samples selected 24% were human, the remaining samples pertained to non-human animal hosts; cattle and sheep prevailed with 28.6% and 26.6% of the studied samples, respectively. The reported evidence is mainly from Iran, Turkey, Argentina, China and Chile; with 50, 11, 6, 6 and 5 studies, respectively, published between 1992 and 2020 [most frequently during 2015-2020 (76/135 studies; 56.3%)]. The mitochondrial gene cox1 was generally sequenced and informative (91.8%). Genotypes most frequently identified were E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) (83.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Based on this overall evidence, it can be concluded that publications related to genotypes of E. granulosus s.l. are heterogeneous. E. granulosus ss accounts for the vast majority of the global burden of E. granulosus s.l. worldwide. Further studies including larger number of cases and adequate internal validity are required to specify the distribution of genotypes in various host species. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42018099827.


Subject(s)
Echinococcosis , Echinococcus granulosus , Animals , Cattle , Echinococcosis/parasitology , Echinococcosis/veterinary , Echinococcus granulosus/genetics , Genes, Mitochondrial , Genotype , Humans , Sheep
12.
Cureus ; 14(12): e32101, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36601154

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Type I lateral compression pelvic fractures (LC-I) have historically been treated conservatively. Inferior outcomes in a distinctive subset of these injuries have been reported, therefore their management has shifted towards surgery. Revisiting the historical series of LC-I allows us to determine whether non-operative management of these unstable patterns results in poorer outcomes. The objective was to evaluate the differences in the rehabilitation progress, fracture consolidation, and displacement in non-operatively treated LC-I fractures that would be considered unstable using today's Association of Osteosynthesis (AO) criteria. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of conservatively treated LC-I injuries in a single-level I trauma center between June 2010 and June 2014. Patients were distributed in stable (group A) and unstable (group B) groups according to the 2018 AO classification. Time to walk independently (TWI), time to return to work (TRW), fracture consolidation, and displacement were analyzed. RESULTS: 34 patients, mean age of 45.5 ±14.5 years, were included. Mean TWI in groups A and B were 71.2 ±31.9 and 105.9 ±50.9 days (p=0.027). Mean TRW was 106 ±51.3 and 157 ±84 days in groups A and B, respectively (p=0.038). A difference in mean TWI and TRW of 34.7 and 51.3 days between groups was observed. No significant differences in fracture consolidation or displacement were observed. CONCLUSION: Unstable fractures presented significantly longer TWI and TRW. The revised AO classification contributes to the identification of fracture patterns that correlate with prolonged rehabilitation in which additional treatment strategies might be considered.

13.
South Am J Herpetol, v. 24, n. 1, p. 1-10, ago. 2022
Article in English | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IBPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: bud-4517

ABSTRACT

We describe the seasonal variation in the male reproductive cycle of Bothrops pubescens, a pitviper from southern Brazil. All specimens were collected in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, a region with climates varying from subtropical to subtemperate and temperate. We characterized male reproduction considering histological analyses of the testes, sexual segment of the kidneys (SSK), and ductus deferens, as well as macroscopic indicators of reproductive activity (testes volume and ductus deferens width in the distal portion) to allow comparisons. We also evaluated the seasonal variation of epithelial height and tubule diameter of the testes and SSK. These reproductive parameters showed significant seasonal variation, with a high increase in summer and a peak in autumn for spermatogenic and SSK activity. Courtship behavior occurs on March (end of summer/beginning of autumn), in synchrony with sperm production and SSK hypertrophy. Sperm storage occurred in the ductus deferens throughout the year. We detected an ampulla ductus deferentis in the distal portion of the ductus deferens in some individuals. Male B. pubescens exhibit a seasonal reproductive cycle, and the use of microscopic methods was highly informative for supporting this conclusion.


Nós descrevemos a variação sazonal no ciclo reprodutivo de Bothrops pubescens, uma espécie de serpente da subfamília Crotalinae, da região Sul do Brasil. Os machos foram amostrados no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, que é uma região com climas variando de subtropical a subtemperado e temperado. Os ciclos dos testículos, segmento sexual renal (SSR) e ducto deferente foram caracterizados utilizando análises histológicas para descrever o ciclo reprodutivo dos machos. Nós também avaliamos indicadores macroscópicos da atividade reprodutiva (volume do testículo e largura do ducto deferente na região distal) para fins de comparação. Considerando os dados histológicos, foram avaliadas as variações sazonais da altura do epitélio e diâmetro dos túbulos tanto dos testículos quanto do SSR. Estes parâmetros reprodutivos apresentaram variação sazonal significativa, com grande aumento no verão e pico no outono, tanto para a atividade espermatogênica quanto para o SSR. Corte em vida livre ocorre em março (fim do verão/início do outono), em sincronia com a produção de esperma e a hipertrofia do SSR. Estocagem de esperma ocorreu no ducto deferente ao longo do ano. A ampulla ductus deferentis foi observada na porção distal do ducto deferente de alguns indivíduos. O ciclo reprodutivo dos machos de B. pubescens é sazonal e o uso de métodos microscópicos foi essencial para chegar a esta conclusão.

14.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 16(1): 661, 2021 Nov 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742331

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Failure of fixation (FF) in pubic symphysis diastasis (SD) ranges between 12 and 75%, though whether it influences functional outcomes is still debated. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of anterior pelvic plate failure and loss of reduction on Majeed's functional scores. METHODS: Single center retrospective review of consecutive patients with acute SD treated by means of anterior pubic plating. Thirty-seven patients with a mean age 45.7 ± 14.4 years were included. Demographics, AO classification, pelvic fixation and secondary procedures were recorded. Majeed's functional scores at minimum 6 months follow-up were compared according to the presence of FF and loss of reduction. RESULTS: Fifteen patients presented FF. Eight presented an additional loss of symphyseal reduction. Mean Majeed´s score (MMS) in patients with and without FF was 64.4 ± 13.04 and 81.8 ± 15.65, respectively (p = 0.0012). Differences in MMS in patients without FF and those with FF and maintained or loss of anterior reduction were 11.3 [70.5 vs 81.8] (p = 0.092) and 22.7 [59.1 vs 81.8] (p = 0.001), respectively. Significant association of FF with AO classification was noted. (OR 12.6; p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Differences in MMS in the analyzed groups suggest that loss of reduction might be more relevant than failure of the anterior osteosynthesis in functional outcomes.


Subject(s)
Fractures, Bone , Pelvic Bones , Pubic Symphysis Diastasis , Pubic Symphysis , Adult , Bone Plates , Fracture Fixation, Internal , Humans , Middle Aged , Pelvic Bones/diagnostic imaging , Pelvic Bones/surgery , Pubic Symphysis/diagnostic imaging , Pubic Symphysis/surgery , Pubic Symphysis Diastasis/diagnostic imaging , Pubic Symphysis Diastasis/epidemiology , Pubic Symphysis Diastasis/surgery , Retrospective Studies
15.
Front Genet ; 12: 640956, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34616421

ABSTRACT

Characterization of allelic variants is relevant to demonstrate associations among genetic background and susceptibility to develop cardiovascular diseases, which are the main cause of death in Chile. Association of APOB, APOE, and MTHFR polymorphisms with higher lipid levels and the risk of developing hypertension and cardiovascular diseases have been described. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess genotype distribution and relative allelic frequency of ApoB rs693, ApoE rs7412, ApoE rs429358, MTHFR rs1801131, and MTHFR rs1801133 allelic variants and their effects on lipid profile in young healthy men and women from Northern Chile. A group of 193 healthy subjects were enrolled for this study. Genotyping of rs693 (APOB), rs7412 and rs429358 (APOE), and rs1801131 and rs1801133 (MTHFR) polymorphisms were performed by real time PCR. In addition, lipid profiles were determined and associated to genetic data. The genotype distribution was APOB rs693 (CC = 37%, CT = 41%, and TT = 22%), APOE rs7412/rs429358 (E4 = 0.06, E3 = 0.91, and E2 = 0.03), MTHFR rs1801131 (AA = 57%, AC = 30%, and CC = 13%), and MTHFR rs1801133 (CC = 20%, CT = 47%, and TT = 33%). The association of the genetic variants with plasma lipid levels showed that women, but not men, carrying APOB mutated allele (T) and Apo E4 allele presented lower values of total cholesterol when compared with C/C homozygous genotype or E3 allele, respectively (p < 0.05). In addition, a subgroup analysis revealed that ApoB C/C homozygous women exhibited higher values of HDL-C when compared with men carrying identical genotype (p < 0.01). On the other hand, women carrying E4 allele exhibited lower values of triglycerides when compared with male carrying identical genotype (p < 0.05). Finally, women carrying mutate allele (C) for MTHFR rs1801131 showed lower levels of triglycerides when compared with A/A homozygous genotype (p < 0.05) and lower levels of LDL-C for MTHFR rs1801133 in females carrying (T) allele when compared with males carrying identical genotype (p < 0.05). In summary, the present data showed that APOB, APOE, and MTHFR single nucleotide polymorphisms are associated to lipid levels in a gender-dependent manner among healthy subjects from Northern Chile, especially in women.

16.
Zebrafish ; 18(5): 326-329, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491117

ABSTRACT

Cytogenetic studies in marine fish are scarce, and elemental cytogenetic information is available for not >2% of the species. Traditional cytogenetic methods require living individuals for their application, making the analysis of marine ichthyofauna very difficult. In this study, we present a detailed new protocol to obtain cytogenetic preparations from marine fish, through access to specimens in postmortem condition. The application of this protocol made it possible to access elemental cytogenetic information (diploid number) in six native species of the South Pacific Ocean, representative of five orders. In this way, we provide a new low-cost methodological tool for focused or large-scale cytogenetic analysis, both in economically important, native, or threatened species.


Subject(s)
Zebrafish , Animals , Cytogenetic Analysis , Cytogenetics/methods
17.
Int. j. morphol ; 39(4): 1240-1252, ago. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385448

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: El diagnóstico y tratamiento de las equinococosis requiere de la participación de especialistas multidisciplinarios,por lo que, estandarizar la terminología utilizada es fundamental. Para armonizar la terminología sobre bases científicas y lingüísticas sólidas, la Asociación Mundial de Equinococosis generó un proceso de consenso formal. Los principales logros de este proceso fueron: realizar una actualización de la nomenclatura actual de Echinococcus spp.; generar un acuerdo sobre nombres de enfermedades causadas por Echinococcus spp.: equinococosis quística (EQ), equinococosis alveolar (EA) y equinococosis neotropical (NE), y la exclusión de los demás nombres; ejecutar un acuerdo sobre el uso restringido del adjetivo "hidatido" para referirse al quiste y al líquido debido a E. granulosus sensu lato; y un acuerdo sobre una descripción estandarizada de las intervenciones quirúrgicas para EQ, de acuerdo con el marco de "Acceso, Apertura, Resección e Integridad del quiste" (AARI). Además, se enumeraron 95 términos "aprobados" y 60 "rechazados". Las recomendaciones proporcionadas serán aplicables a publicaciones científicas y comunicación con profesionales. El objetivo de este manuscrito fue generar un documento de estudio referente al uso de terminología actualizada en echinococcosis desde la biología a la terapéutica.


SUMMARY: The diagnosis and treatment of echinococcosis requires the participation of different multidisciplinary specialists Therefore, standardizing the terminology used is essential. To harmonize terminology on a sound scientific and linguistic basis, the World Echinococcosis Association generated a formal consensus process. The main achievements of this process were to update the current nomenclature of Echinococcus spp .; to generate an agreement on names of diseases caused by Echinococcus spp .: cystic echinococcosis (CE), alveolar echinococcosis (EA) and neotropical echinococcosis (NE), and the exclusion of other names; execute an agreement on the restricted use of the adjective "hydatid" to refer to the cyst and the fluid due to E. granulosus sensu lato; and an agreement on a standardized description of surgical interventions for CE, according to the framework of "Cyst Access, Opening, Resection and Integrity" (AARI). In addition, 95 "approved" and 60 "rejected" terms were listed. The recommendations provided will be applicable to scientific publications and communication with professionals. The aim of this manuscript was to generate a study document referring to echinococcosis from biology to therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Echinococcosis , Echinococcus , Terminology as Topic
18.
Rev. Fund. Educ. Méd. (Ed. impr.) ; 24(4): 173-181, Agos. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-225352

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La educación es un proceso dinámico que precisa evaluación constante. Los docentes necesitan un modelo de evaluación amplio que les permita observar la mayor cantidad de variables posibles, para, de esta forma, aportar a la mejora continua del proceso formativo. Objetivo: Elaborar una propuesta de evaluación y retroalimentación de 360º para la docencia de educación superior en ciencias de la salud, tomando como base los componentes: evaluación por autoridades académicas, evaluación por parte de los estudiantes, autoevaluación y evaluación por pares académicos. Materiales y métodos: Se aplicó la evaluación en 360º a ocho docentes de la carrera de Fonoaudiología de la Universidad San Sebastián (Chile). El instrumento se concentró en la evaluación de competencias transversales catalogadas en cuatro dimensiones: disciplinar, pedagógica, actitudinal y gestión. Se aplicaron cuatro encuestas: evaluación por jefatura, por docente par, por estudiantes y autoevaluación. Resultados: La propuesta presentó alta validez de contenido, indicadores con una buena capacidad de discriminación y fiabilidad de los ítems en las distintas escalas. Conclusión: Se recomienda su uso en situaciones similares donde el objetivo sea obtener una mirada integral de la calidad del servicio docente entregado.(AU)


Introduction: Education is a dynamic process that requires constant evaluation. Teachers need a broad evaluation model that allows them to observe as many variables as possible, thus contributing to the continuous improvement of the training process. Objective: Develop a 360-degree feedback model for higher education teaching in health sciences, based on the following components: evaluation by academic authorities, evaluation by students, self-evaluation and evaluation by academic peers. Materials and methods: The 360-degree feedback was applied to 8 teachers of the Speech Therapy career at the San Sebastián University (Chile). The instrument focused on the evaluation of transversal competences cataloged in four dimensions: Disciplinary, Pedagogical, Attitudinal and Management. Four surveys were applied: evaluation by headquarters, by peer teacher, by students and self-evaluation. Results: The model presented high content validity, indicators with a good capacity for discrimination and reliability of the items in the different scales. Conclusion: The model is recommended in similar situations where the objective is to obtain a comprehensive view of the quality of the teaching service provided.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Sciences/education , 35174 , Faculty , Models, Educational , Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences/education , Chile , Education, Medical , Data Interpretation, Statistical
19.
Ann Hepatol ; 22: 100237, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32835861

ABSTRACT

Infected hepatic echinococcosis (IHE), defined as a cystic infection, and the development of a liver abscess may be a complication in the natural history of hepatic echinococcosis. The aim of this study was to review the evidence available related to clinical, therapeutic, and prognostic aspects of IHE. We conducted a systematic review. Trip Database, BIREME-BVS, SciELO, LILACS, IBECS, PAHO-WHO; WoS, EMBASE, SCOPUS and PubMed were consulted. Studies related to IHE in humans, without language restriction, published between 1966 and 2020 were considered. Variables studied were publication year, geographical origin of the samples, number of patients, therapeutic and prognosis aspects, and methodological quality (MQ) for each article. Descriptive statistics was applied. Subsequently, weighted averages (WA) of the MQ of each article were calculated for each variable of interest. 960 related articles were identified; 47 fulfilled selection criteria, including 486 patients with a median age of 48 years, 51.6% being male. The largest proportion of articles were from Spain, India, and Greece (36.1%). Mean cyst diameter was 14.1 cm, and main location was right liver lobe (74.0%). WA for morbidity, mortality, hospital stay, and follow-up were 28.5%, 7.4%, 8.5 days and 14.8 months, respectively. The most common causative microorganisms of superinfection isolated were Enterobacteriaceae. An association with cholangitis was reported in 13.4% of cases. Mean MQ of the 47 articles included was 7.6 points. We can conclude that the information related to IHE is scarce and scattered throughout articles of small casuistry and poor quality, and consequently does not provide strong evidence.


Subject(s)
Echinococcosis, Hepatic/diagnosis , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/therapy , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/mortality , Humans , Prognosis
20.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(5): 541-549, nov. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144248

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La evidencia sobre las características genotípicas de la infección por Echinococcus granulosus en humanos es escasa. Objetivo: Desarrollar un resumen de la evidencia disponible respecto a genotipos de E. granulosus verificados en hidatidosis humana en el mundo. Material y Métodos: Revisión sistemática. Se incluyeron artículos relacionados con genotipos de E. granulosus, en humanos, sin restricción de lenguaje ni método de secuenciación; publicados entre 1990-2019. Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática en WoS, EMBASE, MEDLINE, SCOPUS, Trip Database, BIREME, SciELO, LILACS, IBECS y OPS-OMS. Las variables en estudio fueron: año de publicación, país de origen, número de muestras, órganos parasitados, marcador molecular utilizado y genotipo identificado. Se aplicó estadística descriptiva. Resultados: Se identificaron 701 artículos relacionados; 62 cumplieron los criterios de selección, representando 1.511 muestras. La evidencia existente fue publicada entre 1994 y 2019 y proviene principalmente de Irán (45,2%). El método de secuenciación más utilizado fue amplificación por reacción de polimerasa en cadena más secuenciación tipo Sanger con genotipificación del gen cox1 (79,0%). Los genotipos identificados con mayor frecuencia fueron G1 (49,1%) y el complejo G1/G3 (32,2%). Conclusión: Las publicaciones relacionadas con genotipos de E. granulosus en humanos son escasas y heterogéneas. Eg G1 representa la mayor parte de la carga global mundial.


Abstract Background: The evidence regarding genotypic characteristics of Echinococcus granulosus infection in humans worldwide is scarce. Aim: To develop a synthesis of the available evidence regarding genotypes of E. granulosus verified in humans worldwide. Methods: Systematic review. Articles related with genotypes of E. granulosus, in humans, without language neither genotyped method restriction, published between 1990-2019 were included. A systematic in WoS, EMBASE, MEDLINE, SCOPUS, Trip Database, BIREME, SciELO, LILACS, IBECS, and PAHO-WHO was carried out. In study variables were year of publication, country, number of samples, host and parasite organs, genotype identified, molecular marker and genes. Descriptive statistics were applied. Results: 701 related articles were identified; 62 fulfilled selection criteria, representing 1,511 samples. The existing evidence was published between 1994 and 2019; and mainly comes from Iran (45.2%). The most commonly used sequencing method was PCR amplification and Sanger type sequencing with partial or total genotyping of the cox1 gene. Genotyped method most frequently used was cox1 (79,0%). Genotypes most frequently identified were G1 and G1/G3 complex (49.1% and 32.2%). Conclusions: Publications related to genotypes of Eg in humans are scarce, heterogeneous, and presenting differing results. Eg G1/G3 accounts for most of the global burden worldwide.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Echinococcus granulosus/genetics , Echinococcosis , Phylogeny , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Genotype
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